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Gate, into a relatively cool mold in which the material solidifies and from which it can then be removed.

In thermo set injection molding, a reacting material is forced into a generally warm mold in which the material further polymerizes or cross-links into a solid part. The article Injection Molding Compounds in this Volume describes the materials used in these processes. Machine Description: As depicted in Fig. 1 the main components of the machine are the hopper, heated extruder barrel, reciprocating screw, nozzle and mold clamp. The hopper feeds the unmelted thermoplastic, usually in pellet from, into the barrel. The hopper is often equipped with a desiccant-type drying system to remove moisture from plastics that are susceptible to moisture degradation. In the heated extruder barrel, which contains the reciprocating screw, the thermoplastic is gradually melted by a combination of shear heating (caused by the mechanical working of the maternal as it is conveyed down the barrel) and heat conduction from the barrel. The thermoplastic is gradually conveyed by the rotating screw from the rear of the barrel to the front. The barrel is usually heated by band-type electrical resistance heaters fitted around its periphery. Because the amount of heat required varies with position along the barrel, the band heaters are controlled in several zones along the

The reciprocating screw usually has three successive zones, each with specific functions. The feed zone of relatively deep screw flights conveys the unmelted plastic from the hopper throat into the heated barrel, where it begins to melt; the compression one of decreasing flight depth, and thus volume provides gas removal and melt densification, along with a material

Mixing action for better material and temperature uniformity; and the metering zone, generally of constant shallow fight depth, provides the final shear heating and mixing of the melt. After the melt passes through the metering section and a check valve at the end of the screw, it joins the melt pool in front of the screw. As the volume of melt in front of the screw increases, it forces the screw to the rear of the barrel against an adjustable back pressure. This back pressure is applied hydraulically to the back end of the screw. Increasing it

increases the amount of mechanical working of the feedstock. Screw rotation and feedstock melting continue until a sufficient amount of melt is available in front of the screw to fill the mold. At this stage, she screw rotation is stopped and the machine is ready for injection. The stages in the operation of a reciprocation screw are shown in Fig.2. The melted thermoplastic is injected into the mold through the nozzle, under high pressure typically 70 to 205 MPa. or 10 to 30 ksi, depending on the mold-filling resistance). Injection occurs as the screw is hydraulically forced forward in the barrel. The hydraulic cylinder is located at the rear of the screw and barrel. A check valve at the tip of the screw keeps the melt from flowing back along the screw as the screw is pushed forward. In contemporary machines, the injection rate (determined by the forward velocity of the screw) and injection pressure are closely controlled throughout the mold-filling stage.


1.Vs Metals & Alloys 2. Advantages 3. Applications 4. Processing methods

Fibre reinforced polymeric materials are now a well established group of engineering materials. The strength to weight ratio and modulus to weight ratio of some of these composite materials are superior to those of metals and alloys Therefore, there is a growing emphasis now a days on replacing metals and alloys in load bearing applications by polymer composites in many weight critical components used in aerospace, automotive and other industries.

Trusses and benches used in satellites need to be dimensionally stable in space during temperature changes between - 256F [-160C] and 200F [93.3C]. Limitations on

coefficient of thermal expansion hence are low and may be of the order of 1 x 10-7in./in./F 1.8 x 10-7m/m/C). Monolithic materials cannot meet these requirements, which leave composites such as graphite / epoxy as the only materials to satisfy this requirement. Even if the composites material costs may be higher, the reduction in the number of parts in an assembly and te savings in fuel costs make them more profitable. Reducing 11b (0.4531g of mass in a commercial aircraft can save up to 360 gal (1360 1) of fuel pery and fuel expenses are 25% of the total operating costs of commercial airline. These may include improved strength, stiffness, fatigue and impact resistance, thermal conductivity, corrosion resistance etc.

Applications of Continuous Fibre Composites Automotives: Engine covers, bumper components, noise suppression shields. Industrial equipment: Valve housing, piping and ducting components. Oil field equipment: Submersible pumps, down hole drilling equipment. Aircraft components: Seat back, arm rest, interior panels and doors.