Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 56

Science

Class Sixth: S.No Topics Description 1 Earth Spherical in Shape. 2 Evaporation The Process of
Class Sixth:
S.No
Topics
Description
1
Earth
Spherical in Shape.
2
Evaporation
The Process of Conversion of Water into Water
vapour .
3
Water Cycle
Process of circulation of water to water vapour then
clouds
and again rain is called water cycle
4
Plants
Plants use
carbon-di-oxide
present in the air and
sunlight in preparing their food.
5
Principle of pendulum
Galileo Galeli
6
Solid
The particles in a solid are packed very closely to
each other and are held together by strong attractive
forces.
7
Liquid
The particles in a liquid are not very close
to each other.
8
Gas
The fundamental particles in a gas are held together
by weak forces of attraction.
9
Solubility
Sugar-Solute
Water – Solvent
Sugar +Water = Sugar Solution
10
Alcohol
Alcohol is Completely soluble in Water.
11
Oil
Oil is insoluble in Water.
12
Soda Water
Consists of dissolved Carbon-di-oxide.
13
Hydrogen and Nitrogen
Insoluble in Water.
14
Paints
Insoluble in Water and Soluble in Kerosene.
15
Melting
The transformation of a solid matter into liquid
when heated is called melting.
16
Sublimation
Certain solids when heated, are converted to vapour
state without passing through the liquid state. This
is called sublimation.
Naphthalene, Benzoic Acid, Iodine and Ammonium
Chloride.
17
Condensation
The change of state from vapour into liquid by
cooling is called condensation.
18
Freezing
The transformation of a liquid into solid due to
cooling is called freezing.

19

Mercury[Thermometers]

 

Good Conductor of heat.

20

Metals

Good conductors of electricity.

21

Opaque Materials

Paper, Metal Sheet, Wall and Wood. Light cannot pass through them.

22

Opaque and Transparent

 

The materials which allow the light to pass through them are called as transparent and those which do not allow the light are called as opaque.

23

Water

Boiling Point – 100 deg Cel. Freezing Point – 0 deg Cel. Density – 1g/cc.

24

Sedimentation

The process of settling down of insoluble particles in a suspension is called sedimentation.

25

Decantation

The process of transferring the clear liquid standing above the sediment carefully into another container using a glass rod is called decantation.

26

Crystal

Copper Sulphate.

27

Boiling point

Boiling point of a liquid is defined as the temp. at which the vapour pressure of the liquid is equal to the atmospheric pressure.

28

Melting point or Freezing Point

Melting point and freezing point of a substance are one and the same.

29

Rusting (Chemical Change)

 

When an iron lock is exposed to moist air for several days, the iron on its surface is converted into Iron oxide (rust).

 
 

30

Carbon – di – Oxide

 

Carbon-di-oxide reflects the radiation from the

 

Combustion of Fuels. [Plant more trees].

 

Earth and increases the temperature of the Earth.

 
 

31

Fermentation Process

 
31 Fermentation Process    
 

[Chemical Change]

 
 

32

Exothermic Changes

 

Energy is released in the form of heat. Burning of fuels like Diesel, petrol , wood etc,. Lighting of Match Stick.

33

Endothermic Changes

 

Energy is absorbed in the form of heat. Melting of ice. Evaporation of Sea water.

34

Speed(m/s)

34 Speed(m/s)

35

Velocity(m/s)

35 Velocity(m/s)

36

Force (N)

Unit = Newton

37

Pressure (N/m2 or Pascal)

 
37 Pressure (N/m2 or Pascal)  

38

Solar Cells

Solar cells convert light energy into electricity.

Solar cells are used in satellites and space station to produce electricity.

39

Power

Coal – Thermal, Water – Hydro, Uranium Atom – Nuclear Power. Hydro Electric Power - Mettur and Papanasam. Thermal Power Station – Neyveli and Tuticorin. Windmill – Aralvaimozhi. Atomic Power Station – Kalpakkam . Koodangulam – Under Construction.

Class Seven:

Kalpakkam . Koodangulam – Under Construction. Class Seven:
Kalpakkam . Koodangulam – Under Construction. Class Seven:

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 Fresh Water

1 Fresh Water 2 Steam 537 cal/g Only 3% of the water in the earth is

2 Steam 537 cal/g

Only 3% of the water in the earth is fresh.

Has highest latent heat of vapourisation.

3 Ice 79.7 cal/g

Has highest latent heat of fusion.

Water is a Universal Solvent.

4 Biogas Plants Cow dung is converted into biogas. Cooking and Illumination purposes. Slurry –
4 Biogas Plants
Cow dung is converted into biogas.
Cooking and Illumination purposes.
Slurry – Rich Manure.
5 Seawater
Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium.
6
Elements
Building Blocks of materials.
7
Radio active elements – 30
Emits harmful radiations.
8
Atom [ Protons, Electrons, Neutrons -
Smallest unit of an element.
PEN]
9 Diatomic Molecule Hydrogen(H2), Oxygen(O2), Chlorine(Cl2) 10 Triatomic Molecule Ozone Molecule(O3) contains three
9
Diatomic Molecule
Hydrogen(H2), Oxygen(O2), Chlorine(Cl2)
10
Triatomic Molecule
Ozone Molecule(O3) contains three molecules of
oxygen.
11
Polyatomic Molecule
Sulphur molecule(S8) Contains 8 molecules of
sulphur atom.
12
Compounds
Carbon di oxide – Carbon and Oxygen
Water – Hydrogen and Oxygen.
Haemoglobin – Compound of Iron.
13
Chlorophyll
Compound of Magnesium.
14
Calcium Phosphate
Present in Bones and Teeth. Compound of Calcium.
15
Sodium Chloride
Used for the preparation of Hydrochloric Acid.
Useful as chemical in Chemical industries.
16
Dyes
Colouring the threads, fabric, Wood etc.,
17
NPK[Fertilizer]
Contains Ammonium Nitrate, Ammonium
Sulphate, Ammonium Phosphate and Potassium
Chloride.
18
Cooking gas
Butane and Pentane.
19
Acid
Acid is a substance which gives hydrogen ions
when dissolved in Water (or) Acid is a substance
which contains replaceable hydrogen ions.(H+)
20 Soda Water Contains Carbonic Acid. 21 Litmus Paper Acid turns litmus paper into Red
20
Soda Water
Contains Carbonic Acid.
21
Litmus Paper
Acid turns litmus paper into Red Colour.
22
Alkalies [Skin Irritation and Burns]
Bases which are soluble in water are called alkalies.
23
Chalk Piece
Calcium Carbonate.
24
Potash Alum
Purification of Water.
25
Sodium Benzoate
Food Preservative.

26

 

Siver Nitrate

   

Hair Dyes.

27

 

Bordeaux Mixture

   

Copper Sulphate + Lime.

 

28

 

Plaster of Paris[ Hydrated Calcium

   

Surgical Bandage.

 

Sulphate]

   

29

 

Epsom Salt

   

Laxative by Patients suffering from constipation.

30

 

Smelling Salt

   

Relieve from cold.

31

 

Photography

   

Silver Nitrate, Silver Bromide, Sodium

 
 

Thiosulphate(Hypo) are used in photography.

 

32

 

Fire Works

   

Potassium Nitrate.

33

 

Gun Powder

   

Sodium Nitrate.

34

 

Potash Alum

   

Tanning of leather, Sizing Paper and used as a mordant.

 

35

 

Match Industry

   

Potassium Chlorate.

 

36

 

Dying and Printing Industry Electro Plating

   

Copper Sulphate.

37

 

Heat

 

It is measured in terms of Calories or Joules.

 
 
 

38

 

Fuels

 

Materials which produce heat when burnt are called fuels.

 
 

39

 

Thermometer [Contains Mercury – Thermal Expansion]

   

It is a device used to measure the warmth of the body.

40

 

Temparature

   

Temparature is measured in degree Celsius and S.I unit is Kelvin.

41

 

Heat

 

It is the internal energy of the substance. By adding

 

or removing the temperature of the substance is increased are reduced.

42

Thermal Expansion [Solid, Liquid, and Gas – Expands]

Expansion of an object due to heat is called thermal expansion.

43

Bi-metal Strips

Used to control temperature in Iron Box, Electric Stove, Refrigerator and Geyser.

 

44

Anamalous expansion of water

Aquatic animals in the frozen ponds survive in severe winter.

45

Human body – Normal temperature

98.6 deg farenheit / 37 deg Celsius.

46

Milk – Boil

To kill harmful bacteria.

