Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 9

CHAPTER 8: GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY TYPES OF GENERATORS 1.

Generator is a machine that converts mechanical energy (________and ______ energy) into electrical energy.

2. It can also be called an _____ ______ or ____ ______.


3. Power stations use various types of generators such as :

a) __________________________
b) __________________________ c) ___________________________ d) ___________________________

e) ___________________________
4. Generally, all these electrical energy generators use the same principle of generation.

Source of ENERGY
TYPE OF GENERATOR

________ is rotated
SOURCES OF ENERGY

_________ is turned to produced electrical energy


SIMILIRATIES a) Produce electrical energy b) Using the same principle to generate electrical energy

ALTERNATIVE SOURCES OF ENERGY 1. _____________ and __________ are example of alternative sources of energy. 2. Solar energy can be converted to electrical energy by solar or photovoltaic cell. 3. A solar cell is made of silicon. 4. When the sunlight hits the cells, it causes electrons to move, thereby producing electrical energy.

5. Biomass is made of ________ and ______ waste.


6. When burned, the chemical energy stored in biomass is released as heat that can be used.

60

TRANSFORMER

1. Transformer is a device for changing the _______________of an alternating current.


2. Alternating current is one that flows back and forth.

3. A transformer consists of two insulated coil winding on a soft iron core. 4. The core is constructed of many layers of thin iron called laminations.

Symbol of transformer

5. The coil connected to the:

a) input voltage - __________________________


b) output voltage - _________________________ 6. There are two type of transformer:

a) _____________________ b) ______________________ STEP UP TRANSFORMER STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER

secondary coil has many wire turns compare to primary coil

Number of turns

primary coil has many wire turns compare compare to secondary coil 1._______ input voltage

1. _______ input voltage 2. __________ output voltage Input and output voltage

2. ______output voltage

61

ELECTRICAL POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM 1. As electrical energy is generated at power stations, electrical power is transmitted to the consumer. 2. The electrical transmission and distribution system involves the following component. COMPONENT FUNCTION Power station To generate electricity at high voltage (11 kV) Step-up transformer Switch zone National Grid Network Main substation Branch substation Step-up the voltage to 132 kV or 275 kV Consist of large switches which can be opened or closed to activate or deactivate specific electrical power transmissions leaving the power station. Interconnected main power stations Ensure that electrical power supply is continuous and uninterrupted

The voltage is stepped down to 11kV or 33 kV using step -down transformer The voltage is stepped down to 240V or 245 V using step -down transformer

ELECTRICAL POWER TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

62

ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY AND WIRING SYSTEM IN HOMES

1. Electrical power is supplied to our homes through the main supply cables. 2. There are two type of current. a) direct current b) alternating current 3. The type of current supplied to our home is alternating current with voltage of 240 V. 4. Electrical wiring system consist of : a) Main fuse b) Main switch c) Circuit breaker d) Live wire e) Neutral wire f) Earth wire 5. Part and function of the electrical wiring system are listed below: PARTS Main fuse Main switch Circuit breaker Live wire Earth wire FUNCTIONS

63

Electrical wiring system in homes


6. There are two types of wiring systems: a) single-phase wiring system = used in our homes b) three-phase wiring system = used in commercial and industrial areas

3-PIN PLUG

1. A 3-pin plug connects electrical appliances to the source of electricity through a socket. 2. The 3-pin plug contains three wires. There are: a) Earth wire yellow with green stripes b) Neutral wire - blue c) Live wire brown

3. Each wire has a different colour following the international colour code. 4. The function for each wire in 3-pin plug are listed below: WIRE/PARTS Earth wire Neutral wire Live wire Fuse FUNCTIONS

64

COST OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY USAGE


Power and Voltage of home electrical appliances 1. Power is the rate of energy usage.

Power = energy (J) / times (s) 2. Electric power is measured in units of watts (W) 1 kilowatt = 1000 W

The relationship between power, voltage and current 1. The relationship between power, voltage with current can be formulated as follows:

P=VXI

Power (W) = voltage (V) X current (I)

2. The quantity of current that flows through an electrical appliances can be calculated using that
formula:

3. Example 1:
A kettle has a marking of 150W and is supplied with 250 V voltages. Calculate the electric current that flows through the kettle.

4. Example 2:
Calculate the electrical power of a 12 V bulb operating on a current of 1.5 A.

Relationship between electrical energy, power with time

65

1. Electrical energy is calculated in terms of unit. 1 kWh is equivalent to 1 unit of electrical energy. 2. The S.I unit for electrical energy is Joule (J) or kilowatt-hour (kWh) 3. The total energy used by an electrical appliance depends on the power of the appliance and the duration that appliance is used. 4. The relationship between electrical energy (J), power (W) and time (s) is shown in the following formula:

Electrical energy (kWh) = Power (kW) X time (h)


5. So, the quantity of electrical energy used by a certain electrical appliance can be calculated. 6. Example 1: A 1 kW light bulb is used for 5 minutes. Calculate the amount of electrical energy converted into heat and light.

7. Example 2:
A 2 kW light bulb is used for 1 hour. Calculate the amount of electrical energy converted into heat and light.

Calculating the cost of electrical energy used. 1. 2. 3. 4. The cost of using an electrical appliance is based on the quantity of electrical energy used. Electrical energy is measured in kilowatt-hour. One unit of electrical energy means one kilowatt-hour (kWh) of electrical energy. Electrical energy cost can be calculated by using the following formula:

Cost of Electrical energy (kWh) = electrical energy (kWh) X cost for 1 unit of energy

5. Example1:

66

If the rate per unit of electrical energy is 20 sen, calculate the amount you have to pay if you switch on a 900 W air conditioner for 5 hours.

6. Example2: An electrical appliance with 500 W power is used for 2 hours. Calculate the energy cost if one unit of energy costs RM 0.20

FUSE AND EARTH WIRE FUSE


1. There are 2 type of fuse: a)Wire fuse - The wire of the fuse can be replaced when melted b) Cartridge fuse - The wire of the fuse cannot be replaced when melted

2. Fuse is measured in units of _________________e (A).


3. Fuse have different ampere values, for example 0.25A, 1A, 5 A, 10A, 13A, 30A and 60A.

67

4. The most suitable rating of a fuse for an electrical appliance is one which is slightly higher than the
current.

5. The function of fuse is to prevent ______________from flowing through a circuit or an electrical


appliance when a short circuit occurs. 6. This can prevent the circuit or the electrical appliance from burning.

EARTH WIRE
1. Earth wire is a safety wire. 2. The Earth wire connects the metal body of an electrical appliance to earth. 3. Any current that leaks from the body of an electrical appliance will be channelled safely to the earth. 4. The function of earth wire is to channel the _____________________ from the body of an electrical appliance to the earth. CONSERVING ELECTRICAL ENERGY ACTIVITIES THAT CAUSE WASTAGE OF ELECTRICAL ENERGY 1. 2. 3. 4.

WAYS TO CONSERVE ENERGY 1. 2. 3. 4.

68