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uid ow visualisation T. Astarita, G. Cardone, G.M. Carlomagno ` Universita degli studi di Napoli Federico II, Dipartimento di Energetica Termo uidod inamica Applicata e Condizionamenti Ambientali, DETEC, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Na poli, Italy Available online 23 May 2005 Abstract This paper deals with the evolution of infrared thermography into a pow erful optical method to measure wall convective heat uxes as well as to investiga te the surface ow eld behaviour over complex geometries. The most common heat- ux se nsors, which are normally used for the measurements of convective heat transfer coef cients, are critically reviewed. Since the infrared scanning radiometer leads to the detection of numerous surface temperatures, its use allows taking into a ccount the effects due to tangential conduction along the sensor; different oper ating methods together with their implementations are discussed. Finally, the ca pability of infrared thermography to deal with three complex uid ow con gurations is analysed. r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Heat- ux sensors; Convective heat transfer; Surface ow visualisation; Inf rared thermography 1. Introduction Usually, measuring convective heat uxes requires both a sensor (w ith its corresponding thermal model) and some temperature measurements. In the o rdinary techniques [16], where temperature is measured by thermocouples, resistan ce Corresponding author. Tel.: +39 081 768 3389; fax: +39 081 239 0364. E-mail address: astarita@unina.it (T. Astarita). 0143-8166/$ - see front matter r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.optlaseng.2005.04.006

ARTICLE IN PRESS 262 T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 temperature detectors or pyrometers, each transducer yields either the heat ux at a single point, or the space-averaged one; hence, in terms of spatial resolutio n, the sensor itself can be considered as zero-dimensional. This constraint make s experimental measurements particularly troublesome whenever temperature, and/ or heat ux, elds exhibit spatial variations. As long as the uid is transparent to t he employed infrared band, the infrared scanning radiometer (IRSR) constitutes a true two-dimensional temperature transducer since it allows the performance of accurate measurement of surface temperature maps even in the presence of relativ ely high spatial temperature variations. Correspondingly, the heat- ux sensor may become two-dimensional as well. In particular, infrared thermography can be frui tfully employed to measure convective heat uxes, in both steady and transient tec hniques [79]. Within this context, IRSR can be intrinsically considered as a thin - lm sensor [5] because it generally measures skin temperatures. The thermal map o btained by means of currently available computerised thermographic systems is fo rmed through a large amount of pixels (20300 K and more) so that IRSR can be prac tically regarded as a two-dimensional array of thin lms. However, unlike standard thin lms, which have a response time of the order of microseconds, the typical r esponse time of IRSR is of the order of 101103 s. The use of IRSR as a temperature transducer in convective heat transfer measurement appears, from several points of view, advantageous if compared to standard transducers. In fact, as already m entioned, IRSR is fully two-dimensional; it permits the evaluation of errors due to tangential conduction and radiation, and it is non-intrusive. For example, t he last characteristic allows to get rid of the conduction errors through the th ermocouple or resistance temperature detector wires. 2. Heat- ux sensors Heat- ux sensors generally consist of plane slabs with a known t hermal behaviour, whose temperature is to be measured at xed points [16]. The equa tion for heat conduction in solids applied to the proper sensor model yields the relationship by which measured temperature is correlated to the heat transfer r ate. The most commonly used heat- ux sensors are the so-called one-dimensional one s, where the heat ux to be measured is assumed to be normal to the sensing elemen t surface, i.e. the temperature gradient components that are parallel to the sla b plane are neglected. In practice, the slab surfaces can also be curved, but th eir curvature can be ignored if the layer affected by the input heat ux is relati vely small as compared to the local radius of curvature of the slab. In the foll owing, rst ideal one-dimensional sensors are considered and then, whenever possib le, the use of some of them will be extended to the multi-dimensional case. The term ideal means that thermophysical properties of the sensor material are assum ed to be independent of temperature and that the in uence of the temperature sensi ng element is not considered.

ARTICLE IN PRESS T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 263 The most commonly used one-dimensional sensor models are: (1) Thin- lm sensor: A v ery thin resistance thermometer ( lm) classically measures the surface temperature of a thermally thicker slab to which is bonded. Heat ux is inferred from the the ory of heat conduction in a semi-in nite wall. The surface lm must be very thin so as to have negligible heat capacity and thermal resistance as compared to the sl ab ones. To use this sensor with infrared thermography, the heat exchanging surf ace must be necessarily viewed by IRSR. (2) Thick- lm sensor: The slab is used as a calorimeter; heat ux is obtained from the time rate of change of the mean slab temperature. This temperature is usually measured by using the slab as a resista nce thermometer. (3) Wall calorimeter or thin-skin sensor: The slab is made ther mally thin (so that its temperature can be assumed to be constant across its thi ckness) and, as in the case of the thick- lm sensor, is used as a calorimeter. Hea t ux is typically inferred from the time rate of change of the slab temperature w hich is usually measured by a thermocouple. To use this sensor with infrared the rmography, either one of the slab surfaces can be generally viewed by IRSR. (4) Gradient sensor: In this sensor the temperature difference across the slab thick ness is measured. By considering a steady-state heat transfer process, heat ux is computed by means of the temperature gradient across the slab. The temperature difference is usually measured by thermopiles made of very thinribbon thermocoup les, or by two thin- lm resistance thermometers. (5) Heated-thin-foil sensor: This method consists of steadily heating a thermally thin metallic foil, or a printe d circuit board, by Joule effect and by measuring the heat transfer coef cient fro m an overall energy balance. Also, in this case, due to the thinness of the foil , either one of the slab surfaces can be viewed by IRSR. Strictly speaking, ther e is another type of one-dimensional sensor, the circular Gardon gauge, in which the heat ux normal to the sensor surface is related to a radial temperature diff erence, in the direction parallel to the gauge plane [1]. This sensor is practic ally of no use in infrared thermography. Recently, another type of heat- ux sensor based on a three-dimensional unsteady inverse model and IRSR surface temperatur e measurements has been also developed [10] but for sake of simplicity it will n ot be herein described. Application of IRSR to both the thick- lm and the gradient sensors is not very practical, so these sensors will not be herein described. T he heated-thin-foil sensor represents a quasi-steady technique that will be disc ussed in the next paragraph; the thin- lm and the wall calorimeter sensors constit ute transient techniques that will be treated in the following one. 3. The heated-thin-foil steady-state technique Within the class of steady-state techniques to measure convective heat uxes between a uid stream and a surface, a m ethod, where the application of IRSR seems

