Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

TRNSYS 16 Type 334 Manual

5.
5.1.

Type 334 Air handling unit with sensible and latent heat recovery
General description

An air handling unit (AHU) is used to calculate the energy consumption of heating and/or cooling (outside) air to a certain setpoint. This type is considered to be mainly used in combination with type 56 (multizone building) for ventilation. By specifying different parameters the AHU can act as a (air) heat recovery unit only, or as a full HVAC component where the air is heated, cooled, humidified and dehumidified. In addition, a frost protection temperature setting at the heat recovery device and a bypass mode can be specified. The following modes are available: Sensible and/or latent heat recovery Frost protection (Re-)heating and (re-)cooling Humidification and/or dehumidification Bypass of heat recovery Adiabatic cooling of exhaust air by humidification Recirculation

5.2.
Aref cp,Air

Nomenclature
m kJ/kgK kg/h kg/h kg/h kg/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h m Reference area for calculation of specific outputs Specific heat capacity of air at approx. inlet/outlet air temp. conditions Mode for heating and/or cooling humidification/dehumidification Mode for frost protection Mode for bypass Return air mass flowrate Outdoor air mass flowrate Supply air mass flowrate Exhaust air mass flowrate Possible adiabatic cooling power by humidification of the return air Required cooling power demand for dehumidification Required cooling power by cooling coil Required heat after dehumidification to reach the wanted zone input temperature Required heating power by pre-heating coil Volume of thermal zone for calculation of air change rate

ModeHTCL ModeFP ModeBP


m RA
m OA mSA m EA

Qcl,AD Qcl,DEHUM Qcl,CC QHT,DEHUM QHT,PHC


V

51

TRNSYS 16 Type 334 Manual

wRA wOA wSA wEA wHR wSA,min,HUM wSA,max,DEHUM


hv

kg/kg kg/kg kg/kg kg/kg kg/kg kg/kg kg/kg kJ/kg kg/m C C C C C C C C

Return air humidity ratio Outdoor air humidity ratio Supply air humidity ratio Exhaust air humidity ratio Humidity ratio of supply air after humidity recovery Minimum supply air humidity ratio after humidification Maximum supply air humidity ratio after dehumidification Specific enthalpy for the vaporization of water Latent air heat exchanger efficiency Effective latent air heat exchanger efficiency Sensible air heat exchanger efficiency Effective sensible air heat exchanger efficiency Density of air Return air temperature Outdoor air temperature (e.g. outside air tempera ture) Supply air temperature Exhaust air temperature Minimum exhaust air temperature for frost protect ion Wet bulb return air temperature Temperature of the outdoor air after heat recovery Supply air setpoint temperature after heating / c ooling

lat lat,eff sens sens,eff Air RA OA SA EA EA,min WB,RA HR SA,set

52

TRNSYS 16 Type 334 Manual

5.3.

Mathematical Description

The air handling unit offers many different operating modes. A description of the different modes, their fundamental equations, and their associated variables are given in the following text. A schematic sketch of the AHU is shown in Figure 5.3-1.
Adiabatic cooling humidifier

Outdoor air
OA wOA OA mOA

Return air
RA wRA mRA RA

+
HR wHR HR

Exhaust air
wEA m

Supply air
SA wSA mSA SA

Pre-heating coil

Heating coil

Cooling coil

Humidifier

Figure 5.3-1: AHU Schematic

The equations describe how the efficiency of the heat recovery is calculated. Due to the fact that the exhaust air flow rate is not necessarily identical to the delivery air flow rate, the specified sensible and latent efficiency is replaced by an effective efficiency. This effective efficiency is calculated related to the mass flow rate relation between both air streams.

sens,eff = lat,eff =

m RA sens m OA

Fan

(5-1)

mSA lat m OA

(5-2)

These efficiencies are characteristic for both the heat exchange and the humidity recovery behavior between both air streams. Resulting from the definition of the effective sensible efficiency the temperature of the delivery air after the heat exchanger is calculated by the following equation:

53

TRNSYS 16 Type 334 Manual

HR = sens,eff (RA OA ) + OA

(5-3)

5.4.

