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1/18/12 Definition of Politics: a. Laswell: Who gets what, when, and how. i. About dividing things up b.

Easton: authoritative allocation of values. i. Dividing up things of value; rules about behavior c. Webster: Art or science of government. i. Decisions that affect large scope d. Wikipedia: process by which groups make decisions. i. Groups is an important key 1. Groups of people making decisions for a group e. Textbook: collective decisions to create/enforce rules for community f. Ura: Politics is the process of making binding social choices. II. Examples of Politics: everyone in the group is subject to the decision: a. Fraternity raising dues b. Rezoning of a neighborhood c. Dictator bombs a village III. NOT Examples of Politics a. Single woman decides how to spend her money b. Economy enters a recession c. Students fill classroom for back to front IV. Politics Can Be In a. Dictatorship (coach, army): promotes efficiency b. Democracy: V. Definition of Democracy a. Textbook: rule by the people Government that respects civil rights and liberties b. Wikipedia: no universally accepted definition VI. Dimensions: express relationships between concepts VII. Dimensions of Democracy a. Procedural: process of individual choice to collective choice i. Majoritarism: principle that social choices should reflect the will of the majority b. Substantive: rights, freedoms c. Social: basic level of material well being i. Universal healthcare, welfare benefits ii. Not a huge aspect of American democracy VIII. Democracy: how decisions are made and which decisions are made I. 1/20/21 I. II. Social Choice Function a. Process in which we take individual choices and turn them into rules for the group Voting a. What voters express and what they really believe is not always the same b. Outcome of the vote is NOT the only thing that matters; i. Process matters 1. People like an inclusive process Voting Methods a. Approval Voting

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i. Voters check ALL that apply ii. Option that receives most number of votes is the winner b. Single Vote Transferrable i. Voters rank their choices ii. If one choice receives a majority is the winner 1. If no one choice gets majority, a. Lowest choice dropped b. Voting repeated until a choice achieves majority c. Borda Count i. Voters rank their choices ii. Choices are assigned points iii. Option with the lowest number of points is the winner d. Plurality Rule i. Voters submit one vote ii. Most chosen vote is winner e. Majority Rule in Pairwise Competition i. Consider two options at a time ii. Winner stays and next option steps up iii. Condorcet winner: choice that will win each round 1. If no Condorcet winner, winner is chosen in order by which they entered the tournament iv. Agenda in the tournament matters Majority Rule is building block of democratic politics

Harold Hotelling a. Stability in Competition b. Spatial model of firms in competition

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Both A and B must charge a shipping fee i. Individuals will buy from the closer store because it costs less Competition between A and B is over the house in the middle If A could move, free of charge, he would move

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Firm A now controls the whole market If Firm B could move, he would move to left of A They would stop when the get to the middle because it would no longer be advantageous to move

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j. Nash equilibrium: when it is no longer advantageous to move Small Price Changes = Big Market Share Changes Spatial Model in Real Life a. In model businesses want to geographically be in the middle

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i. Businesses want their products to be close to the median 1. Ex. High end restaurants are hanging crap on the walls; McDonalds offering a more expensive burger b. CONVERGE AT THE MEDIAN Political Aspect of Spatial Model a. Democratic vs. Republican; Conservative vs. Liberal Medium Voter Theorem: a. Ideal point is a Condorcet winner in the middle i. Assuming 1. Pairwise competition 2. One dimension 3. Single peaked preferences

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Model Tells Us: a. If one dimension, majority rule then: i. Politics are democratic ii. Politics are stable

1/25/12 I. Dimensions in American Politics a. 1st dimension: liberal vs. conservative b. 2nd dimension: social issues i. Such as gay marriage, abortion, contraception Ideal Point: individuals most preferred policy Status Quo: current policy Indifference Point: a policy that is liked as equally as much as the status quo Win Set: set of alternatives preferred by a majority of the voters to the status quo Majority Cycling: cycle of the circles returning to original point a. Majority rule has the potential to become very chaotic There is no equilibrium in a majority rule with more than one dimension a. Institutions are in place to create an equilibrium i. EX. Periodic elections spacing out majority rule cycles ii. EX. Committees in legislature break apart decisions so only dealing with one dimension at a time iii. Political parties Constitution a. Institution to help overcome majority rule problems b. Rulebook for making social choices Institutions a. Promote stability by i. Spacing out political choices ii. Restricting what social choices can be made b. Certain institutional choices can achieve desirable policies

