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Ethernet Quick Guide

Ethernet Protocols

Network Layer


Ethernet Virtual LAN (VLAN)
IEEE 802.1q Ethernet VLAN IEEE 802.1ac VLAN Tag IEEE 802.1ad Q-in-Q VLAN Stacking SNAP Sub Network Access Protocol IETF RFC 1042

Management and Security

IEEE 802.1x EAP Extensible Authentication Protocol EAPoL: EAP Over LAN

IEEE 802.1p GARP Generic Attribute Registration Protocol GMRP GARP Multicast Registration Protocol IEEE 802.1d STP Spaning Tree Protocol GVRP GARP VLAN Registration Protocol IEEE 802.1s Multiple STP

Ethernet II DIX
IEEE 802.2 Logical Link Control
Type 1: Connectionless Service Type 2: Connection Service Type 3: ACK w/Connectionless Service

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Data Link Layer

IEEE 802.3h Layer Management IEEE 802.3ad Link Aggregation Control Protocol IEEE 802.3ar Congestion Management IEEE 802.3ah Ethernet OAM

IEEE 802.1w Rapid STP

Ethernet MAN/WAN
IETF l2vpn VPLS Virtual Private LAN Service HVPLS Hierarchical VPLS IETF pwe4 Psuedo-wire ITU-T X.86 EoS Ethernet Over SONET/SDH

IEEE 802.3ah Ethernet in the First Mile

IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD Media Access Control

Ethernet 10 Mbps
IEEE 802.3 10 Base5 Thick coaxial cable IEEE 802.3b 10Broad-36 Broadband coaxial cable IEEE 802.3i 10 BaseT Twisted Pair IEEE 802.3a 10 Base2 Thin wire coaxial cable IEEE 802.3j 10BaseF Optical Fiber cable IEEE 802. 3e 1Base5 StarLAN

Fast Ethernet 100 Mbps

IEEE 802.3u 100BaseT4 UTP Cat3 100BaseTX UTP Cat 5 100BaseFX Fiber

Gigabit Ethernet
IEEE 802.3z 1000BaseSX Fiber 1000BaseLX Fiber 1000BaseLH Fiber 1000BaseCX STP IEEE 802.3ab 1000BaseT UTP Cat 5

10 Gigabit Ethernet
IEEE 802.3ae 10G Base-SR 10G Base-SW 10G Base-LR 10G Base-LW 10G Base-ER 10G Base-EW 10G Base-LX4 Fiber IEEE 802.3ak 10G Base - CX4 Twin-axial cabling IEEE P802.3an 10G Base-T Unshield Twisted Pair

Physical Layer

From WAN/MAN Protocols


Ethernet II (or DIX Ethernet)

8 bytes 6 bytes 6 bytes 2 bytes 46 - 1500 bytes 4 bytes

Preamble + SFD

Destination Address

Source Address


MAC Address


EtherType - Commonly used EtherTypes

EtherType (Hexadecimal) 0x0000 0x05DC 0x0101 0x01FF 0x0600 0x0660 0x0661 0x0800 0x0801 0x0802 0x0803 0x0804 0x0805 0x0806 0x0808 0x6559 0x8035 0x8037 0x809B 0x80D5 0x80F3 0x8100 0x8137 0x814C Protocol IEEE 802.3 length. Experimental XEROX NS IDP. DLOG. IP, Internet Protocol. X.75 Internet. NBS Internet. ECMA Internet. Chaosnet. X.25 Level 3. ARP, Address Resolution Protocol. Frame Relay ARP Raw Frame Relay [RFC1701] [RFC1701]