ARTICLE IN PRESS 264 T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 Fig. 1. Heated-thin-foil sensor. to be very effective, is the heated-thin-foil technique. The sensor is made of a thin metallic foil which is heated by Joule effect (see the sketch of Fig. 1a). The main limitation of this technique is that, for practical reasons, the excha nging surface should have a cylindrical, or conical, geometry. In the following, it is initially supposed that the sensor is one-dimensional and that the surfac e not exposed to ow is adiabatic. By making a very simple (onedimensional) steady -state energy balance, it is found Qj Qr Qc , (1) where Qj is the imposed constant Joule heating per unit area, Qr is the radiativ e heat ux to ambient, and Qc is the convective heat ux to uid. The radiative heat ux can be evaluated by Qr sT 4 T 4 , w amb (2) where s is the w and Tamb are ectively. When is possible to ative StefanBoltzmann constant, is the total emissivity coef cient, and T the temperature of the wall and of the experimental ambient, resp standard techniques are used to measure the wall temperature, it have a very low wall emissivity coef cient so as to ignore the radi

ARTICLE IN PRESS T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 265 heat ux to ambient. Obviously, this is not the case when measuring temperatures b y means of IRSR. The convective heat ux can be expressed according to Newton law: Qc hT w T r , (3) where h is the convective heat transfer coef cient and Tr is a reference temperatu re. The reference temperature depends on the stream experimental conditions. For example, for high Mach number ows (or for the mixing of two streams at different temperatures), the correct choice is the adiabatic wall temperature [1114] while , for external low speed ows, the reference temperature practically coincides wit h the stream one. From Eqs. (1)(3) it is possible to nd an explicit expression for h: h Qj sT 4 T 4 w amb . Tw Tr (4) Under the assumption that the Biot number Bi hs=l (where s and l are the thickne ss and thermal conductivity coef cient of the foil, respectively) is small as comp ared to unity, temperature can be considered practically constant across the foi l thickness. Therefore, the surface of the foil to be measured can also be chose n as that opposite to the heat exchange surface. If this surface is not fully ad iabatic (see Fig. 1b), Eq. (1) should be extended to include the total heat ux to external ambient Qa. Usually, this heat ux results to be the sum of the radiativ e and the natural convection heat uxes. The natural convection heat ux to external ambient can be evaluated by using standard correlations tables [1517] or, better , by making some ad hoc tests. The hypothesis of zero-dimensional sensor is rigo rously satis ed only if the constant heat generation over the sensor surface leads to a spatially constant temperature of the sensor itself, i.e. practically when the convective heat transfer coef cient is constant too. However, in many thermo- u id-dynamic phenomenologies the heat transfer coef cient varies and this involves v ariations of the sensor surface temperature as well. These variations cause cond uctive heat uxes in the tangential (to the sensor surface) direction, which may c onstitute an important part of the total heat ux (Fig. 1c). By retaining the assu mption that the sensor is thermally thin (i.e. with a constant temperature acros s its thickness) and ideal, it is possible (for an isotropic slab) to evaluate t he tangential conduction heat ux Qk by means of Fourier law: Qk lsr2 T w . (5) Therefore, in order to extend the heated-thin-foil technique to the multidimensi onal case it is necessary to include in the energy balance the conductive heat ux along the tangential direction as well. So the nal form of the convective heat t ransfer coef cient becomes h Qj sT 4 T 4 Qa Qk w amb . Tw Tr (6)