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1/27/12 I. Grid lock interval a. No proposal that all 3 will agree on b. Status Quo is the Condorcet winner

2/1/12 I. Collective Dilemmas a. Organization i. Costs of organization 1. Getting together 2. Working with others ii. Transactions costs 1. Does the institution allow the people to get involved? b. Obstacles of Efficient Decision Making i. Coordination Problems 1. Preferences are different but one preference must be chosen 2. Preferences are actually less important than actually making a decision 3. Someone must forfeit their preference ii. Unstable coalitions iii. Majority cycles c. Obstacles of Enforcement d. i. Prisoners dilemma ii. Free rider problem Collective Action Problems a. Arise when dealing with public goods i. Public goods are the reason why we have politics, but to get them we must overcome the collective dilemmas (listed above) Types of Collective Action Problems a. Prisoners Dilemma Quiet Tattle Both quiet: 1 yr, 1 yr One tattles: 5 yr, 0 yr One tattles: 0 yr, 5 yr Both tattle: 3 yr, 3 yr i. Best for both if both are quiet ii. Each has incentive to talk (goes from 1 year to no time) iii. If A talks then B goes from 1 year to 5 1. B will also talk so that he goes from 5 years to 3 a. This makes A go from no time to 3 years b. Principle Agent Problem i. Principle hires an agent to do as task ii. Agent can rip off principle c. Conformity Costs i. The cost an individual bears that represents the difference between what they want to happen and what happens Designing Institutions a. Institutions: rules for decision making that aim to facilitate group actions and promote efficient decision making by

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i. Minimizing transaction costs ii. Enabling coordination iii. Mitigating unstable coalitions iv. Preserving the public good Problems with Institutions a. Unethical choice functions (dictatorships) b. Mechanical problems (majority cycles) c. Policy problems (bad outcomes) Designing the Constitution a. Written to overcome collective action problems and social choice problems b. Not a theoretical exercise; it was reality c. Improvised solutions to problems they had experiences d. Designed to deal with 18th century problems; still persists e. Founders choices still structure and constrain us f. Constitution is a path dependent outcome i. Path dependent outcome: prior choices influence current choices 1. Ex. Keys on a computer Founding Fathers Knew a. Institutions fail all of the time i. In the US 1. Articles of Confederation ii. Other Countries 1. French 4th republic 2. Weimar Germany

2/3/12 I. Path Dependence a. Principle that prior choices shape the future or current choices i. Ex. Keyboard keys, apple and iTunes, eBay, national capital in DC b. The Constitution i. Constrains what we do today ii. Have made amendments, but is roots in the past Goal of institutions (like the constitution) is to minimize the costs of CAPs since CAPs cannot be avoided If there is a group and a public good will be provided if a majority of the group pay a cost, then how many people should participate? a. 2 equilibriums (neither is socially useful): i. No one participates ii. Exactly a majority (one more than half) participates b. Coordination problem: how do we get from no one participating to majority participating? i. Entrepreneurship: someone takes on the task to themself to coordinate group action by ii. Institution: enforce the collective good 1. Pay the cost or go to jail, military draft, taxes 2. This makes politics powerful and dangerous

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2/6/12 I. Periods of PreConstitutional History a. Colonial Period (time up to independence) b. Revolutionary Period (independence to end of war)

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c. Critical Area (after war before constitution ratified) US Constitution Meant To: a. Govern in a manner consistent with the principles of the American Revolution b. Resolve collective action problems that states experienced under the Articles of Confederation c. Extend experience with state constitutional designs during the Revolutionary and Critical Eras Major Institutional Features of the Constitution a. Union: powerful national government i. Can compel states to act ii. Tell individual people what to do b. Enumerated powers and Bill of Rights i. Enumerated powers: list of things that national government CAN do ii. Bill of Rights: list of things national government CANNOT do c. Federalism: authority divided between central governments and regional governments d. Separation of Powers/ Checks and Balances: power is not held by one single person/institution Constitution is Crazy for 2 Reasons a. Proposed that the 13 states with different people, beliefs, tasks, and values would be governed by one government b. Already had a government (Articles of Confederation) i. Constitution was written in secret Framework of the Constitution a. Problem: What problem is trying to be fixed? b. Solution: How are they fixing it? c. Debate: What are the two sides? Federalists: Pro-Constitution Antifederalists: Against constitution a. Patrick Henry b. Samuel Adams Federalist Papers a. Written by Hamilton, Jay, Madison b. Written to support constitution c. Published as newspaper editorials Madison a. Father of the constitution b. Wrote Virginia Plan c. Did most of his work as a young man d. Going to college was a pivotal decision- opened his eyes Union and Enumerated Powers a. Collective action problems between the states i. Weak central government under the Articles of Confederation ii. Votes required >9 states b. National government had no power to compel state or individual action After the war, collective action problems shift from defense to economics a. Ex. Trade, paper money, state debts Shays Rebellion (Massachusetts) a. Tex bills only paid in silver or gold b. Continues to pay debts in paper money c. Imbalance was hard on the farmers d. State is seizing their farms e. Daniel Shay shuts down court houses and attacks a federal armory

