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SCRITTI LETTERARI

DI

LEONARDO DA VINCI
eaooh Mgfi
DA

J.

P.

RICHTER

IN

DUE

PARTI.

- PARTE

I.

LONDRA:
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE & RIVINGTON
1

88,

FLEET STREET

1883

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THE LITERARY WORKS


OF

LEONARDO DA VINCI
contpifeb anb ebifcb front

$e
BY

Originaf

JEAN PAUL RICHTER,


KNIGHT OF THE BAVARIAN ORDER OF

PH. DR.,
MICHAEL,
&C.

ST.

IN

TWO VOLUMES.

VOL.

I.

LONDON:
SAMPSON LOW, MARSTON, SEARLE & RIVINGTON
.

88,

FLEET STREET

1883

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

DEDICATED
BY PERMISSION

HER MOST GRACIOUS MAJESTY

THE OUEEN

LIST

OF SUBSCRIBERS.

THE PRINCE OF WALES. H. I. H. THE CROWN PRINCE OF GERMANY. H. R. H. THE DUKE OF ALBANY. H. R. H. THE LANDGRAFIN ANNA OF HESSE, PRINCESS OF
H. R. H.

PRUSSIA.

BERLIN, INDUSTRIAL MUSEUM


ROYAL MUSEUM
(i

(i

copy).
(2

MINISTRY OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION


copy).

copies).

BONN, ROYAL UNIVERSITY (i copy). BOSTON, U. S., BOSTON ATHENAEUM (i copy). BRESLAU, PROVINCIAL MUSEUM (i copy).
ROYAL UNIVERSITY (i copy). BUDAPEST, HUNGARIAN NATIONAL GALLERY (i CAMBRIDGE, FITZWILLIAM MUSEUM (i copy).
copy).

CASSEL, ROYAL PICTURE GALLERY (i copy). COPENHAGEN, ROYAL LIBRARY (i copy). ROYAL PICTURE GALLERY (i

copy).

DELFT, POLYTECHNIC (i copy). DRESDEN, GENERAL DIRECTION DER KOENIGL. SAMMLUNGEN DUBLIN, KING'S INN LIBRARY (i copy).
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF IRELAND
(i

&c.

(i

copy).

copy).

HAGUE,

THE,

ROYAL LIBRARY

(i

copy).

LIST

OF SUBSCRIBERS.

IIAI.I.K.

ROYAL UNIVERSITY

(i

copy).
(i

HARROW, VAUGHAN

LIBRARY

copy).

>ON, ATHENAEUM CLUB (i copy). BURLINGTON FINE ARTS CLUB


FINE

(i

copy).

ART

SOCIETY (2 copies.)
(i

GUILDHALL LIBRARY
NATIONAL GALLERY

copy).

(i -copy). (i

NEW

UNIVERSITY CLUB

copy).

REFORM CLUB (i copy). ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS (SUBSCRIPTION OF ONE HUNDRED POUNDS).
SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM
(i

copy).

MUNICH, ROYAL PISACOTECA (i NEW YORK, BROOKLYN LIBRARY

copy).
(i

copy).

OXFORD,

CHRIST CHURCH

(i

copy).
(i

PARIS, BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALS DES BEAUX- ARTS MI-SEE DU LOUVRE (i copy).

copy).

PRAGUE, IMPERIAL AND ROYAL UNIVERSITY TURIN, ROYAL LIBRARY (i copy).


VIENNA, THE ALBERTINA
(i

(i

copy).

copy).
(i

IMPKRIAL AND ROYAL UNIVERSITY

copy).

MUSEUM OF ART AND INDUSTRY (i WEIMAR, GRAND DUCAL MUSEUM (i copy). WINDSOR, ROYAL LIBRARY (i copy).

copy).

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REG so, FLORENCE

(i

copy).

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AZEGLIO, THE
BAIN, JAMES,

(i

copy).

MARCHESE

D*,

SENATORS DEL REGNO, TURIN

(i

COpy).

LONDON

(4 copies).
P.,

BARING, EDW. CHAS. ESQ., M.

LONDON
(i

(i

copy).

BARTLETT, W. H. AND Co., LONDON


BELL,

copy).

HUGH
I

Blt'KERS

ESQ., LONDON (i copy). AND SONS, LONDON (2 COpies).

BIKKKII.

UK

REV.

A. H.,

BROMHAM

(i

copy).

BLACKER, Louis, ESQ. (i copy). BODE, DR. W. DIRECTOR OF THE ROYAL MUSEUM, BERLIN

(i

copy).

BOWER, R. M. ESQ., I...M...N (i copy). BRAMBILLA, SIGNOR P., MILAN (i copy).


BREDINS,

HERR

A.,

THE HAGUE

(i

copy).
(i

BRIOSCHI, PROF. FRANC., DIRECTOR OF THE POLYTECHNIC, MILAN

copy).

LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.

IX

HERR CARL, ZURICH (i copy). BUMPUS, JOHN, LONDON (6 copies). BUMPUS, EDW., LONDON (2 copies). BUMPUS, T. B., LONDON (i copy). BURNS AND GATES, LONDON (2 copies).
BRUN,
BUTE, THE MARQUIS OF
(i

copy).

CAGNOLA, SENATORS DEL REGNO, MILAN (i copy). CAMPORI, THE MARCHESE G., MODENA (i copy).
CARTER, DR. F.
CHRISTIE, A.
A.,

LEAMINGTON
(i

(i

copy).

CLEMENT, C. G. ESQ., LONDON

copy).

H.

ESQ.,

LONDON

(i

copy).

CIVIL SERVICE SUPPLY ASSOCIATION,

LONDON
(i

(3

copies).

COLVIN, PROF. SIDNEY, CAMBRIDGE

copy).
(2

COOMES'S REGENT LIBRARY, LONDON


COOTE, WALTER, ESQ., LONDON
(i

copies).

copy).
(i

CORNISH/ Jos. AND SONS, LONDON


CORNISH,
J.

copy).

E.,

MANCHESTER

(7

copies).

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(i

copy).

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A.,

LONDON

(i

copy).
copies).

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ESQ.,

LONDON

(i

copy).

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(i

copy).
copies).

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(3

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EASTLAKE, LADY, LONDON (i copy). FRIZZONI, DR. GUSTAVO, MILAN (i copy).
FtJRSTENBERG, H.
S.

H., PRINCE

KARL ECON

ZU

(i

COpy).

GEROLD, L. C., VIENNA (i copy). GILBERT AND FIELD, LONDON (i copy).

M. H. AND SON, DUBLIN (i copy). GlOVANNELLI, H. H. PRINCE, VENICE (i COpy).


GILL,

GOODE, MRS., BADEN

(i

copy).
(i

GRAHAM, W.

ESQ.,

LONDON

copy),
(i

GRIMM, PROF. HERMAN, BERLIN

copy).

GOWER, LORD RONALD


HABICH,

(i

copy).

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(6 copies).

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(2 (i

copies).

copy).

LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.

FRL. N.,
Co.,

HENDERSON AMD
HESELTINE,

ACHERN (i copy). LEGHORN (i J. T.,


(i

copy).

HERTZ, FRL. H., NORTHWICH


J-

copy).
(i (i

P. ESQ.,

HMU.NN AM.REW
HICHEMS,
J.

K.,

LONDON LONDON

copy). copy).

LONDON (i copy). HODJM^ FIGGIS, AND Co., DUBLIN (i copy). HODSON, J. STEWART, ESQ., HASLEMERE (i copy).
K.,

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(8 copies).

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JARROLD AND SONS, NORWICH (i copy). JERSEY, THE EARL OF (i copy).
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S.

(i

copy).

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(i

copy).
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JORDAN, GEH. RATH, DR. M., BERLIN


KLINCK.SICK, C., PARLS (2 copies).

copy).

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(i

copy).

LAYARD, SIR

HENRY
P.

A..(i copy).
ESQ.,

LEHMANN, RUDOLPH
LEIGHTON, SIR
F.,

LONDON

(i

copy).
(i

R. A., LONDON

copy).

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LITTLE,
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Me

KELVIE AND SONS, GREENOCK

(i
(i

copy). copy).

MACLEHOSE AND SONS, GLASGOW


MARKS, A. ESQ., LONG DITTON

(i

copy).
(i

MARTIN, SIR THEODORE, K. C. B.

copy).
(i

MAXWELL, ANDREW,
MENETEE, R.
J.,

ESQ.,

GLASGOW

copy).

ESQ., LOUISVILLE,

U.

S.

A.

(i

copy).
(i

MEYER, DR., DIRECTOR OF THE ROYAL MUSEUM, BERLIN MILDMAY, H. B. ESQ., LONDON (i copy).
MiNGHETTi, H. E. CAV. MARCO, BOLOGNA
(i

copy).

copy).

MOLINEUX, R.

J.,

ESQ.

GUILDFORD

(i

copy).

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MONGERI, PROF.

(i

COpy).

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(i

copy).

NUNN, H. AND Co., LONDON (i copy). PAPADOPOL, THE CONTE, SENATORS DEL REGNO, VENICE PARSON, EDW. ESQ., LONDON (i copy).

(i

copy).

LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.

XI

PETRIE, GEO.,

DUNDEE

(2

copies).

PHILIP, SON AND NEPHEW, LIVERPOOL (i copy). PONTI, SIGNOR ANDREA, MILAN (i COPY),

POYNTER, EDW.

J.

ESQ., R. A.,

LONDON
(i

(i

copy).

POWELL, FRANCIS ESQ., DUNOON

copy).

POWERSCOURT, THE VlSCOUNT


PRENDERGAST,
J.

(l COpy).
(i

ESQ.,

SAN FRANCISCO

copy).
(i

PRINETTI, C., SENATORS DEL REGNO,

MILAN

copy).

QUARITCH, BERNARD, LONDON (8 RADFORD, W. T. ESQ., SIDMOUTH

copies).
(i
(i

copy).

RAMSDEN, MRS. JOHN, GODALMING


RICHMOND, W.
B. ESQ.,

copy).

LONDON (i copy). C. ESQ., LONDON (i copy). ROBINSON, J. ROSE, J. ANDERSON ESQ., LONDON (i copy). ROTH, MATTHIAS, ESQ. M. D., LONDON (i copy). ROTHERHAM, L. AND S. SOCIETY (i COpy). SARTORIS, E. J. ESQ., LONDON (i copy). SAUNDERS, W., LONDON (i copy). SCHRODER, BARON H., LONDON (i copy). SCRIBNER AND WELFORD, NEW YORK (6 copies). SERENA, ARTHUR, ESQ., LONDON (i copy).
SLOPHER, TH. ESQ., WINCHESTER
SIEMENS, C.
(i

copy).

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STUBLEY, R., BOSTON (i copy).
STUTFIELD, MARION, BRIGHTON (i copy).

TEANO, H. H. THE PRINCE, ROME

(i

copy).

THIBAUDEAU, A. W. ESQ., LONDON (i copy). THOMSON, J. A. ESQ., LIVERPOOL (i copy).


TRIVULZIO, THE

MARCHESE G.

G.,

MILAN

(i

copy).

TRUBNER AND Co., LONDON (4 copies). TUBES, BROOKS AND CHRYSTAL, MANCHESTER
UZIELLI, PROF. GUSTAVO,

(2 copies).

TURIN

(i

copy).
(i

VENOSTA, H. E. THE MARCHESE VISCONTI, MILAN

copy).

WALLACE, SIR RICHARD, BART., LONDON


WALLIS,

(i

copy).

HENRY

ESQ.,

LONDON

(i

copy).
copy).

WALMSLEY, G. G., LIVERPOOL

(i

XII

LIST

OF SUBSCRIBERS.

LONDON (i copy). ERS, G. W., LONDON (i copy). WtURNCUJTE, THE EARL OF (i copy).
WARDLE, GEORGE
ESQ.,

WESTHORP, STERLING
\x,

ESQ., IPSWICH (i
(i

copy).

FRED. ESQ., LONDON

copy).
(i

WILLETT,

HENRY

ESQ.,

BRIGHTON

copy).

WiLUAJIS AND NORGATE, LONDON

(i

COpy).

WOODGATE, JOHN, ESQ., COLCHESTER (i copy). WYLUE AND SON, ABERDEEN (i copy).

WYNDHAM, HON. PERCY, LONDON

(i

copy).

P RE FA
-^~Jt Leonardo da Vinci s works.
completed, obstacles having arisen
leave them unfinished;

CE.

Si singular fatality has ruled the destiny of nearly all the most famous of

Two of the
during

three most important were never

his life-time,

which obliged him

to

namely the Sforza Monument and the Wall-painting of the Battle of Anghiari, while the third the picture of the Last Supper
at

has suffered irremediable injury from decay and the repeated restorations to which it was recklessly subjected during the XVIIth and

Milan
th

XVIII

centuries.

Nevertheless,

no other picture of the Renaissance has


copies

become so wellknown

and popular through


rightly
,

of every

description.

Vasari says

and

in his Life of Leonardo, "that he laboured


,

much more by his word than in fact or by deed" and the biographer evidently had in his mind the numerous works in Manuscript which have been preserved
to this day.

To

us,

now,

it

seems almost inexplicable that these valuable

and

interesting original texts

should have remained so long unpublished, and

indeed forgotten.

It is certain that

during the

XVI
This

th

and

XVII

th

centuries

proved not merely by the prices which they commanded, but also by the exceptional interest which has been attached to the change of ownership of merely a few pages of Manuscript.
their exceptional value
appreciated.
is

was highly

notwithstanding this eagerness to possess the Manuscripts, their contents remained a mystery can only be accounted for by the many and
,

That

great

difficulties

attending the task of deciphering them.

The handwriting is

N|V

PREFACE.

SO

r that

it

requires

detached a considerable practice to read even few

phrases,

much more

to solve

of

alternative readings,

Vasari observes with


in rude characters,

referefice

with any certainty the numerous difficulties and to master the sense as a connected whole. to Leonardos writing: "he wrote backwards,
the left hand, so that

and with

practised

in reading them, cannot understand

them\

any one who is not The aid of a mirror

to in reading reversed handwriting appears


ex, Jcrimcntal
9

me

available only

for a

first

reading.

Speaking

from my own

experience,

the persistent use

mass of Manuscripts to be deciphered. And as, after all,^ character runs Utnardos handwriting runs backwards just as all Oriental the difficulty of reading backwards -that is to say from right to left
the enormous
direct

f it

is too

fatiguing and inconvenient

to be practically advisable,

considering

from

the

writing

is

not insuperable.

This obvious peculiarity in

the writing is not, however, by

mastering the
self;

text.

he
or,

one,

had a fashion again, he would

any means the only obstacle in the way of Leonardo made use of an orthography peculiar to himone long of amalgamating several short words into
a long quite arbitrarily divide

word

into tvo

added to this there is no punctuation whatever to regulate separate halves; the division and construction of the sentences, nor are there any accents

and

the reader

make

that such difficulties were almost sufficient to It is therefore not surthe task seem a desperate one to a beginner.

may imagine

Leonardos most reverent admiprising that the good intentions of some of rers should have failed.
Leonardos literary labours in various departments both of Art and of Science were those essentially of an enquirer, hence the analytical method is
that which he employs in arguing out his investigations

and

dissertations.

