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Verbals

Gerunds
A verbal is a word formed from a verb but functioning as a different part of speech. A gerund is a verbal ending in -ing that functions as a noun. Like an ordinary single-word noun, a gerund may be used as a SUBJECT

DIRECT OBJECT

RETAINED OBJECT

SUBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT

OBJECT OF PREPOSITION

APPOSITIVE

DELAYED APPOSITIVE In the example below, the gerund phrase renames the subject, this.

NOTE: Do not confuse gerunds with verbs (predicates) in the progressive tense. GERUND

PREDICATE VERB

Even though is cooking and was scratching end in -ing, they are not gerunds because they are used as predicate verbs, not as nouns.

Participles
A verbal is a word formed from a verb but functioning as a different part of speech. A participle is a verbal that functions as an adjective. Two kinds of participles:

1. Present participles, always ending in -ing, are created from the form of a verb used with the verb to be ( am, is, are, was, were, been) as an auxiliary verb (progressive tense).

Removing the auxiliary verb and using the -ing form of the main verb as an adjective produces a present participle.

2. Past participles, usually ending in -ed or -en, are created from the form of a verb used with the verb to be as an auxiliary verb (passive voice).

Removing the auxiliary verb and using the -en form of the main verb as an adjective produces a past participle.

Past participles may also be part of a participial phrase.

Participles and participial phrases should be placed near the nouns they modify. They may either precede or follow a noun.

For punctuation rules used with participles and participial phrases, follow this link.

Infinitives
A verbal is a word formed from a verb but functioning as a different part of speech. An infinitive is a verbal formed by placing to in front of the simple present form of a verb. Examples: to swim to think to read to be to cut to turn

Infinitives may function as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns.

1. Adjectival infinitives

Just like a single-word adjective, an infinitive used as an adjective always describes a noun. An adjectival infinitive always follows the noun it describes. EXAMPLE

Like gerunds and participles, infinitives may incorporate other words as part of their phrase. EXAMPLE

2. Adverbial infinitives Just like a single-word adverb, an infinitive used as an adverb always describes a verb. An adverbial infinitive usually occurs at the beginning or at the end of a sentence and does not need to be near the verb it describes. EXAMPLE: Adverbial infinitive at sentence beginning

EXAMPLE: Adverbial infinitive at sentence end

HINT: You can always identify an adverbial infinitive by inserting the test words in order in front of infinitive. If the words in order make sense, the infinitive is adverbial.

PUNCTUATION NOTE: 1. Use a comma after the adverbial infinitive when it starts a sentence. 2. Do not separate the adverbial infinitive from the rest of the sentence if the infinitive ends the sentence.

3. Nominal infinitives Like a single-word noun, a nominal infinitive may function as a SUBJECT

DIRECT OBJECT

RETAINED OBJECT

SUBJECTIVE COMPLEMENT

APPOSITIVE

DELAYED APPOSITIVE

Modals - English Grammar


1) can
Use ability to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be able to) permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to) request offer suggestion possibility Examples I can speak English.

Can I go to the cinema? Can you wait a moment, please? I can lend you my car till tomorrow. Can we visit Grandma at the weekend? It can get very hot in Arizona.

2) could
Use ability to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be able to) permission to do sth. in the past (substitute form: to be allowed to) polite question * Examples I could speak English.

I could go to the cinema. Could I go to the cinema, please?

polite request * polite offer *

Could you wait a moment, please? I could lend you my car till tomorrow. Could we visit Grandma at the weekend? It could get very hot in Montana.

polite suggestion * possibility *

3) may
Use possibility permission to do sth. in the present (substitute form: to be allowed to) polite suggestion Examples It may rain today. May I go to the cinema? May I help you?

4) might
Use Examples

possibility (less possible than may) * It might rain today. hesitant offer * Might I help you?

5) must
Use force, necessity possibility advice, recommendation Examples I must go to the supermarket today. You must be tired. You must see the new film with Brad Pitt.

6) must not/may not


Use Examples You mustn't work on dad's computer. prohibition You may not work on dad's computer.

7) need not
Use Examples I needn't go to the supermarket, not necessary we're going to the restaurant tonight.

8) ought to
Use advice Examples You ought to drive carefully in bad weather. You ought to switch off the light when you leave the room.

obligation

9) shall
instead of will in the 1st person
Use suggestion Examples Shall I carry your bag?

10) should
Use advice Examples You should drive carefully in bad weather.

obligation

You should switch off the light when you leave the room.

11) will
Use wish, request, demand, order (less polite than would) prediction, assumption promise spontaneous decision Examples Will you please shut the door? I think it will rain on Friday. I will stop smoking. Can somebody drive me to the station? - I will. She's strange, she'll sit for hours without talking.

habits

12) would
Use Examples

wish, request (more polite than will) Would you shut the door, please? habits in the past Sometimes he would bring me some flowers.

* no past forms - future forms

Prepositions of time
Preposition in months year seasons part of the day Use Examples in July; in September in 1985; in 1999 in summer; in the summer of 69 in the morning; in the afternoon; in the evening

in

in a minute; in two weeks at night at 6 o'clock; at midnight at at Christmas; at Easter at the same time on Sunday; on Friday on the 25th of December* on on Good Friday; on Easter Sunday; on my special holidays birthday a special part of a day on the morning of September the 11th* after later than sth. after school ago how far sth. happened (in the past) 6 years ago before earlier than sth. before Christmas between time that separates two points between Monday and Friday by not later than a special time by Thursday through the whole of a period of during during the holidays time for period of time for three weeks from Monday to Wednesday from ... to from Monday till Wednesday two points form a period from... till/until from Monday until Wednesday past time of the day 23 minutes past 6 (6:23) since point of time since Monday till tomorrow till/until no later than a special time until tomorrow to time of the day 23 minutes to 6 (5:37) up to not more than a special time up to 6 hours a day within during a period of time within a day * The words in italic are only spoken, not written (date).

duration part of the day time of day celebrations fixed phrases days of the week date

Prepositions at, in, on


Preposition Examples We sit in the room. I see a house in the picture. There are trouts in the river. He lives in Paris. I found the picture in the paper.

in

at

on

He sits in the corner of the room. He sits in the back of the car. We arrive in Madrid. He gets in the car. She likes walking in the rain. My cousin lives in the country. There are kites in the sky. He plays in the street. (BE) She lives in a hotel. The boys stand in a line. There is a big tree in the middle of the garden. He is in town. I have to stay in bed. You mustn't park your car in front of the school. The robber is in prison now. She sits at the desk. Open your books at page 10. The bus stops at Graz. I stay at my grandmother's. I stand at the door. Look at the top of the page. The car stands at the end of the street. Can we meet at the corner of the street? I met John at a party. Pat wasn't at home yesterday. I study economics at university. The childen are at gandmother's. He's looking at the park. He always arrives late at school. The map lies on the desk. The picture is on page 10. The photo hangs on the wall. He lives on a farm. Dresden lies on the river Elbe. Men's clothes are on the second floor. He lives on Heligoland. The shop is on the left. My friend is on the way to Moscow.

Write this information on the front of the letter. When she was a little girl people saw unrealistic cowboy films on television. Thanks to Alexandra.

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