 

47

Refrigerator – Food Storage

Due to cold conditions germs cannot multiply.

48

Polar regions

Plant – Lichens. Animals- Plar beer, Rein deer, Polar pig.

49

Volatile liquids

Spirit, Ether, Alcohol, Diesel, Petrol and kerosene.

50

Calorie and Joule

1 Calorie – 4.2 Joule 1000 – 4200 Joule.

 

51

Water – Coolant used in Car radiators,Industries, factories and thermal power stations,Steel mills.

It absorbs the heat produced by automobile engines, but by itself will not rise to high temperature.

52

Transfer of hear

Conduction, Convection, and Radiation.

53

Radiation

It does not require any medium. Earth receives heat from the sun by radiation.

 

White or light coloured cloth

– Absorb less heat –

Used in summer.

 

Black or Dark coloured cloth

– Absorb more heat –

Used in winter.

 

Cooking Utensils

– Base – Black Coating – Absorb

more heat.

Tankers
Tankers

- Painted white – To reflect the suns

radiation.

 

54

Conductors Iron, Copper, Aluminium, Mercury and Silver.

Solids which allow the heat to pass through.

55

Insulators [Wood, Glass, Rubber, Leather, Plastic, Mica, Stone, Marble and Thermocole.]

Materilas which do not allow the heat to pass through.

56

Thermos Flask

It prevents Conduction, Convection and Radiation.

57

Light

Travels in a straight line.

 

58

Velocity of Light [ Air or Vaccum]

 

3*10Power8 / 3,00,000 Km/S.

 

59

Reflection of Light

When a beam of light falls on a Plane mirror, it is sent back into the medium from where it came and it is called reflection of light.

60

Plane mirrors

Periscopes Kaleidoscope. Homes and Shops.

61

Convex Mirror

Only forms a virtual image. Drivers mirror in

 

vehicles.

62

Sound

Sound is produced by vibrations Caused by an object.

 

63

Producing the sound

 

Plucking – Guitar, Tambura etc., Blowing – Flute, Nadaswaram etc., Striking – Drums, Tabala, Thavil etc., Bowing – Violin

 

63

Frequency [No.of vibrations produced in One sec. by vibrating body]

Unit of frequency – Hertz.

 

64

Amplitude(metre – m)

 

Maximum displacement of the vibrating body.

 

65

Audible frequency Range- Human ear

20 HZ to 20000 HZ.

 
 

Babys Cry – 3000HZ – 4000HZ

 

66

Sounds

Below 20HZ –

Infrasonics

– Earthquake

 
 

Above 20000 HZ –

Ultrasonics

– Bats and Dogs

Bats – Above 70000HZ.

 

67

Speak – Humans

 

Voice box or Larnyx

helps to speak. It consists of

 

two elastic membranes called

vocal cords

.(VC)

Boys – VC are large and produce low-pitched sound. Girls – VC are small and high-pitched sound.

 

68

Sound – To travel [You cannot hear sound on the moon. No medium is present]

Sound needs a medium to travel.Sound Cannot

 

travel in Vaccum.

 
 

69

Sound Waves

 

Sound Waves are

longitudinal in nature.

   
 
 

70

Velocity of Sound(m/s) [Vel of Sound is larger in solids and liquids than in gases]

Distance travelled by the sound waves in one second. Air = 340m/s.

 

71

Sound is also reflected.

 

Plane Surface – Angle of Incidence(i) is equal to angle of reflection.(r)

72

SONAR

 

Sound Navigation and Ranging.

 

Principle –

 

Reflection of sound Waves.

Measure the

depth of the sea

.

 
 
73 Bats and Whales. Able to detect not only the direction but also the exact
73
Bats and Whales.
Able to detect not only the direction but
also the exact location of the obstacles in
their path.
Ships Siren - Icebergs
74
Lightening and Thunder
See Lightening first and Hear Thunder later.
75
Lightening
[75%- Electrical energy is used for heating
up the atmospheric gases in and around the
flash].
Thunder
Atmospheric air is continuously ionized by the
ultraviolet rays from the sun and the cosmic rays.
When the water droplets of the cloud falls in this
electric field region, they get charged.
Heavier droplets – neg. Charge – Base of the cloud.
Lighter droplets – Pos. charge – Top of the cloud.
A discharge takes place between the charged
surfaces of the same cloud or between the clouds
when they pass one over the other. The flash
produced by the discharge is called the
“Lightening”.
76
Music
The waves are periodic and Spaced out in an
orderly manner.
77
Noise
Non periodic and unpleasant to hear.
78
Electrostatics
Study of electric charges at rest is called
electrostatics.
79
Conductors
Allows charges to pass through.
Metals, Human body, Graphite, Charcoal etc,
80
Insulators
Does not allow charges to pass through.
Mica, Plastic, Ebonite, glass etc.,
81
Atom
[No of Protons = No. of Electrons / Atom
as whole neutral in nature].
Protons – Positive Charge
Electrons – Negative Charge
Neutron – Neutral Charges.
82
Force
Two like charges – Repulsive.
Two unlike charges – Attractive.
83
Polythene rubbed on wool
Charging by friction
84
Lightening Rods
Protect high rise buildings from the lightening
strokes.
85
Electroscope
Detect the presence , nature and quantity of electric
charge.
86
Charges
Charges escapes readily from sharp edges.
----
-----------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------
Class Eight:
1
Earth
The axis of rotation of earth with respect orbital
plane inclined about 23.5 degree.
2
ISRO - Bangalore
Indian space research organization was setup at
1969.
INSAT – Indian national satellite.
IRS – Indian Remote Sensing Satellite.
PSLV – Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle. GSLV – Geosynchronous Launch Vehicle. 3 SHAR Sathish Dawan
PSLV – Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.
GSLV – Geosynchronous Launch Vehicle.
3
SHAR
Sathish Dawan Space Center – Sriharikota. –
Andhrapradesh.
4
METSAT
Weather Monitoring.
5
Hydrostatics
Equilibrium of fluids.
6
Thrust and Pressure
[The pressure of liquid increases with the
depth].
[Liquid having more density exerts more
pressure.]
The force that is acting perpendicular to the entire
area.
Unit of thrust – Newton.
Thrust acting normally on unit area.
Unit of Pressure – Nm-2
7
Barometer [ Aneroid / Fortins]
[Torcelli – 1 st measured the at.p]
Used to measure the atmospheric Pressure.
8
Manometer
Used to measure the pressure of liquid or gas
Contained in a vessel.
9
Archimedis Principle
Principle used in Submarines.

10

Flotation

1.The weight of the floating body is equal to the weight of the water displaced. 2.The centre of gravity of the floating body and the centre of gravity of the displaced liquid[Centre of buyoyancy] lie in the same vertical line.

11

Plimsoll Lines

– Historical sailor

Lines that are marked on the sides of the ship to ensure the stability and safety of the ship.

Captain Plimsoll.

12

Hydrometer

To determine the specific gravity of the liquid and hence its density.

13

Layers of Atmosphere:

 
and hence its density. 13 Layers of Atmosphere:   14 Temparature 1 Km increase in height

14

Temparature

1 Km increase in height – 6 deg Celsius fall in temp.

15

Presence of Co2 in air.

Carbondi oxide turns lime water milky.

16

Fractional distillation

It is the technique used for the separation of the different gases of air.

17

Carbon-di- oxide. [Green House Effect Avg. temp. of earth increases – Global Warming.]

Co2 in the atmosphere absorbs infrared radiations reflected from the surface of the earth and heats up the atmosphere.

18

Carbon mono oxide

Poisonous gas.

19

Burning of camphor

Produces carbon di oxide and water vapour

20

Fermentation

Milk turns into curd by the action of enzymes.

21

21

22

Acidity Problem – Stomach [Neutralization.]

Tablets

consisting

Magnesium Hydroxide

are used

for this purpose.

 

23

Oxidation reactions Oxidation: Removal of hydrogen Reduction: Removal of oxygen

Rusting of Irons. Burning of Sulphur.

 

24

Atoms

Protons + Electrons – (negligible) Neutrons. Nucleus – [Protons + Neutrons ]. – total mass of proton.

25

1 atomic mass unit

1/12 th of mass of one carbon atom.

 

26

John Dalton

Theory of atoms. Based on scientific principles.

27

J.J.Thompson

Discovered electron.

 

28

Atomic Number

The number of electrons or protons are called atomic number.

29

Mass Number

Sum of the number of neutrons and protons present in the nucleus of an atom.

30

Isotopes

Have same atomic number but different mass number.

