You are on page 1of 9




1. Beam sections should be designed for: a. Moment values at the column face & (not the value at centre line as per analysis) b. Shear values at distance of d from the column face. (not the value at centre line as per analysis) c. Moment redistribution is allowed for static loads only. d. For beams spanning between the columns about the weak axis, the moments at the end support shall be reduced more and distributed and the span moments shall be increased accordingly to account for the above reduction. e. Moment distribution shall be done in such a way that 15% of the support moments shall be added to the span moment without the support moments getting reduced. f. The section within the span shall be designed for the increased span moment which will account for the concentrated & isolated loading that may act within one span. g. Moment redistribution is not allowed if 1. moment co-efficient taken from code table 2. designed for earthquake forces and for lateral loads. 2. At least 1/3 of the +ve moment reinforcement in SIMPLE SUPPORTS & the +ve moment reinforcement in CONTINUOUS MEMBERS shall extend along the same face of the member into the support, to a length equal to Ld/3. (Lddevelopment length) 3. Use higher grade of concrete if most of the beams are doubly reinforced. Also when Mu/bd^2 goes above 6.0. 4. Try to design a minimum width for beams so that the all beam reinforcement passes through the columns. This is for the reason that any reinforcement outside the column will be ineffective in resisting compression. 5. Restrict the spacing of stirrups to 8 (200mm) or of effective depth whichever is less.(for static loads)

6. Whenever possible try to use T-beam or L-beam concept so as to avoid compression reinforcement. 7. Use a min. of 0.2% for compression reinforcement to aid in controlling the deflection, creep and other long term deflections. 8. Bars of Secondary beam shall rest on the bars of the Primary beam if the beams are of the same depth. The kinking of bars shall be shown clearly on the drawing. 9. Length of curtailment shall be checked with the required development length. 10. Keep the higher diameter bars away from the N.A(i.e. layer nearest to the tension face) so that max. lever arm will be available. 11. Hanger bars shall be provided on the main beam whenever heavy secondary beam rests on the main beam.(Try to avoid the hanger bar if secondary beam has less depth than the main beam, as there are enough cushions available). 12. The detailing for the secondary beam shall be done so that it does not induce any TORSION on the main beam. 13. For cantilever beams reinforcement at the support shall be given a little more and the development length shall be given 25% more. 14. As a short cut, bending moment for a beam (partially continuous or fully continuous) can be assumed as wl^2/10 and the same reinforcement can be detailed at span and support. This thumb rule should not be applied for simply supported beams. B:SLAB EFFECTIVE DEPTH: SLAB 1. One- way simply supported slab 2. One-way continuous slabs 3. Two-way simply supported slabs 4. Teo-way continuous slabs

SPAN/EFFE.DEPTH 30 35 38 for L/B=1.5 35 for L/B>1.5 40 for L/B=1.5 38 for L/B>1.5

1. Whenever the slab thickness is 150mm, the bar diameter shall be 10mm for normal spacing.(It can be 8mm at very closely spaced). 2. Slab thickness can be 10mm,110mm,120mm,125mm,150mm, etc. 3. The maximum spacing of Main bar shall not exceed 200mm(8 ) and the distribution bars @ 250mm(10 ). 4. If the roof slab is supported by load bearing wall(without any frames) a bed block of 150/200mm shall be provided along the length of supports which will aid in resisting the lateral forces.