MAC Destination Address Format: 1bit I/G 1bit U/L 46 bits Destination Address

I/G = 0 Individual address: the destination is a singe node. I/G = 1 Group address: the destination is a group of LAN nodes (multicast or broadcast address). U/L = 0 Universally administered address: the adapter uses its burned-in MAC address. U/L = 1 Locally administered address: the adapter uses a logical address. MAC Source address does not use I/G and U/L bits. 0x86DD 0x880B 0x880C 0x8847 0x8848 0x8863 0x8864 0x88BB 0x88CC 0x8E88 0x9000 0x9100 0x9200 0xFFFF IPv6, Internet Protocol version 6. PPP, Point-to-Point Protocol. GSMP, General Switch Management Protocol. MPLS, Multi-Protocol Label Switching (unicast). MPLS, Multi-Protocol Label Switching (multicast). PPPoE, PPP Over Ethernet (Discovery Stage). PPPoE, PPP Over Ethernet (PPP Session Stage). LWAPP, Light Weight Access Point Protocol. LLDP, Link Layer Discovery Protocol. EAPOL, EAP over LAN. Loopback (Conguration Test Protocol) VLAN Tag Protocol Identier VLAN Tag Protocol Identier reserved.

DRARP, Dynamic RARP. RARP, Reverse Address Resolution Protocol. Novell Netware IPX EtherTalk (AppleTalk over Ethernet) IBM SNA Services over Ethernet AARP, AppleTalk Address Resolution Protocol. EAPS, Ethernet Automatic Protection Switching. IPX, Internet Packet Exchange. SNMP, Simple Network Management Protocol.

IEEE 802.3 with IEEE 802.2 LLC and SNAP

Logic Link Control (LLC) operates on top of the MAC protocol dened in the original Ethernet standard. The Ethernet Frame with LLC and SNAP:
8 bytes 6 bytes 6 bytes 2 bytes Length 3 bytes 5 bytes 38 - 1492 bytes 4 bytes

Preamble + SFD

Destination Address

Source Address





DSAP 1 byte

SSAP 1 byte

Control 1 byte

3 bytes

EtherType 2 bytes

LLC: Logic Link Control LSAP - Link Service Access point DSAP - Destination Service Access Point; 1 byte SSAP - Source Service Access Point; 1 byte SNAP: Sub-Network Access Protocol OUI - Organization Unique ID; 3 bytes EtherType 2 bytes FCS: Frame Check Sequence SFD: Start of Frame Delimeter

The commonly used values of LSAP are: LSAP Value 00 02 03 04 OE 42 4E Description Null Individual LLC Sublayer management Function Group LLC Sublayer Management function ARPANET Internet Protocol Proway (IEC955) Network Management and Initialization IEEE 802.1 Bridge Spanning Tree Protocol EIA RS-511 Manufacturing Message Service

IEEE 802.1q: Ethernet Virtual LAN (VLAN)

DA 6 SA 6 Tag 4
Type / Length

Up to 1500

FCS 4 bytes

IEEE 802.1ad: Q-in-Q VLAN tag extension allows stacking of multiple VLAN tags in a frame

Tag Control Information (TCI)


Length / EtherType

Data FCS

Original Ethernet Frame

Tag Protocol Identifier (Typically 0x8100 (default),0x9100 or 0x9200)

Priority 3
802.1 p priority levels (0 to 7)

Canonical Format Indicator 0 = canonical MAC 1 = non - canonical MAC

VID 12
Unique VLAN identifier (0 to 4095)




Length / EtherType

Data FCS

802.1q Tagged Frame

IEEE 802.3ac denes the Ethernet VLAN Tag



Length / EtherType

Data FCS

Doubly-tagged Frame

Ethernet MAN/WAN
ITU-T: X.86 Ethernet over SONET/SDH (EoS) Ethernet Frame Encapsulation over SONET/SDH Unit:bytes Ethernet + VLAN MAC Frame LAPS
6 1 Preamble S Dest Addr 1 11 2 F A C SAPI 27 9 POH 7 6 Src Addr 2 VLAN L/T 4 46 - 1500 0 - 1500 DATA 68 - 1522 PPP Header + Data 774 HDLC Data