31

Isotopes of Hydrogen

Protium – no neutron. Deuterium – 1 neutron. Tritium – 2 neutron.

 

32

Molecules

Atoms combine to form molecules.

 

33

Metals – Form of Compounds Hard, Lustrous, good con heat and el.

Gold, Silver, copper, iron etc., Gold – Available in free state.

 
 

Mercury – It is a metal. It is in liquid state.

 

34

Non metals – Available in 3 forms. Brittle, Non lus, Poor con heat and el.

Solid state – Carbon, Sulphur, and Phosphorous. Bromine – liquid. Hydrogen, Oxygen and Helium are gases.

35

Diamond(Non metal – Carbon)

Hardest known substance.

 

36

Malleability

Thin Sheets. Metals aremalleable.

 

37

Ductility

Property due to which a metal can be drawn in to wire is called the ductility.

38

Graphite(Non Metal)

Good conductor of electricity.

 

39

Copper

Making electrical appliances. Used to produce alloys like bronze and brass.

40

Aluminium

Aluminium foils,paint, utensils and electric cables. Duralumin and magnalumin.

41

Rusting

 

Zinc is used to protect iron from rusting.

 

42

Lead

Storage batteries.

 

43

Phosphorous

Important for bones and teeths of animals.Plant nutrients.

44

Sulphur

Valcanisation of rubber.

 

45

Silicon

Transistors. Silicobronze – Telephone wires.

46

Noble metals

   

Gold and platinum are unaffected by air,water,

acids and alkalies.

47

47

48

Gold [ 91.6% = 916]

 

24

carat gold is pure gold.

22

carat gold is called ornamental gold.

(22 Parts of gold + 2 parts wt. of copper)

49

Galvanisation

 

Zinc coating on iron objects.

50

Electroplating

 

Giving thin coating of one metal on the other metal object using electricity is called electroplating.

51

51
 
   
 

52

Sodium and Potassium – Soft metals

   

Easily cut by knife.

 

53

Carbon – Charcoal

   

Coal, petroleum, Marble and lime stone contains carbon. Crystalline form - Graphite and Diamond. Amorphous form – Coal , charcoal and lampblack.

54

Allotrophs – Crystalline form and amorphous form

   

Have different physical properties and different chemical properties.

55

Graphite

 

Pencil lead Lubricant in fast moving machinery. Electrode in batteries. Neutron absorber in nuclear reactor. Pigment in paints.

 

56

Diamond

 

Used for cutting glass, sawing marbles and drilling rocks. Jewellery. High precision thermometers.

57

Dry Ice – Solid Carbon

   

Does not melt. Directly changes into gas co2.

 

58

Carbondi oxide

   

Fire extinguisher. Aerated soft drinks. Manufacture of washing soda(Sodium carbonate) and baking soda(sodium bicarbonate) Dry ice – Refrigerant Liquid co2 – Sugar Industry.

59

Methane

   

Marsh gas.

 

Natural gas – 80 % Methane. Coal gas – 30 % Methane

 

Used as fuel.(Blue flame). Making carbon black. Preparation of organic compounds like

 
 

formaldehyde, chloroform, and methyl alcohol.

60

Mechanics

 

Dynamics – Study of motion of bodies.

 
   

Statics – Study of bodies at rest.

 

61

Thanjavur doll

   

The centre of gravity is low and the vertical line drawn from the centre of gravity always falls within the base even when it is tilted.

gravity always falls within the base even when it is tilted. Pisa tower in Italy.  

Pisa tower in Italy.

 

Racing car.

62

Boat

 

Persons in the boat are not allowed to stand. Stability becomes less.

63

Inclined Plane

 

Staircases, Over bridges and ghat roads are based on the principle of inclined plane.

64

Friction

 

Able to walk and run on the floor. Tyres of motorcycles – grooves – increase friction between tyres and roads.

65

Streamlining

 

When a train, car or an aeroplane moves fast through the atmospheric air, friction is produced.The front portion of ships and submarines are suitably designed to reduce friction offered by the fluid.

66

Light

 

Part of electromagnetic spectrum that the human eye can detect is called the visible light.

67

Refraction of light – Velocity of light is diff. in diff media.

 

Refraction is the bending of a light ray as it passes from one medium to another medium.

68

Refraction: The objects in water appear to be at lower depth due to refraction.

 
 
 

69

Velocity of light

 

Vel. of light is great in rarer medium like air and will be less in a denser medium like glass.

 
   
 

70

Twinkling stars

 

Refraction of starlight through the earths atmosphere causes twinkling stars.

71

Spectrum – Dispersion of light

 

The coloured patch of light produced by passing a beam of white light through a prism is called a spectrum. VIBGYOR – Violet, Indigo, Blue, Green, Yellow, Orange and Red.

 
   
 

72

Convex lens

 

Converging lens.

73

Concave lens

 

Diverging lens.

74

Sun - Convex

 

It is unwise to look at the sun. The large intensity and heat of sun rays produced on the retina will cause severe damage to the retina and hence to the vision.

75

Glass bottles – Convex

 

Not wise to leave glass bottle in the forest. Causes forest fires.

 

76

Convex lens

 

Used in simple microscopes. Also used for reading.

77

Compound Microscope – 2 Convex lenses

Used to magnify very tiny objects like bacteria and cells.

78

Telescope

 

2 Convex lenses. The 200 inch Hale telescope on Mt. Palomar has photographed very distant faint celestial objects.

79

Camera

 

Convex lens.

80

Eye balls Focal length – 2.5cm.

 

Eye balls are filled with

fluid Vitreous humour

 

between the eye lens and the retina.

 
 

Aqueous humour

is present between eyelens and

cornea.

81

Defects of Eye

 

Myopia – Short sight.(Can see only nearer objects). Hypermetropia – Long Sight.(Can see only the distant objects.)

82

Eyes

of

animal – sparkle

in the night.

In case of animals like cats, cattle etc. there is a reflecting layer containing crystals of quinine,

 
 

behind theretina of their eyes called

tapetum. This

tapetum. This

layer reflects the light back on to the retina. This improves the vision and causes the eyes of these animals to sparkle in the night.

83

Optic centre

 

Geometric centre of the lens is called the optic centre.

 

84

Magnetite

 

Composes of oxides of iron. It attracts pieces of iron. Magnet – Like pole attract each other and unlike pole repel each other.

85

Lodestone

 

When suspended freely from its centre, it always comes to rest in the north-south direction. For this property, it was given the name ‘lodestone’.

86

Magnetic materials

 

Materials that are attracted by magnet is called magnetic materials. Iron, Nickel and cobalt.

 

87

Compass Needle

 

It is a device used to trace the magnetic lines of force due to a bar magnet.

 

88

Magnetic induction

 

Magnetic induction or induced magnetism is the phenomenon in which a magnet can induce magnetic properties on materials like iron.

 
induce magnetic properties on materials like iron.   89 Curie point   The temperature at which

89

Curie point

 

The temperature at which a magnet loses its magnetic power is known as curie point. For iron the curie point is 770 deg Celsius.

 

90

Earth

Behaves like a big bar magnet. The earths magnetic axis does not coincide with its geographical axis

 

and is inclined at an angle of about

17 degree.

 

91

Angle of dip – Earth Dip Circle – Measure the angle of dip.

It is zero at the magnetic equator and 90 deg. At the magnetic poles.

92

Magnetic effect

 

When electric current is passed through a conductor, magnetic effect is produced.

 

93

Electromagnets

 

Part of electric genarators, motors, telegraph instruments, loudspeakers, earphones and telephone receivers. Used in electric bells and tape recorders. Attached to cranes – to lift heavy loads. Making new magnets or remagnetising the old ones.

94

Michael Faraday

 

Discovered electromagnetic induction – method

 
 

used for commercial generation of electric power.

 

Dynamos and generators work on the principle of

electromagnetic induction.

 

95

Sun – Nuclear Fusion Total Energy – 3.8*12P26 J/s.

Earth receives energy from the sun in the form of heat and light.

 

96

Conversion of solar energy into hydro and wind energy.

The energy of wind and flowing water are due to solar energy.

 

97

Photo voltaic cell Calculators, traffic lights, and for the transmission of radio and television programmes.

Solar energy is directly converted into electrical energy.

 

98

Wind

– Electricity can be generated using

Convection current in the air. Wind energy is the kinetic energy associated with the movement of atmospheric air.

 

the windmills.

 
 

Tamilnadu and Gujarat – Lead in the productin of

wind energy.

 

Kayathar of Thirunelveli district.

 

Aralvaimozhi of Kanyakumari district.

