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MECH 371

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Overview

The control volume and differential approach are the analytic tools used by engineers to solve flow problems. Unfortunately, purely analytic methods are limited: lack of complete information (turbulence) difficulty of math and computations required. 100 years of research has yet to yield a complete theory for turbulent flow in a pipe. the variables are known but not their relationship

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Engineering fluid mechanics is a combination of theory and experiment more so than most other fields.

MECH 371

Investigate the height gained.

We can write h = F ( V, g , ) where is the ramp angle. Finding the function F is the objective of the experiment.

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Turbulent flow in a pipe. Investigate the head loss. p2 p1

ghf

where ~ is an order of magnitude estimation We can write ghf = F ( L, D, V, , , ) where is a measure of the wall roughness. Finding the function F is the objective of the experiment. F need not be an analytical function. Tables, charts, and curve fits are perfectly acceptable. If we varied each parameter for 10 data points we require 106 experiments including experiments with fluid of different and . Also, anyone using your data would have to make a 6 parameter interpolation. To reduce the number of parameters, we take advantage of Dimensional Analysis.

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Dimensional Analysis : a packaging or compacting technique used to reduce the complexity of experimental programs and increase the generality of the results. results L VD ghf , =F , 1 2 D D V 2

Turbulent pipe flow

helps our way of interpreting and planning an experiment or theory. It suggests ways of writing equations. gives a great deal of insight into the form of physical relationships. provides scaling laws which can convert data from models to prototypes.

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

To use dimensional analysis, we must make use of the principle of dimensional homogeneity (PDH). PDH: Any equation that completely describes a physical phenomenon must be valid regardless of the units of measurements. Dimensions of all additive terms must be the same. Not affected by derivatives and integrals.

Example The Bernoulli's equation p1

V12 p V2 + g z1 = 2 + 2 + g z2 2 2

is dimensionally homogeneous.

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Example However, the Manning Equation for open channel flow (English units) is not dimensionally homogeneous ( semi-empirical ) : V= 1.49 2 1 R n 3 S2 , n R n = radius (ft) S = slope n = number V = velocity (ft/sec) The Manning Equation is valid only for English units. Any dimensionally homogeneous equation or process can be written in nondimensional form. Nondimensionalization of experimental data or equation requires the use of the Buckingham Pi Theorem.

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Buckingham Pi () Theorem: # of dimensionless parameters () = # of important parameters involved - # of dimensions involved. For dimensional analysis there are in general four dimensions used: M , L , , T or F , L , , T where = time

For most of this course we neglect heat transfer so we'll usually use only three: (M , L , ) or (F , L , )

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Steps in Applying the Buckingham Pi Theorem

Pipe Flow Example: (more detail) ghf = F ( L, D, V, , , )

where ghf represents mechanical energy loss 1. Obt i i 1 Obtain important parameters of the problem t t t f th bl i) flow properties: V, ghf ii) geometry: L, D, iii) fluid properties: ,

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

2. Determine the number of dimensionless parameters you need to construct N = 7 * M = the maximum number of dimension parameters that cannot form a dimensionless ( ) group among themselves. M is usually equal to the number of fundamental dimensions involved in the dimensional parameters, K . It is never greater than K . We have M , L , T so K = 3. To find M initially, assume M = K and try to find a set of M dimensional parameters that can't form a group. If M = K then stop. If M K reduce M by 1 and try again.

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Hint: Try to find parameters whose dimensions are as close to "pure" as possible. L =

D =

[ L] [ L]
-1 -3 -1

-1

V = L

= ML = ML =

[ L]

We can choose D , V , and since we cannot form a with these. M =3 N - M = 7 3 = 4 groups

Rare cases when M < K are when certain dimensions (usually mass and time) occur only in M fixed combinations. For example, in stress analysis: 2

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

* 3. Nondimensionalization of the parameters. Rules ranked in order of importance: Do not use the dependent parameter

( ghf ) . ( , )

Do not use a parameter that may be important only part of the time

Use parameters whose dimensions are as close to "pure" as possible. Important: Select as repeating variables M of the dimensional parameters with all of the fundamental dimensions. , V, D Take the remaining parameters and combine them with repeating ones ( ghf , L, , ) , to form the (4) groups. Let's start with 1 = ( ghf ) a V b Dc .

