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CHAPTER-I INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION
Advertising is a powerful communication force and a vital marketing tool-helping to sell goods, services images and ideas (or ideals) through channels of information and persuasion. Advertising is multidimensional. It is a form of mass communication, a powerful marketing tool, a component of the economic system, a means of financing, the means media, a social institution, an art form, an instruments of business management, a field of employment and profession and above all it is a big business. The American Marketing Association (AMA) has defined advertising in the following words: Advertising is any form of non-personal presentation of goods, services or ideas for action, openly paid for by an identified sponsor. Advertising is the key word in the moderate corporate world. Advertising does not end with the flow of information from the seller to the buyer; it goes further to influence and persuade people to action or belief. No business concern worth its salt can ever imagine its existence without it. This is the reason why crores of rupees are being spent on advertising. Advertisements have become sort of omnipresent. You get up in the morning and reach out for the newspaper and come across borders of advertisements and a lot of bills and come across borders of advertisements and a lot of bills in the newspaper proclaiming their services or products as being the best. You switch on television for the morning news bulletin and again come across a lot of hoardings advertising certain products. Buses carrying hoardings advertising certain products and even cars carrying sticker of garages where they were serviced will meet your eyes. Even in your office, there might be a lot of calendars and other articles like pensets or note pads bearing advertisements of some companies.

ADVERTISEMENTS CAN BE REPRESENTED BY DIFFERENT WAYS E.G. INDOOR AND OUTDOOR ADVERTISEMENTS A. 1. INDOOR ADVERTISEMENT Newspaper

Newspaper is one that gives news, views, interpretation, opinions, comments and explanations regarding social, economic, political, cultural, moral, ecological and wide variety of walks of fast changing life. 2. Magazines

Magazines are the periodicals published weekly, fortnightly, monthly, quarterly and annually. They cover a wide variety of topics providing light leisure reading in easy chairs. 3. Television

Television advertisements are called as television commercials lasting far 10, 15, 20 and 30 seconds. These may be stop motion, puppets, cartoons or line action type.

4.

Film Advertisements

This is yet another medium of publicity characterized by sound, motion colour, vision and timeliness. This audio visual medium has a wide range of exhibits starting from an ordinary slide presentation to the ad films screening. B OUTDOOR ADVERTISING Posters A poster is a sheet of paper pasted on a wooden or a card or metal board depicting the ad message. Printed displays It is the painted fulletin and the wall painting. It is standardized metal sheet of rectangular shape hung or boarding stands at strategic places. C. Electric signs An electric sign is a spectacular sign giving light effects, creating charming and enchanting scene in the dark. Traveling displays It is advertising sign seen in and outside travelling vehicles like train, fuses, car and the like. Sky writing A sky writing is a kind of publicity where message is spread in the sky in the form of a smoke or the fire works or the lights. DIRECT ADVERTISING It comes all forms of printed advertising delivered directly to the prospective customers. D. DISPLAY ADVERTISING It is the systematic arrangement of samples of salable products to catch the imagination and the notice of the people.

Regarding the social influence of advertising, historian, David Potter, in his took a people of plenty observes that, advertising now compares with such long standing institutions as the school and the church, in the magnitude of its social influence. He says, it dominates the media, has vat power is shaping the popular standards, and is really one of the very limited group of institutions which exercise social control. One simple but precise definition of advertising is the action of calling something to the attention of public, especially by paid announcements. This is an important definition, because many people think of advertising mostly in terms of selling manufactures consumer goods, soaps, toothpastes, food and so on. This is most obstructive and conspicuous kind of advertising and certainly it is important, but it is by no means, the only kind. Advertising is a powerful communication force and a vital marketing tool helping to sell goods, services, images and ideas (or ideals) through channels of information and persuasion. Advertising is forever intertwined with the social, psychological needs, wants and backgrounds of consumers. The social and ethical aspects of advertising are favourite targets for cities. People who are reluctant to analyse the technical aspects of advertising dont hesitate to criticize its ethics. It is difficult to assess such judgments objectively because the values on which they are based are often nebulous. Ethical standards vary among cultural, religious, racial, age and other groups. People have diverse views about advertising which range from adoration to adhorrence. This is because the beliefs of the individuals about advertising differ. There is a fundamental distinction between attitudes and beliefs. Beliefs are descriptive statements about object attributes, whereas, attitudes are summary evaluation of objects.