The vast structure of his scientific merous separate researches, and it


never have collated
it

theories
is

is

consequently built

up of nuas
the

'much to be lamented that he should

seems to

me

and arranged was the reason

them.

His

love

for

detailed research

that in almost all the Manuscripts,

appear to us to be in utter confusion; on one and the same Pagf, observations on the most dissimilar subjects follow each other without
different paragraphs

any

connection.

page, for instance, will begin with some principles of

astronomy, or the motion of the earth; then come the laws of sound,
finally some precepts as to colour.

and

gations on the structure of the as to Ike relations of poetry to painting;

Another page will begin with his investiintestines, and end with philosophical remarks

and

so forth.

PREFACE.

XV

Leonardo himself lamented


in
the his
it.

this confusion

and for

that reason

do

not think that the publication of the texts in the order in which they occur
originals

would at

all fulfil

his

intentions.

No

reader could

find
done

way through such a

labyrinth; Leonardo himself could not have

Added to this, more than half of the five thousand manuscript pages which now remain to us, are written on loose leaves, and at present arranged in a manner which has no justification beyond the fancy of the collector who
first brought them together to

even in the
their order,

make volumes of more or less extent. Nay, volumes the pages of which were numbered by Leonardo himself, so far as the connection of the texts was concerned, was obviously
>

a matter of indifference
in view,

to

him.

The only point he seems


his notes,
it

when

first writing

down

have kept was that each observation should


to.

be complete to the
.

end on the page on which

was

begun.

The

exceptions

to this rule

are extremely few,

and

it is

certainly noteworthy that

we find

in

such cases, in bound volumes with his numbered pages, the ivritten observations:
like.

"turn over", "This

is the

continuation of the previous page"


it

and the

Is not this sufficient to prove that


that
the

was only

in quite exceptional
to

cases

writer intended the consecutive pages


last,

remain connected,

when he should, at
writings?

carry out the often planned arrangement of his

What

this final

arrangement was

to

be,

Leonardo has in most


cases

cases

indicated with considerable completeness.


clue is wanting,

In other

this authoritative

but the difficulties arising

from
is

this are not insuperable;

for, as the subject of the separate paragraphs


defined in
itself,
it is

quite possible to

always distinct and well construct a well-planned whole, out

of the scattered materials of his scientific system, and I may venture to state that I have devoted especial care and thought to the due execution of this
responsible task.

The beginning of Leonardo s literary labours dates from about his thirty-seventh year, and he seems to have carried them on without any serious Thus the Manuscripts that remain represent a interruption till his death.
period of about thirty years.
altered so
little

Within

this

space

of time his handwriting


it

that

it

is

impossible to judge
dates,

from

of the date of any

particular

text.

The exact

note-books in which the year is

can only be assigned to certain incidentally indicated, and in which the order
indeed,

PREFACE.

of the

and France, the order of their proEngland, Italy be able to it is highly important to Action, as in many matters of detail made and at which certain observations were
scattered through

//

aMt. By

The assistance used them. has no! /urn altered since Leonardo the Manuscripts is generally afford for a chronological arrangement of to the original Manuscripts this clue I have assigned
/<.-

verify

the tinte

and

place

registered.

For

this

the Manuscripts given at the purpose the Bibliography of


be regarded as

end of

Vol. II,

may
at

of

all

Leonardos
i

literary

an Index, not far short of complete, The consecutive numbers works now extant.
this

(from
their

to

1566;

the

head of each passage in


reference
to

work,
the

indicate
letters

logical

sequence

with

the

subjects;

while

and

and

each paragraph refer to the original Manuscript figures to the left of to be found. the page, on which that particular passage is number

of

of Manuscripts at the beginning of Volume 7, and to the Bibliography at the end of Volume II, can, in every which the passage belongs, instance, cosily ascertain, not merely the period to

Thus the

reader, by referring to the List

but also exactly where

it

stood in the original document.

Thus,

too,

by

the reader following the sequence of the numbers in the Bibliographical index,

may

reconstruct the original order

the of the Manuscripts and recompose


so

various texts to be
say, as by
its

found on

the original sheets

much of

it,

that

is

to

however,

be

came within the scope of this work. It may, here observed that Leonardos Manuscripts contain, besides the
subject-matter

passages here printed, a great number of notes


Physics,

and

dissertations on Mechanics,

and some

other subjects,

many of which could

only be satisfactorily

dealt with by specialists.

I have given as

complete a review of these writings

as seemed necessary in the Bibliographical notes.

In 1651, Raphael Trichet Dujresne, of Paris, published a selection from Leottardos writings on painting, and this treatise became so popular that it
has since been reprinted about two -and-twenty times, and in six different languages. But none of these editions were derived from the original texts,

which were supposed

from early copies, in which Leonardos text had been more or less mutilated, and which were all fragmenThe oldest and on the whole the best copy of Leonardos essays and tary.
to

have been

lost,

but

precepts on Painting is in the Vatican


first by copy,

Library ;
contain

this

has been twice printed,


Still, this
it

Manzi, in 1817, and secondly by Ludwig, in 1882.


the published editions

ancient
be

and

of

it,

much for which

would

rash to hold Leonardo responsible,

and some portions

such as the very

PREFACE.

XVII

important rules for the proportions of the human figure are wholly wanting; on the other hand they contain passages which, if they are genuine, cannot

now

be verified

from any

original Manuscript extant.

These

copies,

at any

rate neither give us the original order

of

the texts, as written by Leonardo,

nor do they afford any

substitute, by connecting

them on a rational scheme;

indeed, in their chaotic confusion they are

The fault, no doubt, rests which would seem to be the source whence
reading.

anything rather than satisfactory with the compiler of the Vatican copy,
all the published

and

extensively

were derived; for, instead of arranging the passages himself, he tvas satisfied with recording a suggestion for a final arrangement of them into eight distinct parts, without attempting to carry out his scheme. Under
texts

known

the mistaken idea that this


.

plan of distribution might be


continued
to

that,

not of the

compiler, but of Leonardo himself, the various editors,

down

to the

present

day,

have

very

injudiciously

adopt

this

order

or

rather

disorder.

like other

enquirers ,

had given up
till,

the original

Manuscript of the
enabled,,

Trattato della Pittura

for

lost,

in the beginning

of 1880, I was

by the liberality of Lord Ashburnham, to inspect his Manuscripts,


so

and was
Place.

happy as
of the

to discover

among them
in
his

the original text

of the best-known por-

tion

Trattato

magnificent

library

at

Ashburnham

Though
inciting

this discovery

was of a fragment
,

only

but a considerable fragmentto the

me

to

further search

it

gave the key

mystery which had so

long enveloped the first origin of all the known copies of the Trattato.
extensive researches

The

I was

subsequently enabled to prosecute,


this

and

the results

of which are combined in

work,

were only rendered possible by the


investigate all the
to

unrestricted permission granted

me

to

Manuscripts by

Leonardo dispersed throughout Europe, and


the

reproduce the highly important

original sketches they contain, by the process of "-photogravure".

Her

Majesty

Queen graciously accorded me special permission to copy for publication the Manuscripts at the Royal Library at Windsor. The Commission Centrale

Administrative de V Institut de France, Paris, gave me, in the most liberal manner, in answer to an application from Sir Frederic Leighton, P. R. A.,
Corresponding member of the Institut, free permission
to

work for

several

months in their private collection at deciphering the Manuscripts preserved there. The same favour which Lord Ashburnham had already granted me was
extended to

me

by the

Earl of Leicester,

the

Marchese Trivulzi, and the Curators

of the Ambrosian Library at Milan, by the Conte Manzoni at

Rome and

by

PREFACE.
XV1U

l^SL. **7. Mr. Mr.


M,
British

Museum,

Mantle Thompson, Keeper at Windsor, th Holme*, the Queens Librarian

**"****
and
Hall.
the

Ckrist Church College at Oxford, Vcre Bayne, Librarian of

A. Napier, Librarian

to the

Earl of

Leicester at

Holkham

of

the press, I have had the advantage In correcting the Italian text for Giov. Morelli, Senatore del Regno, valuable adiice from the Commendatore

and from Signor Gustavo Frizzoni, of Milan.


difficulties,

The

translation,
to

under many

of the Italian

text into English, is

mainly due

Mrs. R.

C. Bell;

while the rendering of several of the most puzzling


particularly
in the second

and important

passages,

to the indefatigable interest half of Vol. I, I owe R. A. Finally I must express taken in this work by Mr. E. J. Poynter Ditton, who has most kindly my thanks to Mr. Alfred Marks, of Long

assisted

me throughmit

in the revision of the

proof

sheets.

The notes and dissertations on the

texts

on Architecture in Vol. II

I owe

to

my friend Baron Henri


the production

de Gcymuller, of Paris.
to the illustrations, that the

I may further mention with regard


tives

nega-

for

of the "photo-gravures" by Monsieur Dujardin of

Paris were all taken direct

from
add

the originals.

It is scarcely necessary to

in facsimile have never been published before.

that most of the drawings here reproduced As I am now, on the termi-

nation of a

work of

several years

duration,

in

a position

to

review

the

I may perhaps be permitted to add a general tenour of Leonardos writings, word as to my own estimate of the value of their contents. I have already
shmcn that
it

is

due

to

circumstances, that

we

nothing but a fortuitous succession of unfortunate should not, long since, have known Leonardo, not

merely as a Painter, but as an Author, a Philosopher,

and a

Naturalist.

There can
discoveries

6t

no doubt that in more than one department his principles


infinitely

and

were

more in accord with the teachings of modern

science,

than with the views of his contemporaries. For this reason his extraordinary gifts and merits are far more likely to be appreciated in our own time

PREFACE.

XIX

could have been during the preceding centuries. He has been unjustly accused of having squandered his powers, by beginning a variety

than they

of studies and

The truth having hardly begun, throwing them aside. is that the labours of three centuries have hardly sufficed for the elucidation of some of the problems which occupied his mighty mind.
then,

Alexander von Humboldt has borne witness that "he was the first to start on the road towards the point where all the impressions of our senses
converge in the idea of the Unity of

Nature?
the

The very words which are inscribed on

Nay, yet more may be said. monument of Alexander von Hum-

boldt himself, at Berlin, are perhaps the most appropriate in which

we can

sum

^lp

our estimate of Leonardo's genius:


"Majestati naturae par ingenium."

LONDON, April

1883.

y. p. R.

CONTENTS OF VOLUME

I.

Pages

PROLEGOMENA AND GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON


PAINTING
The author's intention to Clavis Sigillorum and Index of Manuscripts. The preparation of the MSS. for publication (2). publish his MSS. (i). Admonition to readers (3). The disorder in the MSS. (4). Suggestions for the General introduc8). arrangement of MSS. treating of particular subjects (5 tions to the book on painting (9 13). The plan of the book on painting The use of the book on painting (18). Necessity of theoretical 17). (14 23). Variability of the knowledge (19, 20). The function of the eye (21 Focus of sight (25). Differences of perception by one eye and by eye (24). The comparative size of the image depends on the amount both eyes (26 29).
of light
I

24

(3039).
II.

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE
General remarks on perspective (40 41). The elements of perspective: Of the line (47 48). The nature of the outline of the point (42 46). The perception of the object depends Definition of perspective (50). (49). on the direction of the eye (51). Experimental proof of the existence of the The relations of the distance point to the van55). pyramid of sight (52 How to measure the pyramid of vision (57). The ishing point (55 56).

Proof by experiment (65 66). 64). production of the pyramid of vision (58 General conclusions (67). That the contrary is impossible (68). A parallel The function of the eye, as explained by the camera obscura case (69). The practice of perspective (72 73). Refraction of the rays fal71). (70 The inversion of the images (76). The inter75). ling upon the eye (74 Demonstration of perspective by means of a section of the rays (77 82). The angle of sight varies with the distance vertical glass plane (83 85.)

On simple and complex Opposite pyramids in juxtaposition (89). (86 88). The proper distance of objects from the eye (91 92). perspective (90). The relative size of objects with regard to their distance from the eye (93 The apparent size of objects denned by calculation (99 106). On 9 g). natural perspective (107 109).

XXII

CONTENTS OF VOLUME
HI.

I.

Pages

SIX
and shade (in).

BOOKS ON LIGHT AND SHADE


Prolegomena (no).

67123
the

GENERAL INTRODUCTION.
light

Scheme of

books on

Different principles and plans of treatment (112 116). Definition of the nature of shadows Different sorts of light (117 118). Of the various kinds of shadows (123 125). Of the various 122). (119 FIRST BOOK ON LIGHT General remarks (128129). kinds of light (126 127). AND SHADE. On the nature of light (130 131). The difference between light

The relations of luminous to illuminated bodies (136). lustre (132 135). 140). Experiments on the relation of light and shadow within a room (137 145)Light and shadow with regard to the position of the eye (141 The law of the incidence of light (146 147). SECOND BOOK ON LIGHT AND On the intenSHADE. Gradations of strength in the shadows (148 149). 152). sity of shadows as dependent on the distance from the .light (150 On the proportion of light and shadow (153 157). THIRD BOOK ON LIGHT Different sorts of AND SHADE. Definition of derived shadow (158 159). derived shadows (160 On the relation of derived and primary sha162). dow (163 165). On the shape of derived shadows (166 174). On the Shadow as produced by relative intensity of derived shadows (175 179). two lights of different size (180 The effect of light at different distances 181). FOURTH Further complications in the derived shadows (183 (182). 187). BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE. On the shape of cast shadows (188 191). On the outlines of cast shadows* (19 2 On the relative size of cast shadows 195). Effects on cast shadows by the tone of the' back ground (198). (196. 197). A disputed proposition (199). On the relative depth of cast shadows (200 FIFTH BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE. Principles of reflection (203. 204). 202). On reverberation (205). Reflection on water (206. 207). Experiments with the mirror (208 On shadows in movement (211 212). SIXTH 210). Appendix: BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE. The effect of rays passing through holes (213. On gradation of shadows (215. 216). On relative proportion of light 214).
and

and shadows (216

221).
IV.

PERSPECTIVE OF DISAPPEARANCE
guiding An experiment (226). On indistinctness at short distances (227 rule (225). On indistinctness at great distances (232 234). The importance of 231). The effect of light and shade in the Prospettiva de' perdimenti (235 239). Prolight or dark backgrounds on the apparent size of objects (240 250).
positions
Definition
(222.
223).

123139

An

illustration

by

experiment (224).

on Prospettiva

de' perdimenti

from MS. C. (250


V.

262).

THEORY OF COLOURS
reciprocal effects of colours on objects placed opposite each other Combination of different colours in cast shadows (272). The 271). (263 effect of colours in the camera obscura (273. 274). On the colours of derived shadows (275. 276). On the nature of colours (277. 278). On gradations in the depth of colours (279. 280). On the reflection of colours (281 283).