 
99 Hydro electric energy – Hydel Power The energy of falling water is used for
99
Hydro electric energy – Hydel Power
The energy of falling water is used for generating
electricity in hydro electric power plants.
Turbines are used to convert the energy of falling
water into mechanical energy, which is further
utilized for driving the electrical genarators.
Mini Hydro projects at irrigation dams at lower
Bhavani, Amaravathy, Thirumurty, Sathanur,
Pechiparai, Perunchani, and Aliyar.
Mettur dam.
Hydro power stations have been
commissioned on Lower Bhavani Dam, Pykara
dam, and Vaigai dam.
100
Pumped storage Power plant
Kadamparai.
101
Bicycle Dynamo
Mechanical energy is converted into electrical
energy.
Principle of
electromagnetic induction
.
102
Thermal Power Plants – Major share of
electric energy in India.
Combustion of fossil fuels: Coal, oil or gas.
Thermal Power Plants:
Neyveli, Ennore, North Chennai, Mettur and
Tuticorin.
Jeyakondam – Perambalur dist.(Prelim work).
103
Nuclear Fission
The process of breaking up of the nucleus of a
heavy atom into two or more smaller neuclei with
the release of a large amount of energy is known as
nuclear fission.
104
Atom bomb – Nuclear Fission.
Hiroshima – “Littleboy”
Nagasaki – “Fatman”
When the bomb explodes a large amount of heat,
light and radiation is released. These are used in
world war 2 and were exploded over Hiroshima
and Nagasaki in japan.
105
Nuclear Reactors
Babha atomic research centre for research
Apsara, cirus, Zerlina and Purnima.
Electricity Production:
Tarapore – Maharashtra
Rana pratap sagar – Rajasthan
Kalakpakkam - Tamilnadu
Kudankulam – Tamilnadu
106
Nuclear Fusion – Energy produced in sun
and stars.
Hydrogen bomb.
It is process in which two or more light nuclei
combine to form a heavy nucleus.
Hydrogen bomb is more powerful than the atom
bomb.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Class Nineth:

 

1

 

Measurements

   

1. Length – Metre – (m)

 

SI –System Internatinal

 

2. Mass – Kilogram – (Kg)

 

3. Time – Second – (S)

4. Electric Current – Ampere – (A)

5. Temparature – Kelvin – (K)

6. Amount of Substance – Mole – (mol)

7. Luminous Intensity – Candela – (cd)

8. Plane angle – Radian – (rad)

9. Solid angle – Stredian – (sr)

2

 

Pierre vernier

 

French Scientist

3

 

Screw Gauge

 

Measure lengths, One hundredth of a millimeter.

 

4

 

Physical Balance

   

Used to find mass of an object correct to a milligram.

 

5

 

Types of Motion

   

1. Random Motion [Football,Mosquito]

 
 

2. Translational Motion[Arrow, Bullet]

3. Rotational Motion[Fan,Earth,Sun]

4. Oscillatory Motion[Pendulum]

6

 

Quantity – Scalar and Vector Sclar –Quantities that require only magnitudes to specify them are called scalar quantity. Vector – Quantities that require both magnitude and direction are called vector quantity.

 

Scalar

Vector

Mass

Displacement

 

Lenth

Velocity

Time

Accelaration

 

Temparature

Force

Angle

Momentum

 

Area

Weight

7

 

Speed

 

Distance Travelled / Time Taken Unit – metre/Second (m/s )

 

8

 

Displacement

 

The Straight line distance between the initial and final position of a body in a specific direction is called displacement. Unit – metre(m)

9

 

Velocity

 

Displacement/Time. Unit – metre/Second (m/s)

10

 

Accelaration

 

Change in velocity of an object per unit time.

 

11

 

Negative acceleration

   

An object thrown upwards, against the force of gravity, have negative acceleration.

 

12

 

G=9.81m/s

 

Acceleration due to gravity at or near earths surface is 9.81m/s.

13

 

Objects of different masses released simultaneously from same height fall on the ground at the

 

same time with the same velocity.

 

14

 

Force – Magnitude and Direction

   

Force is that cause which produces acceleration in the body on which it acts.

15

 

Newtons first law of motion [Law of inertia]

   

Every body continues in its state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line unless it is compelled by an external force to change that state.

16

 

Inertia

 

The inability of the body to change, by itself, its

 
state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line is called inertia. 17
state of rest or of uniform motion in a straight line is
called inertia.
17
Momentum.
P
= mass * velocity = m * v Kg * m/s
The product of mass and velocity of a body is called
momentum.
18
Moving body
The force required to stop a moving body is directly
proportional to a) mass m and its b) linear velocity.
19
Impulse
Cricket ball catch – When we move our hands
backward while catching the ball, the time of
contanct is increased and the force is reduced.So,
we feel lesser force and pain and also catch the ball
without jumping out of our hand.
20
Newtons second law
F
= ma
The rate of change of momentum of a body is
directly proportional to the force and takes place in
the direction of force.
21
Mass – Kg
[Mass remains the same everywhere in the
universe].
Mass of body is a measure of its inertia. A larger
mass possess a greater inertia and therefore a larger
force will be needed to overcome inertia.
Mass is also the measure of the quantity of the
matter in a body.
22
Weight – kgwt or Newton
[Maximum on the polar regions and
The weight of a body is the force acting on the body
due to the earth’s gravitational force of attraction.
minimum in equatorial regions / Wt. will
also be less on the top of the hill]
23
Spring balance
Used to find the weight of the body.
24
Beam balance
Used to find the mass of the body.
25
Newton’s third law
For every action, there is always and equal and
opposite reaction.
26
Periodic motion
[Motion of earth around the sun, hands of
the watch]
A motion of an object which repeats itself regularly
after a fixed intervals of time is called periodic
motion.
27
Eamples of
couple in action
1. Opening a tap.
2. Opening a pen or bottle cap.
3. Steering wheel of a car.
4. Turning a pencil in a sharpener.
5. Turning a screw driver.
6. Unscrewing an ear-ring.
7. Winding up the spring of a clock.
28
Work Done W= Force * displacement
W= Fs = newton * metre
Also called Joule.
[Scalar quantity]
When a force F acts on a body and the body
undergoes a displacement s in the direction of the
force, then the work done, W=Fs.
29
Aeroplane
The force(force of gravity in the downward
direction) and displacement(horizontal direction)
are perpendicular to each other. There is no disp. In
the direction of the force of gravity, and therefore,
the work done by it on the aeroplane is zero.
30
Power
The rate at which the work is done by a force is
 

P = W/t = Joule/Second

called the power. Work done per unit time is called power.

1 Watt= 1 Joule/Second

 

31

Horse Power

1 Horsepower = 746 W.

32

100W bulb

A 100W bulb consumes 100J of electric energy per second.

33

Energy Unit: Joule

1. Mechanical Energy – Potential and kin.

 

2. Heat energy

3. Sound energy

4. Light energy

5. Electrical energy

6. Chemical energy

7. Atomic energy.

34

Potential energy

PE of a body is the energy it possess by virtue of its position or state of strain. Simple Pendulum – Maximum PE at its ex.end Water stored up in a reservoir. Compressed air posses PE.

35

Kinetic energy

KE of a body is the energy possessed by the body by virtue of its motion.

36

Law of conservation of energy Total energy of the body remains a constant.

Energy can neither be created nor be destroyed. But energy can be converted from one form into another form.

37

Transformation of energy

Steam engine – heat energy to mech.energy Electric heater – Electrical energy to heat en. Microphone – Sound energy into electrical en. Loudspeaker – Electrical energy to sound en. Electric bulb – Electrical energy to Light en. Match – Chemical energy to light and heat en.

38

Source of energy

Primary – Sun.[Plants –use this energy to prepare foods by the process of photosynthesis.]

1. Renewable source of energy.

2. Non Renewable source of en.

 

39

Renewable energy

Renewable sources of energy are those which are produced continuously in nature and are inexhaustible.

 

1. Hydro energy.

2. Solar energy.

3. Geothermal energy.

4. Wind energy

5. Tidal energy.

6. Bio energy and

7. Nuclear energy.

40

Hydro energy. Cheaper cost. Electricity production, transporting timber.

Stored water(reservoir) has lot of potential energy. This electricity produced from flowing water is called Hydro electricity.

41

Geothermal energy Available in volcanic regions of the earth.

Geothermal means heat of earth and therefore energy generated from the heat of the earth is called

   

geothermal energy.

42

Wind energy Tamilnadu (forefront) is one of the windy states in the country. Can generate 1700 Mw.

