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Early History of Nuclear Power!

! First experiments and theory 1909-1939! ! Rutherford/Szilard/Hahn/Strassmann/Fermi!


! Nuclear Fission ! ! Oliphant/Bethe! ! Nuclear Fusion!

! Manhattan project 1939-1945!


! Oppenheimer/Fermi/Wigner/Bethe!

! First reactors built 1942!


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Rutherfords experiment!
Gold foil!

!s"

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Rutherford's experiment!
1. Atomic (10-10 m) sized positive charge ! !! 2. Nucleus (10-15 m) sized positive charge ! Au! + + + + +

!! Au!
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Chadwicks experiment!
Beryllium foil!

!s"

? ? ?

protons!

Parafn wax!
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Discovery of ssion!
! In the fall of 1938, German scientists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassman red neutrons into uranium (Z = 92)! ! They were surprised to nd lighter elements, such as barium (Z"="56), in the leftover materials! ! These elements had about half the mass of uranium!
! In previous experiments, the remnants were only slightly lighter than uranium!

! Hahn and Strassman contacted Lise Meitner in Copenhagen before publicizing their discovery ! ! Austrian who had been forced to ee Nazi Germany! ! Worked with Niels Bohr and her nephew, Otto Frisch. ! ! Meitner and Frisch: barium and other light elements result from the uranium splitting ! ssion! (From DOE/NE-0088)!

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Szilards idea!
! In 1933 Hungarian physicist Leo Szilard rst conceived of a way of extracting nuclear energy! ! The Chain Reaction! ! Filed a patent the next year! ! (also shared patent for nuclear reactor with Enrico Fermi)!
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Early Reactors!

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Electricity Generation!
! 1946 Atomic Energy Commission founded! ! Experimental Breeder Reactor 1! ! Argonne national laboratory! ! Idaho national laboratory! ! Dec. 20, 1951 rst electricity from nuclear power source!
! 4 200 W electric bulbs lit! ! Chicago Pile 4!
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First Civilian Power Station!


! Atomic Power Station 1 Obninsk, USSR! ! Switched on June 1954! ! 5 MW power!
! Enough to power 2000 homes!

! Prototype for Soviet reactor designs!


! RBMK type! ! Chernobyl!

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First Commercial Station!

! Calder Hall Magnox Power Plant, UK! ! Unique design (now obsolete)! ! 1956 Operational!
! CO2 cooled with magnesium alloy (magnox) cladding! ! 4 reactors, each 50 MW power! ! Connected to national grid!

! Primary purpose: military plutonium production! ! 1957 Windscale re!


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Investment economics!

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Hyman G. Rickover!
! Initiated design of the pressurized water reactor for submarine propulsion! ! 1949 ! Assigned to the Division of Reactor Development, Atomic Energy Commission! ! Also Director of the Naval Reactors Branch in the Bureau of Ships! ! Developed highly reliable nuclear reactor in a form-factor that would t into a submarine hull with no more than a 28foot beam!
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Shippingport !

The development of nuclear!


! Three periods!
! Early development! ! Fast increase! ! Saturation!
1 2 3

! Driven by!
! Demand! ! World events! ! Military! ! Technology!
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1973 and 1979 - Oil Crises!


! First oil crisis 1973!
! Yom Kippur War!

! OAPEC (Arabic states of OPEC) block of oil to supporters of Israel! ! Second oil crisis 1979!
! Iranian Revolution - Ayatollah Khomeini! ! Consumer panic - price rises!

! Power stations no longer use oil!


! US 17% # 2.4%, 73 # 97! ! France 39% # 0%!!

! What replaces oil? !


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Replacing oil!
! Oil still used for transport! ! Nuclear, coal!
! Fill gap left by oil!

! ! ! !

Worldwide trend! Surplus oil! Oil prices plummet! Electricity demand slows!
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Source: Bodansky!

Source: EIA!

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Three Mile Island!


! 1979 March, Three Mile Island accident, near Pennsylvania! ! Most serious in US commercial plant history! ! Coolant failure! ! Serious core meltdown! ! Did not breach containment vessel!
! Average dose 1/6th that of medical x-ray!

! Result: Public fear and distrust increased!


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Chernobyl!
! ! ! ! Worst nuclear power disaster! Flawed reactor design! 5% core released into atmosphere! 28 deaths in 4 months!
! Radiation burns!

! 9 deaths from thyroid cancer! ! 56 total deaths (2004) ! ! 400x more fallout than Hiroshima!
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US Nuclear Power!
! Before 1964 - exploratory period! ! 1965-1974 trends - more/larger reactors! ! Post 1975 Slow growth in electricity sales!

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Role of Capacity Factor!


! Fraction of rated power actually produced !
! availability factor is fraction of time available to produce power !

! Less than 100% because of outages for: !


! Mechanical or regulatory problems ! ! Refueling outages (months.) !

! Increasing existing capacity factor is same as adding new capacity !

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Capacity factor growth reasons !


! Outage management !
! 3 months # 3 weeks !

! Longer fuel cycles !


! 1 to 2 years !

! Experience of operation ! ! Learning curve! ! Consolidation of operators!

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U.S. Capacity Factors by Fuel Type#


2007*!
Fuel Type!
Nuclear! Coal (Steam Turbine)! Gas (Combined Cycle)! Gas (Steam Turbine)! Oil (Steam Turbine)! Hydro! Wind! Solar!
* Preliminary Source: Global Energy Decisions / Energy Information Administration Updated: 4/08

Average Capacity Factors (%)!