141

154

The

On the use of dark and light colours in painting (284 of the rainbow (287 288).
VI.

286).

On

the colours

PERSPECTIVE OF COLOUR AND AERIAL PERSPECTIVE General rules (289 An exceptional case (292). An experiment 291).
The practice of the Prospettiva de' colori (294). The rules of aerial On the relative density of the atmosphere (298299). perspective (295297). On the colour of the atmosphere (300 307).
(293).

155166

CONTENTS OF VOLUME
VII.

I..

XXIII

t>

Pages

ON THE PROPORTIONS AND ON THE MOVEMENTS OF THE HUMAN


FIGURE
i

167201

Proportions of the head and face Preliminary observations (308. 309). of the head seen in front (319 Proportions 321). (310 318). Proportions Relative proportions of the hand and foot (324). of the foot (322 323). Relative proportions of the foot and of the face (325 327). Proportions of the leg (328 On the central point of the whole body (332). The 331). The relative relative proportions of the torso and of the whole figure (333). The relative proportions of proportions of the head -and of the torso (334). The relative proportions of the torso and the torso and of the leg (335. 336). of the foot (337). The proportions of the whole figure (338 341). The torso

from the front and back (342). Vitruvius' scheme of proportions (343). The arm and head (344). Proportions of the arm (345 349). The movement of The movement of the torso (355 361). The proporthe arm (350 354). The movement of the human figure tions vary at different ages (362 367). Of walking up and down (375 379^ On the human body in (368 375).
action

(380

388).

On

hair

falling

down

in

curls

(389).

On

draperies

(39

39 2 )VIII.

BOTANY FOR PAINTERS, AND ELEMENTS OF LANDSCAPE PAINTING 203240


The relative thickness of the branches to (394396). The law of proportion in the growth of the branches The direction of growth (403 407). The forms of trees (408 402). (397 The insertion of the leaves (412 419). Light on branches and leaves 411). The proportions of light and shade in a leaf (423 426). Of 422). (420 The gradations of shade and colour the transparency of leaves (427 429).
Classification of trees (393).

the trunk

in leaves (430

The proportions
of light and

classification of trees according to their colours (435). 434). of light and shade in trees (436 The distribution 440). shade with reference to the position of the spectator (441^-443).
effects

The effects of morning light (444 448). The The appearance of trees in the distance (450
Light and shade on 453). treatment of light for landscapes (458 The effect views of towns (465 469). and shade on clouds (474 477). On
trees (452.

451).
the

of midday light (449). The cast shadow of


457).

groups of trees (454


464).

On

the

rainbows and rain (479. 480).

Of

of light for of wind on trees (470 473). Light Of images reflected in water (478). flower seeds (481).
treatment
IX.

On

THE PRACTICE OF PAINTING


I.

241332
How
to ascertain the

MORAL PRECEPTS FOR THE STUDENT OF


for

PAINTING.

dispositions
artist

(483 anatomical

The course of instruction for an (482). The study of the antique (486. 487). The necessity of 485). to acquire practice (490). Industry knowledge (488. 489).
an
artistic

career

How

conditions (491 The artist's private life and 493.) The distribution of time for studying (495 choice of company (493. 494)On the productive power of minor artists (498 501). A caution against 497). How to acquire universality (503 506). Useful games one-sided study (502). and exercises (507. 508). II. THE ARTIST'S STUDIO. INSTRUMENTS AND HELPS FOR THE APPLICATION OF PERSPECTIVE. ON JUDGING OF A PICTURE. On the size of the studio (509). On the construction of windows (510 512). On the best light

and thoroughness the

first

various helps in preparing a picture (521 530). On the limitations of painting (531. 532). O n tne choice of a position (536. 537). The apparent size of (533 535)The right position of the artist, when painting figures in a picture (538. 539).
for painting (513 520). On the management of

On

works

XXIV

CONTENTS OF VOLUME

I.

Pages

and of the spectator (540547). III. THE PRACTICAL METHODS OF LIGHT AND SHADE AND AERIAL PERSPECTIVE. Gradations of light and shade (548). On the The distribution of light and shade choice of light for a picture (549 554). The juxtaposition of light and shade (560. 561). On the lighting (555559).

On the lighting of white objects (566). The of the background (562 565). IV. OF PORTRAIT AND FIGURE PAINTING. methods of aerial perspective (567 570). Of sketching figures and portraits (571. 572). The position of the head Of the light on the face (574 576). General suggestions for historical (573). How to represent the differences of age and sex (582. pictures (577 581). Of representing the emotions (584). Of representing imaginary animals 583).
The selection of forms (586 591). How to pose figures (592). Of (585). V. SUGGESTIONS FOR COMPOSITIONS. Of painting 600). appropriate gestures (593 Of depicting night -scenes (604). Of depicting a 603). battle-pieces (60 1 Of representing the deluge (607 609). Of depicting tempest (605. 606). natural phenomena (610. 611). VI. THE ARTIST'S MATERIAL. Of chalk and paper On the preparation and use of colours (618 627). Of preparing 617). (612 the panel (628). The preparation of oils (629 634). On varnishes (635 VII. PHILOSOPHY AND HISTORY OF THE 637)- -On chemical materials (638 650). ART OF PAINTING. The relation of art and nature (651. 652). Painting is superior
to poetry (653. 654).

(657

659).

On

Painting is superior to sculpture (655. 656). Aphorisms The painter's scope (662). the history of painting (660. 66 1).
X.

STUDIES AND SKETCHES FOR PICTURES AND DECORATIONS


Bandino's portrait (664). Notes On the battle of Anghiari (669). 673). Allegorical representations referring to the duke of Milan (670 Allegorical representations (674 678). Arrangement of a picture (679). List of drawMottoes and Emblems (681 702). ings (680).
di

333361

On

pictures of the Madonna (663). on the Last Supper (665 668).

Bernardo

REFERENCE TABLE TO THE NUMERICAL ORDER OF THE CHAPTERS

363367

LIST
PI.
I.

OF ILLUSTRATIONS

IN

VOLUME

I.

Portrait of

Page

Leonardo, by himself, reproduced from the original drawing in red chalk in the Royal Library, Turin see No. 1368, Note Frontispiece

PI. II.

Three Diagramms, illustrating the theories of Linear Perspective and of see text No. 61. Light and Shade: No. i from the Ashburnham MS. I No. i Nos. 2 and 3 from MS. C., Institut de France, Paris see text No. 141

To
PI.
III.

face

38

Two

Diagrams,
I:

burnham MS.
No. 149
PI.

illustrating the theory of Light and Shade; from the No. i see text Nos. 148 and 275 No. 2 see ;

Ashtext

To
,
:

face

87

IV.

Five Diagrams No. i illustrating the theory of Light and Shade MS. E, Institut de France, Paris see text No. 162 Nos. 2 and 3 the Ashburnham MS. I see text Nos. 169 and 173 Nos. 4 and 5 the Codex Atlanticus, Ambrosian Library, Milan see text Nos. and 187 To
; ;

from from from


179
face

93

PI.

V.

Diagram, illustrating the theory of Light and Shade and Sketches of Figures illustrating the Movements of the Human Figure; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle see text Nos. 183 and 597 To face

102

PI.

VI.

Four Diagrams, illustrating the theory of Light and Shade: No. i from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan see text No. 191 Nos. 2 and 3 from MS. C,
;

Institut

de France, Paris
I

see text Nos. 215 and 216

No. 4 from the

Ashburnham MS.
PI.

^see text

No. 224

To

face

108

VII.

Five Drawings, illustrating the theory of the Proportions of the Human see text No. 310 ; Figure, from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle; No. i No. 4 No. 2 see text Nos. 310 and 327 No. 3 see text No. 313 ; ; see text Nos. 321 and 327 To face No. 5 see Nos. 337 and 595 . ;
.

170

PI. VIII.

Two
No.
2

Figure; No.

Drawings, illustrating the theory of the Proportions of the Human i from MS. A, Institut de France, Paris see text No. 312 ; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle see text No. 332 .To face
the
illustrating the theory Accademia at Venice

171

PI.

IX.

Drawing,

of the Proportions of the


see text

Human

Figure;

from

^0.315

To
d

face

172

XXVI

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN

VOLUME

I.

Page
PI.

X.

Drawing

in

Proportions see text No. 3 1 6 Castle


PI. XI.

silverpoint on bluish-toned paper, of the Human Figure; from the

illustrating the theory

of

Royal Library,

Windsor

To

face

176

Drawing, illustrating the theory of Proportions of the Human Figure; from To face see text No. 318 the Royal Library, Windsor Castle

...

176

PI. XII.

Drawing,
the

Royal Library, Turin

illustrating the theory of Proportions in the see text No. 319

Human

Figure; from

To

face

176

PI. XIII.

Two Drawings illustrating the theory of the Proportions of the see text No. 328 Figure; from the Royal Library Windsor Castle

Human To face

PI.

XIV.

Two

drawings, illustrating the theory of Proportions of the Human Figure, see text Nos. 326, from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle; No. i To face 330 ; No 2. see text No. 334
Sketches, illustrating the theory of the Proportions of the Human Figure; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle see text Nos. 331 and 345 To face

178

PI.

XV.

178

PI.

XVI.

Two

Drawings, illustrating the theory of the Proportions of the Human Figure; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle: No. i, see text No. 335; No. 2, see text Nos. 339 and 342 To face

180

PL XVII.

Two
No. No.

drawings, illustrating the theory of Proportions in the Human Figure; from MS. A, Institut de France, Paris see text No. 313 note ; 2 from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle, see text Nos. 348
. .

and 336
PI.

.-

To
-the

face
.

181

XVIII.

Drawing, illustrating the Proportions of Accademia, Venice

Human

Figure,

from the

To

face

182

PI.

XIX.

Two Drawings, illustrating the theory of the Proportions of the Human see text No. 347 Figure from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle; No. i ; No. 2 see text No. 351 To face
Drawing, illustrating the theory of the Proportions of the Human Figure; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle see text No. 349 . . To face

184
186

PI.

XX.
XXI.

PI.

Drawing

in

Human

Figure

red chalk, illustrating the theory of the Movements of the see text No. 356 and sketch in pen and ink of ,
see p. 340;

warriors fighting

from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle

To
PI.

face

188

XXII.

Four Drawings,
Figure: Nos.
i

Nos. 357 and


Paris

illustrating the theory of the Movements of the 2 from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle see text 358 ; Nos. 3 and 4 from Manuscript A, Institut de France,

Human

and

see text Nos. 359 and 369

To

face

194

PL XXIII.

Four Drawings, illustrating the theory of the Movements of the Human see text No. 375 Figure: No. i from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle No. 2, in red chalk, from MS. II. 2 , South Kensington Museum, London see text Nos. 376 and 1395 No. 3, in red chalk, from Manuscript H 2 Institut de France, Paris see text No. 377 No. 4 from the Royal Library, ; Windsor Castle see text No. 379 To face
;
; ,

196

PL XXIV.

Three Drawings, illustrating the theory of the Movements of the Human see text No. 387 Figure: No. i from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle ; No. 2 from the Codex Atlanticus, Milan see text No. 388 ; No. 3 from the Leicester Manuscript, Holkham Hall see text No. 386 To face
. .

199

PL XXV.

Drawing, illustrating the representation of the hair falling down in curls; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle see text No. 389 To face
. .

200

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN

VOLUME

I.

XXVII
Page

PL XXVI.

Charcoal Drawing of a Female Figure, from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle see text No. 391 and p. 341 To face
Five Drawings, illustrating the Botany for Painters; from the Manuscripts see text Nos. 395 (i) and G (2 to 5), Institut de France, Paris: No. i and 396 2 see text Nos. 402 and 412 No. 3 see text ; .No. ; No. 413 see text No. 414 No. 5 see text No. 417 To face ; No. 4 ;

202

PI.

XXVII.

214

PI.

XX VIII.

Five Drawings illustrating the Elements of Landscape Painting; from the 1 Manuscripts M, G, E and I in the Institut de France, ParisNo, i see text No. No. 2 (MS. G) see text Nos. 424 and (MS. M) No. 3 (MS. E) see text Nos. 440 and 441 No. 4 (MS. G) 433 ; see text No. 451 No. 5 (MS. I ) see text Nos. 188 and 452 and ; ; two drawings illustrating the theory of the Arrangement of Folds in see text No. 390 Draperies: No. 6 from the Ashburnham Manuscript I ; No. 7 from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle see text No. To face

420;

391

224

PI.

XXIX.

Library,
PI.

Drawing, in red chalk, Windsor Castle

representing a Landscape; see text No. 476


the

from the Royal

To

face

238

XXX.
XXXI.

Drawing of a Bust and minor Sketches; from Castle see text Nos. 486 and 487

Royal Library, Windsor

To

face

244

PI.

Four Drawings illustrating the Practice of Painting: No. i from the Codex Atlanticus Milan see text Nos. 490 and 548 No. 2 from the Ashburnham Manuscript I see text No. 512; No. 3 from Manu;

script A, Institut

de France, Paris
I

Ashburnham Manuscript

see text No. 526; No. 4 from the see text Nos. 573 and 574 .To face
. .

263

PL XXXII.
PL XXXIII.

Drawing of a male Head, illustrating the Practice of Painting; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle see text Nos. 137, 575, 577 To face
.

290

paper,

Study of Female Hands, drawn with the silverpoint on yellowish tinted heightened with white; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle see text No. 593 To face
the Collection of Baron

292

Drawing of two

Men on horseback fighting a Dragon; from Edmond de Rothschild, Paris; woodcut


in size);

page

293

Drawing of Male Figures in various groups, woodcut

from the Louvre Collections (reduced page

297

PL XXXIV.

Representation of a Tempest, drawn with the pen and partly washed with Indian ink, from the Royal library, Windsor Castle see text

Nos. 606 and 608

between pp. 304

305

PL

XXXV.

Three Drawings,
Sketches Figure of the Deluge

from

the

referring to the see text No. 348

Royal Library, Windsor Castle: No. i theory of the Proportions of the Human Nos. 2 and 3 referring to the representation ;

see text Nos.^ 608

and 609
Royal
. . .

To
To

face

306
308

PL XXXVI.

Representation

of

Natural

Windsor Castle

see text p. 307, note,

Phenomena; from the and No. 477

Library, face

PL XXXVII. PL XXXVIII.

Representation

of

Natural

Windsor Castle

see text p.
i

Phenomena; from the 307, note, and No. 477

Royal
. .

.To

Library, face

310

Three Drawings: No.


the

Representation of Natural Phenomena,

from

No. 2 Sketch of a see text No 610 ; Atlanticus, Milan Male Figure from the Ashburnham MS. I see text No. 579 ; No. 3 Sketch of Male Figures, from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle

Codex

see p.

340

To

face

312

XXVIII

LIST

OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN VOLU.MK

I.

Page
PI.

