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Chapter 3

Rational Functions

Chapter 3 Prerequisite Skills

Chapter 3

Prerequisite Skills

Question 1 Page 146

Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown. A line or curve that the graph approaches more and more closely. For f(x) = 1x , the vertical asymptote is x = 0.

Chapter 3

Prerequisite Skills

Question 2 Page 146

a) x = 3, y = 0

b) x = –4, y = 0

c) x = 8, y = 0

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d)

x = 5, y = 0

Chapter 3 Prerequisite Skills

a)
No restrictions on the domain or range.
domain: {x ∈ R}, range: {y ∈ R}
b)

No restrictions on the domain. domain: {x R} From the graph:

range: {y R, y 4}

Question 3 Page 146

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c)

No restrictions on the domain and range. domain: {x R}, range: {y R}

d)
Division by zero is not defined.
x
≠ 0
domain: {x ∈ R, x ≠ 0}
From the graph:
range: {y ∈ R, y ≠ 0}
e)

Division by zero is not defined.

x

x

domain: {x R, x 4} From the graph:

range: {y R, y 0}

– 4 0 4

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f)

Division by zero is not defined. x 0 domain: {x R, x 0} From the graph:

range: {y R, y 0}

Chapter 3 Prerequisite Skills

Question 4 Page 146

a) 82 +! 53 = 13!1 = !13

e) c) a) c) e) !26 !1.50.9++6.65.2 !47!!22 !7 74 1!!107 +! !!17 42 ==& ==& = = 110.182 0.38!!83 !13 !29 ==& = 0.534.38.1 ! 29 f) d) b) b) f) 117 !10.11.7 81 53 !!97 !! !+ !! !! 09 04 06 !+ 33 = = ==& 5.83.2 = !1 93 0.7157 !!1210 = ==& 13 0.351.54.3 = 65

Chapter 3 Prerequisite Skills

Question 5 Page 146

d) 114 ++ 12 ==& 130.385

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Chapter 3 Prerequisite Skills

Question 6

Page 146

a)

(x + 4)(x + 3)

b) (5x – 2)(x – 3)

c)

(3x + 8)(2x – 1)

d)

(x + 1)(x + 3)(x – 2)

e)

P "#\$ ! 12 12 %&' isxa x

(22xx++1112)

= 0 ++ factor 64 x6x 22x 2!!5 xx !! 22

33

(xx=!88)or( ( (2 (xx=!33)or(2xx (xx=+!77)(or2 3 x x ! + 1)(6 4 )( xx+=4!)4= 9 xx!=1)12= x =! x 2 2 !!22xx22 323) ! + x 12 = 0 ! 0 0 x !!!!44x5xxx!! 2) + 16 == ((22 ) 022 xx ++ 11))(22(3xx+!1)2()3 b) (xx=+!55)(orx x ! +x1=) 2) =!10

d) (xx=!66)or(3xx (xx=+!55)(or6 xx+=1)!=160 =+ !5)53= 0

f)

f)

Chapter 3 Prerequisite Skills

a)

c)

e)

Question 7 Page 146

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Chapter 3 Prerequisite Skills

Question 8 Page 146

a) x 2 ! 4 x + 2x == 04 ± ( !42)(21!) 4 (1)( 2 ) b) 2 x 2 + 8 x + x x1 = == 0!8 !8 ±4 ± 56 822( 2!)4 ( 2 )(1)

c)

!3

== 24 == ±±2 0!5 !5 28 ±!6 ± 522( 73 !!34)( !3)( 4 )

=

x 2 + 5 x xx + 4x x

x = !4 ±2 14

d) no real roots; no x-intercepts

x

= 5 ± 6 73

e) 3 x 2 + 8 x + 2x == 0!8 ± 822( !3)4 ( 3)( 2 ) f) ! x 2 + 2 x + 7x == 0!2 ± 222( !!14)( !1)( 7 )

x x = = !8 !4 ±6 ±3 40 10 xx == 1!±2 2±!2 232

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Chapter 3 Prerequisite Skills

Question 9 Page 147

a) 2x > 12 x > 6

b) 9 + 2 6x – 4x 11 2x

x

112 > > ! 52 12

> –5

c) 4x – 8x < –2 –4x < –2

x

d) 2x x > –4 – 1

x

e) 3x x > –1 – 4 2x > –5

x

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f)

x

– 2x < 2 + 7 –x < 9 x > –9

Chapter 3 Prerequisite Skills

a) (x – 2)(x + 2) 0

Case 1

x 2

–2 x 2 is a solution.

x –2

Case 2

x 2

No solution.

x –2

The solution is –2 x 2.

b) (x – 6)(x + 3) > 0

Case 1

 x > 6 x > –3 x > 6 is a solution. Case 2 x < 6 x < –3 x < –3 is a solution.

