Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 2

Theories of learning: A look at information processing learning theory and the ADDIE model.

Marie Lawrick, Kae Novak-Peer Reviewer Boise State University, Fall 2009 Overview: Although there is not one single theory that is the foundation for systematic instructional design (ISD), one theory does stand above the rest for building the ADDIE model. The ADDIE model is described by the following acronym; Analyze, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation. The most influential theory underlying them is Robert Gagns Information Processing Learning Theory, which is the concrete to build the structure of the Nine Events of Instruction. (Gagn, 1965) The basic tenant is that there are different types of learning outcomes and that each type of learning outcome requires different instructional strategies or conditions if learning is to occur. (Merrill) Several major schools of thought; objectivist, behavioral, and cognitive have built the foundation this learning theory for the ADDIE model. Contributors: Robert Gagn has been offered up as the father of instructional systematic design, (Merrill, 2000) however several theorists have made contributions to the various theories that are the foundation of systematic instructional design (ISD). (Dabbagh, 2009) Gagn was influenced by B.F. Skinner and operant conditioning, as a behavioral psychologist of the 1950s. Jerome Bruner influenced his theory as well with the cognitive school of thought on the Discovery Learning Theory. Along the way, others like Barney Glaser, Robert Mager, and Ann Rand shaped the thoughts for his development of the Information Processing Learning (IPL)Theory during the 1960s through the 1990s. He collaborated with William Rohwer, in 1969 to publish Instructional Psychology which reiterated his structure of the nine events of instruction. (Gagn, 1965, 67) Later revising the ADDIE model are major players Walter Dick & Lou Carey. Major Principles: The major principles of Robert Gagns IPL theory are his learning outcomes and the nine events of instruction to support them. (Gagns 1965) His five learning outcomes are intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, verbal information, psychomotor skills, and attitudes. (Gagn, 1977) The nine events are: Gain Attention, Inform the learner of the objectives, Stimulate the recall of prior knowledge, Present the stimulus material, Provide Learning Guidance, Elicit Performance, Provide Feedback, Assess Performance, and Enhance Retention Transfer. (Gagn, 1965) Application: Included here is an appropriate model of instruction, the ADDIE model. The steps involved are Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation for instructional design, (ID). The model is described as a systematic process for beginning designers to follow when designing a course. (Merrill, 2000) An example of the ADDIE model was utilized in the development of a mortgage ethics course for adult learners. (Lawrick, 2009) The five steps for construction made possible an efficient and effective class for adult continuing education. The ADDIE model offered a basic structure to formulate the design of the class based on learning outcomes which are the foundation of Robert Gagns Information Processing Learning Theory.

References : Bruner, J.S. (1961). The act of discovery. Harvard Educational Review. Vol 31. p.21-32. Clark, D. R. (2004), Instructional System Design Concept Map. Retrieved Sept. 19, 2009 from Don Clarks webpage. Website: http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/ahold/isd.html Dabbagh, N. (Sept. 21, 2009). The instructional design knowledge base. Retrieved Sept. 21, 2009 from Nada Dabbagh's Homepage, George Mason University, Instructional Technology Program. Website: http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/IDKB/index.htm and http://classweb.gmu.edu/ndabbagh/Resources/IDKB/models_theories.htm Gagne, Robert M. (1965). The conditions of learning. (1st ed.) New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Gagne, R., & Rohwer Jr., W. (1969, February). Instructional psychology. Annual Review of Psychology, 20, 381-418. Retrieved September 20, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database. Gagn, Robert M. (1977). The conditions of learning (3rd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Gagne, R. (1980, Winter80). Preparing the learner for new learning. Theory into practice, 19(1), 6. Retrieved September 20, 2009, from Academic Search Premier database. Gagn, Robert M. (1985). The conditions of learning (4th ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Gagn, Robert M. (1985). The conditions of learning and theory of instruction (4th Edition). Holt, Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 0-03-063688-4. Kruse, K. (Sept. 20, 2009). Introduction to Instructional Design and the ADDIE Model. Retrieved Sept. 20, 2009 from Kevin Kruses webpage, eLearning Guru.com, Website: http://www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art2_1.htm Lawrick, M. (2009). Ethics: Preventing mortgage fraud for todays consumer using fair lending practices. Department of Educational Technology. Boise State University. Website: http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/lawrickm/503/503.html Merrill, D. M. (Sept. 20, 2009). Suggested self-study program for instructional systems development (ISD).(August 25, 2000). Department of Instructional Technology. Utah State University. Retrieved Sept. 20, 2009 from pdf. Website: http://id2.usu.edu/MDavidMerrill/IDREAD.PDF Tucker, D. (Sept. 20, 2009) The application of the Dick and Carey systems approach model to a Macromedia flash tutorial. Instructional Design and Technology. Emporia State University. Retrieved Sept. 20, 2009 from pdf., Website: http://www.emporia.edu/idt/graduateprojects/fall2002/TuckerDiane/tucker.pdf