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hypothalamus

Parts of the hypophysis:


hypophysis

anterior posterior

Adeno-
hypophysis:

- Pars Neurohypophysis:
tuberalis
- Median
- Pars eminence
intermedia
- Infundibulum
- Pars
distalis - Pars nervosa
Slide 67, hypophysis

Staining method: hematoxylin-eosin

Plane of cutting:
horizontal
Slide 67, hypophysis, H&E, 4x

Neurohypophysis:
pars nervosa

Adenohypophysis:
pars intermedia

Adenohypophysis:
pars distalis
Slide 67, hypophysis pars nervosa, H&E, 40x

endothelial
cell

capillaries
(fenestrated
endothelium)
pituicytes

axons
(hypothalamo-
hypophyseal tract)
Slide 67, hypophysis pars intermedia, H&E, 40x

simple cuboidal epithelium


cyst filled with colloid
The cell types of the adenohypophysis

chromophil
Staining chromo-
(H&E) phobe
acidophil basophil

Cell type 1 2 1 2 1 2

Hormone ACTH
GH LTH TSH LH FSH IL-6
secreted MSH
Slide 67, hypophysis pars distalis, H&E, 40x

chromophobe cell

basophil cells
acidophil cells
To identify the parts of the hypophysis
and the structures listed:

Pars nervosa: capillaries, pituicytes


Pars intermedia: cysts filled with colloid
Pars distalis: chromophobe, acidophil,
basophil cells
The hypothalamo-hypophyseal system

Magnocellular nuclei:
Hormone secreted:
oxytocin, vasopressin
Axon terminals:
pars nervosa Parvocellular nuclei:
E.g.: Hormone secreted:
nucl. paraventricularis releasing / inhibiting
nucl. supraopticus hormones
(pl. CRF, TRH)
Axon terminals:
infundibulum
E.g.:
nucl. arcuatus
Slide 85, hypothalamus:
magnocellular nuclei

Origin of the section: rat brain cerebrum

cerebellum

Cortex cerebri
brainstem
Plane of
cutting:
frontal
nucl. paraventricularis
Staining method:
nucl. supraopticus hypothalamus
oxytocin immunocyto-
chemistry
Slide 85, hypothalamus, oxytocin immunocytochemistry, 4x

nucl. paraventricularis

axons
(hypothalamo-
hypophyseal tract)

3rd
ventricle

optic tract

nucl. supraopticus
Slide 85, nucl. supraopticus, oxytocin immunocytochemistry, 40x
To identify the magnocellular nuclei of the
hypothalamus
The histology of the thyroid gland

Follicles:
Follicular epithelium:
- simple cuboidal
- follicular epithelial
cells (thyreocytes)
-Microvilli on the apical
surface
- endodermal origin
- triiodothyronine (T3) /
Parafollicular (C) cells: thyroxin (T4)
- Between the follicles,
capillaries bellow the follicular cells
- Ectodermal origin
- calcitonin
Slide 68, thyroid gland, H&E, 4x

follicles

connective tissue septum


Slide 68, thyroid gland, H&E, 40x

follicular
follicle epithelial
cells

colloid
(thyroglobulin)

capillary
The synthesis of hormones by the follicular cells
The synthesis of thyroglobulin
colloid Synthesis colloid pinocytosis

The uptake of circulating iodide: 30-


40x concentration colloid

Iodination of tyrosine residues in


the colloid: on the surface of the
microvilli

Colloid pinocytosis

Pinocytotic vesicles fusion with


lysosomes cleavage of active
hormones
rough
endoplasmic
T3 / T4 capillaries reticulum iodide capillary
To identify the follicles of the thyroid gland

To examine the follicular epithelium