The solution is x < –3 or x > 6.

Question 10 Page 147
–5
–4
–3
–2
–1
0
1
2
3
4
5
–5
–4
–3
–2
–1
0
1
2
3
4
5

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x < 13
x =
13 or x = !
13
x > 13
!
2
(x ! 13 )(x + 13 ) < 0
x > ! 13
c)
2x 2 – 26 = 0
2(x 2 – 13) = 0
x 2 = 13
x < ! 13
13
13 .
–5
–4
–3
–2
–1
0
1
2
3
4
5
Case 1
13 < x <
13 is a solution.
Case 2
No solution.
The solution is !
< x <
d)
3x 2 – 2x 2 + 5x – 2x – 12 + 2 > 0
x 2 + 3x – 10 > 0
(x + 5)(x – 2) > 0
–7
–6
–5
–4
–3
–2
–1
0
1
2
3
Case 1
x > –5
x > 2

x > 2 is a solution.

Case 2 x < –5

x < –5 is a solution.

x < 2

The solution is x < –5 or x > 2.

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e) 2x 2 x 2 x + 9x + 4 + 3 < 0 x 2 + 8x + 7 < 0 (x + 7)(x + 1) < 0

Case 1

 x < –7 x > –1 No solution. Case 2 x > –7 x < –1

–7 < x < –1 is a solution.

The solution is –7 < x < –1.

f) x 2 + x 2 + 2x + 9x + 2 – 8 > 0 2x 2 + 11x – 6 > 0 (x + 6)(2x – 1) > 0

Case 1

x

> –6

x x > < 12 12

x

> 12 is a solution.

Case 2

x

x

< –6

< –6 is a solution.

The solution is x < –6 or x > 12 .

–7
–6
–5
–4
–3
–2
–1
0
1
2
3
–7
–6
–5
–4
–3
–2
–1
0
1
2
3

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Chapter 3 Section 1

Reciprocal of a Linear Function

Chapter 3 Section 1

 a) As x → f(x) → 2 + +∞ 2 – – ∞ +∞ 0 – ∞ 0 b) As x → f(x) → –5 + +∞ –5 – – ∞ +∞ 0 – ∞ 0 c)
 As x → f(x) → 8 + +∞ 8 – – ∞ +∞ 0 – ∞ 0

Chapter 3 Section 1

a) i) x = 2, y = 0

 ii) x = –3, y = 0 b) y = 21x shifted 2 to the right i) y = 2 ( x1! 2 ) ii) y = 21x shifted 3 to the left y = 2 ( x1+ 3)

Question 1 Page 153

Question 2 Page 153

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Chapter 3 Section 1

Question 3

Page 154

 a) i) x = 5 ii) y = 0 b) i) x = –6 ii) y = 0 c) i) x = 1 ii) y = 0 d) i) x = –7 ii) y = 0

Chapter 3 Section 1

a)

b)

iii) let x = 0

( ( 0 0 ) ) ( == == 0 ) !! 103 == == +2 017 !0 15 +1 6 !151 !5 7 5 0

g

iii) let x = 0

h

f

( 0 )

iii) let x = 0

iii) let x = 0

k

Question 4 Page 154

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c)

d)

Chapter 3 Section 1

Question 5 Page 154

a) Since the vertical asymptote is x = 3:

y

= = = = ! 2 x x x1! +1 !1 x +1 3 3 1 4

b) Since the vertical asymptote is x = –3:

y

c) Since the vertical asymptote is x = 12 :

y

d) Since the vertical asymptote is x = –4 and it is reflected in the y-axis:

y

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Chapter 3 Section 1

Question 6 Page 154

a)

Select a few points to the left of the asymptote and analyse the slope.

At x = –1, f(x) = –0.25 At x = 0, f(x) =& –0.33

Slope Slope Slope Slope = = = = !0.330 0.336 !12+!0.51 41!!3.52 !!50.5 ++10.25

At x = 3.5, f(x) = 2 At x = 4, f(x) = 1

= –2

At x = 5, f(x) = 0.5 At x = 6, f(x) =& 0.33

= –0.08

At x = 1, f(x) = –0.5 At x = 2, f(x) = –1

= –0.5

Since –0.5 < –0.08, the slope is negative and decreasing for the interval x < 3.

Select a few points to the right of the asymptote and analyse the slope.

= –0.17

Since –0.17 > –2, the slope is negative and increasing for the interval x > 3.

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b)

Select a few points to the left of the asymptote and analyse the slope.