ARTICLE IN PRESS 266 T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 It is important to remark that the use of IRSR (intrinsically two-dimensional) g enerally enables to evaluate the Laplacian of Eq. (5) by numerical computation. Of course, this can be performed only after an adequate ltering of the camera exp erimental signal, which is typically affected by noise. In many applications of the heated-thin-foil sensor, a quasi spatially constant Joule heating can be eas ily obtained by using a printed circuit board [18,19]. The printed circuit is ge nerally manufactured by several adjacent thin (down to 5 mm) copper tracks arran ged in a greek fret mode (see Fig. 2) and bound to a breglass substrate. Due to t he high conductivity coef cient of copper, this printed circuit board has an aniso tropic thermal conduction behaviour (along or across the tracks) so that it is n ot possible to evaluate the conductive heat ux by means of the classical Fourier law (5). By still retaining the assumption that Tw is independent of the coordin ate z which is normal to the slab, it is therefore necessary to generalise Eq. ( 5) to take into account this effect: Qk x; y rsx; y Lx; y r T w x; y. (7) To simplify Eq. (7), it is feasible to roughly separate the effect due to the co pper tracks from that of the breglass support. In particular, by choosing a Carte sian coordinate system with its axes directed as the two principal axes of the t hermal conductive tensor L (see Fig. 2), it is possible to split the effects in the directions normal and parallel to the copper tracks [19,20]. In this case, t he total conductive heat ux may be expressed as the sum of two contributions one along the x direction Qkx and the other one Qky along the y-axis: Qk Qkx Qky . ( 8) Fig. 2. Printed circuit board.

ARTICLE IN PRESS T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 267 Bearing in mind the sketch of Fig. 2, it is easy to understand that along the yaxis, the conductive heat ux is the sum of two mechanisms in parallel, one due to the copper tracks and the other one to the breglass support. By considering the mean heat ux, it is obtained: wc sc lc wf sf lf q2 T w Qky wf qy2 g sc lc T w q2 T w sley , qy2 qy2 9

where w indicates width; s thickness; the suf xes c and f are relative to copper a nd to breglass, respectively, and it has been introduced the width parameter g de ne d as wc (10) g . wf In Eq. (9), the quantity sley stands for the equivalent thermal conductance along the y-axis while wf represents also the greek pitch. The phen omenon is slightly more complicated in the direction normal to the copper tracks . In fact, in the copper gap only breglass allows conductive heat transfer while, in the track zone, both materials contribute to it. Therefore, in this case, th e conductive heat transfer can be estimated as due to both a series and a parall el processes: 1 2 1 g g q Tw q2 T w Qkx slex , (11) s f lf s c lc s f lf (sl)ex represents the equivalent conductance along the x-axis. As expected in th e limits g ! 0, or g ! 1, both Eqs. (9) and (11) reduce to the case of an isotropi c material. For the typical case of sc lc =sf lf 17, Fig. 3 shows the equivalent conductances, referred to that of breglass, in both the direction of the Fig. 3. Equivalent thermal conductance (sc lc =sf lf 17).

ARTICLE IN PRESS 268 T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 copper tracks and that normal to them. For g less than 0.8, the equivalent conduc tance in the direction orthogonal to the copper tracks, reduces to less than one fourth of the value relative to g 1. This event may be exploited whenever the pr eferred direction of the spatial temperature gradient is a priori known to reduc e tangential conduction. 4. Application of IRSR to transient techniques As already pointed out, IRSR can be regarded as a two-dimensional array of thin lms. In the transient technique, h owever, the measured temperatures can be correlated to the heat ux by using eithe r the one-dimensional semi-in nite wall model, or the wall calorimeter (Figs. 4 an d 5). In the former case, practically the heat- ux sensor will be anyhow constitut ed by a slab of nite thickness s; hence the thin- lm model may be applicable only f or relatively small measurement times (i.e., there is a lower limit to the frequ encies the sensor gives trustworthy results). On a quantitative basis, if tM is the measuring time, it has to be veri ed: tM o s2 , 2a (12)

where a is the slab thermal diffusivity coef cient. Therefore, for this sensor the boundary condition on the other surface is irrelevant as long as the assumption of semi-in nite wall is valid. By assuming the thin- lm sensor to be isothermal at initial time t 0, a suitable formula to evaluate the heat ux from the measured su rface temperature is [21] # r " Z rcl ft 1 t ft fx p Qc Qr dx , (13) i is the surface temperature difference (T wi being the initial value of the wal l temperature T wi T w 0); r, c and l, are the mass density, the Fig. 4. Thin- lm sensor.

ARTICLE IN PRESS T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 269 Fig. 5. Thin-skin sensor.

speci c heat and the thermal conductivity coef cient of the sensor material, respect ively. Usually, the integral of Eq. (13) is numerically evaluated by using one o f the algorithms accepted for aerospace applications [22]. However, such algorit hms are generally sensitive to temperature measurement errors and one should be very cautious when using them with noisy data and/or when the initial time is no t precisely known. Moreover, the approach based on Eq. (13) needs a relatively h igh data sampling rate and this requirement is not often fully satis ed by standar d IRSRs due to their maximum acquisition frequency typically of the order of 50 Hz. An alternative approach [23], that works much better in these cases, is base d on the assumption that the direct problem yields a certain heat- ux time variati on law, where some free parameters are present. Then such parameters are found s o that the computed temperatures best agree with the experimentally measured tem peratures. The best t may be determined by the ordinary least squares criterion. In the most common case of a constant heat transfer coef cient h and constant refe rence temperature T r , the convective heat transfer rate varies linearly with t he wall over-temperature. Based on the above boundary condition, the solution of the heat diffusion equation in solids can be obtained by Laplace transforms as T w T wi T r T wi 1 eb erf cb (14) p p with b h t= rcl. In the pres and under the assumption that the convective and radiative contributions are unc oupled, Eq. (14) may be modi ed to take into account the radiative correction: Qr . (15) h The least-squares method consists of nding h and Twi (which, to a certai n extent, may be not correctly determined due to inaccuracy on temperature measu rement and/or on starting time) to minimise the function T w T wi T r T wi 1 eb cb 2 2 n X Y j T wj 2 , j1 (16) where Y j is the j-term of the n experimentally measured surface temperature val ues and Twj is the temperature predicted by means of Eq. (15). Both of these tem peratures are evaluated at the same time and at the same location.