Advertising decisions by the business firms are made in a societal setting i.e. advertisements are aimed at the members of society. Society is affected by advertising in economic and in social ways. Advertising contributes in many ways to our human welfare- economically and socially. It makes three main economic contributions viz., Advertising encourages economic growth It helps maintain competition It informs consumers

Economics study the allocation of societys resources. Some economists charge that advertising wastes resources. First of all, they claim that advertising just adds cost to the price of the product. Although advertising is the cost of doing business and must be included in the selling price, it may also result in substantial reduction in production and distribution costs and results in lower prices paid by consumers. Although much advertising does aim at shifting demand from one brand to another the process leads to better products for the consumers and is not really an inefficient allocation of resources. If advertising made people worse off, they would not respond to it. Effective advertising is persuasive. It influences people to buy its sponsors product. But advertising also informs consumers, and therefore has economic value. The critics model assumes that consumers have perfect knowledge (information), but that assumption is not valid in real life. Through advertising consumers learn of the existence of products and furthermore they learn which products are successful from the mere fact that they are advertised. Products try to determine what people want, make that and then advertise its availability. The opposite sequence of trying, through advertising to get people to want what is being made does not work out. Consumer sovereignty exercises its veto power readily and frequently. Careful empirical studies have uncovered little evidence that the presence of advertising leads to concentration of industry or that it erects barriers to entry into industry.

On the social side, we see that advertising touches members of society in four ways viz., Through its persuasive abilities By its truthfulness or untruthfulness Through its tastefulness or tastelessness By its cultural impacts on values and lifestyles.

Critics say that advertising is often in bad taste. This charge may come about because the product itself is deemed to be undesirable. In such cases, advertising is not at the heart of the problem. Others feel that some advertising messages appear at the wrong time, or that objectionable appeals are made or that advertising techniques employed are not acceptable. Each of these areas is frought with the hazards of personal subjectively; what one person thinks is objectionable will not disturb another. Whether advertising has an adverse impact claimed that advertising breeds materialism, but it is probably more correct to say that advertising reflects peoples values. Thus, advertising appeals to the material wants of the people rather than creating them. Advertising supports the nations goal of assuring freedom from government and political controls over editorial matter programming. Certain types of advertising may have harmful effect on small children, but all children are more perceptive at selective than some seem to realize. Advertising may also sometimes perpetuate stereotypes, although there has been considerable improvement in this area. Advertising sometimes creates a certain sense of insecurity in its attempts to sell goods services, but it can do this only when the seeds of anxiety are already present. The world itself seems to have grown more complex. In the absence of traditional authority, advertising has become a kind of social guide. It depicts us in all the myriad situations possible to a life of free choice. It provides ideas about style, morality, behaviour. It is especially concerned to described human relationship; between one individual and another, between individuals and institutions.

INTRODUCTION OF DUKE
Duke is synonym with the international quality T-shirts and in fact the harbinger of Tshirt culture in the country. After making a modest beginning in the early 1970s Duke has been a great success story in the Indian apparel market today. Duke was adjudged as Indias number 1 selling T-shirt brand ORGMARG The duke group is one of the largest manufacturers of knitted fabrics and garments. Apart from the well established domestic market it is into exports also. It is the power of dreams. Dreams are what drive us. Ever since our inception in 1966 we have continued to deliver innovative knitwear and fabric that have made key style statements. DUKE HIERARCHY Chairman Director. Design Head. Merchandising Head Advertising Head Quality Control . Production Head. Marketing Head Knitting Department . Embroidery Section. Fabric Inspection. Cutting Hall . Unit Head. Sample Room. Sample Head. Account Department. MR. Komal Kumar Jain MR. Kuntal Jain MR. Kuntal Jain (Temporarily) MR. Munish Jain MR. Gagan Jain MR. Thomas Valley MR. Mahinder Singh Joshi MR Balkar Singh MR. Ritesh Jain MR. Ashisih Jain MR. Pappu MR. Y.P. Bhimsbhau MR. Om Prakash MR. Ishwar Giri MR. Arun Kumar MR. Bharat Bhushan

ABOUT THE GROUP


The chairman of Rs. 150 crore Duke Group is soft spoken and self effacing and doesnt have any affectations of some self made tycoons. HE started as in trader in Ludhiana in 1960s with an investment of Rs. 50,000. Thus the journey of Duke Group began 42 years ago, with chairman Sh. Komal Kumar Jain. The steps were firm and full of dreams. The Family is originally from Ambala, Punjab. In 1962, at the age of 15, he completed his high school and went to Ludhiana to get his training in the hosiery business form relatives who had a factory there. In 1966 after the death of his father the family moved to Ludhiana. With a small investment of Rs. 50,000 he opened a small shop and started as DK Knitwears at Dal Bazaar in Ludhiana. Initially the group was only into mufflers, but after three years we got into the business of manufacturing as well.