XXXIX.
XL.

Charcoal

Drawing, representing a Deluge,


Castle,

from the Royal Library,

Windsor
PI.

see p. 309, note


:

To

face

Three Drawings from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle No. i Representations of Natural Phenomena, drawn with the pen and washed 610 ; No. 2 Sketches of Male see text Nos. 473, 608 with Indian ink
see illustrating the practice of Figure Painting ;No. 3 Sketch for a Madonna picture, drawn with the To face see text page 343, note silverpoint on bluish-tinted paper

Heads

in red chalk,

text

No. 573

PI.

XLI.

Five Drawings illustrating the theory of Painting: No. i from the AshNo. 2 from the see text Nos. 142 and 344 ; Nos. 3 and 4 from MS. F, see text No. 200 ; see text No. 244; No. 5 from MS. E, Institut de France, Paris To face see text Nos. 197 and 1190 Institut de France, Paris

burnham Manuscript I Codex Atlanticus, Milan

3 24

PI.

XLII.

Female Head, preparatory Drawing in silverpoint, on brown-toned paper for the Angel in the picture "La Vierge aux Rochers"; from the To face Royal Library, Turin see p. 344

329

PI.

XLIII.

same figure, done with the brush Preparatory Study of Drapery and Indian ink on greenish paper, the lights heightened with white; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle see pp. 344, 345 note To face
for the
in
p.

PI.

XLIV.

Bust of a Boy, Study, in red chalk, for the figure of the Infant Christ see the same picture; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle

345 note
the Last Supper, at Milan,

To
woodcut

face

333

The Wall- Painting of


PI.

page

334
334

XLV.
XLVI.
XLVII.

Preparatory Sketch for the painting of the Last Supper; from the Royal
Library,

Windsor Castle

see p. 335

To

face

PI.

Preparatory Sketch for the painting of the Last Supper drawn in red see text No. 668 between pp. 336 chalk; from the Accademia, Venice

PI.

Study for the

Head

of

drawn
p. PI.

in

red chalk;

St. Matthew in the painting of the Last Supper, from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle see
.

333
black chalk, for the

To
To

face

336
336 336
33 6

XL VIII.
XLIX.
L.

Study, in

Head of

St.

Philip in the

same
.

from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle


PI.

see p. 333
in the

picture; face

Study, in charcoal, for St. Peter's right


the Royal Library,

Arm

Windsor Castle

see p. 333

....
..."
.
.

same picture; from

To To

face

PI.

Study, in red chalk, for the


the Royal Library,

Head

of Judas in the same picture; from


see p. 333
Battle
foil.

Windsor Castle
Cartoon

face

Raphael's

Sketch

after

Leonardo's

of the
see p.
for

of

University Galleries, Oxford

336
the

Anghiari ..'..

from the on page

337

Study

of

two

fighting Warriors, painting of the Battle of see Anghiari, drawn in black chalk; from the Museum at Buda-Pesth
p.

Heads
340

of

on page

338

Study
PI. LI.

for a fighting Warrior, for the Museum at Buda-Pesth,

same painting, drawn see p. 340


see p. 333

in red chalk;

from the on page


from
face

339
34
342

Drawing of the

Head of a
in

Criminal (the original in red chalk);

the Royal Library,

Windsor Castle
the painting of

....
.

To

Study of the

Head of

St.

John

"La Vierge aux Rochers"


.

in the

Louvre, Paris

see p. 344, 345, note


in the

on page

The

picture of "La Vierge aux Rochers"

Louvre, Paris,

woodcut

on page

344

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN

VOLUME

I.

XXIX
Page

PL

LIT.

Two

Drawings: No. i Group of Figures, in silverpoint on reddish-toned see Nos. 665, 666 note paper, from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle and 594 note; No. 2, Sketch of Horsemen fighting, Study for the cartoon of the Battle of Anghiari; from the British Museum, London see p. 336

To
P. LIII.

face

344

Study for the Cartoon of the Battle of Anghiari; drawing from the AccaTo face demia, Venice see p. 336 Study
for the cartoon of the Battle of Anghiari;

346
348

PL LIV.
PL LV. PL LVI.

drawing from the Acca-

demia, Venice

see p.

336

To

face

Study for the Cartoon of the Battle of Anghiari, drawing from the Accasee p. 337 To face demia, Venice

350

Study Royal Library, Windsor Castle

in

black chalk for the Cartoon of the battle of Anghiari, in the


see p.

338

....

between pp. 352


;

35^

PL LVII.

Cesare da Sesto's Copy of part of the Cartoon of the Battle of Anghiari charcoal Drawing from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle see p. 337

To
PL LVIII.
Studies
Castle
for Allegorical Compositions; see text No. 672, note

face

352

from the Royal Library, Windsor

To
the Library of Christ

face

352

PL LIX. PL LX.

Drawing of an Allegorical Composition; from see text No. 676 College, Oxford

Church
face

To
:

352

Four Drawings of Allegorical Representations No. i from the Library of Christ Church College, Oxford see text No. 676 No. 2 4 from Manuscript M, Institut de France, Paris see text Nos. 699 701 To face
;

353

PL LXI. PL LXII.

Allegorical Composition, from Oxford see text No. 677

the

Library

of Christ

Church College,
.

To

face

353

Two
in

Drawings: No.

the

No. 2:

di Bandino, when hanged; Thibaudeau, London see text No. 664 ; Emblems, from the Royal Library, Windsor Castle see text No. 681
i

Portrait

of Bernardo

possession of Mons.

To
PL LXIII.
PL LXIV.
Studies
text

face

354 356

of Emblems;

from

the

Royal

Library,

Windsor

Castle

see
face

No. 684

To
-.
.

Emblematic Representation; from the Royal Library, Windsor Castlesee text No. 688
.

To

face

358

are of the exact size of the originals; except that Plates I, XVIII colour and tone of the paper have in every case been faithfully in order to give to the facsimiles a imitated, perfect and complete resemblance to the originals, whether drawn in charcoal, red chalk or pen and ink. It is to be understood that all Drawings here reproduced are in pen-and-ink, unless otherwise stated.

and XLVI are

The reproductions of drawings The slightly reduced.

ERRATA.
Italian
text:

page 44
.;

/.

27

for luminosi se read luminosi;


.146
/.

se.

p. 79
recto

/.

23 for esse read e se.


resto.
I

/.

in
the

/.

from
li

the

end

for c
/. 228

d
/.

read C
il

.p.

22

for
/.

razrf

I./.

167

/.

g^or

read
/.
f>

p. 196
i.

/.

from

endfor

rtadll.

10

for

parte razrf parte.

/. 272

20 for baso raza? buso.

/. 291

for

n'a<f

WHICH English text: page 48 /. 2 from the end for ever mzrf over./. 65 /. 1$ for tretragon read tetragon./. 81 /. 6y>AWILL read WILL./. 109 /. T-$for on opposite r^^rf on the opposite./. 114 //. 26, 27 for avelets walways read wavelets always./. 115 /. 7 from the end for as read at./. 145 /. IT. for holer read holes./. 163 I. 8 from ffie endfor [on] read [20]. /. 164 /. 12 for each read at each./. 174 /. g./frr then-ose read tke nose./. 182 /. 26 for length read tenth./. 188 /. 6 for
. . . . . .

And do; /. 10 for 2 read and./. 200 /. 18 for it to out read it out./. 207 /. $ for to with the rarrf to the. whirling read whirling./. 321 /. 4 front the end for as raid? as to./. 266 /. i6/^ fla read flat./. 306 /. for thicker read thicken./. 329 /. ifor farther read further.

And

to

read
23

/. 238

/.

30^

Notes: page 291, No. 583

/.

$for

left

read right./. 349

I.

for

of the

beginning read the beginning

of.

Prolegomena and General Introduction


Painting.

to the

Book on

Clams
In the

sigillorum.

1.

few

instances in

which Leonardo has written from


note.

left
is

to

right in the

ordinary
2.

way

this is stated in

In all other cases the writing


the
line in

backwards.
4

The numbers printed above


the lines in the original

the revised text:

2
,

3,

&c. indicate

the heads of

MS.

In

many

instances the breaking off of the lines

in the original

MS.

accounts for peculiarities in the construction of Leonardo's sentences.


to the

In the translation the numbers refer only


in such passages,
3.

footnotes

and

they have been introduced

which require an explanation.

Clerical errors

and

text,

but are given in the notes,

obvious mistakes in spelling have been corrected in the so that all the peculiarities of the original text which

are omitted in the revised text


4.

may

be seen at

a glance.
:

Leonardo frequently employs the following abbreviations


Cf

for per or pr
di.

e.

g.

CT

che

perche

so

QTa

sopra.

ft for

for

br;

e.

g.

&

eve

= =

breve.
inverse.

for ver;

e.

g. in<J\so

for

ser;

e.

g.

<L

vo

servo.
it

These occur so constantly


to

and are

so unimporfant that

has not been thought necessary

point them out.


\

He

also uses:

for uno. for una.

VOL.

I.

PROLEGOMENA.
Such abbreviations as are common
Leonardo's usual

in

5. e.

familiar speech are retained in the text;

g. un sol punto.
6.

way of

spelling, ochio spechio

for occhio specchio, has also

been

left unaltered.
7.

The combinations of two or three words' into one, which Leonardo so frequently used, and which are so puzzling to the eye as to render reading difficult, though in the revised text; e. g. leforme ditutti=le plain to the ear, have been separated
forme
di
tutti.

These combinations were, however, intentional no doubt;

in

almost

every case they indicate the author's desire of substituting a sort of phonetic writing for the rules in general use. This doubling of the letters as, for instance in chessia

for che
loss

the orthography of

for e se la is, I believe, clear evidence of what may be called Leonardo da Vinci. The separation of the words has involved the in' these doubled letters, but the original spelling has been given, for reference of
sia

and

essella

the foot notes.


8.

Leonardo commonly wrote a e


but not often,

occasionally,

represents m.

6 u or v for an, en, in, on, un. This sign // has been retained, as it was usual in

printed type in the


9.

XV

th

and

XVI

th

centuries.

Leonardo sometimes writes


tienj,

u;

e.

g. linje,

mjnor.

As he
to left),

when he writes from right


j)

for i, particularly where it is joined to m, n or never sets a dot over the ordinary i (at any rate it is plain that he uses j for i (he does not dot the
j

simply to avoid confounding ni or ui with m, or mi with nu. As this difficulty cannot occur in print I have restored the usual spelling i for j without referring to it Accents

in the notes.
10.
it

and

apostrophes are entirely lacking in the original manuscript,

but

seemed necessary to introduce them into the printed text. The accent has also been added in those parts of the verb avere in which Leonardo had dropped the h: as 6,
a,

ai,

anno.
I]L
I

and

IH tne MSS. there are no marks of punctuation but these, II III C ) have been retained wherever they occur. is ahvays placed by Leonardo just they above the line of writing and is never used as a full stop, but only to divide the words
'

according to the sense-, it very often occurs between every word, particularly in MSS. of about 1490. When a letter or number is placed between two points, as a ., or 3 .,
.
.

it

usually refers to
I

to

a corresponding sign on a diagram or sketch. serve to separate sentences which are entirely distinct. II III commonly This mark commonly indicates that words written above or below the be inserted. In the reinsed text they have been simply inserted.
.

line

are

In the notes these passages are distinguished by the following signs: indicates that the words were written above the line.
"
(

that the words were written below the

line.

This

mark

is

used by Leonardo

to

mark

off
it

a digression

or parenthesis

or

a quotation from some other work of his own; but


(

often takes the place

of the colon:

simple bracket placed at the beginning of one or more lines serves to lay stress
it is

on particular sentences;

also used to

mark

distinct sentences

which have no connection

with the rest of the text on the same page. been denoted by the mark If.

In the printed text such sentences have

PROLEGOMENA.
The
length,

last line
it

of a

section

commonly ends with a horizontal


lines

line

of variable

making

of equal length with the preceding

of writing.

J, 4i 5' These figures, if written large, or some similar mark, are occasionally at the end of a page or at the beginning of a passage that has been crossed placed
12.

out;

where the same sign is repeated. The sings & o, which occur in the passages on painting^ have been added by some early copyist and have therefore not been reproduced in the notes.
this indicates
13.

and

that the continuation is to be sought for elsewhere,

,.:;!? These
to insert

stops are never

used
to

in the original

MSS.

It

seemed

neces-

sary however
is

such marks in order

render the text

intelligible.

A full

stop

used at the end of a section to avoid confusion with Leonardo's own use of points (see No. \\) for he never places one at the end of a section or paragraph. Wherever a full stop seemed wanting in .the course of the text I have put a semi colon (;).
only
,

The

colon
14.
15.

(:)

is

used instead of a full stop where, in the

original,

a point

(.)

occurs.

[ ]

Passages between brackets are crossed out in the original.


the

When a word or passage of


indicates passages in

revised text

is

printed in small type

it

indicates that the reading is doubtful in consequence


1 6.
\l\\\\

of partial obliteration.
is entirely

which the original writing

destroyed.

17.
1

R
ink.

indicates that the passage is written in red chalk.

8.

(R) indicates that the original writing in red chalk has been written over in

pen and
19.

P
i

indicates
a

Jhat

the original writing is in silverpoint.

20.

j<5

2 $ &c. the front page 2 6 3* &c. the back page


S.

recto

of sheet
of sheet

I,

2,

3, 3,

&c. &c.

verso

I,

2,

The MSS. Tr. and


In all other

K. M.

MSS.

the leaf only is numbered.

are the only ones in which the pages are numbered. In referring to the Codex Atlanticus a

double series of numbers has been used.


the second series does not exist in the

The

first apply only to the larger leaves

of the

Codex, on which two or more of the original leaves of the

MS. have

been mounted;

Codex

itself; it

refers to the original pages in the

order in which they have been placed in it. By this second series of numbers the correWherever, in addition to the spondence of the front and back pages has been verified.
consecutive numbering, a different

parenthesis, thus:

2j

(3"),

number occurs in- Leonardo 's writing it is quoted in a and this indicates that the back page of leaf 27 in the
3.

MS. C was
21. twice.

originally

numbered
as 26

A Roman
O',

II,

II*

In the Codex Atlanticus


22.

26 IP, indicates that the same number is used for II.

(26) occurs

that the passages so marked are originally notes written on the inside of the cover of the MS.; O' within the front or upper cover, O" within
indicates

O"

the under cover.


23.

The wood -cuts introduced


sketches
to

into

the

text are facsimile -reproductions

of Leo-

nardo's

own

and drawings which accompany

the

MSS.

But

the letters

and

numbers affixed

them have

been inserted in ordinary writing.

PROLEGOMENA.

The folloiving is a list of Leonardo's letters and numbers, as they are found 24The on those original drawings which are here reproduced by facsimile engravings. reader will have to refer to this list, by which he will be enabled to identify the letters and numbers on the originals with the corresponding figures in the printed text.

A A
d o

A
a.