At x = –6, f(x) = –0.6 At x = –5, f(x) = –1

Slope Slope = = = !12!+33 !!15++0.66 !!35 ++ 43 = 0.430 +!10.6

At x = –3, f(x) = 3 At x = –2, f(x) = 1

= –2

At x = –1, f(x) = 0.6 At x = 0, f(x) =& 0.43

Slope

= –0.4

At x = –4, f(x) = –3 At x = –3.8, f(x) = –5

Slope

= –2

Since –2 < –0.4, the slope is negative and decreasing within the interval x < ! 27 .

Select a few points to the right of the asymptote and analyse the slope.

= –0.17

Since –0.17 > –2, the slope is negative and increasing for x > ! 27 .

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c)

Select a few points to the left of the asymptote and analyse the slope.

At x = –5, f(x) = 2 At x = –4.5, f(x) = 4

Slope = = = !!21 !0.41 !4.54 ++ ! !+00.5 23 +2 5

At x = –3, f(x) = –2 At x = –2, f(x) = –1

= 1

At x = 0, f(x) = –0.5 At x = 1, f(x) = –0.4

Slope

Slope

= 4

Since 4 > 0.33, the slope is positive and increasing for x < –4.

Select a few points to the right of the asymptote and analyse the slope.

= 0.1

Since 0.1 < 1, the slope is positive and decreasing for x > –4.

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d)

Select a few points to the left of the asymptote and analyse the slope.

At x = –2, f(x) =& 0.71 At x = –1, f(x) = 1

Slope Slope =& =& =& =& 1!!10.71+ !0.715 !1.673 5 1!!1.670 ! ! 2 4+ 2+ 1 5

At x = 2, f(x) = –5 At x = 3, f(x) =& –1.67

=& 3.33

At x = 4, f(x) = –1 At x = 5, f(x) =& –0.71

Slope

=& 0.29

At x = 0, f(x) =& 1.67 At x= 1, f(x) = 5

Slope

=& 3.33

Since 3.33 > 0.29, the slope is positive and increasing for x < 23 .

Select a few points to the right of the asymptote and analyse the slope.

=& 0.83

Since 0.83 < 3.33, the slope is positive and decreasing for x > 23 .

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Chapter 3 Section 1

Question 7 Page 154

 a) {x ∈ R, x ≠ 1}, {y ∈ R, y ≠ 0}, x = 1, y = 0 b) {x ∈ R, x ≠ –4}, {y ∈ R, y ≠ 0}, x = –4, y = 0 c) {x ∈ R, x ≠ – 12 }, {y ∈ R, y ≠ 0}, x = – 12 , y = 0 d)

{x R, x –4}, {y R, y 0}, x = –4, y = 0

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 e) {x ∈ R, x ≠ 52 }, {y ∈ R, y ≠ 0}, x = 52 , y = 0 f) {x ∈ R, x ≠ 5}, {y ∈ R, y ≠ 0}, x = 5, y = 0 g) {x ∈ R, x ≠ 41 }, {y ∈ R, y ≠ 0}, x = 41 , y = 0 h)

{x R, x 12 }, {y R, y 0}, x = – 12 , y = 0

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Chapter 3 Section 1

Question 8

Page 154

For the y-intercept let x = 0.

!( 01) = 0 1! c = !1

f

kxk!(k1x1) f ( x cc ) = == === 1!1 kx1! 110 1

! ( ( 0 x 1cc ) ) k = == = !00.251! !4 x 1 0.25 1! 1 c

f

For the asymptote let x = 1.

Chapter 3 Section 1

Let x = 0.

f

f

( x ) = == kx 1! 4

Asymptote is at x = –1:

kkx(ff !!((kxx14kx))) ====== 0!!44!444x1x1!+ 44

y

= ! 4 x1+ 4

Question 9 Page 154

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Chapter 3 Section 1

Question 10 Page 155

a)

b)

d = 350 × 11 = 3850

t = 3850v

c)

tt == 7.73850500

It would take 7.7 h or 7 h and 42 min.

d)

As the speed increases the rate of change of time decreases.

Chapter 3 Section 1

Question 11 Page 155

b) Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown.

The equation of the asymptote is x = ! b2 .

When b = 1, the asymptote is x = –2.

When b > 1, !2 < ! b2 < 0 , the vertical asymptote is between –2 and 0.

When 0 < b < 1, ! b2 < !2 , the vertical asymptote is less than –2.

When b < 0, the vertical asymptote is bigger than zero.