Wind mills are operated using the kinetic energy of the wind. Wind resource assessment – Tn gov – 18km/h Shengkottah pass, Aralvaimozhi pass, and Palghat pass.

1. Maharashtra

2. Tamilnadu

 

43

Tidal energy

The rise and fall of sea waves can be harnessed to generate power.

44

Bio energy Biogas – Methane Used for cooking and lighting.

The energy obtained by the decomposition of organic matter such as animal dung, rotton fruits, vegetables, and human excreta, is called Bio energy.

45

Nuclear energy

1. Nucleus of heavier elements like uranium, thorium or plutonium is spilit, two nuclei of lighter elements are formed.Nuclear fission.

2. By fusing two nuclei of lighter elements like hydrogen a heavier nucleus is formed and this process is called nuclear fusion.

46

Nuclear fission [Heat energy produced can be used for generating electricity.] – Chain reaction. 4% -World power. 350 nuclear stations.

The nucleus of uranium, a radioactive element on colliding with a neutron splits into two smaller nuclei and a few additional neutrons are released. Nuclear Reactor - Heat – Water – Steam – drive turbine – Electricity.

47

Atomic power stations(APS)

1. Tarapore APS – Maharashtra.

2. Rajasthan APS – Rajasthan.

3. Kalpakkam APS – Tamilnadu.

4. Narora APS – Uttar Pradesh.

5. Kakrapar APS – Gujarat.

6. Kaiga APS – Karnataka.

48

Hydrogen bomb

Work on the principle of Nuclear fusion

49

Fossil fuels [ Hydrocarbos and traces of oxygen and other subs.]

Coal and Petroleum are obtained from fossilized materials they are also called fossil fuels.

50

Sold fuels

Wood, Coal, Lignite

51

Liquid fuels

Kerosene, Petrol and diesel.

52

Heat transfer

When 2 objects at same temperature are brought into contact there will be no overall transfer of thermal energy between them. If the objects are at different temparatures, there will be a transfer of heat energy from hotter to the cooler object until both objects reach the same temperature.

53

Heat Unit: Joule

Heat is energy.

54

Temparature Kelvin or Celsius.

Temparature is not energy.

55

Mercury thermometer (Liquid metal) High boiling Point = 357 deg Celsius.

Common temperature measuring device.

 

Low melting Point – -39 deg Celsius.

 

56

Kelvin and Celsius

 

Kelvin Scale(K) = Celsius©+ 273

 
 

Celsius = Kelvin – 273.

 

57

Human Body

 

Normal temperature of human body is 36.9 deg. Celsius.

58

Temparature of gas

 

Temparature of gas increases the kinetic energy of its molecules also increases. As the temperature of gas decreases the kinetic energy of its molecules decreases.

59

Boyle law

 

At constant temperature the Pressure of a given mass of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume.

60

Charles law 1

 

At constant pressure, the volume of given mass of gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temp.

61

Charles law 2

 

At constant volume, the pressure of given mass of a gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature.

62

Diesel engine – Four stroke – Petrol Have more efficiency – 40% more.

No carburetor and spark plug.

 

63

Absolute zero

 

Temparature to which a substance can be cooled. All atomic and molecular motions of an ideal gas stop.

64

Ideal gas

 

A

gas which obeys Boyles law and Charles law is

 

called as ideal gas.

 

65

Waves

 

1.

Mechanical Waves

– Sound waves, Waves

 

on the surface of water, and seismic waves. (obey newton’s law of motion). Travels through solids, liquids and gases.

 

2.

Electromagnetic waves

: Light waves, Radio

 

waves, Microwaves, Infra red, Ultraviolet, X-rays,visible rays,Gamma rays do not require any medium to propagate. They travel through vaccum. 3*10P8 m/s.

66

Mechanical waves

 

1.

Transverse wave

 
 

2.

Longitudinal Wave.

 

67

Transverse wave

(S,L)

A

transverse wave is one in which the particles of

(

Electromagnetic waves

are transverse

the medium vibrate in a direction perpendicular to the direction of propagation of the wave. Crest: Maximum disp. in the upward direction. Trough: Maximum disp.in the downward direction Wavelength(metre): Distance bt. any 2 consecutive crests and troughs is called wave length.

waves).

 
crests and troughs is called wave length. waves).   68 Longitudinal Waves(S,L,G) A longitudinal wave is

68

Longitudinal Waves(S,L,G)

A

longitudinal wave is one in which the particles of

Sound waves in air or gas travel in the form

the medium vibrate along with the direction of the

of longitudinal waves. propagation of the wave. Wavelength: Distance bt. any 2 consecutive compressions and
of longitudinal waves.
propagation of the wave.
Wavelength: Distance bt. any 2 consecutive
compressions and rarefactions is called wa.len.
69
Amplitude (Unit – metre)
Maximum displacement of the vib. Particle to the
mean position.
70
Frequency (Unit – Hertz)
The number of complete vibrations of the particle
of the medium in one second is called as frequency.
71
72
Sound
Velocity of sound in air at 0 deg cel is331
m/s.
Sound travels through solids and liquids very faster
than in gases.
Velocity of sound is more in solids and liquids.
73
Humidity
Sound travels faster in humid air than in dry air.
74
Temparature
1 deg cel. = 0.61m/s
For every degree rise in temperature the velocity of
sound increases by 0.61m/s.
75
Pressure
Pressure has no effect.
76
77
Resonance
When the frequency of forced vibrations of a body
equals its natural frequency, the vibrations of the
body build upto a very large amplitude. This
 

phenomenon is called resonance.

78

Soldiers

Soldiers are not allowed to march on the bridge.

79

Stationary wave

Two waves of same amplitude and frequency travelling in opposite directions superimpose with each other producing stationary waves. Node – Point with minimum amplitude. Antinode – Point with maximum amplitude.

amplitude. Antinode – Point with maximum amplitude. 80 Stationary transverse waves Sound from veena,

80

Stationary transverse waves

Sound from veena, sitar, violin and guitar.

81

Stationary longitudinal waves

Sound from flute, Nadaswaram and clarinet.

82

SONAR

Sound navigation and ranging.

 

83

Ultrasonics in industries

To detect crack inside the metal casting. Drill hole in steel and glass.

84

Ultrasonics in medical app.

Ultrasonic echoes – view soft tissue and organs which are invisible to X-rays. By using Doppler effect and ultrasonics doctors monitor the flow of the blood and diseases of brain,heart and kidneys. Pulverise and remove kidney stones, cure cancer, joint and muscular pains.

[Ultrasonics are harmless.]

 
 

85

Doppler effect RADAR (Radio detection and ranging).

The apparent change in the pitch or frequency of sound when there is a relative motion between the source and the observer is called the Doppler effect.

86

Radar

Velocities and movement of submarine and aeroplanes.

87

Doppler application

Speed of the vehicle are detected. Airports – To find the height, speed and distance of approaching planes.

 
Bats
Bats

detect the location, distance and movement of

the prey.

 

88

Audio tape

Strip of plastic coated with a magnetic material such as iron oxide or chromium oxide. Sound is recorded in the form of varying magnetic fields.

89

Fundamental frequency

FF in open pipe is twice that of the closed pipe of the same length.

90

Audible sound

20Hz to 20000Hz.

 

91

Ultrasonics

Sound with frequency above 20000Hz.

92

Mach

1 Mach is the velocity of an object travelling with the velocity of sound.

93

Spherical mirror

The spherical mirror with a reflecting surface

 

curved like

interior of circle

called a concave mir.

The spherical mirror with a reflecting surface

curved like

exterior of circle

called a convex mirror.

94

Concave mirror

The light beams reflected by the concave mirror are brought to focus at a point.

 
   
 

95

Convex mirror

The light beams reflected by the convex mirror appear to diverge from a point.

by the convex mirror appear to diverge from a point. 96 APB- Portion of it reflecting

96

96 APB- Portion of it reflecting the light is called aperture . Centre of hollow sphere

APB- Portion of it reflecting the light is called aperture. Centre of hollow sphere – Centre of curvature.(C) Geometrical centre of sp.mir. – Pole.(P) The line joining the pole and centre of mirror is called Principal axis. The radius of sphere that forms the Part of the sp.mir is called radius of curvature( R) .[CP=R] The line that is parallel to the principal axis after reflection by a concave mirror converges at a point on principal axis. This point is called Principal Focus (F) of the concave mirror. The rays of light parallel to the principal axis, after reflection by a convex mirror appear to diverge from a point on the principal axis behind the mirror. This point is called the principal focus of the convex mirror.

point is called the principal focus of the convex mirror. The distance between the Principal focus

The distance between the Principal focus and the pole is called the Focal length.