M
'

=
:>

=
/'

o ==

*-'..y'
T
'

1''
I

:':

."

^~/
<l

''.''

'\1-'
u

=
=

^f

i f

\ =y \
i J

^2.

= =

^4=4
^
t)

/ =
C

= =

<>=7
--,

8
9

PROLEGOMENA.

INDEX OF MANUSCRIPTS.

PROLEGOMENA.

PROLEGOMENA.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING.


Leonardo committed almost a handwriting that goes from right to left. This singular paper sometimes been accounted for by supposing that Leonardo felt it necessary
to

Contrary
habit lias
to

the universal custom of western nations,


in

all his notes to

put every

difficulty
to

in
to

the

way of

the publication of his works.

This assumption,

however, seems

me

rest on no solid grounds,

and

is

but an hypothesis at best.

Perfectly explicit statements prove, on the contrary, that Leonardo

wished

to

publish his

writings, and that he cared greatly that they should be known and read; and any one who has taken the trouble to make himself familiar with the Master's writing will, I think, hardly resist the conviction that even the character of the writing was expressly adapted
to

that view.

We know from
his left hand,

the evidence of his friend


ease. 1

Luca Paciolo that Leonardo drew with

authentically

and used it with perfect known to be genuine as


is

In point of fact, in almost every drawing those included in the texts of MSS. must be
lie

wherever shading

introduced the strokes


the left hand.
to
1

from

left to

right (downwards) as they

would be drawn with The question as


probably a vain
one.

why Leonardo drew and


is

wrote with his

left

hand

is

now

nothing circumstance or mere caprice was the cause. It is notes, written in his twenty-first year, when he could hardly have caution as are attributed to him*, are written backwards.

There

to justify

us in deciding whether accidental worthy of remark, that the earliest

had such

reasons for

sufficiently prove that he certainly intended them for publication, though the form is probably not always what he finally meant it to be. The appeal or address 'til', which frequently occurs and more particularly in theore-

The

contents

of Leonardo's MSS.

passages , is often no doubt meant for the reader; but in other cases it indicates rather the specially meditative character of the passage. Abstract speculations acquire a particular charm from this soliloquizing form it is as if we overheard the mental
tical

process of the author.

In the passages indicated below Leonardo expresses himself clearly as

to the

end

and purpose of

his literary labours.

In one passage in the


invention to himself,
this exception sufficiently

MS.

and not making


proves the

at HolkJiam (No. \) he speaks of keeping a certain it public. As he uses this reserve in no other instance,
rule.

"Scrivesi ancora alia rovescia e mancina che non si posson legere se non con lo specchio, ovvero guardando la carta dal suo rovescio contro alia luce, come so m'intendi senz' altro dica, e come fa il nostro Leonardo da Vinci, lume della pittura, quale e mancino, come piu volte e detto." (L. PACIOLO,

Divina Proportione, Venaua, 1509.) 2 This was first pointed out in the 1 Gallery by Senatore Giov. MORELLI.

'Critical

review of the drawings by the old Masters in the Dresden

3 "Pour s'exprimer a peu pres comme lui, des esprits dtroits et routiniers d'une part, et de 1'autre des aventuriers partant a cheval centre tout ce qui avail permis jusque-li d'e'tablir ces regies qui, determinant la limit e du possible et de 1'impossible, empechent le chercheur de tomber dans le de"sespoir et la

mclancolic,

exageraient a plaisir ce

qu'il avait dit (?)


(?)

se servaient de ses propres expressions


parlait

pour

le repre'senter

pour ragir contre les abus et les paradoxes, et cpmme un charlatan ou un fou. Lorsqu'il
mais
laisser voir

du moins, son Eloquence persuasive donnait &

ses ide'es toute leur valeur;

dans

ses papiers des pensees incompletement exprime'es, des redactions inacheve'es, des projets d'inventions de toutes sortes, c'eut ite iexposer a la calomnie et au vol." (CH. RAVAISSON MOLLIEN , Les Manuscrits de L. de Vinci, Paris 1 88 1, /. 2). But we might suppose that Leonardo would have considered his papers and his

instruments quite

safe,

by keeping them locked away in his

own room.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING.


In the passage
characteristic

from

the

MS.

F (No.

2) tJic expression "mettere insieme" is equally


tJie

of his method of working and of


of which could be done the more
tJie

condition

of the MSS.
to

By
to

it

he

means

the classification

separate details

of

his researches so as

make a

con-

nected whole,

easily since it

was

his practice

write

separate chapters on separate sheets.

The MS.
interesting,
to

in

the British

Museum
where

begins with an apology (No.

for

the self- evident disorder of the


it is

MS.

the notes on mathematics

placed

which is very 4.) This apology applies equally ^vell and to all the branches of science on
refer to the arrangement of different

which Leonardo wrote.

The passages (Nos.

j) are soliloquies,
the

and

MSS.

as preparatory

to

publication in

form intended

by Leonardo himself.

From
,

all this it

was

clearly not his intention that the notes should be printed as they lay

in

confusion, under his hand. The schemes, which Leonardo himself proposed for the arrangement of the Book on Painting as well as of his other writings, give us a clue as we shall presently

see

which enables us perfectly

to construct the

whole work on the basis of his own rules

and with some

pretention to logical sequence.

We may
21

conclude that the sections 9,

10

and

II

headed 'Proemio' -refer


the original (Cod. At.

to the

Book on Painting, and more


with
its

particularly to the lessons


di

on Perspective , because section


in

special

title

"Proemio
sheet.

prospettiva"

is,

HJ 6 ;

56 1

written on the

same

Sections 12 to 20 give us the guiding idea of the general plan

and of

the object

and purpose of

the Libro di Pittura.


di prospettiva, cioe dell' ufitio dell' ochio' folloivs naturally after

No. 21 'Proemio

the other general introductions.

Our

acceptance of this introduction,

it is

true, wholly

invalidates the arrangement of the materials which has been adopted by every editor of the old copies of the Trattato since DUFRESNE but those, it must be remembered, contain
;

only disconnected fragments of Leonardos treatise on Perspective.


the branches of optics do not,

His

investigations in all

of

course,

come under consideration

to the physiology of the eye the reader will find, in Nos. 24, 28

With regard 39, passages which


here.

show that Leonardo understood the effect of the variation in the size of the pupil on The insertion of these passages seemed indispensable because the perception of objects. The same may be said the basis of certain general principles of Perspective. they form
about his explanation of the difference between seeing with one eye and seeing with two (No. 25 29) as well as of his acute remarks as to the apparent variation in the size of objects according to the amount of light in which they are seen (No. 30 39^.

VOL.

I.

Leic. 226}

molti stie 2 no con istrumeto alsotto Pacque; Come e perche io non quato scrivo il mio modo di 3star sotto 1'acqua; quato io posso star sanza magiare, e questo

Come

by a certain machine many may The author's some time under water. And how and p^bTish'his MSS wherefore I do not describe my method of
stay
-

How

no publico o diuolgo per le ma 4 le nature delli omini, li quali vserebono li assasinameti ne' fondi de' mari col rompere s i navili in fondo e sommergierli insieme colli omini che ui son dentro, e benche io insegni 6 delli altri, quelli no son di pericolo, perche
di sopra all'acqua apparisce la bocca della canria, ?onde alitano, posta sopra otri o

remaining under water and how long I can remain without eating. And I do not publish nor divulge these, by reason of the evil nature of men, who would use them for assassinations at the bottom of the sea by destroying ships, and sinking them, together
with the

sughero.

men in them. Nevertheless I will impart others, which are not dangerous because the mouth of the tube through which you breathe is above the water, supported on air sacks or cork.

F. 2b\

Quado
moti
dell'

tu metti insieme la scien 2 za de

acqua, ricordati di metHere di sotto a ciascuna propositione ^li sua giouameti, acrcioche tale scienstia

non

sia inutile,

When you put together the science of the The P re pa motions of water, remember to include under MsTfor P ueach proposition its application and use, in biication. order that this science may not be useless.

W. An.

IV. 163 <5]

No mi
mia
1. 2.

legga, chi

non

e matematico,

nelli

pricipi.

Let no man who read the elements of


bece.

is

my

not a Mathematician work.

Admonition

isscrivo.

3. 3.
.
.

quato iposso
matematicho.

magare ecquesto.

5.

sonmergierli

chi

6.

apariscie la bocha.

7.

otri

ossugero.

2. i. sscien.

acciasscuna.
.

4.

gouameti acco chettale.

3.

i.

leggha

is i. The leaf on which this passage is written, headed with the words Cast 39, and most of these cases begin with the word 'Come like the two here h and 27 th 7. Sughero. given, which are the 26* In the Codex Antlanticus 377 a ; H7o a there is a sketch, drawn with the pen, representing a man with a tube in his mouth, and at the farther end of the tube a
1

disk. By the tube the word 'CAanna' and by the disk the word sughero\
l

is

written,

2.

A
on

comparatively small portion of Leonardo's

notes
in

1828,

water-power was published at Bologna under the title: "Del moto e misura deldi L.

/''Acqua,

da Vinci".

12

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING.


M.
i

[4-6.

Br.

a]

The di,order Braccio in the MSS.

Firenze in casa Piero di addi T2 di 2 marzo 1508: e q uesto fi a vn racolto sanza ordine, tratto di mol'te carte le quali io ho qui copiate sperando poi metterle per ordine alii lo*chi loro, secondo le materie di che esse tratteranno, e credo che auanti ch'io Ssia al fine di questo, io ci avro a riplicare vna

Comiciato

in

Begun
di

at Florence, in the

house of Piero

Martelli

on the 22 nd day of March 1508. And this is to be a collection without order, taken from many papers
Braccio
Martelli,

medesima cosa piu volte, si che 6 lettore no mi biasimare, perche le cose son molte e la memoria no le 7 puo riseruare e dire, questa non voglio scriuere perche dinanzi 8 e se io no uolessi cadere in tale la scrissi;
errore, sarebbe necessario che per ogni caso ''ch'io uolessi copiare, sicche per no repli-

have copied here, hoping to arrange each in its place, according to the subjects of which they may treat. But I believe that before I am at the end of this [task] I shall have to repeat the same
I

which

them

later

things

several

times;

for which,

reader!

do not blame me, for the subjects are many and memory cannot retain them [all] and say:
this because I wrote it bewished to avoid falling into this fault, it would be necessary in every case when I wanted to copy [a passage] that, not to repeat myself, I should read over all
'I

will

not write
if I

fore.'

And

carlo, io auessi senpre a rilegere tutto

10

il

passato, e massime stante co' lunghi interIJ da una volta ualli di tenpo allo scriuere

a un

altra.

the

had gone before; and all the more since intervals are long between one time of writing and the next.
that

F. aja]

Suggestions libro

fa questo nel profondare vn canale de giovame^ti, e nel provarli allega 4 propositioni prouate; e que s sto e il raagauntofte 6 MSS treat- uero ordine, perche se tu volessi mostrare of par- ... ing 7 meto ticuiar sub- il a ogni propositione, 8 ti giova bisognerebbe anco^ra fare novi strumeti
;

Da

Of digging a canal. Put this in the Book of useful inventions and in proving them bring forward the propositions already proved.

And

this

is

wished to

show

the proper order; since if you the usefulness of any plan


to devise

1)-

you would be obliged again

new

cofonderesti 1'ordine de' I2 quarata libri e cosi I'ordi'-Jne delle figurationi, cioe ^avresti a mischiare pratica ^con teorica, che sarebbe 16 cosa cofusa e interrotta.

10

per prouar

tale

utilita,

co^si

machines to prove its utility and thus would confuse the order of the forty Books and also the order of the diagrams; that is to say you would have to mix up practice with theory, which would produce a confused and incoherent work.

Br.

M.

32/5]

Non
1'ordine

da biasimare

Io

mostrare infra

del processo della scientia 2 alcuna regola generate nata dalP antidetta conclusione.

not to blame for putting forward, course of my work on science, any general rule derived from a previous conI

am

in

the

clusion.

4.

i.

Chomlciato
8.
.

in

firenze

piero di bracco martelli.


io.

2.

ecquessto.

3. cqui.

5. ciaro.

6. ella.

7.

po

scriuere [al]

sscrissi.
5. 2.

cssio no.
. .

9. repricarlo.
3.

collunghi.
14. aresti

cquesto

govame.

allegha.

13. coe.

a misciare.

15.

teoricha.

6. i. llordine.

4.

I.

In the history

of Florence in the early

2.

addi 22 di marzo 1508.


in

The
th).

Christian era

was

part
is

century Piero di Braccio Martelli frequently mentioned as Commissario della Signoria.


learning and at his death four books on Mathematics ready for the press ;
for

of the

XVI th

computed

Florence

at that

time from the Incar-

He was famous
left

his

nation (Lady day, March 25 be 1509 by our reckoning.


2.
3.

Hence

this

should

racolto

tratto

di molte carte le quali io ho qui

comp. LlTTA, Famiglie


di Firense.

In the

Famiglia Martelli Official Catalogue of MSS. in


celebri Italiane,
I., where this passage been wrongly given for Braccio.

copiate.

must suppose that Leonardo means that he has copied out his own MSS. and not those of
others.
Brit.

We

the Brit. Mus.,


is

New

Series Vol.

The

first

thirteen leaves of the

MS.

in

the

printed, Barto has

Mus. are a

fair

copy of some notes on physics.

7io.J
W. An.
II
IV. 167 a]

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING.


7'

libro
al

della

scietia

delle
4

machine va
fa

ina^zi

libro
di

tua
C.

libri

de giovameti; notomia!

legare

li

The Book of the science of Mechanics must precede the Book of useful inventions, Have your books on anatomy bound! [4]
8.

A. 146

II

a; 436^]

regola del tuo libro prociedera in * forma prima Paste senplice poi quest'a di sotto poi le sospese in le sosten^ute
:

La

The order of your book must proceed


on
this plan: first simple beams, then (those) supported from below, then suspended in part, Then beams as then wholly [suspended]. supporting other weights [4].

parte, poi tutte, nitori d'altri pesi.


C. A. 117
;

poi esse aste fieno soste-

361^]

PROEMIO.
2

INTRODUCTION.
pigliare materia
li

Vedendo
a

io

non potere
o
diletto,

di

grade

vtilita

3perche

omini
tutte
il

inati
1'utili

me
per
e

nati

anno preso per loro

e ne 4 ciessari temi, faro

come

colui

Seeing that I can find no subject specially or pleasing since the men who have come before me have taken for their own every useful or necessary theme
useful
I

General
tcTthe
011

in-

book

must do

like

quale
fiera;
6

poverta

Sgivgnie

1'ultimo

alia

last to the fair,

one who, being poor, comes and can find no other way

tutte cose gia


rifiutate

no potedo d' altro fornirsi piglia da altri viste e non accettate


per
la
7

ma
io

loro

poca valitudine;

8 mercatia questa disprezata e rifiutata molti copratori mettero sopra rimanete de' 9 la mia debole soma, e con quella no per

le

I0 ville andro grosse citta, ma pouere tal distribuendo pigliado premio qual merita iz la cosa da me data.
,

of providing himself than by taking all the already seen by other buyers , and not taken but refused by reason of their lesser value. I, then, will load my humble pack with this despised and rejected merchandise, the refuse of so many buyers; and will go about to distribute it, not indeed in great cities, but in the poorer towns, taking such a price as the wares I offer may be worth.
things
io.