CORPORATE TRACK RECORD


The Duke saga commenced about four decades ago, in Ludhiana, the fashion hub of Punjab. Today Duke embraces a complete vertically integrated garment manufacturing plant, with knitting, dying, processing, finishing, mercerizing, compacting, embroidery and printing under one roof. Production facilities are in India. Duke Fashions (India) Limited pioneered the T-shirt culture, and gradually established several new trends in knitting garments and fabric research. In 1998, Thermal wears were introduced for the first time in India, under the brand name Neva, by Mr. Nirmal Jain, Younger brother of the founder. Two other group constituents Venus Garments (India) Limited and Venus cotsyn (India) Limited, Glaze Garments (India) Limited, is headed by Mr. Anil Jain, the youngest of the brothers. Today Mr. Kuntal Jain, son of the founder, is steering the flagship brand in the new millennium. Thanks to his dynamic Programs, Duke is acknowledged today as the undisputed leader, with a turnover Rs. 65 crores.

Stringent quality control mechanisms punctuate the entire operations and make certain that the final products enjoy true value for money status and first choice of customer in India and abroad as well. The Company strives to be a good corporate Citizen, with several path-breaking ecofriendly initiatives to minimize pollution, e.g. waste water treatments, use of nature and eco-friendly materials such as dyes and chemicals, and recycling of polyester yarns. The goal, simply stated, is to ensure a green, unpolluted environment.

DUKE - CUTTING EDGE SYNERGY


Duke is evolving, growing and diversifying to attain new heights. The key expression is cutting edge technologies and relentless quality checks by a Quality Assurance Team to achieve impeccable synergy. Our in house knitting, dying, mercerizing, finishing, compacting, garment printing, embroidery and manufacturing facilities feature state-of-the-art machineries and equipment supplied by world class Juki, Pegasus, Yamato, Brother, Barudan, Stefab, Ramsons and others. The embroidery section is fully computerized. The knitting division is fully equipped to make single jersey, double jersey, auto stripes for ribs, fleece, velour, feeder stripes, terry and computer jacquards in diverse gauges, Our fabric choice ranges from 100% cotton to techno-blends with polyester, acrylic, linen, polymix, lyocell, viscose, modal spandex, nylon, rayon etc. The design studio of the company is well laced with expert professionals and latest software. At the beginning of each season, our design team carries out extensive research-based forecasting to ensure that we stay at the pinnacle of contemporary fashion.

PHILOSOPHY
Creation of a unique corporate management system and culture is enabling DUKE to develop into a conglomerate that becomes a role model of worldwide respect and trust. Founder of the group, Komal Kumar Jain, and his son Kuntal Jain, have embraced and taken forward the principles of total Quality Management which translates to doing whatever it takes! to guarantee 100% customer delight. The Group corporate philosophy is based on the following principles: Credibility, integrity and honesty Straightforward business dealings Work as a worship Spirit of Social Service and human respect The business of fashion is dreaming and styling the future. Business strategy, vision & innovation are the principal pillars on which our forward-thinking corporate policy is founded. After all, no company can afford to stand still. We work ceaselessly to develop new directions in apparel production and export, thus ensuring that all our constituent companies shall continue to have a strong voice in the international apparel and textile forums of today and tomorrow.