0-46 4 Pad FCS 4 FCS 1 F


SONET Section/Line Overhead

S : SFD (Start of Frame Delimeter) FCS : Frame Check Sequence L/T : Length/EtherType

F : Flag A : Address C : Control

SAPI : Service Access Port Identier POH : Path Overhead

IETF pwe4 and l2vpn: Ethernet VPN using MPLS Encapsulation over SONET/SDH
Unit:bytes Ethernet + VLAN MAC Frame Martini MPLS Packet PPP
6 1 Preamble S Dest Addr 4 TL 2 P 1 11 FAC 27 9 POH 4 VCL 7 6 Src Addr 2 VLAN L/T 4 46 - 1500 0 - 1500 Data 0-46 4 Pad FCS

S : SFD (Start of Frame Delimeter) L/T : Length/EtherType FCS : Frame Check Sequence TL : Tunnel Label VCL : VC Label P : Protocol
4 1 FCS F

64 - 1518 Ethernet (+VLAN) Header + Data 72 - 1526 Martini MPLS Encapsulated Ethernet MAC Frame 74 - 1528 PPP Header + Data 774 HDLC Data


F : Flag A : Address C : Control POH : Path Overhead


SONET Section/Line Overhead

Ethernet Management
Ethernet OAM IEEE 802.1ah Architecture
OAM Client (OAM brains) MAC Client (Higher Layers)
dest addr 0180C20002 6

The Format of Ethernet OAMPDU in IEEE 802.1ah

source addr 6 type 8809 2 subtype 03 1 flags 1 code 1 code 00 code 01 code 02 code 03 code 04 code FE code 42 - 1496
local remote info TLV info TLV ...


Information OAMPDU

OAM Control
Event Norifition OAMPDU Var Request OAMPDU

seq #

link event TLV


var destcriptor (branch & leaf)


OAM Sublayer


Var Response OAMPDU Loopback Control OAMPDU

var container (branch, leaf, width, value) loopback command


Media Access Control (MAC)