C. A. 117

361

PROEMIO.
3

INTRODUCTION.
I

So che

opera
quali
78. 3i.

molti diranno questa essere 4 e invtile questi fieno quelli de


;

know
[3];

that

many

will

call this useless

work

and they
[4]

Demetrio

disse,

no

facieSva conto

Demetrius

be those of whom declared that he took no more


will

govameti.
quessta.

4. libri di 2. laste
.
.

no "a".
poi lessen.
3.

poi

sosspese.
. . .

4.

asste

sosstenitori.
6.

9. 3.

ano

tutte luti [ebe] ene.


9.

4. sciessari

temi

chome

cholui.

chose

aciettate.

7.

pocha.

8.

merchatia

cho-

pratori.
io. 2.

chon quela.
li

io. disstribuendo.

u. chosa.
3.

naturalmente

omini boni disiderano sapere.

dirano.

4.

ecquesti

deometr

\\\\\\

disse.

5.

chonto

bocha.

The numerous notes on anatomy written 7. 4. on loose leaves and now in the Royal collection at Windsor can best be classified in four Books, corresponding to the different character and size
of the paper.
libri di notomia',
still

When Leonardo

speaks of 'li tua he probably means the MSS. which

need hardly be pointed out that there In the second and third prefaces, Leonardo characterises his rivals and opponents more closely. His protest is directed against Neo-latinism as professed by most of the humanists of his time; its futility is now no longe'r questioned.
9.

It

is

in this 'Proemio' a covert irony.

exist; if this hypothesis is correct the present condition of these leaves might seem to prove that

io. In

the

original ,

deir uffitio dell' occhio (see

the Proemio di prospettiva doe No. 2l) stands between this


9.

he only carried out his purpose with one of the Books on anatomy. A borrowed book on Anatomy
is

and the preceding one, No.


3.

questa essere opera inutile.


libro di pittura

By

opera

we must

mentioned
8.

in F,O'.

here understand
treatise
4.

and particularly the

4.

Leonardo's notes on Mechanics are extra-

ordinarily numerous; but, for the reasons assigned in my introduction, they have not been included in the present work.

on Perspective. Demetrio. "With regard to the passage attributed to Demetrius", Dr. H. MULLER STRUBING writes, "I know

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING.


nclla lor bocca che del ueto ch' usciua delle parti ?di sotto vomini quali anno solamete desiderio di 8 corporal richezze, e

[10.

piv

del

uento

il

quale

causaua

le parole,

Iteramete priui di quello della 9 SapietiaI0 cibo e veramete sicura richezza del' anima e piv degnia 1'anima che '1 pcrche quat'
;

account of the wind that came out their mouth in words, than of that they expelled from their lower parts: men who desire nothing but material riches and are absolutely devoid of that of wisdom, which is the food and the only true riches of the mind. For so much

"tanto piv degni fie le richezze anima che del "corpo e spesso dell' l* essa quado vedo alcu di questi pigliare I mano dubito no sia come fa la opera scimi' 4 a, se '1 mettino al naso, o che mi domadino, se e cosa 'Smagiatiua.
corpo,
,

more worthy as the soul so much more noble are


the

soul
in

often,

when
it

than those I see one of these

is than the body, the possessions of of the body. And

men
that

take this

work
ask

his

hand,
his

wonder
like

not put

to

nose,

he does a monkey, or
eat.

me

if it is

something good to

PROEM 10.
?So bene che per non essere io literate, che alcuno l8 prosuntuoso gli para ragionevolmente potermi ^biasimare coll' allegare 20 jo- essere homo sanza lettere; giete stolta! no sano questi tali ch' io potrei si 2 'come Mario- rispose contro a' patriti romani, io diciendo quelli che delsi "rispondere, 2 1'altrui fatiche ^se medesimi fanno ornati le mie a me mede^simo no uogliono cociedere: diranno che per non a 2 5vere io lettere non potere ben dire quello di che 26 voglio trattare or no sano questi che le mie chose 2 ?son piv da esser tratte dalla 28 sperietia, che d'altra pa rola, la quale fu maestra di chi bene scrisse 2 ^e cosi per maestra la 3 in tutti casi alleghero.
J
,

INTRODUCTION.
not being a presumptuous persons literary man, will think that they may reasonably blame me; alleging that I am not a man of letters. Foolish folks! do they not know that I might retort as Marius did to the Roman Patricians [21] by saying: That they, who deck themselves out in the labours of others will not allow me my own. They will say that I, having no literary skill, cannot properly express that which I desire to treat of [26]; but they do not know that my subjects are to be dealt with by experience rather than by words [2 8]; and [experience] has been the mistress of those who wrote well. And so, as mistress, I will cite her in all cases.
I

am

fully

concious that,

certain

6.

chausaua.
12.

7.

vomini equali.
.

8.

corporal "richeze" diletta e priua.

9.

sichura richeza de.


. .

io.

lanima chelchorpo.
18.

n.

fie

richeze.

chorpo
.

alchu.
.

13.

imano
21.

sichomellassimi.
.
.

14.

domadi
22.

chosa.
23.

17.

alchuno.

prosuntooso.

19. siasi-

mare choll alegare


26. chelle.

esere.
29.

chome mario

chontro.

quello.

amememede.
30. cbasi

24.

chociedere.

25.

lettero.

28. scrise.

[mia equel] e chosi per maestra la peris

\\\\\\\\

wwlla.

allegero.^

not what to

make
is

of

it.

It is

certainly not
it

Demetrius

to 43),

Dio Cassius, Aulus Gellius, or Macrobius.

Phalereus that

meant and

trius Poliorcetes.
is

Who

can hardly be Demethen can it be for the name


a clerical error for
in the spirit of his to find

Professor E.

a very common one? It may be Demades and the maxim is quite


writings;
I

MENDELSON of Dorpat, the editor of Herodian, assures me that no such passage is the found in that author" (communication from Dr.

have not however been able

any

allude to

MULLER STRUBING). Leonardo evidently meant to some well known incident in Roman history
and the mention of Marius is the result probably of some confusion. We may perhaps read, for Marius, Menenius Agrippa, though in that case it is true we must alter Patriti to Plebei. The change is a serious one, but it would render the passage perfectly clear.

corresponding passage either in the 'Fragments' (C. MUI.LER, Orat. Att., II. 441) nor in the Supplements
collected

by DIETZ
57,

(RJtein.

Mas., vol. 29, p. 108)."

The same passage occurs


in

the

MS. Tr.

as a simple Memorandum apparently as a note for this

'Proemid thus affording some data as to the time where these introductions were written.
21.
to

Come Mario disse ai patriti Romani. " I am unable find the words here attributed by Leonardo to
(Aforalia, p. 202).

2628. le mie cose ... che cfaltra parola. This can hardly be reconciled with Mons. RAVAISSON'S estimate of L. da Vinci's learning. "Leonard de Vinci
.

Marius, either in Plutarch's Life of Marius or in the

etait

un admiraieur

et

un

disciple des andetis, aussi bien

Apophthegmata
in the writings

of Valerius

Nor do they occur Maximus (who frequently


(II,
1 1

dans Part que dans la science et il tenait a passer pour tel 'meme aux yeiix de la posteritf" Gaz. des Beaux arts.
Oct. 1877.

mentions Marius) nor in Velleius Paterculus

13-]

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING.


3571
II.

C. A. ns<i;

Se bene come
gli autori

loro

no sapessi allegare

molto magiore e piv degnia-cosa2 alleghero allegando la sperietia. maestra ai loro maestri Costoro vanno sgonfiati
;

e poposi, ma delle

vestiti
altrui

e ornati
fatiche,

^no delle loro


e
le
4

mie

me

medesimo no conciedono
tore loro

e se

me

inven-

disprezzeranno

quato

magiormente

non

inventor!,

ma

trobetti e recita s tori

dell' altrui

opere potranno essere biasimati.


PROEMIO.

Though I may not, like them, be able quote other authors, I shall rely on that which is much greater and more worthy: on experience, the mistress of their Masters. They go about puffed up and pompous, dressed and decorated with [the fruits], not of their own labours, but of those of others. And they will not allow me my own. They will scorn me as an inventor; but how much more might they who are not inventors but vaunters and declaimers of the works of others be blamed.
to

INTRODUCTION.

E' anno da essere givdicati e non altrementi stimati.- li omini 8 inventori interpetri tralla natura e gli omini a comparatione
7

de

recitatori

trobetti- dell'
fori dello

altrui

9quat'e

dall' obietto

opere; spechio alia

similitudine d'esso obietto

apparente nello

I0 spechio che Pu no per se e qualche cosa, e 1'altro e niete giente poco obbligate alia

natura, perche sono sol' d'acidetal "vestitili

sanza il quale potrei armeti delle bestie.

aconpagnarli

infra

men who are inventors and between Nature and Man, as compared with boasters and declaimers of the works of others, must be regarded and not otherwise esteemed than as the object in front of a mirror, when compared with its image seen in the mirror. For the first is something in itself, and the other nothingness. Folks little indebted to Nature, since it is only by chance that they wear the human form and without it I might class them with the herds of beasts.
those
interpreters

And

C. A. 117^; 3 6i/5]

12.

Molti mi crederanno ragionevolmete 2 potere ripredere, allegando le mie prove esser cotro all' autorita ^d'alquanti omini di gra reuereza apresso de loro inesperti 4 no cosiderado le mie cose essere ivditi, nate sotto la senplice e mera 5 sperientia-

reasonably proofs are opposed to the authority of certain men held in the highest reverence by their inexperienced judgments; not considering that my works are the issue of pure and simple experience,

blame

Many will me by

think

they

may

alleging

that

my

quale e maestra vera. Queste regole son cagione di farti conosciere-jl uero dal falso la 7 qual cosa fa che li omini si promettano le cose possibili e con piv mode8 e che tu non ti veli di ignoranzaranza, cosa tale che non avendo efTetto, tu abbi 9 con disperatione a darti malinconia.
la

who

is

the one true


false

mistress.

These rules
the true

are sufficient to enable

you

to look only for things that are possible and with due moderation and not to wrap yourself in ignorance, a thing which can have no good result, so that in despair you would give
this

from the

and

know aids men


to

yourself up to melancholy.

C. A. 2oort; 594 a]

Intra
le

li

studi delle naturali cause e radiletta


2

Among

all

the studies of natural causes

gioni la luce

piu

conteplanti

J tra

cose grandi
A. sebene chome
4.

delle

matematiche

la cer-

and reasons Light chiefly delights the beholder; and among the great features of Mathematics
schonfiati e

11.

i.

sapesi
. .

altori

chosa allegere.
5.

2.

popo
. .

si.
.

3.

elle

mie

conciedano
7.

[chos-

toro] esse.
8.

disprezerano
9.

[da me] loro non inventore.


,

tori

[potrano] delli
.

opere otrano esere.


10.

chonperatione.

quate dall obietto

fori

de dello

....
4.

dessobietto

aparente

chellu.

chosa

ellaltro

da ... givhe ... pocho


chelli

obrigate.
12.
.

n. achonpgnarli.
2.

i.
.

poter "e".
.

chotro

alturita
8.
.

[di

qualche loro].

chosiderado

chose.
. . .

6.
t

cagione
abi.
.

chonossciere.
.

7.

13.

i.

chose "possibili e" chon. chause ration! lisstudi


.
. . .

chettu nonti [per] "veli di" ignoranza

chosa
.

9.

chon

malinchonia.

chonteplanti

...

lie

chose.

2.

matematice

certeza

plecharamente

....

invesstighati.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING.


tezza
della

dimostratione
1'ingiegni
dell'

lalza

piv

pre3

the

certainty

of

its

demonstrations
to)

is

what

claramente

investigati;

la

preeminently (tends
the investigator.

elevate

the

mind of

prospectiva adunque a da essere preposta a tutte le trattazioni e discipline vmane, nel campo della quale 4 la linia radiosa e

be preferred
of
the

Perspective, therefore, must to all the discourses and systems

complicata nella quale


s

dai
si

modi
truova

delle
la

dimostrationi, gloria no tato


,
:

human learning. In this branch [of science] beam of light is explained on those

matematica quanto della fisica ornata co fiori dell' una e dell' altra le 6 distese con gran cirsentetie della quale
della
cuitioni
io
le

methods of demonstration which form the glory not so much of Mathematics as of Physics and are graced with the flowers of both [5].
axioms being laid down at great length, them to a conclusive brevity, arranging them on the method both of their natural order and of mathematical demonstration; sometimes by deduction of the from the causes, and sometimes effects arguing the causes from the effects; adding But
I
its

ristrigniero

jn

conclusiua
7

shall abridge

jntessendo secondo jl modo della materia naturale e matematiche dimostrationi alcuna volta conchiudendo gli effetti 8 per le cagioni e alcuna volta le cagioni per li effetti agivgniedo ancora alle mie coclusioni alcuna 9che no sono J quelle
breuita
;
:

no

di

meno
jl

di quelle

si

tragano
d'ogni

come
I0

si

degniera
illustrare

signiore

luce

cosa,

per trattare della luce per cui partiro la presente opera J 3 parti.

me

my own conclusions some which, though not included in them, may nevertheless be inwho is ferred from them. Thus, if the Lord the light of all things vouchsafe to enlighten me, I will treat of Light; wherefore I will dialso to

vide the present


Ash.
I.

work

into 3 Parts [io].

14.

Di TRE NATURE PROSPETT1VE.


2

ON THE
the

THREE BRANCHES OF PERSPECTIVE.

Come

The
1

plan of "
17)-

la

prima

di 3. nature prospectiue: s'astede J torno alia 3 ragione del

sono-

There are three branches of perspective;


first deals with the reasons of the (apparent) diminution of objects as they recede from the eye, and is known as Diminishing PerspecThe second contains the way in which tive. colours vary as they recede from the eye. The third and last is concerned with the explanation of how the objects [in a picture]

Painting

(M

diminvire (e diciesi prospettiva diminvitiva) le cose che si allotanano dall'ochio; la secoda * cotiene I se il modo del uariare i coloriche si allotanano dall'ochio; 5 la terza e vltima s'astede alia dichiaratione come le cose deuono 6 essere meno finite e nomi fieno quanto piv s' alontanano
questi.

ought to be
are remote

?prospetiva liniale prospetiva di colore 9prospetiva di speditione


8

proportion as they (and the names are as follows): Linear Perspective. The Perspective of Colour. The Perspective of Disappearance.

less finished in

3.

"e" da ... prepossta


.

attutte
6.

le traduzioni
.

champo.
. .