Chapter 3 Section 1

Question 12 Page 155

a)

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b)

c)

Chapter 3 Section 1

a)

f = 200 × 3

F

= 600d

Question 13 Page 155

b)

c)

d)

FF F == = 6003002dd 6002

F = 300 N

300 N of force is needed to lift the object 2 m from the fulcrum.

The force is halved.

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Chapter 3 Section 1

Question 14 Page 155

a) Since division by zero and negative square roots are not defined, x > 0 and y > 0. domain: {x R, x > 0} range: {y R, y > 0} vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: y = 0

b) Since division by 0 is not defined, x 0 and y 0. Since x is an absolute value, g(x) is positive. domain: {x R, x 0} range: {y R, y > 0} vertical asymptote: x = 0 horizontal asymptote: y = 0

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c)

Division by zero is not defined.

x

! ! ! ! 2x 4x 4x 2y "" "" == == 02 04 yxx y

domain: {x R, x 2}

244 2

To find the range, first find the inverse function.

x

y

!!!33 !33

+ +

4

2

Division by zero is not defined.

x

The domain of the inverse function is the range of f(x). range: {y R, y 4} vertical asymptote: x = 2 horizontal asymptote: y = 4

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Chapter 3 Section 1

Question 15 Page 155

Left side of the x-intercept:

At x = 2, y = –1, reciprocal

At x = 1, y = –3, reciprocal = ! 13

= –1

At x = 0, y = –5, reciprocal= ! 15

At x = –1, y = –7, reciprocal = ! 17

Right side of the x-intercept:

At x = 3, y = 1, reciprocal = 1

At x = 4, y = 3, reciprocal = 13

At x = 5, y = 5, reciprocal = 15

At x = 6, y = 7, reciprocal = 17

Coordinates for f ( x ) = 2 x1! 5

(2, –1)

1, 0, !1, 5, 6, 4 , ! ! ! ! ! ! ! 15 17 13 ! ! 13 \$%& \$%& \$%& 15 %&' 17 %&' %&'

"#\$ "#\$ "#\$ !"# !"# !"#

(3, 1)

Answers may vary. A sample solution is shown. The reciprocal of the y-coordinates on either side of the x-intercept (y = 2x – 5) are the

y-coordinates of f ( x ) = 2 x1! 5 .

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Chapter 3 Section 1

Question 16 Page 155

111xxx = = === y y 1zzyyyz!!y!z1yzzy z!y y!z z z , ! y " z , ! x " 0, ! z " 0

x

x

Chapter 3 Section 1

Question 17 Page 155

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!75 23 b5!b 5 b == 14705 bb

E

Chapter 3 Section 1

Question 18 Page 155

A
1
1
B

If two points are within 1 unit of each other, the angle between them must be less than !3

(they form an equilateral triangle). That means that given any point A, if point B is in the nearest third of the circle to A, the distance

will be less than 1 unit. So there is 23 of the circle where the distance is greater than 1 unit.

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Chapter 3 Section 2

Chapter 3 Section 2

a)

 As x → f(x) → 3 – – ∞ 3 + + ∞ 1 – + ∞ 1 + – ∞ – ∞ 0 + ∞ 0

b)

 As x → f(x) → –4 – + ∞ –4 + – ∞ 5 – – ∞ 5 + + ∞ – ∞ 0 + ∞ 0

c)

 As x → f(x) → –6 – – ∞ –6 + – ∞ – ∞ 0 + ∞ 0

Chapter 3 Section 2

Question 1 Page 164

Question 2 Page 165

a) asymptote: x = 4

domain: {x R, x 4}

b) asymptotes: x = 2, x = –7

domain: {x R, x 2, x –7}

c) No asymptotes or restrictions on the domain. domain: {x R}

d)

m ( x ) = ( x ! 5 )3( x + 5 )

asymptotes: x = –5, x = 5

domain: {x R, x 5, x –5}

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e) f) g) h n k ( ( ( x x x ) ) ) = = = ! ! ( x ( ( ! x x + + 3)1( 2 4 x )(23 )2( ! x x 1) + ! 3) 4 )

asymptotes: x = 3, x = 1

asymptotes: x = -4, x = –3

asymptotes: x = –2, x = 43

domain: {x R, x 1, x 3}

domain: {x R, x –4, x –3}

domain: {x R, x –2, x

43 }

h) No asymptotes or restrictions on the domain. domain: {x R}

Chapter 3 Section 2

Question 3 Page 165

 a) Interval Sign of f(x) Sign of Slope Change in Slope x < 1 + + + x > 1 + – – b) Interval Sign of f(x) Sign of Slope Change in Slope x < –2 + + + –2 < x < 1 – + – x = 1 – 0 – 1 < x < 4 – – – x > 4 + – + c) Interval Sign of f(x) Sign of Slope Change in Slope x < –3 – – – –3 < x < 0 + – + x = 0 + 0 + 0 < x < 3 + + + x > 3 – + – d) Interval Sign of f(x) Sign of Slope Change in Slope x < –4 – – – x > –4 – + –