91.8! 71.8! 43.3! 16.0! 19.6! 27.8! 30.4! 19.8!

Last US reactor*!
! ! ! ! ! Watts Bar I! Built by Westinghouse Electric Corp.! 1167 MW power! Construction began, 1973! Operational 1996!!

* For now (2010)!

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US Nuclear Power!
! US nuclear industry fragmented!
! 104 reactors, 31 operators - before 44!

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Trends in nuclear growth!


! France, Japan, Germany!
! Fast growth after 1973, before 1986!

! ! ! !

UK - Slow growth! S. Korea - fast, recent! US - Leads world! Post 1990 - slow!
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French Nuclear Program!


! Cited as leading nuclear success story! ! Presently 70-80% Nuclear!
! ~15% Hydroelectric! ! Almost no fossil fuel dependence (electricity)!

! Substantial electricity exports!

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French Nuclear Program!


! ! ! ! ! ! ! France limited fossil fuel resources! National pride! Standardization! Single operator (Electricit de France)! Powerful centralized governance! Uniform reactor design! Leads to efciency/high capacity!
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Worldwide Nuclear Development!

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Worldwide Nuclear Development!

Source: IAEA!

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The present!
! Nuclear plants for power! ! Nuclear plants for breeding !
! for weapons!

! ! ! !

Iran! India/Pakistan! Russia! US technology sharing?!

Al Jazeera English - Middle East - Iran wants open nuclear talks

9/23/09 9:07 AM

UPDATED ON:

WEDNESDAY, SEPTEMBER 23, 2009 09:31 MECCA TIME, 06:31 GMT

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Iran wants open nuclear talks

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9/23/09 9:09 AM

Iran's president has said he expects CENTRAL/S. ASIA open discussion of nuclear issues at a EUROPE planned meeting with US officials and IAEA secret report: Iran worked on nuclearMIDDLE | World news | The Guardianworld powers. warhead EAST five other
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IAEA secret report: Iran worked on Ahmadinejad is scheduled to address nuclear warhead the UN General Assembly on
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However, Iran is not interested in discussing pressure to restrain its nuclear programme, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad said in an interview with the Associated Press news agency in New York.
Mottaki, left, and Okada said their countries would cooperate to denuclearise the world [AFP]

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Wedneday. 'Secret annexe' to UN nuclear inspection agency report reveals Iran nuclear nuclear programme Iran has 'sufficient information' to make a insists its weapon
Julian Borger guardian.co.uk, Friday 18 September 2009 10.24 BST

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is intended to produce electricity but the US and its European allies say that Tehran is trying to build a nuclear bomb. The October 1 meeting with the US, China, Russia, Germany, France and Britain is to be the first of its kind since Barack Obama, the US president, took office. Ahmadinejad also said Iran is interested in buying enriched uranium for its nuclear power plants. His comments came a day after Manouchehr Mottaki, the Iranian foreign minister, said Tehran would push for international nuclear disarmament. Talks with Japan

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During a meeting on the sidelines of the General Assembly, Mottaki told Katsuya Okada, his Japanese counterpart, Iran wants to co-operate with Japan in working to abolish nuclear weapons. Japan is the only country to have suffered a nuclear attack when its cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were bombed by the US during the second world war.

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Mottaki also said Iran would push for expanded opportunities for all countries including his own - to use nuclear power for peaceful purposes. He told Okada that Tehran had A missile in front of a poster of the Iranian supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei no intention of acquiring nuclear weapons and that the age of nuclear weapons was over, Japanese officials said. during a military exhibition in Tehran, Iran. Photograph: Hasan Sarbakhshian/AP Okada said it was a pity suspicion hung over Iran's nuclear activities and urged The urgency of dealing with the Iranian nuclear threat wasto hold frank discussions with the Mottaki underscored today when a leaked report revealed that the UN inspection agency believes the Islamic republic has Obama administration. "sufficient information" to make a nuclear weapon and has "probably tested" a key Although Hillary Clinton, the US secretary of state, has said the discussions must component. address the nuclear issue during the forthcoming summit, Iran insists its nuclear activities defence be on the agenda. A day after Barack Obama scrapped plans to deploy missile will not technology in

eastern Europe, the Associated Press said it had obtained material from the
Source: Agencies International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) which suggests that it was more convinced Iran had been trying to make a bomb than its outgoing director, Mohamed ElBaradei, had admitted.

"The agency assesses that Iran has sufficient information to be able to design and http://english.aljazeera.net/news/middleeast/2009/09/200992345745654389.html produce a workable implosion nuclear device based on HEU [highly enriched uranium] as the fission fuel," AP quoted a "secret annexe" to a report on Iran as saying. Western diplomats confirmed that the annexe was authentic. "Its absolutely accurate," one official said. "It shows the agency's thinking, which is that Iran is a lot further along on this than most people think. It suggests the Iranians have done a lot of work." The annexe said Iranian scientists had engaged in "probable testing" of explosives arranged in a hemisphere, which is how an implosion-type nuclear warhead is
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/18/iran-nuclear-warhead-iaea-report Page 1 of 3

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Next lecture!
! Radioactivity and exposure!

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