ARTICLE IN PRESS 270 T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281

In the case of the wall calorimeter (thin-skin), the sensor, practically a thin plate (Fig. 5), is modelled as an ideal calorimeter (isothermal across its thick ness) which is heated on one surface and thermically insulated on the other one. An unsteady onedimensional energy balance gives dT w , (17) dt where Tw is the sensor temperature. From Newton law, Eq. (3) and by knowing the temperature evol ution (to be measured with the IRSR), it is possible to evaluate the convective heat transfer coef cient. The use of IRSR in the wall calorimeter technique is qui te advantageous because the temperature can be measured on either side of the mo del. As already mentioned, for both thin-skin and thin- lm models, the heat ux with in the sensor is generally assumed to be one-dimensional. This hypothesis is rig orously satis ed only when the temperature over the sensor surface is constant. Ho wever, in many thermo- uid-dynamic phenomenologies, the involved heat ux (and corre spondingly the temperature) varies over the surface. Under the assumption that t he sensor material is isotropic, or (as already done in the previous paragraph) by choosing a cartesian coordinate system with its axes directed as the two prin cipal axes of the thermal conductive tensor, it is possible to split conduction effects in the two tangential directions. For the sake of ease, in the following , it is assumed that the convective heat ux harmonically varies only along one di rection parallel to the sensor surface the extension to any arbitrary convective heat ux being straightforward. A suitable expression for steady convective heat u xes harmonically varying in the x direction is the following: Qc Qr rcs Qc x Qu Q coskx, (18) where Qu represents the steady part of the heat ux, Qh is the amplitud e of its harmonic part, and k 2p=L is the wave number (L being the wavelength). For the two sensors, the response due to a harmonic spatial variation of the hea t ux is given by de Felice et al. [24] in terms of difference between the surface temperature T w x; t at time t and the initial uniform temperature T wi : yx; t T w x; t T wi . For both sensors it results: yx; t Bf Fo coskx, where Fo k at. I otes the thin-skin sensor and suf x m the thin- lm one, it is Bt Qh =lk2 s; Bm Qh =l t 1 exp Fo, p f m erf Fo, (20) (21) 2 (19) where s is the thickness of the thin-skin sensor. Eq. (19) states that, in both cases, there is no phase difference between the incident harmonic heat ux and the surface temperature response. The maximum

ARTICLE IN PRESS T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 271 amplitudes, obtained for Fo ! 1, are Bt and Bm , respectively. For nite values of Fo, they are reduced by the attenuation factors f t and f m , respectively. To correct the measured temperatures so as to take into account the tangential cond uction effects, it is convenient to evaluate the ratio between the temperature a mplitude B f(Fo) (as given by Eqs. (20) and (21)) and that corresponding to the same value of Qh but in absence of tangential conduction (which is given by the classical one-dimensional solutions). By de ning this ratio as temperature amplitu de transfer function (A), for the two models it results: At and p p p erf Fo p exp Fo Fo (22) The amplitude of each harmonic component of the measured temperature may be thus corrected and the corresponding harmonic component of the heat ux can be evaluat ed by using the classical one-dimensional formulae. Af and Am are plotted as a f unction of the Fouriers number in Fig. 6 which shows that the thin- lm sensor has t o be generally preferred to the thin-skin one because of its lower modulation of temperature amplitude. However, being s=L51, the ratio of the temperature maxim um amplitude is favourable to the thin-skin sensor. Fig. 6. Temperature amplitude transfer function.