Frost protection

In order to avoid icing of the heat exchanger from the AHU it can be important to protect the heat exchanger from very low temperatures. For this case, Type334 offers the function of frost protection to define a minimum exhaust air temperature by EA,min. This leads to the calculation of the supply air as in eq. (5-4).

EA,min = minimum exhaust air temperature of the AHU output for frost protection
HR = Min (sens,eff (RA OA ),RA EA,min ) + OA
(5-4)

5.5.

Humidity recovery

Type334 offers the possibility to use humidity recovery from the return air to the supply air. The integrated simple model requires only the humidity recovery efficiency as an input. The absolute humidity of the supply air stream after humidity recovery is calculated as:

w HUM,HR = lat,eff (w RA w OA ) + w OA

(5-5)

5.6.

Air conditioning modes after heat recovery

After the heat exchange/humidity recovery unit, the supply air can be conditioned by the following options.

5.6.1.

Heating

If the heating mode is activated (modeHzCl=1 or modeHzCl=3) the supply air is heated up to the defined setpoint temperature, if necessary.

SA,set HR > 0

Q HT, PHC = m OA c p,Air (SA,set HR )

(5-6)

In addition if wHR < wSA,min,HUM the supply air can be humidified to the defined setpoint humidity (NOTE: humidification is only possible in combination with re-heating). For this case the heat required for the water evaporation is calculated as in equation 5-7.

54

TRNSYS 16 Type 334 Manual

Q HUM = m OA h v (w SA,min,HUM w HR )

(5-7)

5.6.2.

Cooling

If the cooling mode is active (modeHzCl=2 or modeHzCl=3) the supply air is cooled down to the defined set-point temperature if necessary.

SA,set HR < 0

Q cl,CC = m OA c p,Air (SA,set HR )

(5-8)

In addition the supplied air can be dehumidified if wHR > wSA,max,DEHUM to a defined setpoint humidity (NOTE: dehumidification is only possible in combination with cooling). For this mode, the delivery air stream after passing the heat or humidity recovery unit is cooled in the cooling coil (eq.(5-9)) to the dew point temperature and then the additional cooling power for dehumidification (eq.(5-10)) is calculated. See the following two equations for explanations:

Q cl,DEHUM = m OA c p,Air (DP HR ) Q DEHUM = m OA h v (w HR w SA,max,DEHUM )

(5-9)

(5-10)

After the dehumidification is done the last step is to re-heat the air to achieve the required supply air temperature. This is done by a heating coil where the required sensible heat is calculated according to the previous required dehumidification and cool down power (see eq. (5-11)) plus the power required to reach the set-point temperature.

Q HT, DEHUM = Q cl,DEHUM + m OA c p,Air (SA,set HR )

(5-11)

5.7.

Bypass

For avoiding overheating/overcooling of the supply air by the heat exchanger, a bypass mode is integrated in Type333. If the bypass mode is activated (modeBP=1) only the mass flow of the return air required for reaching the set-point supply air temperature flows through the heat recovery unit; the rest is sent through the bypass.

5.8.

Special Mode: Adiabatic cooling of the return air

Adiabatic cooling can be activated by a hidden switch, setting latent efficiency < 0. The return air is cooled down by humidification to the minimum wet bulb temperature before entering the heat recovery unit.

55

TRNSYS 16 Type 334 Manual

Followed by this WRG can be reduced to the required supply air temperature to the zone. !!Note: By using this mode it is not possible to use humidity recovery and bypass mode.!! The calculation works as follows: 1) The new required return air temperature is calculated according to HR = SA,set by recalculating from the effective sensible efficiency

RA, NEW = MAX((SA,set OA )/sens,eff + OA , WB,RA )

(5-12)

2) From this the adiabatic cooling power is calculated depending on the WRG change before and after the use of adiabatic cooling.

Q cl,AD = mSA c p,Air (WAD HR,OAD )


WAD = with adiabatic cooling OAD = without adiabatic cooling

(5-13)

5.9.