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Find a , b , and c so 1 is dimensionless:

[ 1 ] = L2 -2 ML-3 = M a [ L]
o 2-3a+b+c

-1 L [ L]
b

[] -2-b

= [ M ] [ L] [ ]
o

a=0 2 + b = 0 a = 0 , b = 2 , c = 0 2 3a + b + c = 0

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

3. continued 1 = ghf V2
1-3a+b+c

2 = ( L ) a V b Dc = [ M ] a [ L ]

[] -b

a = 0 b = 0 1 3a + b + c + 0 2 = L D a = 0 , b = 0 , c = 1

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

3 = ( ) a V b Dc 1+a=0 1 3a + b + c = 0 1 b = 0 a = 1 , b = 1 , c = 1 3 =

VD
D

4 = ( ) a V b Dc = So we can write 1 = F ( 2 , 3 , 4 ) or

L ghL , =F , V2 D VD D

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

4. Rearrange the groups to correspond with customary usage. Use traditional types of dimensionless parameters. parameters Rearrangement: We are allowed to multiply s by a constant raise the s to any positive or negative power multiply any power of a with any power of another . g gh VD gh g f 2 2f = , = V 1 V2 VD 2
1

so we can write i

g f gh L VD =G , , 1 2 D D V 2

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Physical Significance of Dimensionless Parameters

Standard groups can be interpreted as a ratio of typical values of two physical entities (force or energy). Imagine a moving fluid particle under the influence of an inertia force (ma ) along a streamline

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

since V, L, are characteristic velocity, length, and time, we can write V V V2 = L L V V2 = V 2 L2 L

ma L3

Estimate the viscous shear force viscous shear force shear stress area u shear stress = = y

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Assuming the velocity changes from 0 to the characteristic value V over the length L u u V 0 V = y y L L V L2 = VL L

VL = Re

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MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Pressure force = pressure difference area = pL2 pressure force pL2 p = = C p = coefficient of pressure 1 1 inertia force 2 2 V L V2 2 2 gravity force L3 g inertia force V 2 L2 V2 = = Froude number squared gL gravity force L3 g

Note that not all s are force ratios L char. flow time V Strouhal number = = V 1 char. oscillation time

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Standard Dimensionless Parameters

Internal flow The functional relation for these problems:

External flow

Dimensional parameter of interest = F (size, shape, fluid velocity, fluid properties, e s o a pa a ete o te est (s e, s ape, u d ve oc ty, u d p ope t es, dimensional constants) In general, the type of parameters on the right hand side changes very little from problem to problem.

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MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

On the left hand side we are usually interested in External flow: force on the body by the fluid (total force, lift force or drag) or oscillation ( ). ill ti ) Internal flow: wall force (shear stress), pressure drop, mechanical energy loss, or oscillations ( ). For our example we will use drag (D) and mechanical energy loss (ghf ), respectively. D = F (L V, , , a, , c p , cv , g , , Tw ) (L, V a ghf = F (L, V, , , a, , c p , cv , g , , Tw ) and

(a

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Using the drag equation we put it in fundamental dimensional form:
ML L M M L 2 = F [ L] , , L3 , L , ,
2 2 M L L L 2 , 2T , 2T , 2 , [ L] , [ T ]

The drag equation has N = 12 dimensional paramenters and K = 4 fundamental dimensions M, L, , T . Since , V L and c p cannot form a , K = 4 and we use them as the V, L, repeating variables. # of Pi groups = N - K = 12 4 = 8

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MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Perform dimensional analysis on the original equation to get
VL V V 2 L V 2 c p Tw =F , , , , , , 1 a gL cv L T0 V 2 L2 2

Each of the groups on the right hand side is a "standard" dimensionless parameter in fluid mechanics. The standard dimensionless parameter are used as tools to classify flow as laminar or turbulent, compressible or incompressible, etc. Dimensionless parameters and their significance are given by the following table.

MECH 371

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MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

Note for the pipe flow:

VL V V 2 L V 2 c p Tw ghf =F , , , , , , 1 2 a gL cv L T0 V 2

Important parameters that appear on the right hand side of our equations are Re through Tw . These act as the dependent variables. T0

i drag force

i lift force f i pressure difference i wall shear stress

(D) (L)

(p = p p ) ( w ) (ghf ) ( )

MECH 371

Dimensional Analysis and Similarity

These appear in the following dimensionless groups: CD , CL , C p in your fluid text. Also, Cf

w
1 V2 2

St

L
V

Strouhal number (oscillating flows)

These act as dependent variables in our experiments. For example: T CD = F Re Ma, We, Fr, , , w Re, Ma We Fr L T0 ghf = F (" . . . " ) 1 V2 2

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MECH 371

Notes

Questions?

MECH 371

Notes

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