ARTICLE IN PRESS 272 T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 5. Applications In the following, the heat transfer in three different uid ow con gu rations are analysed by means of infrared thermography by using both the steadystate heatedthin-foil sensor and the unsteady thin- lm one. With the former sensor a circular cylinder in a wind tunnel and a 1801 turn channel with and without V rib turbulators (i.e. an external ow and an internal one) are investigated, whil e the thin- lm sensor has been applied to the study of the shock wave/boundary lay er interaction on a at plate with a ramp in a high enthalpy hypersonic wind tunne l. 5.1. Circular cylinder Cylindrical bodies with circular cross section placed in a longitudinal ow are found in many engineering applications; the ow eld around them is characterised by different types and extent of ow separation and reattach ment according to the geometry of the cylinder upstream end and of the angle of attack of their axis relative to the incoming ow. The tested longitudinal cylinde r has an outer diameter D 40 mm, an overall streamwise length of 300 mm and its lateral surface is made out of a printed circuit board (bonded to a breglass laye r) so as to generate a constant Joule heat ux over it. The copper conducting trac ks of the printed circuit are 35 mm thick, 3 mm wide, placed at 4 mm pitch and a ligned perpendicularly to the cylinder axis. Two different con gurations of the cy linder leading edge (nose) are tested: a sharp edge bluff nose and a hemispheric al (round) blunt one. Tests are performed in an open circuit wind tunnel having a 300 400 mm2 rectangular test section which is 1.1 m long. The freestream turbu lence intensity of the tunnel is quite low and lies in the range 0.080.12% depend ing on the testing conditions. The access window for the infrared camera to the test section of the wind tunnel is made of bioriented polyethylene; calibration of the radiometer takes into account its presence. The convective heat transfer coef cient is calculated by means of Eq. (6), where, because of the stream low Mac h number, the adiabatic wall temperature is assumed to coincide with the free st ream temperature T aw T 1 . Tests are carried out for varying the Reynolds numbe r Re (based on the diameter of the cylinder D and on the freestream velocity V 1 ) from 26,000 to 89,000 and the angle of attack of the cylinder axis with respe ct to the oncoming ow g from 01 to 101. In order to measure temperatures in the w hole heated zone and to account for the directional emissivity coef cient, three t hermal images in the azimuthal direction are taken and patched up. In particular , to reduce the measurement noise, each image is obtained by averaging 32 thermo grams in a time sequence. It has to be noted that, due to the end-conduction eff ects near the forebody, the portion of the cylinder for which the infrared camer a gives reliable data actually starts at x=D 0:2 (x being the coordinate along t he cylinder axis) and data are reported up to x=D 5. This zone is precisely iden ti ed by putting markers over the cylinder surface, which are useful also to patch up the various thermal images.

ARTICLE IN PRESS T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 273 The ow eld around a cylindrical body is characterised by separation and reattachme nt of the ow, which can be inferred from the distribution of the heat transfer co ef cients. The heat transfer coef cients are computed in non-dimensional form in ter ms of the Nusselt number Nu based on cylinder diameter. It must be remembered th at, as proved by Sparrow et al. [25], the location of the maximum Nu does not ex actly coincide with that of ow reattachment; however, the position of the maximum Nu can be considered to determine the length of the thermal separation bubble [ 26]. For g 01 the maximum Nu value is positioned at x=D 1:621:7 for the sharp le ading edge and does not depend on Re. Instead for the round nose, the maximum Nu value position depends strongly on Re since it moves from x=D 0:3 to 0.7 as Re decreases from 89,000 to 26,000. Results of the present investigation con rm the a ssertions of Carlomagno [27,28] about the fundamental role played by the freestr eam turbulence level for the formation of the leading edge separation bubble. As g increases from 01 to 101, for both con gurations (sharp and round), the maximum Nu moves upstream on the windward side while it remains quite in the same posit ion on the leeward one. For Re 71; 000 and g 101 some of the obtained data are p resented in terms of Nu isocontours in Fig. 7 for the sharp edge and in Fig. 8 f or the round nose. As it can be seen in Fig. 7 (sharp edged cylinder), the separ ation bubble appears shorter on the windward side, with respect to that on the l eeward one, and at reattachment the Nusselt number assumes also higher values. O n the contrary, for the round nosed cylinder (Fig. 8) two thermal reattachment p oints are present on the leeward side. A likely explanation for this is that the separation bubble disappears on the windward side giving rise to the formation of two vortices, which can be assumed to coincide with the saddle points observe d by Peake and Tobak [29] on either side of the nodal separation point on the le eward side. Fig. 7. Nu isocontours for sharp-edged cylinder, Re 71; 000, g 101.

ARTICLE IN PRESS 274 T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 Fig. 8. Nu isocontours for round-nosed cylinder, Re 71; 000, g 101. Another feature, more evident for the round nose cylinder, is the appearance of a low heat transfer region on the cylinder sides. The latter, by increasing the angle of attack, moves upstream simultaneously becoming sharper and enhancing th e three-dimensionality of the ow. This region is presumably connected with the fa ct that the increasingly intense cross- ow leads rst to instabilities of the bounda ry layer, and eventually to the separation from the sides of the cylinder of dom inating longitudinal vertical structures, similar to those described by Peake an d Tobak [29]. 5.2. The 1801 turn channel with and without V ribs This ow con gurati on is often encountered inside turbine blades for cooling purposes. Really rib t urbulators are often also used in the design of heat exchanger channels in order to enhance the convective heat transfer rate and thus allowing to both reducing the overall exchanger dimensions and to increase ef ciency. In 1801 turn channels , the ow is quite complex due to the various separations and reattachments of the ow and this behaviour it is further enhanced in the presence of rib turbulators. A two-pass channel of square cross-section 80 80 mm2 and 2000 mm long before th e turn is tested; these dimensions guarantee a hydro-dynamically fully developed ow ahead of the 1801 turn. The central partition wall between the two adjacent d ucts is 16 mm thick and ends with a square tip 80 mm distant from the short end wall of the channel. The two side walls of the channels are heated by means of t hree printed circuit boards and square rib turbulators (8 mm in side), made of a luminium (to have a high thermal conductance), are glued to them. Ribs have a V shape, with an angle of 451 with respect to the duct axis, have their apex point ing downstream and are placed at a rib-pitch to rib-side ratio P/e of either 10 or 20. Further details about the experimental apparatus can be found in [30].