Fan Power

The total power of both the supply and exhaust fans is calculated based on the actual supply and return air flowrates, m SA and m RA , and the maximum supply fan flowrate, pressure drops, and fan efficiency given as parameters. Note that the impact of heat generated by the fan and motor on either airstream is not considered; this calculation is for determination of electrical power only. The total fan power is calculated as:

PSA = 0.3PSA,Max

m + 0.7PSA,Max SA m max m + 0.7PRA,Max RA m max

(5-14)

PRA = 0.3PRA,Max

(5-145)

Q el,Fan =

PSA mSA PRA m RA + air vent air vent

(5-156)

5.10. Recirculation Fraction


The user has the option of setting a recirculation fraction as an input. This fraction is normally 0 when the unit is operating in 100% outside air mode. To simulate a morning warm-up period or other operation where no outside air is required, this fraction may be set to 1. In this mode the return air becomes the supply air and there is no use of the heat exchanger.

56

TRNSYS 16 Type 334 Manual

5.11. Description of Inputs


The following input values are used for calculating the thermal performance of the AHU: Input no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Symbol OA
wOA m OA

RA
wRA

m RA

Sens Lat

9 10 11 12 13 14

EA,min HR,set SA,set


wSA,min,hum wSA,max,dehum

recirc

Description Outdoor air temperature Absolute water content of outdoor air Mass flow rate of outdoor air Return air temperature (to AHU from zone) Absolute water content of return air (to AHU from zone) Mass flow rate of return air (to AHU from zone) Sensible efficiency of heat recovery Latent efficiency of humidity recovery Two different AHU operating modes can be set by Lat: =0 => no humidity recovery between exhaust and delivery air stream >0 => Humidity recovery enabled Exhaust air, minimum temperature for frost protection Supply air temperature setpoint after heat recovery Supply air temperature setpoint after the AHU (from AHU to zone) Absolute water content of the supply air after humidification (min setp.) Absolute water content of the supply air after dehum.(max. setpoint) Fraction of return air to be recirculated

Unit C kg/kg kg/h C kg/kg kg/h -

C C C kg/kg kg/kg

5.12. Description of Parameters


Par. no. 1 Symbol
modeHTCL

modeFP

modeBP

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Air
cp,Air hv Aref V PSA,max PRA,max

vent
m Max

Description Operation mode heating and/or cooling 0 = No heating/cooling and no humidification/dehumidification 1 = Heating and humidification; no cooling/dehumidification 2 = Cooling and dehumidification; no heating/humidification 3 = Heating, cooling, humidification and dehumidification Frost protection Yes/No 0 = no frost protection 1 = minimum exhaust air temperature is user-defined Bypass Yes/No 0 = no bypass 1 = bypass if necessary Density of Air Spec. heat capacity of Air Enthalpy of vaporization of water Reference area for specific power calculation Zone volume for air change rate calculation Maximum supply side pressure drop Maximum return side pressure drop Overall efficiency of fan and motor Maximum fan mass flowrate

Unit -

kg/m3 kJ/(kg*K) kJ/kg m2 m3 Pa Pa kg/h

57

TRNSYS 16 Type 334 Manual

5.13. Description of Outputs


The cooling power outputs are all negative. Out. no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 Symbol SA
ACH

SA
wSA hSA m SA

DP,SA HR HR
wHR hHR

Description Temperature of supply air after heating coil Air change rate Relative humidity of the supply air after heating coil Absolute water content of the supply air Enthalpy of supply air Mass flow rate of the supply air Dewpoint temperature of supply air Temperature of supply air after heat recovery Relative humidity of supply air after heat recovery Absolute water content of supply air after heat recovery Enthalpy of supply air after heat recovery Exhaust air temperature after AHU Relative humidity of exhaust air after AHU Absolute water content of exhaust air after AHU Mass flow rate of exhaust air after AHU Enthalpy of exhaust air after AHU Mass flow rate of water for adiabatic cooling Outdoor air temperature (=Input 1) Relative humidity of outdoor air Absolute water content of outdoor air (=Input 2) Enthalpy of outdoor air Temperature of return air to AHU (=Input 4) Relative humidity of return air to AHU Absolute water content of return air to AHU (=Input 5) Enthalpy of return air to AHU Effective sensible efficiency Effective latent efficiency Effective sensible efficiency, percent Effective latent efficiency, percent Switch for bypass ON/OFF Temperature of supply air without bypass Temperature of supply air without frost protection Sensible heat demand without air heat recovery Heat exchanged by heat recovery (saved demand for heating) Required heat for pre-heating coil Required heat for heating coil after dehumidification Total required heat after heat recovery using dehum. Latent heat demand for humidification Total latent and sensible heat demand