5. If the roof is of sheet(AC/GI) supported by load bearing wall (without any frames) a bed block of 150/200mm shall be provided along the length of supports except at the eaves. The bed block is provided to keep the sheets in position from WIND. 6. For the roof slab provide a min. of 0.24% of slab cross sectional area reinforcement to take care of the temperature and other weathering agent and for the ponding of rain water etc since it is exposed to outside the building enclosure. COLUMN: Section should be designed for the column moment values at the beam face. Use higher grade of concrete when the axial load is predominant. Go for a higher section properties when the moment is predominant. Restrict the maximum % of reinforcement to 3. Detail the reinforcement in column in such a way that it gets maximum lever arm for the axis about which the column moment acts. 6. Position of lap shall be clearly mentioned in the drawing according to the change in reinforcement. Whenever there is a change in reinforcement at a junction, lap shall be provided to that side of the junction where the reinforcement is less. 7. Provide laps at midheight of column to minimize the damage due to moments(Seismic forces). 8. Avoid KICKER concrete to fix column form work since it is the weakest link due to weak and non compacted part. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. FOOTING: 1. Never assume the soil bearing capacity and at least have one trial pit to get the real site Bearing capacity value. 2. Check the Factor of Safety used by the Geotechnical engineer for finding the SBC. 3. SBC can be increased depending on the N-value and type of footing that is going to be designed. Vide IS-1893-2000(part-I). 4. Provide always PLINTH BEAMS resting on natural ground in orthogonal directions connecting all columns which will help in many respect like reducing the differential settlement of foundations, reducing the moments on footings etc. 5. Always assume a hinged end support for column footing for analysis unless it is supported by raft and on pile cap. The Common assumption of full fixity at the column base may only be valid for columns supported on RIGID RAFT foundations or on individual foundation pads supported by short stiff piles or by foundation walls in Basement. Foundation pads supported on deformable soil may have considerable rotational flexibility, resulting in column forces in the

bottom storey quite different from those resulting from the assumption of a rigid base. The consequences can be unexpected column HINGES at the top of lower storey columns under seismic lateral forces. In such cases the column base should be modeled by a rotational springs. (Ref:page 164-Seismic design of Reinforced concrete and Masonry buildings by T.Paulay & M.J.N.Priestley.) Also refer the Reinforced concrete Designer s Handbook by Reynold where it is clearly mention about the column base support. R.C.C.WALLS: 1. The minimum reinforcement for the RCC wall subject to BM shall be as follows: A. Vertical reinforcement: a) 0.0012 of cross sectional area for deformed bars not larger than 16mm in diameter and with characteristic strength 415 N/mm^2 or greater. b) 0.0015 of cross sectional area for other types of bars. c) 0.0012 of cross sectional area for welded fabric not larger than 16mm in diameter. Maximum horizontal spacing for the vertical reinforcement shall neither exceed three times the wall thickness nor 450mm. B. Horizontal reinforcement. a) 0.0020 of cross sectional area for deformed bars not larger than 16mm in diameter and with characteristic strength 415 N/mm^2 or greater. b) 0.0025 of cross sectional area for other types of bars. c) 0.0020 of cross sectional area for welded fabric not larger than 16mm in diameter. Maximum vertical l spacing for the vertical reinforcement shall neither exceed three times the wall thickness nor 450mm. NOTE: The minimum reinforcement may not always be sufficient to provide adequate resistance to effects of shrinkage and temperature.
2. The He/t for a RCC wall shall not exceed 30 as per IS:456=2000, where He is the effective height of the wall and t is the thickness of the RC wall. He for a braced wall will be : a) 0.75 H, if the rotations are restrained at the ends by floors where h is the height of the wall. b) 1.0h . MISCELLANEOUS: Ref: (Principle of structures by Ariel Hanaor). 1. TRUSS:

The Depth to span ratio for a truss is h/L=10. Beyond a certain optimal value, increase in structural depth increases weight. The same principle applies to trusses. An optimal depth/span ratio for a planar truss is approximately 1/10. Although forces in the CHORDS decrease with increasing depth, forces in the WEB are practically UNCHANGED and increasing the depth increases the lengths of these members. Approximately half the web members are in COMPRESSION and increasing their lengths reduces their efficiency due to the increased susceptibility to BUCKLING.


The span to depth ratio=1/8 to 1/10 are typical. The compression on top chord or tension in the bottom chord for a UDL loading is C=T= qL^2/8h where q is the udl and h is the depth.


A structure in pure TENSION having the funicular shape of its load is termed as Cable.

4.ARCH: Let us now invert the shape of a cable under a given load, that is the sag at any point is turned into a rise. The point is now above the chord joining the end points by the same amount it was previously below it. A structure built according to the funicular shape in COMPRESSION is termed as an ARCH. The optional rise to span ratio for an arch is in the range of 1/6-1/4. The depth to span ratio of an arch is usually in the range of 1/40 -1/70.