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f. Realize that even little groups have a significant amount of power Not enough states are contributing a. Need an institution New Institutions a. States compelled to pay for public good b. Make sure new institutions are not worse than current problems

2/8/12 I. Union and Enumerated Powers a. Use institutions to get equilibrium b. Must be careful because national government is strong enough to force people to do things c. Need institutions to make sure institutions are safe Solution to Balance of Government Powers a. Government only has powers in areas where states have collective actions problems Article 1, Section 8: List of powers that Congress has a. Lay and collect taxes b. Pay debts c. Provide for common defense and general welfare of US d. Borrow money for US e. Regulate commerce with foreign nations, among states, with Indians f. Who gets to be US citizen g. Cannot escape debts by moving states h. National defense and security i. Call people into military service j. Pay for supplies for military Necessary and Proper Clause/ Elastic Clause a. Congress can only make laws that are necessary for carrying out their duties Antifederalist Critiques a. Large republic is doomed to fail b. Distant national government is a threat to liberty c. Not harsh enough limits on Congressional authority d. Worried national government will undermine states e. Limits on ability to speak freely f. Military will be a threat to liberty Federalist Response a. Two reasons why large republic is good i. Refinement (Federalist 10) 1. System of layers that will filter the representatives; more people voting for representatives = more refined ii. Factions (Federalist 10) 1. In a large republic there is a greater number of factions, so is harder for one faction to take over iii. Bill of Rights 1. Set of institutions that will restrict the government 2. Serves an education function a. Mindful of our own rights b. Convenient list available to everyone

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2/10/12 I. II. Checks and Balances (Federalist 51) a. Enforces the limitations placed on the national government Diving the Power a. Checks and Balances: separation of powers b. Federalism: divide government into national and state Checks and Balances: Less likely for a faction to develop a. Separate powers in each branch b. Different ways of electing people into branches i. At the bottom of every branch is the people: they vote in elections c. All branches consent when one uses its power Branches Address in Constitution a. Article I: Congress i. House of Representatives 1. Representatives proportional with state population 2. Direct election (mostly plurality voting) 3. Two year terms ii. Senate 1. 2 senators/state 2. Staggered 6 year terms 3. Were elected by state legislature, now elected by people b. Article II: The President c. Article III: Judiciary Congress: Makes the Laws a. Article 1, Section 8: power to make laws b. Laws require majority vote in both houses c. Senate must ratify treaties with 2/3 vote d. Senate confirms presidential appointments (judges, cabinet officers) with majority vote e. House can impeach, Senate holds the trial President: Enforce Laws and Lead Military a. Selects electoral college b. Commander in Chief (Congress declares war) c. Negotiates treaties (Senate must approve) d. Appoints judges and government officials (Senate must approve) e. Issue executive orders (Congress, Courts can overturn) f. Veto Congress ( house can overturn with 2/3 vote) Courts: Review Laws and Executive Actions a. Very vaguely defined in Constitution b. Selection and protection absent in Constitution c. Powers limited by congress d. Judicial rule only implied e. Judges i. Paid constant salary ii. Serve life term

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1/13/12 I. Federalism Exists To