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Chapter 3 Section 2

Question 4 Page 165

a) asymptote: x = 1, y-intercept: 1

k1 y

y

= = == 1k ( k x ( ( !11) x !11) 1! 2 1) 2 2

b) asymptotes: x = –2, x = 4, point "#\$ 1, ! ! 19 %&'

1919y k y = 19k 19y === = = ! == == 1 !!91kkk 1!19 ( x kk x 2 ((1x (( 1! 0x + k ++ !! 2 9 2211))((1x!!44)) )1( 3311))(( x 0x ! ++ 4 ) 33))

!

!

y

c) asymptotes: x = –3, x = 3, y -intercept: 19 , reflected in x-axis

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d)

asymptote: x = –4, point (–3, 1), reflected in the x-axis

= f ( ! ! x 1k ( k k ) x ( ( = !31+ x +14 ( +1 x 4 ) ! 2 4 ) 2 3)1( ) 2 x + 3)

= == = 1! !

!k1 !1 y

y

Chapter 3 Section 2

a)

i)

domain: {x R, x –3, x 3}

Question 5 Page 165

ii)

vertical asymptotes: x = 3, x = –3, As x ± , the denominator approaches +, so f(x) approaches 0. horizontal asymptote: y = 0

iii) let x = 0

f

( 0 ) == !( 019! 3)1( 0 + 3)

y-intercept: ! 19

iv)

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v)

 Interval Sign of f(x) Sign of Slope Change in Slope x < –3 + + + –3 < x < 0 – + – x = 0 – 0 – 0 < x < 3 – – – x > 3 + – +

vi) {y ! R , ! y " 0} {y R, y 0}

b)

i) t ( x ) = ( x ! 5 )1( x + 3)

domain: {x R, x –3, x 5}

 ii) vertical asymptotes: x = –3, x = 5 As x → ± ∞, the denominator approaches +∞ , so f(x) approaches 0. horizontal asymptote: y = 0 iii) let x = 0 t ( 0 ) == !( 0151! 5 )1( 0 + 3) y-intercept: ! 151 iv) v) Interval Sign of f(x) Sign of Slope Change in Slope x < –3 + + + –3 < x < 1 – + – x = 1 – 0 – 1< x < 5 – – – x > 5 + – + vi) {y ∈ R, y ≠ 0}

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c)

i)

The denominator cannot equal zero, there are restrictions at

xx

x

2=+!55x±! 215 2=2!(014) (1)( !21)

= !5 + 2 109

or x = !5 ! 2 109

domain: \$%&'& x ! R ,! x " #5 ± 2 109 ()&*&

p

( 0 ) == !2110 asymptotes 2 + 5 (10 ) ! at 21 x = !5 + 2 109 , ! x = !5 ! 2 109

ii) vertical

As x ± , the denominator approaches +, so f(x) approaches 0. horizontal asymptote: y = 0

iii) let x = 0

y-intercept: 211

iv)

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v)

 Interval Sign of f(x) Sign of Slope Change in Slope x < !5 ! 2 109 – – – !5 ! 2 109 < x < –2.5 + – + x = –2.5 + 0 + + + + –2.5 x < > x !5 < + !5 2 109 + 2 109 – + –

d)

vi) {y R, y 0}

( 0 ) == !( 012! 2 2 ! )(13( )1( R 3 , x ! 0 x + ) " + 1) 2, 1) ! x " # 13 '()

domain: \$%& x

vertical asymptotes: x = 2, x = ! 13

i) w ( x ) = ( x !

ii)

As x ± , the denominator approaches +, so f(x) approaches 0. horizontal asymptote: y = 0

iii) let x = 0

w

y-intercept: ! 12

iv)

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v)

vi)

e) i)

 Interval Sign of f(x) Sign of Slope Change in Slope + + + ! x 13 < < x ! < 13 56 – + – x = 56 – 0 – 56 < x < 2 – – – x > 2 + – + {y ∈ R, y ≠ 0}

No restrictions on the domain. domain: {x R}

ii) No vertical asymptotes. As x ± , the denominator approaches +, so f(x) approaches 0. horizontal asymptote: y = 0

iii) let x = 0

iv)

q

( 0 ) == 012 21+ 2

y-intercept: 12

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v)

 Interval Sign of f(x) Sign of Slope Change in Slope x < 0 + + + x = 0 + 0 – x > 0 + –