Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 4

1 SIMULATED TEACHING INGGY YULIANI PRIBADY 0805980 (15th OCTOBER 2008) INTRODUCTION One of the foremost responsibilities of language

teachers should be to create and implement speaking assessment methods that actually measure oral language proficiency in action. To do this, many researchers and practitioners alike have suggested the power of simulations to transpose the normal classroom into an authentic setting where language skills can be evaluated under more realistic conditions. Simulation is one activity that can contribute to a successfuland highly enjoyable experience. It engages students by placingthem directly into the conflict of the real situation. It comes aliveas students interact with one another. The aim of this paper is to explain what is simulated teaching and how it is applied in the teaching learning process. DEFINITION AND PREMISES S.S. Chauhan defined gaming and simulation as a gestalt communication mode, a futures language which combine a gamespecific language and appropriate communicat on technologies with the multilogue interaction pattern. (Chauhan, 1979: 120) Gestalt psychology, which is related in some ways to the philosophy now known as constructivism, Constructionism holds that learning can happen most effectively when people are actively making things in the real world. Constructionism is connected with experiential learning and builds onsome of the ideas of Jean Piaget. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/constructionism , accessed August 2008) ORIGIN Since a long time ago, simulation has been used by human and even animal to train their young ones for adaptation with their environment. At first, chess was assumed as the original form of 2 the war game later on it developed into more serious and sophisticated military game to train new soldiers. The simulation technique has been applied successfully in the last decade in education .The advantages of the technique has been known all over the world by educationist. The national games council was established in 1961 in USA and in 1970, the International simulation and games Association was formed in Germany. It is the evident of the importance of simulation technique.

MECHANISMS AND STEPS IN SIMULATION Simulation play with a useful real life language use can make the students learn and develop ideas about the world. It helps them build the skills necessary for critical thinking and leadership. Its how they learn to solve problems and to feel good about their ability to learn. The implementation of simulated teaching in the classroom can employ several steps which was recommended by Ned Flanders (Chauhan, 1979: 122) 1.The teacher should assign all students to participate. 2.The teacher should prepare the simulated teaching material. 3.The teacher should determine the sequenceof the group performance 4.The teacher should evaluate the students performance and give some comments for the students after the performance. 5.The teacher should managethe whole process ofthe students performance 6.The teacher should do a reflection to the learning activity which has done. EDUCATIONAL GAMES Educational games are games that have been specifically designed to teach people about a certain subject, expand concepts, reinforce development, understand an historical event or culture, or assist them in learning a skill as they play. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/educational_games, accessed September 2008) Games can provide a context for learning, opportunities for inquiry and framework for collaboration and games help students to develop key learning skills such as: cognitive processing, logical thinking and independent decision making. Role play games enable student to take an imaginative leap out of the limited classroom. It provides a useful real life language use. Situation that students are probably to meet when using English in the real world can be simulated. Role playing / simulation is an extremely valuable method for L2 learning. It

3 encourages thinking and creativity, let students todevelop and practice new language and behavioral skills in a relatively nonthreatening setting, and can create the motivation and involvement necessary for learning to occur. THE ROLES OF TEACHER IN SIMULATED TEACHING Chauchan ( 1979: 125 ) stated that in a gaming situationthe teacher should behave like a consultant, a referee, or both.At first, The teachers introduce the game to the students, during the games the teacher acts as a consultant to those who need assistance in interpreting the rules or in making move s in the game. Finally, after the game end the teacher can discuss all about the game process with the students.

Teachers role in simulated game can also be concluded as quote from Jones (1982), "...the teacher becomes the Controller, and controls the event in the same way as a traffic controller, helping the flow of traffic and avoiding bottlenecks, but not telling individuals which way to go." Again, this is consistent with Scarcella and Oxford's (1992) principles. Rather than a traditional, teachercentered classroom structure, the teacher keeps a relatively low profile and students are free to interact with each other spontaneously. This reduces student anxiety and facilitates learning. The teacher must take on some additional responsibilities in role playing/simulation. In particular, the teacher must keep learners motivated by stimulating their curiosity and keeping the material relevant, creating a "tension to learn" (Burns and Gentry, 1998). (Http://iteslj.org/techniques/Tompkins-roleplaying.html, accessed September 2008) THE ADVANTAGES OF INSTRUCTIONAL SIMULATION 1. Motivational Advantages Games are engaging and motivating approach to students. Itgets them involved and holds their attention longer. Children usually learn and retain more knowledge using role play. 2.Removal of Student teacher Polarization Students actually engage in the learning process rather than passive receiver of knowledge 3.Simulation as a Universal Behavioral Mode Children learn the most from play when they have skilled teachers who are well-trained in understanding how play contributes to learning. 4.Gains Related to Relevance and Learning Games provide a safe artificial environment within which learners with low self-esteem learners may feel more inclined to explore, investigate and express themselves. 5.Decision making It is similar to the real life experience; the problems that students will be found in the real life can be stimulated. So, the students try to solve the problem and make a decision from among alternatives to achieve a particular object. 6. Role Awareness Many games enable players to embody different characters thus helping to breed attitudes of tolerance and understanding. 7.An Interdisciplinary View Simulation provides a valuable link between activities within the classroom and life outside school. Such a connection will help to make students to have better understanding to see the world in different perspective. 8. Dynamic Framework Games can be used to teach content that it is very difficult to teach in the classroom. Simulation offers different

technique from the others it can deliver all kind of issues which can not be limited by time perspectives. 9.Bridging the Gap to Reality Simulation help teacher to connect the teaching material to the students real world and encourage the students to make a relation between the knowledge that they have already had with the application in their life as a member of society. 10.Gestalt Communication The power of simulations is to transpose the normal classroom into an authentic setting where language skills can be evaluated under more realistic conditions. It prepares students to be able to face the complexity in the real world. CONCLUSION Simulated teaching is an innovative approach because students engage in genuine communication in playing their roles. Active involvement stems from participation in worthwhile, absorbing interaction which tends to make students forget they are learning a new language. Students have the opportunity to try out new behaviors in a safe environment, which helps them develop long term motivation to master an additional language. In addition to encouraging genuine communication, active involvement, and a positive attitude, the simulated "real life" problems help students develop their critical thinking and problem solving skills.

If the role playing/simulation technique is employed, it should be integrated with other language learning activities, given the preparation and care which is required in any language learning method, and adapted to student needs and level. If these guidelines are followed, it can be a rewarding experience for both the students and teacher.

REFERENCIES Chauchan, S.S.1979.Innovations in Teaching-Learning Process. Vikas Publishing House.PVT LTD, New Delhi. Tomkins, K.Patricia.1998.Role Playing/Simulation.TESL Journal, Vol.IV No.8 Available athttp: //iteslj .org /techniques/Tompkinsroleplaying.html -------------------------- 2008.Educational Games.Wikipedia.Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/educational_games ---------------------------2008.Learning Theory: Constructivism.Wikipedia. Available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/constructivism