97

Real Images

Concave mirror produces real images.

98

Virtual Images

All images produced by the convex mirrors are erect, diminished and virtual images.

99

Spherical mirror

The focal length of a spherical mirror is half of its radius of curvature.

100

Concave mirrors

1. Shaving mirror.

2. Torch lights, Projectors and head lamps of automobiles are reflected as a parallel beam by the concave mirrors.

3. Investigate ear,nose , and throat.

4. Dentist – Magnify and investigate the teeth.

5. Opthalmaloscope – Doctors use to view the retina of the eye.

6. Concave mirrors are used to converges the solar energy and convert it into heat and electrical energy. This heat radiation is used to cook food in a solar cooker.

7. Hemispherical dish antennas receive radio waves and microwaves from artificial sat.

and help in radio, television and telephone communication. 8. Used in telescopes. 9. Parabolic reflectors
and help in radio, television and telephone
communication.
8. Used in telescopes.
9. Parabolic reflectors are used in search lights.
101
Convex Mirror
1. Used as rear view mirror in automobiles.
2. Convex mirrors are fixed in supermarkets to
monitor the commodities and the customers
in the shop.
3. Convex mirrors are fixed in blind corners in
road and buildings to view the persons
coming in the opposite direction.
102
103
Substance
Substance exists in 3 states. Solid, Liquid and gas.
104
Temparature
In gases the effect is more.
All the three S,L,G increase with increase in temp,
and decrease with decrease in temp.
105
Surfaces
Solids and liquid have surfaces. Gas does not have a
surface.
106
3 diff. states of matter
Solids are held together by cohesion, which
results from the attraction from the
attractive forces between their atoms and
molecules.

107

Solids

1. Crystalline solids

 

2. Amorphous solids

108

Crystalline Solids – Melt at sp.temp.

 

Metals, Salt and Diamond.

109

Comparison

109 Comparison

110

Amorphous solids Glass, Carbon, Black and many resins.

 

Amorphous solids have neither crystalline structures nor specific melting points.

111

Fluids

Liquid and gases are also called fluids. Ex: Hydrogen and water.

112

Hydrogen – Diatomic molecule – H2

 

Hydrogen – Lowest density. Sun – Hydrogen is converted into helium.

113

Hydrogen

It is a gaseous matter. It is the fuel of the future.

114

Classification of matter

 

1. Compounds

 

2. Mixtures

(They are made up of tiny particles such as atoms and molecules.)

115

Pure substances – Elements and compounds

 

Consists of one substance only. No contaminating impurities. A pure substance melts and boils at specific temperatures.

are pure substances.

 
 

116

Elements

 

Substances that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances. Ex: Silver is an element. It is made up of only silver atoms.

Made up of only one kind of atoms.

 

(Are building blocks of matter).

117

Human body

 

1. Oxygen – 65%.

 

2. Carbon – 18%

3. Hydrogen – 10%

4. Nitrogen – 2%

   

5.

Calcium and other elements – 2%

118

Elements

112 elements identified. 21 artificially made.

 

119

Atomicity

The number of atoms present in a molecule of an element is called atomicity. One : silver, potassium,carbon etc are monoatomic. Two: hydrogen, bromine, oxygen, nitrogen rep as h2, br2,o2,n2. Poly: phosphorous P4, sulphur S8.

120

Compounds Ex: water ( 2 hydrogen atom and one oxygen atom, 1:8 by weight.) Commons salt: Compound of Sodium and Chlorine. Sugar:Compound containing 12 Carbon atoms, 22 hydrogen atoms, and 11 oxygen atoms.

A

compound is a substance made up of two or more

elements chemically combined in fixed ratio by

weight. They are homogenous and exhibits definite physical and chemical properties.

121

Compounds:

definite physical and chemical properties. 121 Compounds: 122 Mixtures A mixture is made up of two

122

Mixtures

A

mixture is made up of two or more elements or

 

compounds when mixed in any ratio physically. All mixtures are heterogeneous except solutions which are homogeneous. (Air, sugar, syrup, salt, solution, smoke, toothpaste are a few examples of mixtures).

123

A solute is the thing that is dissolved, whereas a solvent is what it is dissolved in.

 

For example a sugar cube is a solute and water will be a solvent.

 

124

Solution [Homogeneous mixture of solute and solvent].

In

a solution a substance which dissolves is called a

“solute” and the liquid that dissolves the solute is called as the “solute”.

125

Insoluble

Calcium carbonate insoluble in water.

126 Emulsion

Oil and water do not mix. If you add cooking oil into water, the oil floats on water. If you shake the mixture vigorously a turbid liquid emulsion is formed.

1. The dispersed phase. (fat in milk, water drop in mist).

2. The dispersion medium. (Water in milk ,water in mist.).

127 Colloids

Defined an atom scientifically.

128 Jhon Dalton

127 Colloids Defined an atom scientifically. 128 Jhon Dalton 1. Matter consist of extremely small particles

1. Matter consist of extremely small particles called atoms.

2. Atoms are indivisible.

3. Atoms can neither be created or destroyed

129 John Dalton

     

during chemical reactions.

4. All atoms of one element are identical in all aspects such as size, shape , mass and structure.

5. Compounds are formed by the chemical combination of atoms of elements in whole number ratio. Ex: 2 atoms of hydrogen + 2 atoms of chlorine (to form) = 2 molecules of hydrogen chloride.

6. Absolute wt. of an atom cannot be determined. Dalton, sugges. The use of relative wts. These relative wts. Are called atomic weights of elements.

130

Atomic weight

Atomic weight is defined as the ratio of the weight

of

an atom of an element to that of hydrogen.

131

Limitations of Daltons Theory

 

1. After discovery of radioactivity it was proved that atoms are divisible.

2. Atoms are created and destroyed in nuclear reactions ie., new elements are formed.

3. All atoms of one element need not to be identical in all aspects. Ex. Isotopes of hydrogen.

132

Isotopes

Isotopes are atoms of same element with different mass numbers. They have the same number of

protons and electrons in each atom, but different no.

of

neutrons in the nucleus.

133

133

134

Avagadro Number

6.023* 10P23

135

J.J.Thompson

Found electrons.(Study of cathode rays).

136

Goldstein

Found protons.

137

Chadwick

Found Neutrons.

138

Discharge tube

A

long glass tube containing a gas at a low pressure.

139

Cathode rays

 

1. Travel in straight lines.

2. Consist of material particle.

3. Cathode rays are negatively charged.

4. CR ionize the gas through which they pass.

5. CR produce X-rays when they are made to fall on metals like tungsten, copper etc.,

140

Henry Becqueral

Uranium emits peculiar radiations which affect the

   

photographic plates and which can ionize gases. He called uranium as radioactive element and its property as radioactivity.

141

Madame Curie

Found two more elements. Radium and Palonium. Thorium is also a radioactive element.

142

Artificial radioactive element.

Artificially radioactive elements are made by the method of transmutation.

143

Types of rays

Alpha rays – Positively charged particles and bend towards negative electrical field. Beta rays – Negatively charged particles and bend towards positive electrical field. Gamma rays – Electromagnetic radiations which are neutral, that are unaffected by magnetic field.

144

Alpha rays

Ionizing power is 100 times more than beta rays and 10,000 times more than gamma rays. Alpha particles can affect photographic plates.

145

Beta rays

Have very high velocity; sometime it matches the velocity of light. Beta Particles affect the photographic plates. Penetrate aluminium foil. 7000 times lighter than alpha particles.

146

Gamma rays

Gamma rays are more penetrating than the x-rays because of their shorter wavelength.

147

Radio carbon dating

Age of rocks, wooden and organic objects may be measured by this method.

148

148
148

149

Alkali metals

Soft solids with relatively low melting points and low densities. When cut all these have silvery surface which quickly tarnishes.

150

Noble gases

All noble are inert and do not react with other atoms

easily. 151 Sodium, Potassium and Lithium atom to Sodium, Potassium and Lithium Ions. These three
easily.
151
Sodium, Potassium and Lithium atom to
Sodium, Potassium and Lithium Ions.
These three atoms lose an electron to becomes ions.
(Cations)
152
Flourine, Chlorine and Oxygen atom to
Flourine, Chlorine and Oxygen ions.
These three atoms gain an electron to become ions.
(anions).
153
Coal
[Peat was transformed into coal under high
pressure and temp under earth’s surface.]
Black rock like material and an essential input in
thermal power plants, steel industry and
metallurgical processes.
154
Petroleum.
[Products – Petroleum gas, Petrol, Diesel,
and kerosene].
Is dark coloured viscous liquid and is a complex
mixture of compounds containing mainly carbon
and hydrogen.
155
156
Refining
The process of separating petroleum into fraction
with different boiling ranges and removing
impurities is known as refining.
157
Paraffins ( CnH2n+2) - Alkanes
The first member methane has the formula CH4 and
the second member Ethane has the formula C2H6.
158
Olefins (CnH2n) - Alkenes
The simplest olefin has the formula C2H4
   

(Ethylene).

