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Viscosity Measurement controlled flow i.e.

laminar rotational or tubular fluid sample ideally exposed to uniform shearing conditions

Cone and Plate Viscometer

lower, stationary disc 0.5o < f < 3o (for streamline flow) sample size constant angular velocity (rads/s), N(rpm) measure torque (M) required to maintain steady shearing Tangential velocity component uq = 0 at lower plate uq = speed of cone at the cone's surface from the no-slip condition

At a radial distance r, tangential speed of the cone is W r. At this point; the height of the gap is f r.

The shear rate in the gap is independent of position and is uniform throughout the gap The shear stress t zq is also uniform

Consider an annular ring on the lower plate, of width r, located a distance r from the centre: Tangential force required to maintain steady shearing Torque acting on this area

Torque, M, acting on entire plate

and

Narrow gap co-axial cylinder viscometers

couette viscometers limit rotational speed to ensure streamline flow in the annular region base of rotating cylinder modified to ensure either no shearing below the cylinder or streamline flow below

Fluid velocity at surface of inner cylinder = W r Fluid velocity at surface of outer cylinder = 0 Shear stress acting on inner cylinder = t i Shear stress acting on outer cylinder = t 0 For steady flow conditions,

For non-Newtonian fluids, non-uniformity of shearing conditions is a problem. If annular gap is small compared to Ri and R0, shear stress (and thus shear rate) throughout is almost constant, thus

Limitations of conventional rotational viscometers for fermentation broths. "centrifugation" of sample inhomogeneity apparent time-dependency effects particle settling during sampling

large particles damages during shearing and/or interfere with accurate measurement results may depend on orientation of particles Impeller viscometers small impeller (e.g. turbine, anchor, helical ribbon) mounted on a rotating shaft used to shear sample within a cylindrical vessel analysis based on the Metzner and Otto approach under laminar flow conditions, at an impeller rotational speed N

K is independent of the fluid properties, depends only in impeller geometry For Rushton turbines, K ~ 10 For a given impeller, K is evaluated using fluids of known rheology Power (P) delivered by the impeller to the fluid is related to the impeller Reynolds No.

Correlation between Power No. and Reynolds No.

P = power (W) N = impeller speed (s-1)

D = impeller diameter (m) r = fluid density (kg m-3)

For the laminar region

For a Rushton turbine

P is related to the torque M (J) on the shaft:

Thus

Operating protocol: very N, measure M, calculate m a, calculate g characterise fluid empirical approach; flow patterns too complex for rigorous analysis must have (or generate) Ln NP vs Ln Re curve and value of K for each impeller torque may be difficult to measure (use commercial viscometer head) must maintain laminar flow conditions Rushton turbine Re < 10 Helical ribbon Re < 100 use of impeller promotes sample homogeneity

Tubular/Capillary viscometers Ref. BT2 Fluid Mechanics recirculating flow capillary viscometer for Newtonian liquids

gas pressure or ram

h reservoir fully developed flow

capillary, length L, diameter d

developing flow and effects Schematic diagram of a capillary viscometer maintain constant pressure on reservoir ideally, measure pressure drop at a number of points along length of pipe with fully developed laminar flow if tube is vertical, must correct for static head entrance ( 50d) and exit effects can be estimated (and thus eliminated) using tubes of different L, same d at same Q narrow bore tubes prone to clogging unsuitable for use with suspensions; inhomogeneity with larger bore tubes comparatively inexpensive

With Newtonian liquids

plot of t w vs g w yields straight line, slope m .

With fluids of unknown rheology

flow through the tube Integrating by parts

Assume fluid is time-independent, homogeneous Recall, at r = 0 t r = 0 r=Rtr=tw change of variable

For any given relationship between g and t , integral depends only on t w t w3, differentiating and evaluating wrt t w

is a unique function of t w.

Rabinowitsch-Mooney Equation

Application measure Q at various eliminating end effects or measure calculate t w calculate at various Q (flow characteristic)

plot Ln t w vs Ln ; calculate slope (graphically or by data fitting) determine true wall shear rate plot rheogram