Unit C 1/h % kg/kg kJ/kg kg/h C C % kg/kg

EA EA
wEA m EA hEA m AD, CL

OA OA
wOA hOA

C % kg/kg kg/h kJ/kg kg/h C % kg/kg kJ/kg C % kg/kg kJ/kg % % kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h

RA RA
wRA

sens,eff lat,eff sens,eff -% lat,eff - % HR,WOBP HT,WOFP


Q HR, Without
YBP,HR

hRA

Q HR
QHT,PHC QHT,DEHUM QHT,HC, tot

QHUM QHT, tot

58

TRNSYS 16 Type 334 Manual

47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68

Q HUM,HR
QHUM,FP

Saved latent heat demand for hum. using humidity recovery Heat recovery heat demand loss by using frost protection Required heat for recirculated air Sensible cooling heat demand without air heat recovery and with dehumidification Heat exchanged by heat recovery (saved heat demand for cooling) Sensible cooling capacity required after heat recovery Additional sensible cooling capacity to reach the dew point temperature Total required sensible and latent cooling capacity with dehumidification Latent cooling capacity for dehumidification Total cooling capacity for latent and sensible demands Saved latent cooling capacity by humidity recovery Adiabatic cooling capacity Required fan power Spec sensible heat demand without air heat recovery Spec. heat exchanged by heat recovery (saved heat demand for heating) Required spec. heat for pre-heating coil Required spec. heat for heating coil after dehumidification Total required spec. heat after heat recovery using dehum. Spec. latent heat demand for humidification Total spec. latent and sensible heat demand Saved spec. latent heat demand for hum. using humidity recovery Heat recovery spec. heat demand loss by using frost protection Sensible required spec. cooling capacity without air heat recovery and with dehumidification Spec. heat exchanged by heat recovery (saved heat demand for cooling) Spec. sensible cooling capacity required after heat recovery Additional spec. sensible cooling capacity to reach the dew point temperature

kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h kJ/h W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2

Q HT, Recirc

Q cl,Without Q cl,HR
Q cl,CC Q cl,DEHUM Q cl,CC, tot QDEHUM Q cl,tot

Q DEHUM,HUM,HR
Q cl, AD

Q el,Fan Q HT, Without Q HT,HR


QHT,PHC QHT,DEHUM QHT,HC, tot QHUM QHT, tot

Q HUM,HR
QHUM,FP

70 71 72 73

Q cl,Without Q cl,HR
Q cl,CC Q cl,DEHUM

59

TRNSYS 16 Type 334 Manual

74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87

Q cl,CC, tot QDEHUM Q cl,tot

Total required spec. sensible and latent cooling capacity with dehumidification Spec. latent cooling capacity for dehumidification Total spec. cooling capacity for latent and sensible demands Saved spec. latent cooling capacity by humidity recovery Spec. adiabatic cooling capacity Required spec. fan power Absolute water content of outdoor air Absolute water content of supply air Absolute water content of return air Absolute water content of exhaust air Absolute water content of supply air after heat recovery Recovered water by humidity recovery Required water by humidification Required water by dehumidification

W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 W/m2 g/kg g/kg g/kg g/kg g/kg g/kg g/kg g/kg

Q DEHUM,HUM,HR
Q cl, AD

Q el,Fan
wOA*1000 wSA*1000 wRA*1000 wEA*1000 wHR * 1000 dwHUM,HR*1000 dwHUM*1000 dwDEHUM*1000

510

Похожие интересы