THE PORTFOLIO
Every design that DUKE create, every contact that DUKE accept, DUKE execute it with the strictest regulation. No impractical designs, no cutting corners, no compromising on quality for our valued customers and vendors. Customer satisfaction begins at our drawing board. Every design is created with the need of customers foremost in our mind DUKE considers how they will fit our designs around their lifestyle. The Duke group produces for men, women, and children: * T-shirts * Jackets * Sweaters * Track suits * Sweatshirts * Shirts * Trousers * Denims * Lounge Wears * Lowers * Bermudas * Thermal Wears * Innerwear * Accessories

STRATERGIC APPROACH
The Duke groups strategic approach is entirely brand centric and strategically defined to reach divergent markets in India and around the World, especially in Nepal, Sri Lanka, Canada and U.S.A. with the help of extensive advertising and promotional campaigns. Our seasonal product catalogues are successful in positioning our brand at the top echelons of quality and value for money. A strong market network of over 2500 multi-brand outlets and over 70 exclusive stores across major cities in India is succeeding in bolstering the profit curve of the entire product range. Our own sales team monitors this massive network to: Make it easy for the network to build positive relationships and increase sales. Understand market segments and changing demands. Communicate feedback to the Group headquarters. We are the only national brand with international standards. Our well-rounded and multileveled marketing approach incorporates a wide assortment of image management and customer interactive programs.

AWARDS AND ACCOLADES


Duke fashions (India) Limited has received the most coveted ISO 9001- 2000 certificate from DNV, the largest certification body in India. ORG_MARG, the largest market intelligence service in Asia, has proclaimed Duke Tshirts as the number one selling T-shirts brand in India. Mr. Komal Kumar Jain, founder, was awarded the prestigious Udyog Patra Award by the Institute of Trade & Industrial Development for his contributions towards economic growth. DFU publications have felicitated Duke with the Inside Fashion award, or excellence in retail. Safety award from Director of factories and Punjab industrial safety council Chandigarh. TID Quality Excellence Award for manufacture of T-shirts & Ready-made Garments from Shri. S. Vaghela (Honble Minister of Textiles, Govt. of India)

COMPANY WORKFLOW

VARIOUS DEPARTMENTS
Knitting Fabric Store Sampling Marketing Advertising Designing Production and planning control Quality Control Embroidery Receiver and Dispatch Purchase Loose Store

ORGANISATION CHART

OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1. To find the preference given by the respondents for various measures of ensuring proper and ethical advertising. 2. To study the customers perception and loyalty towards the Duke Fashion Ltd. 3. To study the factors which affects the sales of a product. 4. To study the brand potential of Duke Fashions Ltd.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
We have come across the number of studies done in international level on behavioral aspect of consumers in the context of retail marketing. The various factors influencing peoples shopping behavior have been observed by Reichheld (1996), Verdisco (1999) and Erika (1999). As customers expectation move continuously upward, it is imperative for the retailers to avoid the complaints which invariably lead to customer dissatisfaction. Berry (1996), Brookman (1998) and Jackson (1999) have identified situations which result consumers dissatisfaction towards retail brands. Some studies have also found consumer loyalty as an important area. Connors (1996) opined the retailers delivering genuine benefits based on intimate knowledge of their customers could only reap the ultimate benefit. Johnson (1999) observed factors like rewards; value added benefits and recognition build loyal customers. Again, a number of brand choice models have been developed taking into consideration the influence of present purchase behavior on future purchase probabilities. Whether the consumer behavior for retail brands will walk along the same path mentioned by the earlier researchers is yet to be explored. Number of studies in the context of retailing at national level is trivial. Publications in national reports and magazines mainly provide general information about Indian retail markets and the retail brands playing there. These studies mainly focus on information relating to market share, rate of growth, contributions as well as expectations from the retail brands of different product categories operating in India. A study conducted by Memon (2006) wnted to trace the impact of private level brands on retailing dealing in garments. This work considered only two retail brands Westside and Pantaloons in Ahmadabad city and accepted the hypothesis that people are ready to switch over to other brands if same facilities are available. Recently, Radha Krishna and Shylajan (2007) proposed a conceptual model and considered the influence of various marketing and demographic factors on consumers habitual buying behavior towards branded articles.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Exploratory Approach An exploratory approach is often used at the start of research process, when the aim is to identify, define and structure the problem. This approach is used extensively, as it provide better understanding of the problem. This is accomplished by gathering information from secondary sources and conducting questionnaire and interviews with persons involved in the field. This approach forms the major part in the dissertation.