159

Alkynes (CnH2n-2)

The first member of alkyne has the formula C2H2 and it is known as acetylene.

160

160

161

Alkanes

161 Alkanes

162

Alkynes

162 Alkynes

163

 

Alkynes

 
163   Alkynes  

164

 

Isomerism

 

Isomerism is the existence of two or more compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formula.

165

 

Methane

 

Marsh gas. Main cons. Of natural gas. Firedamp in coal mines.

166

 

Ethylene or Ethene

1. Rippening of fruits.

 

2. Used in the preparation of polythene, Polypropylene, PVC(Poly Vinyl Chloride).

3. Preparation of glycol.

4. Ethylene dichloride which is prepared from ethylene is used in the preparation of a synthetic rubber called Thiokol.

167

 

Thiokol

 

Synthetic rubber.

168

 

Acetylene

 

Welding metals. Manufacture of acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetone, benzene and ethanol.

 
 

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Class Ten:

 

1

 

Refraction of light

The Phenomenon of bending of light as it passes from one medium to another medium is known as refraction of light. The refractive index of the medium does not depend upon the angle of incidence. It depends upon the nature of the medium.

2

 

Refraction of light through a prism

3 Planes. 1 is grounded(Base). 2 planes polished.(refracting surfaces). The angle bt. the two refracting surfaces is called angle of the prism.

3

 

Refractive index

Diamond: 2.42

4

 

Optical fibre

 

An optical fibre is a device based on total internal reflection by which a light signal can be transmitted from one place to another with negligible loss of energy. Uses: Endoscope. / Carry information in the form of digital code of light pulses with minimum loss. The y carry telephone messages and computer data. / Destroy tumours in solid organ like liver.

5

 

Convex lenses

They are thicker in the middle and thinner at the edges.

6

Concave lenses

They are thicker in the edges and thinner at the middle.

7

7

8

Lens

1. Width or diameter of a lens – Aperture of the lens.

2. Geometric center of the lens – Optic centre.

9

Power of the lens

Unit: Dioptre.

10

Convex lens application

1. Magnifying glass. Watch repair. Palmist.

2. Optical projector.

3. Inverted image formed by the terrestrial telescope can be erected by convex lens.

4. Long sightedness can be corrected.

11

Concave lens application

1. Vision short sightedness can be corrected.

2. Eyelenses in Galilean telescope.

12

Twinkling of stars

Refraction of light rays.

13

Mirage

Optical illusion. Refraction of light.

14

Looming

Refraction of light.

15

Retina

Two photosensitive rods – sensitive to light, but not to clour. cones. – sensitive to light and color.

16

Human eye

The near point is 25 cm from the eye.

17

Myopia shortsighted ness (wearing concave lenses)

The inability not to see the distant objects are called short sightedness.

18

Hyper Metropia Long sighted ness

Wearing convex lenses.

19

Telescope

See things at vastly large distances.

20

Microscope Simple(one convex lens)

Magnifying and observing very small objects.

21

Compound microscopes (Two convex lenses)

Greater magnification.

22

Astronomical telescope

1. Refracitng telescope(Large convex lens is used)

2. Reflecting telescope.(Large concave mirror is used).

23

Dispersion of light

Splitting of white light to its constituent color is called the dispersion of light.

24

Red light

Have longer wavelengths than the blue colour.

25

Color of an object

The color of an object is the colour of light reflected by it.

26

Primary colours

Red, Blue and Green.

27

Colour filter

Which allows only the light of certain colour to pass through and absorbs the other colours.

28

Coloured pigments

They are opaque substances which absorbs all components of white light except some components which are reflected. Ex: Chlorophyll in plants, dyes and paints.

29

Rainbow

Happens when the sun shines onto the droplets of moisture in the earths atmosphere.

30

Camera

Uses convex lenses. The exposure time is called the shutter speed. Stationary object – 1/60seconds. Fast moving object – 1/500 seconds. Dim light – Size of the aperture should be large.

31

Persistence of objects

The visual sensation of particular object or scene persists of about 1/16s after it disappears.

32

Cine Projector

Principle: Persistance of vision.

33

3D Pictures

Two pictures are initially photographed with a stereoscopic camera and projected on the screen simultaneously. As the picture in this case has 3 dimensions, it appears natural.

34

Electric field Unit: Newton/Columb

The region in which a charged body can experience a force is called the electric field.

35

Electic Potential

Unit: Volt(Alessandro volta).

36

Electric Current

Unit: Ampere.

37

Resistance

The resistance of the metal wire is directly proportional to the length and inversely proportional to the cross sectional area.

38

Heating effect of electric current

Electric kettle, Electric iron and the electric oven are some of the household appliances which utilize the heating effect of electric current. (Nichrome)

39

Refractory materials

Asbestos, Fireclay, Porcelain or mica to prevent heat flowing out of the devices.

40

Electrical lamp filament

Filament: Platinum or carbon.

Osmium, tantalum and tungsten.

41

Electric Power

The practical unit of power is 1 KW which is equal to 1000 W.

42

Electrical energy

Unit: Joule

43

Electrolytes

Aqueous solutions of inorganic acids, bases and salts.

44

Electrolysis

Phenomenon of the conduction of electricity through electrolytes is called electrolysis.

45

Electrodes

The conductors by which the current enters and leaves the electrolyte are called electrodes.

46

Anode(Electro –ve)

That electrode by which the current enters the

   

electrolyte is called the anode.

47

Cathode(Electro +ve)

That electrode by which the current leaves are called as the cathodes.

48

Faradays law

About electrolysis.

49

Electroplating

Electroplating is the process by which a thin coating

of

any desired metal can be deposited on another

metallic object.

50

Eversilver

Elctroplating the iron articles with nickel first and then with silver.

51

Dry cell

Used in torches, telephones, transistor sets etc.,

52

Primary cell

Dry cell, Lechlanche cell and Daniel cell.

53

Solenoid

A

Cylindrical coil wire. Behaves like a bar magnet.

54

Electromagnets

 

1. Used in motors.

2. Electric bells makes use of it.

3. Telegraphs and telephones make use of them.

4. Separate iron and steel from other materials.

5. Lifting and carrying heavy steel and cast iron articles, electromagnets are used.

55

Microphones

Converts sound energy into electrical energy.

56

Loudspeaker

Electrical energy is converted into sound energy.

57

Galvanometer

A

galvanometer is a device used to detect the flow

of

current in a circuit.

Uses:

1. Convert to voltmeter – By connecting a high resistance in series with it.

2. Convert to ammeter – By connecting a suitable low resistance in parallel to it.

3. In meter bridge and potentiometer circuits balancing conditions are achieved by means of the galvanometer only.

4. A multi meter is also a modified form of a moving coil galvanometer.

58

AC

generator – Application of

A

dynamo or electric generator which converts

electromagnetic induction.

mechanical energy into electrical energy.

59

DC

Generators

Produces a continuous and unidirectional current of constant magnitude direct current generators have been devised.

60

Transformer

A

transformer is a device by which a low voltage in

a circuit can be converted into a high voltage in a neighbouring circuit or vice versa.

61

Step up transformer

The Primary contains a few turns of thick insulated copper wire, while the secondary consists of a large number of turns of thin insulated copper wires.

62

Step down transformer

The secondary has few turns of thick wire while the primary has many turns of thin wire.