ARTICLE IN PRESS T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 275 The heat transfer coef cient is calculated by means of Eq. (6) where Tr coincides with the local bulk temperature Tb which is evaluated by measuring the stagnatio n temperature at the channel entrance and by making a one-dimensional energy bal ance along the channel. Data are reduced in non-dimensional form in terms of the Nusselt number normalised by its fully developed counterpart Nu (DittusBoelter co rrelation [31]). Both the Nusselt number Nu and the Reynolds number Re are based on the channel hydraulic diameter. For the smooth channel and Re 30; 000, the d istribution of the local Nu=Nu in the vicinity of the turn, is reported in Fig. 9 a. Air enters the channel from the lower duct and leaves from the upper one. By moving streamwise along the channel, the ratio Nu=Nu increases around the turn an d downstream of it because of the presence of secondary ows. Three relatively hig h heat transfer regions may be recognised: the rst one is located by the end wall (in front of the partition wall towards the rst outer corner) and is caused by t he jet coming from the rst duct which impinges on this wall; the second one is lo cated at the outer wall downstream of the second corner and is due to the jet ef fect of the ow through the bend; the third one is located at about the half part of the partition wall, downstream of the second inner corner, where the ow reboun ding from the outer wall, impinges before exhausting. The second zone attains Nu =Nu values much greater than the other two due to the presence of strong secondar y ows already found by Arts et al. [32]. Two relatively low heat transfer zones a re also observed, one just before the rst corner of the outer wall and the other one in the neighbourhood of the tip of the partition wall; these zones constitut e evidence for the existence of recirculation patterns. The overall increase of the convective heat transfer coef cient due to the presence of ribs is clearly evi dent from Fig. 9b and c, where Nu=Nu are shown for the two tested rib-pitch to ri b-side ratios P/e. In all the Nu maps ribs are clearly visible due to the higher heat transfer rate that occurs on them. For both dimensionless pitches, the the rmal pattern before the turn appears to be repetitive (in a sense, the ow could b e considered as thermally fully developed). For example, in Fig. 9c, the shape a nd levels of the contour lines after the rst three ribs of the inlet duct are pra ctically identical. Instead, some differences due to some measurements edge effe cts are found at the duct entrance. The secondary ows induced by the V-shaped rib s have the form of two pair of counter rotating cells and produce variations in the spanwise Nusselt number distribution both in the inlet and in the outlet cha nnel by decreasing the convective heat transfer coef cient towards the channel axi s with respect to that nearby the walls. Especially in the inlet duct, the reatt achment line downstream of the ribs can be identi ed by the locus of the normalise d Nusselt number local maxima when moving in the mean streamwise direction. The reattachment distance, which increases for the higher rib pitch, appears also to increase going from the walls towards the channel axis and this is most likely due to the interaction of the main ow with the secondary one. In the proximity of the rst external corner, it is possible to see a low heat transfer zone, due to a recirculation bubble as already observed for the smooth channel. Just

ARTICLE IN PRESS 276 T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 Fig. 9. Normalised Nusselt number isocontours for Re 30; 000. (a) Smooth, (b) P= e 20, (c) P=e 10. after the last rib and in proximity of the partition wall, the interaction betwe en the secondary ow and the sharp turn produces a high heat transfer zone that te nds to shift downstream for increasing pitch.

ARTICLE IN PRESS T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 277 For both pitches, the overall increase of the turbulence due to the bend induces higher values of the normalised Nusselt number in the outlet duct but the perce ntage increase is quite lower than what occurring in the smooth channel. 5.3. Sh ock-wave/boundary-layer interaction The development of hypersonic vehicles has r enewed the attention on the problem of viscous inviscid ow interactions and, in p articular, on shock-wave/boundarylayer interaction phenomena that are of great p ractical importance for air-breathing engine inlets, wing/body junctures and de ec ted control surfaces. Prediction of thermal and dynamic loads on surfaces expose d to hypersonic ows is an essential prerequisite for the effective design of aero dynamic control surfaces and of thermal protection system of modern space vehicl es in their trans-atmospheric ight portion. Measurements presented in this sectio n refer to shock wave-boundary layer interaction in a two-dimensional hypersonic ow over a model consisting of a at plate followed by a compression ramp (wedge) w ith its hinge line parallel to the models leading edge. The model surface is real ised with two separate MACORTM plates screwed onto aluminium supports. The model spanwise dimension is 100 mm. The hinge line is positioned at 50 mm from the le ading edge and the ramp angle is 151. MACORTM was chosen as the model surface ma terial for its low thermal conductivity, as required in connection with the use of thin lm model. Experimental tests have been carried out in Centrospazio high-e nthalpy archeated tunnel (HEAT) [33,34] that is capable of producing Mach 6 ows w ith a speci c total enthalpy up to 2.5 MJ/kg on an effective test section 60 mm in diameter, in the low to medium Reynolds number range (104106). The tunnel operat es in a pulsed, quasi-steady mode, with running time ranging from 50 to 200 ms. HEAT facility mainly consists of an arc gas heater and a contoured expansion noz zle, installed in a vacuum chamber volume of 4.1 m3; auxiliary systems are tted t o the arc heater to provide it with working uid and energy. Four rotary pumps eva cuate the chamber until an ultimate pressure of 10 Pa is reached before each run . This vacuum level allows an under-expanded hypersonic ow- eld to be maintained at the nozzle exit for a running time longer than 200 ms. IR camera used during th e test was FLIR SC 3000 and acquisition frame frequencies was 60 Hz for ow visual isation and 300 Hz for heat- ux measurements. A thermal map recorded about 80 ms a fter the starting of wind tunnel is reported in Fig. 10. The temperature distrib ution is almost bidimensional only near the model leading edge (the ow comes from left to right). Moving downwind, the continuous decrease of wall temperature, i ndicates the development of the boundary layer. Near the hinge line is clearly v isible a region where the temperature attains a minimum that is due to the prese nce of a separation region in the ow. Moving along the symmetry axis after the hi nge line the temperature reaches a maximum that is to be correlated to the ow rea ttachment on the ramp. If one considers that, in a rst approximation, the potenti al core may be assimilated to a cone emerging from the nozzle exit (the cone hei ght being