Exploratory research approach is valuable mean of finding out what is happening; to seek new insights; to ask questions and to assess phenomena in a new light. Inferring from what Saunders has to say, there are three principle ways of conducting exploratory research: A research of literature Talking to experts

Primary Research Primary research is an investigation, which involves collection of original data, using accepted research methodology. Primary research is carried out or conducted for a particular problem and characteristics of primary research is that it is first hand in nature and the information is collected exactly for the particular problem. In other words original data is known as primary data. different types of data collection: Observation Questionnaire Primary data is gathered and assembled specifically for the project at hand (Zikmund, 1994). The primary research contains three

In my research, I have used questionnaire to collect data from customers.

Population In statistics, the word population has a different meaning than that it has in general life. In statistics, population consists of all the units currently under study or all the number of observations connected with the study. Sample size A sample means a smaller representative of a large whole. It is a part of the whole population which is selected for study. Typically, the population is very large; making a census or a complete enumeration of all the values in the population is impractical or impossible. The sample represents a subset of manageable size. The sample size in this study is 100 customers. Sampling technique Under this technique, some representative units or informants are selected from the universe. The best way to avoid a biased or unrepresentative sample is to select a random sample, also known as a probability sample. A random sample is defined as a sample where the probability that any individual member from the population being selected as part of the sample is exactly the same as any other individual member of the population. Several types of random samples are simple random samples, systematic random samples, stratified random samples, and cluster random samples. In my study, I have used simple random sampling technique.

Data collection method In this study, the data has been collected through questionnaires. A questionnaire is a set of questions designed to generate data necessary for accomplishing the objectives of the research (McDaniel et al 1996). They are the most popular way of collecting primary information. In the present study close ended questionnaire is used.

Secondary Research Secondary research means collection of the data that is already available i.e., it refers to the data, which has already been collected and analyzed by someone else. In my research I have used the following sources of secondary data. The detail of which shall be given in later part of my report (bibliography). Articles in newspapers/magazines Internet websites Retail Marketing books for theoretical knowledge

Area of the Study The area of the study is limited to the geographical boundaries of Ludhiana. The study has been conducted in the following showrooms: Big Bazaar (Ludhiana) Westside (Ludhiana) Ansal Plaza(Ludhiana) Vishal Mega Mart (Ludhiana)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


Analysis of the Data Collected From Customers Through Questionnaire Survey

1. Is advertisement useful in todays competitive scenario? Yes 100 No 0 Cant say 0

INTERPRETATION It is analysed that 85% of respondents thinks advertisement is useful in Todays competitive scenario.

2. Which media of advertisement do you think most appropriate for apparel industry?

Television 70

Print media 10

Internet 15

others 5

INTERPRETATION It is analysed that out of hundred respondent 70% think television is appropriate, 20% thinks print media is appropriate, 15% thinks internet is appropriate for apparel industry.

3. Which channels do you watch?

Music 60

News 20

Entertainment Movies 10 5

Kids 1

others 4

INTERPRETATION It is analysed that 60% respondent watched music channels, 20% watch news channel, 10% watch entertainment channel, rest of them lies on others.

4. Which magazines do you read? Femina Stardust Cinebitz India today Business world others 10 12 4 50 20 4

INTERPRETATION It is analysed that 50% respondent read india today magazine , 20% read business world , 12% read star dust magazine , 10 % read femina magazine , 4% read cinebitz . 5. Which newspaper do you read? The tribune 10

The Hindustan times The times of india Dainik jagran Punjab kesri others

25 4 20 35 6

INTERPRETATION It is analysed that 25% respondent read the Hindustan times, 35% read Punjab kesri, 20% read dainik jagran, 10% read the tribune, and others are 6%. 6. Which aspect of TV commercial do you think the most important?

concept of AD

10

visual presentation overall presentation slogan model humor

25 40 5 15 5

INTERPRETATION It is analysed that 40% respondent thinks that the overall presentation of T.V. commercial is the most important part of the ad. , 25% thinks visual presentation is important, 15% goes in the favor of models. 10% goes with the concept of ad. 7. Do you know about duke? Yes 100 No 0

INTERPRETAION It is analysed that 100% respondent know about the duke.

8. From where did you come to know about Duke?

TV magazines Hoardings

10 5 5

newspaper internet friends/relatives noticed at shop/market

15 15 35 15

INTERPRETATION It is analysed that 35% come to know about the duke from their relatives, 15% comes to know from market, internet, newspaper, and 5% from magazines and hoardings.

