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Name of the instrument: pH-meter Objectives/Uses: To obtain the pH measurements of the unknown solutions with the help of standard

solutions.

Fig.1 pH meter Principle: In practice, a pH value is defined by the equation below: pH= - log10 [H+] This equation means that the pH value is a common logarithm expressing the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion concentration. The pH value of a neutral solution is obtained as 7 from the following calculation: [H+]=10-7 When the hydrogen ion concentration decreases (e.g., [H+]=10-10), the pH value is 10 showing that the solution is alkaline. When it increases (e.g., [H+]=10-3), the pH value is 3 showing that the solution is acidic. When two solutions with different pH values exist inside and outside a glass membrane, electromotive force occurs in that membrane (electrode membrane) in proportion to the difference

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between the two pH values. Since the solution typically used inside the glass membrane has a pH value of 7, the pH value of the solution outside the membrane can be obtained by measuring the electromotive force generated in the membrane. A pH meter is essentially a voltmeter with high input impedance which measures the voltage of an electrode sensitive to the hydrogen ion concentration, relative to another electrode which exhibits a constant voltage. The key feature of the pH-sensitive electrode is a thin glass membrane whose outside surface contacts the solution to be tested. The inside surface of the glass membrane is exposed to a constant concentration of hydrogen ions (0.1 M HCl).

Fig.2 pH meter Inside the glass electrode assembly, a silver wire, coated with silver chloride and immersed in the HCl solution, is called an Ag/AgCl electrode. This electrode carries current through the half-cell reaction. The potential between the electrode and the solution depends on the chloride ion concentration, but, since this is constant (0.1 M), the electrode potential is also constant. A reference electrode is needed to complete the electrical circuit. A common choice is to use another Ag/AgCl electrode as the reference. The Ag/AgCl electrode is immersed in a 0.1 M KCl solution which makes contact with the test solution through a porous fiber which allows a small flow of ions back and forth to conduct the current. The potential created at this junction between

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the KCl solution and the test solution is nearly zero and nearly unaffected by anything in the solution, including hydrogen ions. To calibrate the pH meter, a standard solution with a known pH value is used. As standard solutions, phthalic acid (pH 4.01), neutral phosphate (pH 6.86), and borate (pH 9.18) are mainly used.

Fig.3 calibration curve

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Name of the instrument: Flame photometer Objectives/Uses: A photoelectric flame photometer is a device used to determine the concentration of certain metal ions like sodium, potassium, lithium and calcium.

Fig.4 flame photometer Principle: This technique uses a flame that evaporates the solvent and also sublimates and atomizes the metal and then excites a valence electron to an upper energy state. Light is emitted at characteristic wavelengths for each metal as the electron returns to the ground state that makes qualitative determination possible. Flame photometers use optical filters to monitor for the selected emission wavelength produced by the analyte species. Comparison of emission intensities of unknowns to either that of standard solutions (plotting calibration curve), or to those of an internal standard (standard addition method), allows quantitative analysis of the analyte metal in the sample solution. The intensity of the light emitted could be described by the Scheibe-Lomakin equation: I=kcn Where, c = the concentration of the element and k = constant of proportionality n ~1 (at the linear part of the calibration curve), therefore the intensity of emitted light is directly
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proportional to the concentration of the sample. Because of the very narrow and characteristic emission lines from the gas-phase atoms in the flame plasma, the method is relatively free of interferences from other elements. Therefore the flame photometry (as with other atomic spectroscopy methods) is very sensitive; measuring concentration of ppm magnitude (part per million) usually does not cause any problem. The optimal concentration range of the solutions for the measured metal ion is 10-3-10-4 mol dm-3. Typical precision for analysis of dilute aqueous solutions are about 1-5% relative. There is no need for source of light, since it is the measured constituent of the sample that is emitting the light. The energy that is needed for the excitation is provided by the temperature of the flame (2000-3000 C), produced by the burning of acetylene or natural gas (or propane-butane gas) in the presence of air or oxygen. By the heat of the flame and the effect of the reducing gas (fuel), molecules and ions of the sample species are decomposed and reduced to give atoms, e.g.: Na+ + e- = Na. Atoms in the vapour state give line spectra. (Not band spectra, because there are no covalent bonds hence there are not any vibrational sub-levels to cause broadening).

Fig.5 flame photometer The most sensitive parts of the instrument are the aspirator and the burner. The gases play an important role in the aspiration and while making the aerosol. The air sucks up the sample (according to Bernoullis principle) and passes it into the aspirator, where the bigger drops condense and could be eliminated. The monochromator selects the suitable (characteristic) wavelength of the emitted light. The usual optical filters could be used. The emitted light reaches the detector. This is a photomultiplier producing an electric signal proportional to the intensity of emitted light (fig. 5)
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Name of the instrument: Turbidity meter- nephelometer Objectives/Uses: A nephelometer is a stationary or portable instrument for measuring suspended particulates in a liquid.

Fig.6 Nephelometer Principle: A nephelometer measures suspended particulates by employing a light beam (source beam) and a light detector set to one side (often 90) of the source beam. Particle density is then a function of the light reflected into the detector from the particles. To some extent, how much light reflects for a given density of particles is dependent upon properties of the particles such as their shape, color, and reflectivity.

Figure.7
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It is working on a simple principle of light intensity change, detected by photo detector sensor, when the bacterial growth increases. The density of bacteria increases within a certain volume which scatters the incident light beam to decrease the intensity of light, which falls on photo detector sensor. The decrease in light intensity is directly proportional to the intensity is directly proportional to the density or number of bacteria increases. The optical system includes a tungsten-filament lamp, a 90 detector to monitor scattered light and a transmitted light detector. The instruments microprocessor calculates the ratio of the signals from the 90 and transmitted light detectors.

Figure.8 This ratio technique corrects for interferences from colour and/or light absorbing materials (such as activated carbon) and compensates for fluctuations in lamp intensity, providing long-term calibration stability. The optical design also minimizes stray light, increasing measurement accuracy.

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Name of the instrument: Spectrophotometer Objectives/Uses: Spectrometer is used for measuring the transmittance or reflectance of a substance.

Fig.9 Photospectrometer

Principle: Spectrophotometry is the study of the reflection or transmission properties of a substance as a function of wavelength. It is the quantitative study of electromagnetic spectra of a material. During the process, the transmittance or reflectance of the substance is measured through the careful geometrical and spectral consideration. To carry out spectrophotometry, a spectrophotometer is required. A spectrophotometer is a device or more specifically a photometer that is used to measure intensity of light as a function of the wavelength of light. Different types of spectrophotometers are found. The most important distinction used to classify them is: The wavelengths they work with- UV or visible A spectrophotometer, one of the most useful physics lab equipments is the combination of two devices, a spectrometer and a photometer. Spectrometer is used for producing light of any selected wavelength or colour while a photometer is used for measuring the intensity of light. The two devices are placed at either side of a cuvette filled with a liquid.

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Fig.10 Spectrometer produces the light of desired wavelength and it passes through the tube and reaches photometer that measures its intensity. Then the photometer produces a voltage signal to a display device, usually a galvanometer.

Fig.11 As the amount of light absorbed by the liquid changes the signal also changes. The concentration of a substance in solution can be measured by calculating the amount of absorption of light at the appropriate wavelength or a particular colour.

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