Organization Specific OAMPDU

24-bit OUI


Frequently Used Ethernet Glossary

4B/5B -- A block encoding scheme used to send Fast Ethernet data. 10BASE-T -- 10 Mbps Ethernet system based on Manchester signal encoding transmitted over Category 3 or better twisted-pair cable. 10BASE2 -- 10Mbps Ethernet system based on Manchester signal encoding transmitted over thin coaxial cable. Also called Cheapernet or ThinNet. 10BASE5 -- Original 10 Mbps Ethernet system based on Manchester signal encoding transmitted over thick coaxial cable. Also called ThickNet. 10BASE-F -- 10 Mbps Ethernet system based on Manchester signal encoding transmitted over ber optic cable. 10BASE-FL -- 10 Mbps link ber optic implementation. 10GBASE-S (R or W) -- Multimode ber with 850 nm laser transceiver at bandwidth 10 Gbps. 10GBASE-L (R or W) -- Single mode ber with 1310 nm laser transcerver at bandwidth 10 Gbps. 10GBASE-E (R or W) -- Single mode ber with 1550 nm laser transceiver at handwidth 10 Gbps. 10GBASE-LX4 -- Single or multi mode ber with 1310 nm laser transceiver at speed 10 Gbps. 10GBASE-CX4 -- Low cost switch interface using 4-laned copper InniBand connectors for 10 Gbps Ethernet. 10GBASE-T -- 10 Gbps Ethernet standard (802.3an) using unshielded twisted pair cables such as Category 6/class E cable. 100BASE-FX -- 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet system based on 4B/5B signal encoding transmitted over ber optic cable. 100BASE-T -- 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet system, including both twisted-pair and ber optic media. 100BASE-TX -- 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet system based on 4B/5B signal encoding transmitted over two pairs. 100BASE-X -- Refers to any Fast Ethernet media system based on 4B/5B block encoding. Includes 100BASE-TX and 100BASE-FX media systems. 1000BASE-LX -- 1 Gigabit Ethernet over bre using long wavelength laser as dened by 802.3z. 1000BASE-SX -- 1 Gigabit Ethernet over bre using short wavelength laser as dened by 802.3z. 1000BASE-T -- 1 Gigabit Ethernet over UTP/Cat 5 as dened by 802.3ab. 802.2 -- IEEE Working Group for Logical Link Control (LLC). 802.3 -- IEEE Working Group for CSMA/CD LANs (local area networks). AUI -- Attachment Unit Interface is a 15-pin signal interface dened in the original DIX Ethernet standard. Auto-Negotiation -- A protocol dened in the Ethernet standard that allows devices at either end of a link segment to advertise and negotiate modes of operation. Bandwidth -- The maximum capacity of a network channel. Usually expressed in bits per second (bps). Ethernet have a handwidth of 10-, 100-, 1000 Mbps and 1 and 10 Gbps. Bridge -- A device that connects two or more networks at the data link layer. BPDU -- Bridge Protocol Data Unit are parts of the STP that help describe and identify attributes of a switch port. Broadcast Domain -- The set of all stations in a network that will receive each others broadcast frames. Broadcast -- A transmission initiated by one station to all stations on a network. Bus -- A shared connection for multiple devices over a cable or backplane. Category 3 -- Twisted-pair cable with electrical characteristics suitable for carrying 10BASE-T. Not recommended for new installations. Category 5 -- Twisted-pair cable with electrical characteristics suitable for all twisted-pair Ethernet media systems, including 10BASW-T and 100BASE-TX. Category 5e -- An enhanced version of Category 5 cable, developed to improve certain cable characteristics important to Gigabit Ethernet operation. Category 6 -- A cable standard for Gigabit Ethernet and other interconnect. Category 6 is suitable for 10BASE-T / 100BASE-TX and 1000BASE-T connections. Coaxial Cable -- A cable with an outer conductor, surrounding an inner conductor. Coaxial cables are used for 10BASE5 and 10BASE2 Ethernet systems. Collision -- The result of having two or more simultaneous transmissions on a common signal channel such as half-duplex Ethernet or shared Ethernet. Collision Domain -- The set of all stations and repeaters connected to a network where faithful detection of a collision can occur. CRC -- Cyclic Redundancy Check. An error checking technique used to ensure the accuracy of transmitted data. CSMA/CD -- Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect. The medium access control (MAC) protocol used in Ethernet. Data Link Layer -- Layer 2 of the OSI reference model, which is responsible for transmitting and receiving frames. It includes both the media access control (MAC) protocol and logical link control (LLC) layers. DIX -- The rst letter of the Digital Corp, the Intel Corp, and the Xerox Corp, which are the leading vendors dened the original Ethernet standards. DSAP -- Destination Service Access Point, part of LLC LSAP for data type. Ethernet -- originally developed by DIX, then standardized by IEEE 802.3 for local area network communication. Now it is expanded to MAN and WAN services. EtherType -- A eld in the Ethernet frame provides information of protocol used in the data eld of the frame. Fast Ethernet -- A version of Ethernet as dened by IEEE 802.3u that operates at 100 Mbps. Fast Link Pulse -- A link pulse that encodes information used in the Auto-Negotiation protocol. Flow Control -- The process of controlling data transmission at the