9. Have you seen the TV AD of Duke in this summer/winter? Yes 60 No 40

INTERPRETAION It is analysed that only 40% respondent watched the T.V. ad of duke this summer and winter.

10. How would you rate the AD? Excellent Good Average Poor 15 45 30 10

INTERPRETATION It is analysed that 45% respondent rate the ad as good, 15% rated as excellent, 30% rated as average, and 10% rated as poor.

11. Have you seen the print AD of Duke? Yes 55 No 45

INTERPRETATION It is analysed that 55% respondent seen the print ad of duke.

12. For buying a product what you see most of the times? product quality brand image and design 40 30 pricing schemes 20 7 3 and brand loyality others

INTERPRETATION It is analysed that 40% respondent see product quality and design for buying a product , 30% are in the favor of brand image , 20% goes for pricing and schemes , 7% are in the favor of brand loyality.

13. Promotion of schemes / discounts helps in stock clearances more sales helps in enhancing diluting brand image 40 30 20 image 10 brand

INTERPRETATION It is analysed that 40% respondent thinks promotion of schemes and discounts helps in stock clearance, 30% are in the favor of more sales, and 20% are in the favor of enhancing brand image while 10% are in the favor of diluting the brand image.

14. Which of the following media helps in improving sales as well as social image? FM radio events sponsorship TV celebrity endorsement 25 45 20 10

INTERPRETATION It is analysed that 45% respondent thinks event sponsorship helps in improving the sales as well as social image. 25% and 20% are in the favor of F.M. radio and T.V. and 10% are in the favor of celebrity endorsement.

FINDINGS

1. DUKE has a good brand image in the existing market. 2. Large advertisement of the product as compared to other company.

3. Customers are brand loyal; they stick to the duke brand. 4. 5. Many facilities are available to customer. Due to low price of product, more customers are attracted towards the brand.

6. There is a little more need of a proper information, encouragement & motivation related to customer so that they stick for a long time. 7. There is a complaint from the side of retailers is that dealers deal customer directly and sell wears on lower price, due to this customer does not go to retailers and purchase from dealers.

SUGGESTIONS
1. More color scheme and styling should be added to the products. 2. There should be more Duke Advertisements in TV media, Print media and magazines. 3. More variety should be added in Duke Products. 4. There should be more offers to promote the Duke products. 5. Company must make strategies for rural market.

REFERENCES
Books: Kothari C. R. (2005) RESEARCH METHODOLOGY New Age International Limited, Fifth Edition Kotler Philip & Keller Kevin. MARKETING MANAGEMENT: Pearson Prentice Hall, New Delhi, 2006 Parry, Mark E., STRATEGIC MARKETING MANAGEMENT: Means-End Approach, New Delhi, McGraw-Hill, 2002 Saxena Rajan, MARKETING MANAGEMENT: Tata Mcgraw, New Delhi, 2006 Kotler Philip, KOTLER ON MARKETING: Free Press, New York.

Research Papers:

Alexander, N. and Silva, M.D., 2002, Emerging

markets and the

internationalization of

retailing: The Brazilian experience, International Journal of

Retail Distribution and Management, 30, (6) 300-314. Bhusan, Ratna and Sanjay Anand, 2005, The Young and restless drive

consumerism, Times of India, April 4. Berry, L.L. (1996), Retailers with a future, Marketing Management, Spring,

Vol. 5, No.1, pp. 36-46. Memon, S.S. (2006), Garment Lifestyle Retailing Stores: Vis a Vis Impact of

Private Labels: A Paradigm Shift, The Icfai Journal of Marketing Management, Vol.5, No.3, pp. 54-69. Radha Krishna, G. and Shylajan, C.S. (2007), Determinants of Habitual Buying

Behaviour: A Study on Branded Apparel, the Icfai Journal of Marketing Management, Vol. VI. No.3, pp. 6-21. Sinha, P.K., Bannerjee, A. and Uniyal, D.P., 2002, Deciding where to buy: Store

choice behaviour of Indian shoppers, Vikalpa, 27 (2) 13-28.

Web Pages: http://www.duke india.com http://www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/retail http://www.google.com http://www.owmnahar.com http://www.researchandmarket.com/reportinof.asp?report_id=307524

http://www.researchandmarket.com/reportinof.asp?report_id=236028 http://www.scribd.com http://yahoo.com