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# CHAPTER 2

1.

## FORCES AND MOTION

The study of motion ( kinematics ) is not concerned with the forces that cause the motion. Linear motion is motion in a straight line. Kinematics can be studied by : a. Analyzing ticker tape and chart b. Analyzing stroboscopic photography c. Analyzing motion graphs d. Using the equations of linear motion

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## CONCEPTS OF LINEAR MOTION

CONCEPTS DEFINITION

Distance

Displacement

Speed

Total length of the path traveled by an object The direction traveled by an object is not taken into account ( scalar quantity ) Distance of its final position from its initial position in a specified direction Vector quantity ( considering the direction ) Rate of change of distance Scalar quantity

Speed =

= ms-1

Velocity , v

Velocity =

= ms

-1

Acceleration , a

## Rate of change of velocity Vector quantity Acceleration, a = = =

ms-2 So that, a =

## Negative acceleration is called deceleration Average velocity Average speed

Average velocity =
-1

= ms = ms
-1

Average speed =

Constant = fixed = same = unchanged Increasing in velocity = acceleration Decreasing in velocity = deceleration Zero in velocity = stop = halt Negative velocity = motion of the opposite direction Zero in acceleration = constant velocity (a=0) Negative acceleration = deceleration

Example 1 : A cute rabbit hops 3 km towards the East then 4 km towards the South. Find : a) The distance traveled by the rabbit b) The displacement of the rabbit motion Solution :

Example 2 : Tawfik starts a run and reaches the velocity of 18 ms-1 in 3 seconds. What is his acceleration ?

Solution :

Example 3 : Asyraf who is driving his car at a velocity of 60 ms-1 stops on his brakes at a uniform rate upon nearing traffic lights. The speed of the car drops to 12 ms-1 after 6 seconds. a) Determine the acceleration of the car b) After what additional time interval will the car come to a halt at this rate of deceleration Solution :

4.

In a laboratory, a ticker time ( together with a trolley ) is used to study the motion of an object for a short time interval. A ticker timer consists of an electrical vibrator which vibrates at the frequency of 50 Hz. It is connected to an alternating current (a.c ) power supply and a trolley with a ticker tape attached to it.

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6.

The trolley will move forward along with the ticker tape and the ticker timer will punch the ticker tape for every 0.02 seconds. The dots form on the ticker tape will give a complete record of the motion. If the trolley move quickly, the gap between the dots are far apart and vice versa.

7.

Example 4 :

Study the ticker tape above and determine : a) The time interval b) Average velocity Solution :

Example 5 :

According to the ticker tape above, determine the acceleration of the object. Solution :

Example 6 :

The diagram above shows a ticker tape chart from a moving trolley. Frequency of ticker timer is 50 Hz.
a)

b)

c)

d)

## Calculate the acceleration of the trolley

8.

The type of motion of the trolley can be inferred from the distance between the dots on the ticker tape or by constructing a tape chart. The complete tape is cut into lengths with an equal number of dots on each length. The longer strip means the velocity is higher or faster. The strips are pasted side by side to form a tape chart.

9.

## Types of motion according to the characteristics of the tape chart

a) * The dots are equally spaced * All strips are of equal length

## Type of motion : Velocity Acceleration

b) * The distance between the dots are uniformly increasing * All strips length increases uniformly

## Type of motion : Velocity Acceleration

c) * The distance between the dots are uniformly decreasing * All strips length decrease uniformly