ARTICLE IN PRESS 278 T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 Fig. 10. Temperature map (in 1C) recorded on model surface after 80 ms from tunn el starting. Total enthalpy: 2.3 MJ/kg; stagnation pressure: 4.6 bar. Fig. 11. Stanton number pro le on symmetry axis. Total enthalpy: 1.8 MJ/kg; stagna tion pressure: 6 bar. determined by the expansion fan angle at the nozzle exit, ideally starting at ar csin (1/ M)), the intersection of this cone with model surface is clearly visibl e on the thermal map. The measured temperature time histories are used to comput e heat ux with thin lm model described in Section 4. In this case, it was not possi ble to use the alternative approach proposed in [23] because during the rst 30 ms of test run the total enthalpy (and therefore the reference temperature) is not constant. For two typical runs, in Fig. 11 the heat ux along the symmetry axis i s presented in non-dimensional form by means of the Stanton number based on the adiabatic wall temperature computed by means of the recovery factor for laminar boundary layer ow [23]. Experimental data are also compared with the classical at plate boundary layer analytical solution [35]. The results show a good agreement with theoretical solution on the at plate. Near the hinge line (X 50 mm) the pre sence of a separation region is clearly identi ed from the minimum of the Stanton number distribution. The

ARTICLE IN PRESS T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 279 entity of the heat iterature. ux at reattachment is in good agreement with data present in l

6. Conclusions The application of infrared thermography as an optical method in heat transfer and uid ow visualisation is analysed. The heat- ux sensors, which are normally used for the measurements of convective heat transfer coef cients, and th e application of the infrared scanning radiometer as a temperature measuring dev ice are critically reviewed. In particular, the corrections of the errors associ ated with tangential conduction along the sensor are investigated for the heated -thin-foil, the thin- lm and the wall calorimeter sensors. The heated-thin-foil he at ux sensor coupled with measurement of surface temperature by IR thermography i s used to measure the convective heat transfer coef cient on two ow elds: a circular cylinder at an angle of attack and a 1801 turn channel with and without rib turb ulators. Furthermore the thin- lm sensor has been applied to the study of the shoc k wave/boundary layer interaction in a at plate with a ramp in a high enthalpy hy personic wind tunnel. For the circular cylinder, in order to measure temperature s, in the whole heated zone and to account for the directional emissivity coef cie nt, three thermal images in the azimuthal direction are taken and patched up. Fo r the sharp edge cylinder and an angle of attack of 101, the separation bubble a ppears shorter on the windward side, with respect to that on the leeward one, an d at reattachment the Nusselt number assumes also higher values. On the contrary , for the round nosed cylinder two thermal reattachment points are present on th e leeward side, while no reattachment is evident at the windward one. In the inl et zone, ribbed channels show spanwise variations of the heat transfer maps beca use of the presence of secondary ows. For both tested rib pitches, the overall in crease of turbulence due to the bend induces higher values of the normalised Nus selt number, but, in the outlet duct, the percentage increase is lower than that relative to a smooth channel because of the rib already induced turbulence. Thi s should decrease the thermal stresses in the turbine blade. Shock-wave/boundary -layer interaction phenomena in high enthalpy hypersonic ows has been studied by means of heat- ux measurement performed by IR thermography coupled with thin- lm sen sor. The use of IR thermography demonstrate that the ow condition are two dimensi onal only geometrically. However, on the symmetry axis the IR quantitative measu rements are in good agreement with literature data. References [1] Gardon R. A transducer for the measurement of heat ow rate. Trans J Heat Tran sfer 1960;82:3968. [2] Vidal RJ. Transient surface temperature measurements. CAL Rep 1962;114:155.

