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1.Define semantics and its objects.

becomes more and more a crucial factor in social organization, the need to understand it becomes Semantics (as the study of meaning) is central to the study of communication and as communication more and more pressing. Semantics is also at the centre of the study of the human mind - thought processes, cognition, conceptualization. Semantics is a branch of linguistics, which is the study of language; it is an area of study interacting with those of syntax and phonology. 2.Relation between semantics and semiotics. In the more general science of semiotics, the term semantics is used in two senses: theoretical (pure) semantics, which aims at formulating an abstract theory of meaning in the process of cognition, and therefore belongs to logic, more precisely to symbolic logic; empirical (linguistic) semantics, which studies meaning in natural languages, that is the relationship between linguistic signs and their meaning. Obviously, of the two types of semantics, it is empirical semantics that falls within the scope of linguistics. 3.Referential theory of meaning. Referential theories consider meaning to be something outside the world itself, an extra-linguistic entity. This means reducing the linguistic sign, i. e. the word to its material aspect, be it phonic or graphic. The impossibility of equating meaning with the object denoted by a given word can be explained considering three major reasons the identity meaning-object would leave meaning to a large extent undefined because not all the characteristic traits of an object as an extra- linguistic reality are identical with the distinctive features of lexical meaning; not all words have a referent in the outside world; there are: - non- referring expressions so, very, maybe, if, not, etc. - referring expressions used generically: e. g. A murder is a serious felony. - words like nouns, pronouns with variable reference depending on the context: e. g. The president decides on the foreign policy. She didn t know what to say. - words which have no corresponding object in the real world in general or at a certain moment: e. g. The unicorn is a mythical animal. She wants to make a cake this evening. - different expressions/words that can be used for the same referent, the meaning reflecting the perspective from which the referent is viewed. 4.Point out the advantages of compositional analysis. Componential Analysis assumes that all meanings can be further analysed into distinctive semantic features called semes, semantic components or semantic primitives, as the ultimate components of meaning. The search for distinctive semantic features was first limited to lexical items which were intuitively felt to form natural structures of a more ar less closed nature. Componential analysis can be fitted into a more powerful model of meaning, with additional levels of analysis apart from CA. Semantic features need not be atomic contrastive elements, but may have an internal structure of their own, that is, the semantic features can be derived from configurations of other features. This recursive power of feature-creation is particularly important in considering metaphor. There have emerged three different levels at which word-meaning can be analysed. the word-sense as an entirety may be seen as a conceptual unit in its own right prepackaged experience (Leech, 1990:121); this unit may be subdivided into components/features by CA; both word-senses and features, representing prototypic categories can be broken down into fuzzy sets of attributes. 5 Define the notion of semantic field and state main elements of the semantic field.

Semantic fields with a more restricted number of terms are incorporated into larger ones, the latter are themselves structurated into even larger ones, until the entire lexicon of a language is integrated into a unitary system. In Trier's opinion therefore semantic fields act as intermediaries between individual lexical entries, as they appear in a dictionary, and the vocabulary as a whole. Coseriu defined the semantic field as a primary paradigmatic structure of the lexic, a paradigm consisting in lexical units of content (lexemes), which share a continuous common zone of signification, being in an immediate opposition one to another. A semantic field should be understood in Trier's original sense, namely as a zone of signification covered by a number of closely interrelated lexical items. In this respect the componential analysis of meaning seems to be nearer the true concept of the semantic field. 6. Linguistics relativism vs semantic universals Semantic relativism and semantic universals are two conflicting points of view in relation to meaning. Both theses concern the relation between the structure of language and the structure of the universe. They represent in fact two different ways of interpreting the relation between the universe, as experienced by man, and language. Linguistic relativism relates the structure of language to the structure of the universe as reflected in man's mind, ceases to be commonly agreed upon when one begins to consider the nature of this relationship. Linguistic relativism or determinism in its extreme variant, which maintains that people's knowledge of the world, the categorization of external experience is totally de Universal semantics. Interest in the study of language meaning shifted from what keeps languages apart to what all languages are said to have in common. The idea that the meanings of words in different languages can be analyzed, at least partially, in terms of a given number of conceptual atoms identificable in the analysis of the vocabularies of all languages has become once again a very popular one with linguistics. As for the "universality" of grammar, it lies at the foundation of all linguistic work produced before the advent of structuralism. termined by the structure of language. 7.Relative motivation Relative motivation. In the case of relatively motivated language signs, it is not the sounds which somehow evoke the meaning; whatever can be guessed about the meaning of such words is a result of the analysis of the smaller linguistic signs which are included in them. Relative motivation involves a much larger number of words in the language than absolute motivation. There are three types of relative motivation: motivation by derivation; by composition and semantic motivation. An analysis of the use of derivational means to create new words in the language will reveal its importance for the vocabulary of a language. The prefix {-in}, realized phonologically in various ways and meaning either (a) not and (b) in, into, appears in at least 2,000 English words: inside, irregular, impossible, incorrect, inactive etc. Similarly, the Latin capere ("take") appears in a great number of English words: capture, captivity, capable, reception, except, principal, participant, etc. 8. Absolute motivation There are several classes of linguistic signs, which can be said to be absolutely motivated: Interjections. It would be wrong to consider, as is sometimes done, that interjections somehow depict exactly the physiological and psychological states they express. The fact that interjections differ in sound from one language to another is the best proof of it. Compare Romanian au! aoleu! vai! etc. and English ouch!, which may be used in similar situations by speakers of the two languages. Onomatopoeia. This is true of imitative or onomatopoeic words as well. Despite the relative similarity in the basic phonetic substance of words meant to imitate animal or other sounds and noises, their phonological structure follows the rules of pattern and arrangement characteristic of each separate language. There are instances in which the degree of conventionality is highly marked, as evidenced by the fact that while in English a dog goes bow-wow, in Romanian it goes ham-ham. Also, such forms as English whisper and Romanian opti are considered to be motivated in the two languages, although they are quite different in form. Phonetic symbolism. Phonetic symbolism is based on the assumption that certain sounds may be associated with particular ideas or meanings, because they somehow seem to share some attributes