63 Ideal transformer The input power and the output power is equal Practical transformers: output
63
Ideal transformer
The input power and the output power is equal
Practical transformers: output is always less
because of losses.
64
Overe load
Fuses(low melting point), Circuit breakers and
safety switches are used.
65
Domestic Purposes
Lead wire of 230 deg cel is used.(Fuses when the
current exceeds 5 amps).
66
Three pin plug
Called the polarized plug.
67
“It is the current that kills and not the high voltage itself”.
68
Nuclear physics
It is the study of structure of nucleus and nuclear
processes such as radioactivity and nuclear
reactions.
69
Mechanical waves
Ocean waves, Waves created by the wind in a flag,
sound waves needs a material medium to propagate.
70
Electromagnetic waves
Consists of a magnetic field and an electric field
vibrating at right angles to each other. Energy
changes in atoms or electrons produce
electromagnetic waves.
71
Behaviour of Electromagnetic wave
It is determined its wavelength.
72
Properties
1. Travel at same speed 3*10P8 m/s. in
vaccum or through space. C= freq*Wa.len
2. No medium is required.
3. All are transverse waves.
4. Exhibit reflection, refraction, interference
and diffraction etc.,
5. No electric charge they will carry.
6. Transfer energy from one place to another.
7. Emitted and absorbed by matter.
73
74 75 X- Rays Discovered by Roentgen. X – rays are also called as Roentgen
74
75
X- Rays
Discovered by Roentgen. X – rays are also called as Roentgen rays.
When fast moving electrons fall on a target of high atomic weight x-
rays are formed.
76
Properties of X-rays
1. Affect photographic plate strongly.
2. Produce fluorescence in certain materials like zinc sulphide
and Barium platino cyanide.
3. They ionize the gases through which they pass.
4. They cannot pass through bones(Calcium – good absorbers
of X-rays) and gold,lead.
77
Medicine
1. Detect fracture and dislocation of bones.
2. Destroy malignant tumours and cure some skin diseases.
3. Detect given gem is genuine or artificial.
4. Detect defects in tennis ball, rubber tyres etc.,
5. Study structure of crystals, organic and biological molecules.
6. Study the effect of heat treatment and the formation of alloys.
78
Forensic
1. Detect counterfeit currency, forgery in documents, Hidden
gold, explosive and opium in a luggage
79
Infra red rays
Sun is the source of infra red rays. Human body gives off IR
radiation with a wavelength of 1/10mm to 1/100 mm. The human
eye cannot see IR wave but we can feel the warmth.
80
Uses of IR
1. IR waves are not absorbed by air of fog. IR rays are used to
take photographs where visible light cannot penetrate.
2. IR waves enlarge blood vessels which increase the blood
circulation.
3. IR is used to relieve pain from muscle and joints. 4. IR lamps were
3.
IR is used to relieve pain from muscle and joints.
4.
IR lamps were fitted to military vehicles for night driving.
5.
Water absorbs IR radiation. Hence IR radiation to find water
sources on earth.(Black color – water bodies).
6.
IR satellite pictures of the earth is used for weather
forecasting.
81
Microwaves
Wavelength – 1mm to 10
Generated by special electronic devices Magnetron, Klystron and
travelling wave tube.
cm.
82
Uses of microwaves
1. Telephone links bt. cities are achieved by microwaves.
2. Used in satellite communication and radar.
3. Microwaves are used for cooking.(wavelength 12cm)
4. Kill insects in grains stores and also used to kill bacteria
without heating the food so much.
5. Used in the field of radio astronomy.
6. Study of atomic and molecular structure.
83
Radio waves
Wavelength: .3 m to few
Are produced by stars and galaxies. Produced by vibrating electrons
using electronic circuits. Used in radio and television
km.
communication systems.
84
Radioactivity
Henry Becqueral. He found uranium and some of its salts emits
continuous radiation which affected the photographic plates.
85
Radioactive elements
The elements which emit radio active radiations are called
radioactive elements. These rays are called Becqueral rays are
radioactive rays.
Uranium, radium, thorium, polonium etc., At.Wt greater than 206.
86
87 88 Comparison of gamma rays and X-rays 89 Artificial radioactivity A transmutation of non
87
88
Comparison of gamma
rays and X-rays
89
Artificial radioactivity
A transmutation of non radioactive element into radio active element
by artificial means is called artificial radio activity. The induced
radio active elements are called radio active radioisotopes.
90
Application:
Radioisotopes
1. Radio phosphorous – p32 – Used to monitor the intake of the
manure and its utilization.
2. Help to raises crop yields.
3. Find whether particular plant requires roor feeding or foliage
   

feeding, for which radio phosphorous is used.

4. Used to measure the thickness of thin sheets of paper or steel.

5. Sodium – 24 and Bromine – 82is used to find the rate flow of the liquid through a pipe.

6. Radio isotopes are used to detect welding defects in pipeline.

91

Archaeology

Age of fossils, rocks and earth can be determined using radioactive isotope of C14. This method is called radio carbon dating.

92

Medicine

1. Radio cobalt CO60 – Used in the treatment of cancer.

2. Radio Iodine I131 – Used in the treatment of thyroid gland, locate brain tumours.

3. Radioactive sodium (Na24) – check the effective functioning of heart.

4. Radioactive iron (F59) – Used to treat anemia.

5. Phosphorous 32 or strontium 90 is used to cure skin cancer.

6. Nuclear battery – Used in Heart pacemakers.

93

Radioactive decay

When a radioactive nucleus disintegrates by emitting alpha and beta particles a new element is formed. Alpha decay: Its atomic no. decreases by 2 and mass number by 4. Beta decay: Atomic no. increases by 1 and mass no. remains the same. Gamma emission: No change in either the atomic number or the mass number.

94

Nuclear fission

Otto han and strassman. Large amount of energy is released and it can be used as the electricity.

(Atom Bomb)

95

Chain reaction

The neutrons goes on multiplying rapidly during fission process till the whole of the fissionable material is disintegrated. Uncontrolled Chain reaction: Principle of atom bomb.

96

Nuclear reactor

It is device in which nuclear fission is produced under a self sustaining controlled nuclear chain reaction. Fuel: U235(enriched uranium), U233 and P239. Moderators: Graphite, Heavy water(D20), Berillium and its oxides are used as moderators. Control rods: Cadmium, Boron or Hafnium rods.(Absorbs neutrons). Coolant: Water, heavy water, air, carbon di oxide etc.,

97

Nuclear fusion

Thermonuclear energy. Sun – Heat energy is produced by this principle. (Stars get their energy from Carbon-Nitrogen cycle.) Fusion powers the sun and the stars where the temp. is very high. Required fuels like hydrogen, deuterium and lithium nuclei are plentiful supply in the sea. No waste materials.

98

Breeder reactors

Produce nuclear fuels during the reaction.

99

Uses: Nuclear energy

Generate power to propel the ships and submarines. Produce radio isotopes and neutron beam for medical and nuclear research applications.

100

101

102

103

104

105

Nuclear Accidents

Safety

Differences

Nuclear research centre

NPCIL

Operational reactors

Chernobyl, Russia./ Workers in the nuclear power stations, x-ray labs, mines wear photographic film badges.

Radioactive materials – kept – Thick lead containers. Lead aprons and gloves are used when working in hazardous places.

aprons and gloves are used when working in hazardous places. Trombay – Bhabha atomic research centre.(Apsara,

Trombay – Bhabha atomic research centre.(Apsara, Cirus, Zerlina, Purnima and Duruva) are research reactors located at BARC.

Nuclear Power corporation of india limited.(20,000Mw at 2020).

Purnima and Duruva) are research reactors located at BARC. Nuclear Power corporation of india limited.(20,000Mw at

106

Reactors under

106 Reactors under

construction

107

Chemical reactions

1. Sodium metal reacts very fast with water to an extent that it explodes with a huge sound.

2. Yellow phosphorous is thrown on a heap of waste papers, it catches fire immediately.

3. Camphor burns quickly and coal burns slowly.

Reactants combined together to form new products. Chemical bonds are broken in reactants and new bonds are formed in products.

108

Chemical reactions – Energy

1. Washing soda is dissolved in water to wash clothes, heat is given out.

2. Baking soda is touched with wet hand, the chillness is felt.

Heat is either absorbed or given out. In chemical reactions, energy is

either taken up or given out.

109

Rate of chemical reaction

Given in terms of concentration either of a product or of a reactant.

110

Factors affecting rate of reaction

1. The rate of reaction generally increases with the increase in concentration of the reactants.

2. Cooked food is gets spoilt quickly during summer than winter. Souring of milk is faster in summer. Generally increase in temperature increases the rate of reaction.

3. The reaction which takes place on a photographic film also depends on the varying intensity of light falling on different parts of the film.

111

Catalyst

A catalyst is a substance which is added to a reaction mixture to alter the rate of chemical reaction where the mass and chemical composition of the catalyst remain unchanged at the end of the

   

reaction. Iron is used as a catalyst in the manufacture of ammonia by Haber Process.

112

Slow reactions

In general, the reaction between covalent compounds are slow.

113

Rusting

Rusting is a very slow oxidation reaction.