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a. Prevent tyranny of the national government b. Allow for diversity of political cultures Virginia Plan a. James Madison b. House of Representatives: proportional to state population; elected by people c. Senate: nominated by states, picked by House of Representatives d. President and Supreme Court: elected by House and Senate e. Congress could i. Pass and law ii. Veto any state law f. Too radical= thought small states would not ratify so New Jersey Plan written Alternatives to the Constitution a. Unitary System: all powers belong to national government b. Confederal System: regions hold the powers i. Articles of Confederation ii. The Confederacy (Southern States) New Jersey Plan a. Similar to Articles of Confederation b. Preserve state sovereignty c. One house within legislature; states equally represented d. Voting by the states e. New commerce and tax powers f. Plural executive with impeachment g. No council of revision The Great Compromise Connecticut Compromise a. Structure of Congress b. Says what states and national governments can do States CANNOT (Article 1, Section 8) a. Enter into treaty, alliance, or confederation b. Pay pirates c. Make money d. Must respect contracts across state lines e. Taw f. Keep troops or ships g. Enter into contracts with other states or foreign powers Antifederalist Critiques a. Still worried national government has too much power Federalist Response a. Federalist Paper 46 written by Madison i. If there is a conflict between national and state governments, people will side with their state, what can national government do? It will be the states we need to worry about. If national government does something unconstitutional people will be mad and wont cooperate but if federal government presses on despite everyone being angry, people will rebel. ii. Madison sees the point: What to do if the federal government goes too far?

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2/15/12 I. Individual Rights

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Farmers really worried about individual rights i. Rights to think and believe ii. Rights related to political action b. Bill of Rights were intentionally left out of the constitution i. Why did they change their mind and add it? Whos on Board? a. Smaller states: on board with constitution b. Larger states: more doubtful c. Virginia and NY: hard to sell the constitution d. NC: had to have two votes because constitution failed the 1st time e. Rhode Island: didnt want any institutions Why no Bill of Rights at first? Answered in Federalist 84 a. Why say they cant do powers that we never said they could? Government has no power to interfere with the press as it is. Peoples attachment to public opinion safe guards their rights, not a bill of rights. Brutus Essay 2 (Antifederalists) a. We are the people who fought in the revolution. We remember a bad government. Been there, done that. It is more important for future generations. We must write things down. Government always grows in power. Every other government has a bill of rights. Every other state constitution has a bill of rights. So why dont we? A bill of rights is so common and important that someone who doesnt have one is trying to trick you into being a slave. Patrick Henry (Antifederalist) a. Our new government is bigger and stronger than ever. A bill of rights is important. Virginias own constitution guarded the privileges of the people. The federalists keep say it is not a big deal so if it doesnt matter, lets add it. Articles of Confederation said that power not given to the national government is given to the state government. Constitution doesnt say any of that. In order to pass the constitution, Bill of Rights added a. Madison says Okay. Well add it. Not because I think it is important, but because they do. Bill of Rights a. 19 amendments introduces b. 12 approved by congress c. 10 ratified by the states Idea of Bill of Rights a. Make rules while we are sober for our drunk self to follow b. Precommitment: a domain restriction made prior to problem Literal Bill of Rights? a. Lemon Test: i. Secular purpose. ii. Primary effect neither advances nor inhibits religion. iii. No excessive entanglement between government and religion

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2/17/12 I. Slavery at time of Founding a. 3.9 million Americans, 0.7million slaves b. 18% c. Founders were complaining about being slaves to British. Have slaves here is US. Miller Slavery is Constitution a. Article 1, Section 2 other persons i. How takes will be represented and who will count as the population

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ii. Slave counts at 3/5 vote Article 1, Section 9 such persons i. Bans importation of slaves after 1808 c. Article IV, Section 2 person held to service or labor i. Fugitive slaves must be returned to owners even if escaped to free state Euphemism a. Founding fathers had salves themselves b. Beginning of USs embarrassment about slavery Federalist 54 a. Rule for proportioning the House of Representative b. Madison switches out of 1st person when he starts to talk about 3/5 c. Writes as if he was a southerner d. Making an argument that he does not agree with Inability to Include Slavery in Constitution a. Lead to Civil War b. Civil War produced 3 amendments i. 13. Ended slavery ii. 14. Equal protection, due process, citizenship iii. 15. Voting rights for former slaves th 14 Amendment a. Most far reaching b. Any one born in US is a citizen c. National and state government cannot interfere d. Federal government has more control than state government Substantive Due Process a. When you claim you were refused your rights b. Includes fundamental rights and freedoms Legacies of Slavery a. Civil War: expensive, lots of death b. Terrible American history of discrimination and segregation i. Party caused by inability of constitution to address slavery c. 14th amendment: altered basic structure of constitution