usually associated with the respective referents. The problem of phonetic symbolism has been amply debated in linguistics and psychology and numerous experiments have been made without arriving at very conclusive results. 9.Explain the importance of the process of categorization. The process of categorization is essential because it represents "the main way we make sense of experience.This mental operation, which consists in putting together different things, is present in all our activities: thinking, perception, speaking etc. Categorization and categories are fundamental for the organization of human experience. 10. The model of necessary The Aristotleian model of necessary and sufficient conditions, very largely used in philosophy, anthropology, psychology and linguistics is based on the following thesis: Concepts and categories are entities with very clear borderlines. The model is based on truth and false system: It is a dog provided that it fits the criterial conditions of the category "dog". The members of the same category have an equal status since each member has the features required by the definition of the category. So, each member is a good as any other. One major problem with this approach has been that it seems to assume that if speakers share the same concept they will agree on the necessary and sufficient conditions: if something has them, it is an x; if not, not. 11. The model of prototype Kleiber speaks about two sciences of prototype theory: the standard theory and the extended theory. The standard theory corresponds to the period when E. Rosch and her team publish their work. According to prototype theory, the category is structured on two dimensions: the horizontal dimension (the internal structure) and the vertical dimension (intercategorial relations). The Horizontal Dimension. The prototype is the best exemplar, the central instance of a category. This new conception is based on the following principles The category has an internal prototypical structure. The borderlines of the categories or concepts are not very clearly delimited, they are vague. Not all the members of a category present common characteristics; they are grouped together on the basis of the family resemblance. An entity is a member of a certain category if it presents similarities with the prototype theory. Although the prototype theory was considered a veritable revolution, it is not a miraculous solution for all semantic problems and it cannot surpass all the difficulties which remain unsolved in the classical model of necessary and sufficient conditions. But, the theory brings three new elements of a great importance for lexical semantics. This theory allows us to integrate in the meaning of a word, characteristics excluded by the classical model, being considered unnecessary, encyclopaedic features; It proves the existence of an internal organization of the category. It also explains the hierarchical conceptual structure and intercategorial relations. 12. Vertical dimension of categories. The Vertical Dimension. Relations between Concepts. The relational nature of conceptual knowledge is an important issue in semantics. Words are in a network of semantic links with other words and it is reasonable to assume that conceptual structures are similarly linked. Models of conceptual hierarchies are fundamental in the cognitive psychology literature. A model based on defining attributes was proposed by Collins and Quillian 13. Cognitive semantics. the term cognitive semantics might be objected to as being rather uninformative: in this instance because in many semantic approaches it is assumed that language is a mental faculty and that linguistic abilities are supported by special forms of knowledge. Cognitive linguists often point to a division between formal and functional approaches to language. Formal approaches, such as generative grammar are often associated with a certain view of language and cognition: that knowledge of linguistic structures and rules forms an antonomous module (faculty), independent of

other mental processes of attention, memory and reasoning. This external view of an independent linguistic module is often combined with a view of internal modularity: that different levels of linguistic analysis, such as phonology, syntax and semantics, form independent modules. the cognitive semantics literature meaning is based on conventionalized conceptual structures. Thus semantic structure, along with other cognitive domains, reflects the mental categories which people have formed from their experience of growing up and acting in the world. A number of conceptual structures and processes are identified in this literature but special attention is often given to metaphor.

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