sender to avoid overlling buffers and loss of data at the receiver. Forwarding -- The process of moving frames from one port to another in a switching hub. Frame -- The fundamental unit of transmission at the data link layer of the OSI model. Full-Duplex Operation -- A communications method that allows for the simultaneously transmission and reception of data. GBIC -- Gigabit Interface Converter is a standard for transceivers, commonly used with gigabit Ethernet and bre channel. Gigabit Ethernet -- A version of Ethernet that operates at 1000 Mbps. Half-Duplex Operation -- A communications method in which transmissions and receptions can occur in either direction but not at the same time. Hub -- A device with three or more ports at the center of a star topology network to share all Ethernet signals among all ports. IEEE -- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. A professional and standards body. Late Collision -- A failure of the network in which the collision indication arrives too late in the frame transmission to be automatically dealt with by the medium access control (MAC) protocol. Link Integrity Test -- This test veries that an Ethernet link is connected correctly and that signals are being received correctly. LLC -- Logical Link Control. A standardized protocol and service interface provided at the data link layer and independent of any specic LAN technology. Specied in the IEEE 802.2 standard. LSAP -- Link Service Access Point(LSAP), including both DSAP and SSAP, is the identier eld to indicate data types. MAC -- Medium Access Control is a protocol operating at the data link layer used to manage a stations access to the communication channel. MAC Address -- A unique address assigned to a station interface, identifying that station on the network. With Ethernet, this is the unique 48-bit station address. Manchester Encoding -- Signal encoding method used in all 10 Mbps Ethernet media systems. MAU -- Medium Attachment Unit provides the physical and electrical interface between an Ethernet device and the medium system to which it is connected. Also referred to as a transceiver. MDI -- Medium Dependent Interface is used to make a physical and electrical connection between a transceiver and a media segment. MII -- Medium Independent Interface, provides a 40-pin connection to outboard transceivers. Used to attach 802.3 interfaces (MACs) to a variety of physical media systems. Mixing Segment -- A bus segment capable of supporting two or more devices on the same bus. Coaxial cable segments are classied as mixing segments. NIC -- Network Interface Card, also called an adapter, network interface module, or interface card, provides a connection between a computer and a network. OUI -- Organizationally Unique Identier is a 24-bit value assigned to an organization by the IEEE. It is used as part of MAC address. Patch Cable -- A twisted-pair or ber optic jumper cable used to connect a NIC and a media segment, etc. PHY -- Physical Layer Device. The name used for a transceiver in Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet systems. Physical Layer -- The rst layer in the OSI seven layers reference model, which denes the electrical and optical properties of signal transmission. Port -- A connection point for a cable at a network device. Hubs and switches typically provide multiple ports for connecting Ethernet devices. Promiscuous Mode -- A mode of operation where a device is congured to receive all frames on a network regardless of its destination address. Typically used by network analyzer tools. Repeating Hub -- A repeater with more than two ports. This name is frequently shortened to simply hub. Q-in-Q -- a provider bridge extensions in VLAN tag, also known as stackable VLANs. RJ-45 -- An 8-pin modular connector used on twisted-pair links. SC -- Subscriber Connector, a type of ber optic connector used in 100BASE-FX ber optic media systems. Segment -- A cable made up of one or more cable sections and connections joined together to produce the equivalent of a continuous cable. Slot Time -- A unit of time used in the medium access control (MAC) protocol for Ethernet. SNAP -- Sub-Network Access Protocol is a standard for the transmission of IP datagrams over IEEE 802 networks. SSAP -- Source Service Access Point, part of the LLC LSAP for data type. ST -- Straight Tip, a type of ber optic connector mostly used in 10BASE-FL and FOIRL links. STP -- Spanning Tree Protocol provides a loop free topology for any LAN or bridged network. Star Topology -- A network topology in which each station on the network is connected directly to a hub. Switch -- is a device that interconnects network segments at the data link layer. Twisted-Pair Cable -- A multiple-conductor cable whose component wires are paired together, twisted, and enclosed in a single jacket. Tagged frame -- Frame with an 802.1Q VLAN identier. Untagged frame -- Frame without an 802.1Q VLAN identier UTP -- Unshielded Twisted Pair cable is made of one or more twisted pairs of wires and is not surrounded by a metal shield. VLAN -- Virtual LAN as dened by IEEE 802.1q.

Related Products: TCP/IP Quick Guide Network Communication Protocol Map Network Security Map Network Protocols Handbook Packet Analyzer
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