2. FOLDED PLATE: The typical depth /span ratio is in the range from 1/15 to 1/10.

3. FLATE PLATE: A typical depth of a solid FLAT PLATE is 1/22 -1/18 of the effective span.


Supported on continuous stiff supports are in the range of 1/30-1/25 of the lesser effective span.


Typical depth of flat plate ribbed slabs are in the range of 1/20-1/17 of the lesser effective span.


The structural depth of DOMES is the full height of the dome from base to crown. Depth to span ratio range from as low as 1/8 for shallow domes to for deep domes. A depth /span ratio of 1/5-1/4 is a common value which is near optimal for many applications.

Posted by OFFSHORE STRUCTURES DESIGN ENGINEER at 05:19 2 comments Email ThisBlogThis!Share to TwitterShare to Facebook Labels: STRUCTURE DESIGN TIPS

Thursday, 25 August 2011

Tips and Tricks for using STAAD.Pro: 1. Q: When I am printing the help contents, the sentences are often truncated at the right end due to inadequate width for the right margin and/or font size. The pictures too are cut off. Is there a way to set the right margin so we can see all text and pictures in the printed document? A: One way to overcome this problem is to print the pages in landscape mode. 2. Q: Whenever I start up STAAD.Pro, I want the default unit system to come up as Metric instead of English. What is the setting for this specification? A: Start STAAD.Pro. From the File menu, select Configure. Choose Base unit and set it to Metric. 3. Q: I have a beam whose local axis is parallel to the global X axis. I want to orient it in a way that its web is parallel to the global XZ plane. A: Specify a Beta angle of 90 degrees. Beta angles can be specified from the Commands - Geometric Constants menu. 4. Q: A member property is declared using the Tapered option. What do the values reported in response to the PRINT MEMBER PROPERTY command represent? Ans. The average of the values between those at the start and end locations of the member. 5. Q: I have a Wide Flange section with a concrete slab on top, resulting in composite action. How do I assign properties so that the "composite" nature of the section can be taken advantage of? A: STAAD does have a facility for defining a composite section consisting of a wide

flange with a concrete slab on top. This property assignment can be made through the Commands - Member Property page. 6. Q: I am modeling a portal frame where the connection between the beam and column is of the "Welded" type. Do I have to assign any specific command to convey this message to the analysis engine? A: By default, all connections are assumed to be of the type where the forces of all 6 degrees of freedom can be transmitted across the connection. Since this assumption conforms to the requirement of a welded type of connection, no special instructions have to be specified in the STAAD file. 7. Q: In the STAAD/Pro Graphical User Interface, how does one delete a support? A: Select the support type S1, which is designated "No support" and assign it to the node where you want the support removed. 8. Q: I want to perform a seismic analysis per the UBC 1997 code. However, instead of using the code specifications for calculating the periods of the structure, I want to specify my own. A: It can be done. The input syntax for UBC loading includes 2 parameters by the name PX and PZ, which indicate the periods of the structure in X and Z directions. 9. Q: How many modes does STAAD use by default in response spectrum and time history analyses? A: In STAAD/Pro 2000 and older 3 In STAAD.Pro 2001 - 6 10. Q: I am analyzing a large structure and encounter an error message "Read /Write Error in Unit 17". I have been told that this is due to insufficient disk space. My input file is located on the D drive which has over 10 GB of free space. How do I remedy this situation? A: During the analysis, temporary files are created and placed in the folder pointed to by the SET TEMP parameter under the Windows Environment settings. Usually, this is on the C: drive. Further, the virtual memory paging files may also be residing on the C: drive. You can a) change the virtual memory settings so multiple drives are used b) Change the "SET TEMP" folder to point to the drive with a large amount of free space. 11. Q: The KL/ry reported for a T shape does not match my hand calculations. I am using the AISC ASD 9th edition code.

A: For singly symmetric shapes, KL/r for the Y axis has to be calculated using the rules for flexural torsional buckling as explained in page 3-53 of the AISC ASD manual. 12. Q: I am unable to view any of the mode shapes besides the first mode shape. A: From the View menu, select "Structure Diagrams - Loads and Results", and choose the mode you want to view.