ARTICLE IN PRESS 280 T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 [3] Scott CJ. Transient experimental techniques for surface heat ux rates. Measur ements Techniques in Heat Transfer, AGARDograph, Vol. 130, 1970. p. 30928. [4] Wi lleke K, Bershader D. An improved thin- lm gauge for shock-tube thermal studies. R ev Sci Instrum 1973;44:225. [5] Baines DJ. Selecting unsteady heat ux sensors. Ins trum Control Syst 1972:803. [6] Thompson WP. Heat transfer gages. In: Marton L, M arton C, editors. Methods of experimental physics, vol. 18B. New York: Academic; 1981. p. 66385. [7] Balageas DL, Boscher DM, Deom AA, Fournier J, Gardette G. Me asurement of convective heattransfer coef cients in wind tunnels using passive and stimulated infrared thermography. Rech Aerosp 1991;4:5172. [8] Carlomagno GM. Th ermo- uid-dynamics applications of quantitative infrared thermography. J Flow Visu alization Image Process 1997;4:26180. [9] De Luca L, Cardone G, Carlomagno GM, Ay mer D, Alziary T. Flow visualization and heat transfer measurements in hypersoni c wind tunnel. Exp Heat Transfer 1992;5:6579. [10] Nortershauser D, Millan P. Res olution of a three-dimensional unsteady inverse problem by sequential method usi ng parameter reduction and infrared thermography measurements. Numer Heat Transf er Part A 2000;37:587611. [11] Shapiro AH. The dynamics and thermodynamics of com pressible uid ow, Vols. I and II. New York: Ronald Press; 1954. [12] Zucrow MJ, Ho ffman JD. Gas dynamics, vols. I and II. New York: Wiley; 1976. [13] Owczareck JA . Gas dynamics. International Textbook Company; 1964. [14] Meola C, de Luca L, C arlomagno GM. In uence of shear layer dynamics on impingement heat transfer. Exp T hermal Fluid Sci 1996;13:2937. [15] Kays WM, Crawford ME. Convective heat and mas s transfer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1993. [16] Perry JH. Chemical engineers handbo ok. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1963. [17] Kakac S, Shah RK, Aung W. Handbook of sing le phase ow convective heat transfer. New York: Wiley; 1987. [18] Cardone G, Asta rita T, Carlomagno GM. Heat transfer measurements on a rotating disk in still ai r. Proceedings of Flucome94, Toulouse. Vol. 2, 1994. p. 77580. [19] Astarita T. Al cuni aspetti di scambio termico nelle turbine a gas, PhD thesis. University of N aples, 1996. [20] Astarita T, Cardone G. Thermo uidynamic analysis of the ow near a sharp 1801 turn channel. Exp Thermal Fluid Sci 2000;20:188200. [21] Baines DJ. S electing unsteady heat ux sensors. Instr Control Syst 1972:803. [22] Cook WJ, Feld erman EJ. Reduction of data from thin- lm heat-transfer gages: a concise numerical technique. AIAA J 1966;4:5612. [23] de Luca L, Cardone G, Aymer de la Chevalerie D, Fonteneau A. Experimental analysis of viscous interaction in hypersonic wedg e ow. AIAA J 1995;33(12):22938. [24] de Felice G, de Luca L, Carlomagno GM. La mis ura dei ussi termici convettivi nel caso di distribuzioni non uniformi. Proceedin gs of the VII congr Naz UIT, Firenze. 1989. p. 5919. [25] Sparrow EM, Kang SS, Ch uck W. Relation between the points of ow reattachment and maximum heat transfer f or regions of ow separation. Int J Heat Mass Transfer 1987;30:123746. [26] Cardone G, Buresti G, Carlomagno GM. Heat transfer to air from a yawed circular cylinde r. In: Nakayama Y, Tanida Y, editors. Atlas of visualization III. Boca Raton, FL : CRC Press; 1997. p. 15368 [Chapter 10]. [27] Carlomagno GM. Heat transfer measu rements and ow visualization performed by means of infrared thermography. In: Di Marco P, editor. Proceedings of eurotherm seminar 46. Heat transfer in single ph ase ows, Vol. 4. Pisa; 1995. p. 4552. [28] Carlomagno GM. Quantitative infrared th ermography in heat and uid ow. Optical methods and data processing in heat and uid o w. IMechE Conference Transactions. Vol. 3. London; 1996. p. 27990. [29] Peake DJ, Tobak M. Three-dimensional ows about simple components at angle of attack. AGARD -LS-121, Paper 2, 1982.

ARTICLE IN PRESS T. Astarita et al. / Optics and Lasers in Engineering 44 (2006) 261281 281 [30] Astarita T, Cardone G, Carlomagno GM. Convective heat transfer in ribbed ch annels with a 1801 turn. Exp Fluids 2002;33:90100. [31] Dittus PW, Boelter LMK. H eat transfer in automobile radiators of the tubular type. Univ Calif Pub Eng 193 0;2(13):44361 (reprinted in Int J Comm Heat Mass Transfer 1985;12:322). [32] Arts T, Lambert de Rouvroit M, Rau G, Acton P. Aero-thermal investigation of the ow de veloping in a 180 degree turn channel. Proceedings of the International Symposiu m on Heat Transfer in Turbomachinery. Athens, 1992. [33] Scortecci F, Paganucci F, dAgostino L, Andrenucci M. A new hypersonic high enthalpy wind tunnel. The 33r d joint propulsion conference, AIAA 97-3017. Seattle, 1997. [34] Scortecci F, Pa ganucci F, Biagioni L. Development of a pulsed arc-heater for a hypersonic high enthalpy wind tunnel. The 33rd joint propulsion conference. AIAA 97-3016, Seattl e, 1997. [35] Simeonides G. Hypersonic shock wave boundary layer interactions ov er compression corners. PhD thesis, Dip of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Eng ineering, University of Bristol, 1992.

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