4.

hsicha malice
9.
14.
i.

cho

eddell.
.

chom

circhuitioni
8.

risstrigniero

inella chomplichata . chonclusiua


. . . . . . .

groria.

5.

matematicha
7.

sechondo.
.

dela

mate-

alchuna

chonchiudendo.

chagioni

alchuna
. . .

chagioni
.

ancora

choclusi"o"ni alchuna.

traghano chome.
prosspettire.
a.
.

io. alle.
.

chosa [illuminare] ilustrare


3.

me

trattare

luce

el

quale

partiro.

"(e diciesi prospettiva diminuetiva)"

le

chose chessi.

4.

cholori chessi.

5.

diciaratione

chome.

6.

me

finite

quto

feno.

13.

From
Such

that this passage


5.

the character of the handwriting I infer was written before the year 1490. of Leonardo's notes on Optics or on

is

in

its

Although
separate,
find

to
it

widest application the science of seeing. Leonardo the two sciences were clearly
is

not

so as

to

their

names; thus we

Perspective as bear exclusively on Mathematics or Physics could not be included in the arrangement of the libra di pittura which is here presented to
the reader.
io.

axioms

in Optics

According

to this

under the heading Perspective. arrangement of the materials for the

They

are

however but few.

theoretical portion of the libra di pittura propositions in Perspective and in Optics stand side by side or

In the middle ages for instance, by ROGER BACON, by VITELI.ONE, with whose works Leonardo

occur alternately. Although this particular chapter deals only with Optics, it is not improbable that
the
refer to the
is

was certainly familiar, and the Renaissance Perspective

by all the writers of and Optics were not


Perspective,

words partird la presente opera in 3 parti may same division into three sections which
in

regarded as distinct sciences.

indeed,

spoken of

chapters 14 to

17.

15

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING.

E.

D
2

PICTURA E PROSPETTIVA.
le

ON
di

PAINTING AND PERSPECTIVE.

parti prospettiua serue la pictura, delle quali la prima alia diminutione delle quantita s'aste-tde de' corpi oppachi; la s s ecoda e delle .diminuitioni e perdimeti delli ter 6 mini d'essi corpi oppachi; La terza e della ^diminuitione e perdimeti de' colori in luga Mistatia.
3.
si

sono

della

che

of Perspective are 3 , as used in drawing; of these, the first includes the diminution in size of opaque objects; the second treats of the diminution and loss of outline in such opaque objects; the third, of the diminution and loss of colour at long
divisions
distances.

The

G. 53*]

l6 '

DlSCORSO DE PICTURA.
2

THE DISCOURSE ON

PAINTING.

La

perspectiva, la qual s'astende nella

pictura, si diuide in tre parti pricipali, del*le quali la prima e della diminuitione che
3

fan

corpi in diverse distantie; parte e quella che tratta 7 della diminuitio de colori di tali 8 Terza e quella che diminuisce la corpi, 9 delle che anno notitia figure e termini I0 essi corpi in varie dista tie.
5

le

quatita
6

de'

La seconda

Perspective, as bearing on drawing, is divided into three principal sections; of which the first treats of the diminution in the size of bodies at different distances. The second part is that which treats of the diminution in colour in these objects. The third [deals with] the diminished distinctness of the forms and outlines displayed by the objects at various distances.

E.

79,5]

DELLE PARTI DELLA PICTURA.


2

ON THE
li

SECTIONS OF [THE BOOK ON] PAINTING.


first
it

La prima

parte della pittura e che


4

The
objects
lief,

thing

in

painting

is

that

the

corpi co quella figurati si dimostrino vati, e che li capi d'esse circudatori,


3 5

rile-

col-

represents should appear in reand that the grounds surrounding them


distances

le lor distantie, si

dimostrino etrare
tal

dentro

alia

pariete,
le 3

doue

pittura e giene?rata

mediante
delle

8 prospective, cioe dimi nuition

figure de' corpi

diminuistion delle
|

magnitudini
a origine

loro

dimi I0 nuitio

de'
la

loro

colori: e di queste 3
d'all'

ochio,

prospective le altre due

I2

prima anno

shall appear within of the foreground of the picture by means of the 3 branches of Perspective, which are: the diminution in the distinctness of the forms of the objects, the diminution in their magnitude; and the And of these diminution in their colour. 3 classes of Perspective the first results from [the structure of] the eye, while the other two
at

different

the vertical

plane

are

deriuatione dall' aria interposta infra 1'occhio

caused by the atmosphere which intervenes between the eye and the objects seen
"delle quantita" de chorpi.

15.

i.

presspectiva.
delle.
7.

2.

parte

prespectiua [che] di chessi.


8.
.

3.

quale

sasste.

4.

5.

sechonda

"he"
16.
2. 7.

decholori in lugha.
parte.
8. 4.

disstatia.
. .

sasstende.

3.
.

la

p"a"he

cheffan.

5.

chorpi in diuersi disstantie.


9.

6.

sechonda

hecquellachettracta.

cholori
parte.

Chorpi.

Terza ecquella cheddiminuisscie.


3.

"ettermini"
4.

chorpi.

17.

i.

2.

he
6.

chelli.
. .

chorpi
8.

fighurati

si

dimosstrino.

chelli
10.

chapi

circhudatori

chol.

5.

disstantie

si

dimosstrino.

alia

he.

chorpi.

9. delle

[quatita]

magnitudine.

cholori

prasspec.

12.

interpossta infralloc-

15.

The

division

is

here the same as in the pre-

as applied
it

to

Painting.

This

is

important because

vious

chapter No. 14, and this is worthy of note when we connect it with the fact that a space of about 20 years must have intervened between the
writing of the two passages. 17. This and the two foregoing

chapters must

supposition of H. LUDWIG and others, that Leonardo had collected his in one book so early as before principles of Perspective 1500; a Book which, according to the hypothesis, must have been lost at a very early period, or
is

an

evidence

against

the

have been written


indicate
the

in 1513 to 1516.

They undoubtedly

scheme, which

carry out in arranging his

Leonardo wished to researches on Perspective

destroyed possibly, by the French (!) in 1500 LUDWIG. L. da Vina: Das Buck von der Vienna 1882 III, 7 and 8).

(see

H.

Malerei.

VOL.

I.

IS

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING.

20.

Je H obbietti da esso ochio veduti,


4 parte del' la variati nelle

pictura e

li

atti

La 2* appropriati e
li

statute,
ecc.

si

che

omini no

pajano

fratelli

by it. The second essential in painting is appropriate action and a due variety in the figures, so that the men may not all look like brothers, &c.
.

C. A. ai84; &|8<|

18.

Queste regole
The
ihe

use of

book on

per ripruova r

delle
.

Palming,

omo

nella
;

pnma
dove

sono da vsare solamete figure jnperoche ogni r 11 copositione fa qualche


...

These
the

rules are of use only in correcting

figures; since every man makes some mistakes in his first compositions and he who

errore 2 e chi no li conoscie no li onde tu per conosciere li errori


1'opera tua, e
ciali;
3

raconcia

riprouerai trovi detti errori raco-

e tieni a mete di mai piv ricaderci; Ma se tu volessi adoperare le regole nel coporre non verresti mai acapo e fare^sti confusione nelle tue opere.

knows them not, cannot amend them. But you, knowing your errors, will correct your works and where you find mistakes amend them, and remember never to fall into them again. But if you try to apply these rules in composition you will never make an end, and will
produce confusion in your works. These rules will enable you to have a free and sound judgment; since good judgment is born of clear understanding, and a clear understanding comes of reasons derived from sound rules, and sound rules are the issue of sound experience the common mother of all the sciences and arts. Hence, bearing in mind the precepts of my rules, you will be
merely by your amended judgment, to and recognise every thing that is out of proportion in a work, wjiether in the perable,
criticise

che tu possiedi uno libero e bono giuditio jnperoche '1 bono givditio nascie dal bene intedere e 6 '1 bene intedere diriua da ragione tratta da bone regole e le bone regole sono figliole
5

Queste regole fanno

della
tutte

bona

sperietia:

comvne

madre

di

^lescietie-e arti; Onde avedo tu bene a mete i precietti delle mie regole8 potrai solamete col racocio givditio giv dicare e conosciere ogni sproportionata opera cosi in prospettiua come in figure o
:

altre cose.

spective or in the figures or any thing else.


19.

G. 8a\

DELL' ERRORE DI QUELLI CHE VSANO LA PRATICA SANZA SCIETIA.


3

OF THE MISTAKES MADE BY THOSE WHO


PRACTISE WITHOUT KNOWLEDGE.

Quelli

che s'inamora

di

pratica *saza

Necessity ofscietia,
theoretical

so

come

'1

nochiere che e s tra navilio


6

knowledge
(IQ. 20).

sanza timone o bussola

che mai a certezza

dove

si

uada; ^sepre ^ a pratica debbe esser

edi 8 ficata sopra la


la

bona teorica
e
J0

della 9quale

prospettiva
si

e guida
JI

porta, e sanza
casi di pittura.

Those who are in love with practice knowledge are like the sailor who gets into a ship without rudder or compass and who never can be certain whether he is going. Practice must always be founded on sound theory, and to this Perspective is the guide and the gateway; and without this nothing can be done well in the matter of
without
drawing.

questa nulla
C. A.

fa

bene ne'

75;

2190]

20.

pittore che ritrae per pratica e giv2 d'ochio, sanza ragione e come lo spechio, che in se imita tutte ^le a se coII

The
and by

painter
eye,

who draws merely by

practice

ditio

traposte cose sanza cognitione d'esse.

without any reason, is like a mirror which copies every thing placed in front of it without being conscious of their
existence.

chio.
18.
i.

13. elli.
.

14. elli
.
.

apropiati

nelli.

15. recelli
.

... no

paj.
. .

"solamete"
.

chopositione.

2.

chonosscie

nolli

rachoncia

chonossciere
5.

erori
.

erori

rachociali.
.

3.
.

richaderci.
.
.

Massettu
6. elle

bone
R.
i.

chopore none veresti achapo chomvne. 7. chol rachocio.


2.

effare.
8.

4.

chonfusione.
.

rego fanno
. .

chettu possiedi
in prosspettiua

Ibero
.
.

nasscie.

dichare

echonossciere
4.

chosi
5.

chome
8.

chose.
9.

19.

it

eror.
10.

praticha.

3.

chessinamora

di praticha.

nochieri.

obbussola.

6. cierteza.

teoricha.

qua

la presspettiva.

essanza.
3.

3O.

i.

praticha.

2.

chome.

assechotra poste chose

chognitione dese.

21

23-]

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING.


21.

C. A. 117 b; 361 b\

PROEMIO
ciojfe

DI PROSPETTIVA, DEL'UFITIO DELL'OCHIO.

INTRODUCTION TO PERSPECTIVE: THAT THE FUNCTION OF THE EYE.


Behold here
ning which
the

is

OF

3 lettore quello che non Or', guarda potremo credere ai nostri antichi, i quali s anno voluto difinire che cosa sia a 6 nima e uita: cose inprovabili; quando ? queue (cose) che con isperietia ogni ora si possono 8 chiaramete conosciere e provare, sono 9 per
">

reader!

a thing concer- The function


e
(

we cannot trust our forefathers, ancients, who tried to define what the

2 ^2j).

Soul and Life are which are beyond proof, whereas those things, which can at any time

tati seculi igniorate

1'ochio,

o falsamete cre I0 dute che cosi chiaramete fa sperie"tia


!

be clearly known and proved by experience, remained for many ages unknown or falsely understood. The eye, whose function we
so certainly
to

e insino ai mia te I2 pi per infmiti autori stato difinito in v mo I3 do: trovo per isperietia essere vn altro.
del

suo

ofitio,

know by
time,

experience, has,

down
infinite
I find,

been defined by an number of authors as one thing; but

my own

by experience,
C. A. 337 b; 1026/5]

that

it

is

quite another [13].

22.

Qui
in
5

le

figure,

le spetie delle parti dell'

v punto
6

viglia!
ti

tu
8

mirabile, o stupeda neciessita costri?gni colla tua leggie tutti li effet9 per breuissima via a participare delle

colori, qui u3niverso so ridotte 4e quel punto e di tata mara-

qui

li

tutte

lor

cau I0se! questi sono


1

li

miracoli.

Here [in the eye] forms, here colours, here the character of every part of the universe are concentrated to a point; and that point is so marvellous a thing Oh! marvellous, O stupendous Necessity by thy laws thou dost compel every effect to be the direct result of its cause, by the
.
. .

tanto minimo spatio pos l8 sa rinasciere e ricopor^si nella sua dilatatione; 20 scriui 2I anno nella tua notomia che proportione 22 le spetie infra loro li diamitri di tutte 2 ^a da loro la dell' ochio e che distantia
7

in

shortest path. These [indeed] are miracles; In so small a space it can be reproduced
.
.

spera

cristallina.

and rearranged in its whole expanse. Describe your anatomy what proportion there is between the diameters of all the images in the eye and the distance from them of the
in

crystalline lens.
Ash.
I.

13 a]

23.

DE' 10 OFITI DELL'OCHIO TUTTI APARTENENTI ALLA PICTURA.


3

OF THE
ofiti

10 ATTRIBUTES OF THE EYE, ALL CONCERNED IN PAINTING.

La

dell'

ochio

pictura s'astede in tutti cioe tenebre luce

10

^corpo e

colore

figura e sito

remotione propiquita
ofiti

moto e

quiete

s
;

de quali

sara intessuta-

6 al picquesta mia piccola opera tore con che regola e modo debe imitare

ricordado

colla sua arte tutte ?queste cose, opera di natura e ornameto del modo.

concerned with all the is Painting 10 attributes of sight; which are: Darkness, and Colour, Form and Light, Solidity Position, Distance and Propinquity, Motion and Rest. This little work of mine will be a tissue [of the studies] of these attributes, reminding the painter of the rules and methods by which he should use his art to imitate all the works of Nature which adorn the world.
. . .

31.

3.
. .

no.

5.

chosa

\\\\\\\.
.
.

6.

chose inprovabili q
chosstri.

\\\\\\.

7.

quelle che chon

agiiiora sipossano.

9.

sechuli.

10.

locio

chosi

chosi.
parte.

12. altori
6.

13. nvnaltra.
. .
.

32.

2.

"o stupeda"
14. re

8.

ti

[a participare] per [v].

9.

della lor chau.

10. miracholi.
\\\\.

16.

7%<?

&/"

here injured i only the following words at the beginning of the lines are preserved:
13.

n. que stupedo
20.

12. col

quale

\\\\\.

quasi

\\\\.

\\\\.

15. finita

\\\\.

16.

gia per tute

\\\\\.

17.

po.

18.

rinassciere.

che ;'pro"ne".

21.

infralloroli.

22. lesspetie.

23. dalloro.

crisstallina.

33. i. hofiti.

2.

apartenti.

3.

10

li

ofiti.

4.

cholore

essito.

5.

pichola

richordado.

6.

chon

cholla.

7.

chose.

21.

In section

13

we

already find

it

indicated

del provare la terra


roccJiid,

essere

that the study of Perspective and of Optics is to be based on that of the functions of the eye. Leonardo also refers to the science of the eye, in his astrono-

&c.

Compare

also

una Stella: Imprima difinisce MS. E 15 b and F 60 b.


to

The
13.

principles of astronomical perspective.

Compare the note

No.

70.

mical researches, for instance in MS.

25^ 'Online

20

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING.


24 .

[2427.

E.

PlCTURA.
diminuiscic ia popilla tanto la ^ sua quatita quato crescie il lumis 2a Tanio cre4 in j e j s 'j n r me nogo p 6 scie la popilla dell' ochio quato di minuiscie
dell'
2

ON
ochio
.

PAINTING.

La

Variability r the eye.

la chiarezza del

giorno o d'altra
8

lu?cie,

che

pupil of the eye contracts, proportion to the increase of light which nd is reflected in it. 2 The pupil of the eye expands in proportion to the diminution in the day light, or any other light, that
i
.

st

The

in

in

lui

s'inprime.

Tanto piu

intensiua-

1'ochio le cose che mete vede e cono I0 li stanno per obbietto, quato la sua popilla M piu si dilata, e que sto proviamo mediante
9 scie
li

animali

nocturni,

"come
J

nelle gatte

[8] The eye perceives recognises objects of its vision with greater intensity in proportion as the pupil is more widely dilated; and this can be proved by the case of nocturnal animals,
is

reflected in

it.

and

3 the

rd

Jgufo e simili, nei quali la popilla fa gra^dissima variatione da grade a piccola ecc. *s nelle tenebre o nell' I6 alluminato. L'ochio posto nell' aria 4 alluminata ve^de tenebre detro alle finestre
altri

volatili,

come

il

such as cats, and certain birds as the owl and others in which the pupil varies in a high degree from large to small, &c.,
th in the dark or in the light. The 4 eye [out of doors] in an illuminated atmosphere sees darkness behind the windows of houses which [nevertheless] are light. th All colours when placed in the shade 5 appear of an equal degree of darkness, th But all colours when among themselves. 6 in a full light, never vary from their placed
. . .

when

9$* tutti li co20 essere paiao 2I 6* Ma tutti d'equale oscurita infra loro. 22 li colori posti in lochi luminosi no si uaria
lori

delle abi' 8 tationi alluminate; posti in lochi onbrosi

mai dclla loro

essentia.

true

and

essential hue.

C. A. 136*;

25-

DELL' OCHIO.

OF THE

EYE.

FOCUS of
Slght>

Se 1'ochio a a vedere cosa che sia tropo presso no la puo be giudicare, come che si vol vedere la Iteruiene 3 a quello
la

puta del naso; Onde per regola gienerale natura ^isegnia che la cosa no si vedra mai perfettamete se lo Itervallo che si trova tra 1'ochio s e la cosa vista no sara almeno
simile alia gradezza del uiso.
C. A. 339 a; 1033 a]

If the eye is required to look at an object placed too near to it, it cannot judge of it well as happens to a man who tries to see the tip of his nose. Hence, as a general rule, Nature teaches us that an object

can never be seen perfectly unless the space between it and the eye is equal, at least, to the length of the face.

26.

DELL' OCHIO.
2

OF THE
la pira-

EYE.

Quado
ochi

2 ochi

conduranno
e bene

When
sight to

Differences of perception

mide visuale sopra

1'obietto, ^esso

obietto

both eyes direct the pyramid of an object, that object becomes clearly

fia dalli by one eye and by both


eyes(26
29).

veduto

conpreso.
'

seen and comprehended by the eyes.

H.

3.

85*]

cose vedute da uno medesimo ochio 3 paranno alcuna volta- grade alcuna V olta-

Le

Objects seen by one and the same eye

appear sometimes large, and sometimes small.

picole.
34. 2.

p La ... diminuiscic.
10.

3. cresscie.

4.

sinpreme.

5. cresscic.
.
.

6.
.

minuisscie. chiareza.
13.

7.

sinprema.
li

8.

chonos.
disima
.

9.
.

chose
appi.
.

chelli.

ecques.

n.

sto

proviano.
16.

12.
.

chome
. .

ghatte

chome.

ghufo
cholori

essimili
.
.

quali.

14.

chola.

15.

onellaluminato.

possto

alluminato.

17.

nnesstre.

19.

inllochi.

20.

[simi]

essere

osschurita infralloro.
35. 2. sellochioavedere
.

21. ttutti licholori possti.

chososa
5.

preso nolla po
.

giudichare chome.
gradeza.

3.

acquello

chessi.

4.

chella chosa

sello

chessi
36.
i.

trallochio.
2.

ella

sara

il

meno

de ochio.
3 R.
i.

chondurano.
i.

3.
3.

chonpreso.
pichole.

37. i

chose ... da

24.

8.

The

subject of this third proposition

we

find fully discussed in

MS. G. 443.

2830.]
Tr. 74]
II

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING.


28.

21

movimeto
fa

cosa stabile
stabile
3

parere

cosa

movete

della cosa visiua alia 2 volte essa cosa spesse trasmvtarsi in nel moto della e la cosa movete parere
,

The motion of a spectator who sees an object at rest often makes it seem as though the object at rest had acquired the motion
of the moving body, while the moving person appears to be at rest.

stabile e ferma.

PITTURA.

ON
^

PAINTING.

cose di rilievo da presso viste con u sol' ochio para simili 6 a vna perfetta pittura; Se vederai coll' ochio a b il
s

Le

Objects in relief,

when seen

from a short distance with one eye, look like a perfect picture.
If
'

you look with

the eye a,

puto<;, ?parratti 8 in -f e se

esso

solo

lo guardi col ochio g parra ti 9 k in e l a pittura non avra mai 10 in se queste 2 varieta.

puto

at the spot c, this point c will appear to be at d, f, and if you


it with the eye g, h will appear to be at m. A picture can never contain in itself both

look at

'

aspects.

w. An.

iv. 153*1
il

29.
2

Sia
ochi;
3

rilieuo /

veduto da due

voledo He cosiderare 1'obbie6 stto coll' ochio tenedo destro, chiuso il sinistro n 7pobbietto parra overo occupera lo spatio a e se

Let the object seen by both eyes;


at

in
if

relief

be.

you

will

look

keeping

chiuderai

destro e aprirai il sinistro, 1'obietto occupera 8 lo spatio b\ e se aprirai tutti e due li ochi esso obietto no occupera piu a b, ma
il

the object with the right eye m, the left eye n shut, the object will appear, or fill up the space, at a; and if you shut the right

and open the left, the object occupy the) space b; and if you open both eyes, the object will
eye
(will

lo spatio

erf;
come

perche
10

co due ochi no
relievo,

fia

la pittura veduta dimostratrice di tal

il rilieuo "veduto co due I2 perche la pittu ra veduta con u ochio parra di rilievo, I3 come il propio rilievo, auete le medesime I4 qualita di lumi e

ochi,

d'obre?
C. 7*
(9)]

at a or If, but at e, r, f. not a picture seen by both eyes produce the effect of relief, as [real] relief does when seen by both eyes; and why should a picture seen with one eye give the same effect of relief as real relief would under the same conditions of light and shade?

no longer appear

Why

will

3
will hold and retain in itself The C om P af image of a luminous body better than ^hTimage that of a shaded object. The reason is that depends on tne amount r r the eye is in itself perfectly dark and since of light ~~ two things that are alike cannot be distin- 3 39 guished, therefore the night, and other dark objects cannot be seen or recognised by the eye. Light is totally contrary and gives more distinctness, and counteracts and differs from the usual darkness of the eye, hence

piv terra e piu riserbera in sele similitudini delle cose luminose che 1'on-

L'ochio

The eye

the

brose

somma

e che Pochio 2 in se e e perche il simile infra '1 simile no diuide, aduque la notte o altre cose oscure non possono essere riser 3 uate o conosciute dall' ochio il lume e interamete contrario e piv divide ed e piu detrimeto e varieta alia cosueta scurita 4 dell' ochioonde di se lascia inpressa la sua simili;

la ragio

si

.-

oscurita

'

tudine.
28. i.

it

leaves the impression of


8.

its

image.
9. ella
. .

chosa

chosa.

2.

inel.
4.
.

3.

ella

efferma.
5.

5.

chose
7.

chonusolocio.

essella
. .

chol

paratti.
.

ara.

29. 3. alii quali ochi vole.


8.
\\\\

te cosiderare.
.
.

"m"desstro.

ochupera losspatio a esse ochupera


. . . . . .

desstro

sinisstro 1'obietto
12. porra.

\\\\\\\\\\.

spatio besse apirai


.
.

due ochi
.

lobietto esso obietto no


2.

ma
.

malo.
. .

n.
.

pittu[ra].

30.

i.

temera

similitudine
3.

chellochio.

essonTa
.

osschurita

"aduque"
. .

chose

osschure
.

po[ste]sono "es4. lasscia.

sere" riser.

ochonosciuti "dallochio" ilume e intera

mete chontrario

divide epi detrimeto

allala.

29.
right,

In the sketch, m is the left eye and n the while the text reverses this lettering.

We

must therefore suppose that the face in which the eyes and n are placed is opposite to the spectator.

22 H.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING.


38*)

[3135-

Tutte
giori d) e
di

le

cose vedute parrano


notte, che
di
di
3

mezza

2 mamezzo

Every

object

we

see

will

appear

maggiori

mattina

che

*di

larger at midnight than at midday, and larger in the morning than at midday.

mezzo di. 6 s Questo accade perche la pupilla dell' ochio e minore assai di mezzo 7 dl che di
nessuno altro tenpo.
H.
40,1]

This happens because the pupil of the eye is much smaller at midday than at any other time.

32

IQuella popilla che sara maggiore, vedera 2 le cose di maggiore figura.U 3 questo si dimostra nel uedere de' corpi
lu*minosi
5

The

pupil which

is

largest will see obis

jects the largest.

massime

de'

celesti;

quado

1'ochio

escie delle tenebre e subito risgu-

evident when we look at luminous bodies, and particularly at When the eye comes those in the sky. out of darkness and suddenly looks up at

This

arda-essi corpi li parirrano 1 maggiori e e se 8 riguarderai essi poi diminuiscono un picciolo ^buso, li uederai micorpi per nori perche mi I0 nore parte d'essa (pupilla)
;

these bodies, they at first appear larger and then diminish; and if you were to look at those bodies through a small opening, you

s'adopera a tale
H.
43*]

ofitio.

part of the pupil


33-

would see them smaller still, because a smaller would exercise its function.

Quell' ochio che uscendo dalle tenebre 2 vedera subito vn corpo luminoso, 3 li parra
nel primo is 4 guardo che nel uederlo. sll luminoso corpo perseuerare 6 parra maggiore e piv luminoso -con dueocchi che 7 con u solo. 8 Quel luminoso si
assai

maggiore
il

When the eye, coming out of darkness suddenly sees a luminous body, it will appear much larger at first sight than after long
The illuminated object will looking at it. look larger and more brilliant, when seen with two eyes than with only one. A luminous object will appear smaller in size, when the eye sees it through a smaller opening. A luminous body of an oval form will
appear rounder in proportion as from the eye.
34it is

dimostrera di minor 9 corpo che per minore I0 daU' ochio fia veduto. spiraculo "Quel I2 si dimocorpo luminoso di lunga figura strera di piv rotodo corpo ^ che piv distante- dall' ochio- situate
Ash.
I.

farther

I4 fia.

12 a]
, ,

Perche 1'ochio visto la luce il loco di mezzano 2 lume li pare tenebroso, e similmete ^vscito dalle tenebre, il loco di mezzana luce, -gli pare chiarissimo?
L. 41 6\

Why when
does the half
the

light

the eye has just seen the light, look dark to it, and in
if it

same way

turns from the darkness

the half light look very bright?


35-

DE
2

PICTURA.

ON
If the eye,
this will

PAINTING.
[out of doors] in the lu-

L'ochio che

sta

vede il loco 6bro>so, di molta ma^ggiore 5 Questo accade sol


6
all'

aria,
tucte
10 R.
lo.
.

diminuisce
le
i.

luminosa e esso sito si dimostrera oscurita che non e. perche 1'ochio che sta tanto piv la sua puall'

aria

when

in shadow, look very much darker than it really is. This happens only because the eye when out in the air contracts the pupil in propor5.

minous atmosphere, sees a place

31.

i.
i

chose.

2.

meza.

3.

mezo

magiori.
2.
.

4.

mezo.

acchade

mezo.
3.

33.

"popilla" [chio] chessara magiore.


escie
. . .

chose "di" magiore.


parirano [mino].
7.

quessto
.

dimosstra.

4.

emassime
8.

cellessti
to.

quado
33.
i.
.

5.

essubitorissgu.

6.

chorpi

li

magiori
chon.

ditninuisschano esse.

chorpi.

dessa

sadopera

attale.
2. chorpo magiore. 5. chorpog. para n. chorpo. 12. dimossterra retodo chorpo. mezano. 3. ilocho mezana.
. .

vsscicdo delle tenebr.


.
.

6.

7.

chon.

8.

dimosstcrra.

9.

"corpo" [forma]

spirachulo.
.

34.

i.

ilocho

35. 2. chcssta

"luminosa"

locho.

3.

dimossterra.

4.

gore osscurita.

5.

Quessto achade

chessta.

6.

diminuisscie.

32. 9. buso in the 35.


14.

Lomb.

dialect

is

the

same

as buco.

La

luce entrerh.

Luce occurs here in the

sense of pupil of the eye as in no 51: C. A. 84 b; 245 a ; l 5; and in many other places.

36.

370
quanto luminosa

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING.


1'aria,

8 pi u

che in se si spechia, e quanto essa popilla pi 9 u I0 diminuisce, manco la cosa da lei ve duta
7pilla,

tion as the

atmosphere reflected

in

it

is

more

luminous.
it

And

the

more

the less luminous


sees.

dimostra luminosa. UMa quando "I'ochio entrera in alcuno loco onbroso, I2 subito la oscurita di tale onbroso parra ^diminuire.H
si

Questo accade, perche quarto


in aria piu tenebrosa,
il

15

la luce entrera piu cresce suafigura,

do But as soon as the eye enters into a shady place the darkness of the shadow suddenly seems to diminish. This occurs because the greater the darkness into which the
pupil goes the more its size increases, and this increase makes the darkness seem less.

the pupil contracts, the objects appear that

quale

accrescime l6 to

fa

che

la

grande

oscurita pare dimi^nuirsi.

S.

K. M.

II.i

ia]

36.

DE
2

PROSPETTIVA.
si

ON
The eye which
in the light

PERSPECTIVE.
turns from a white object

L'ochio,
3
li

che

parte

dal bianco allu-

minato dal
ogni cosa

sole e va in loco di

minor

luce,

pa4 rra tenebrosa;

questo ac-

cade, perche 1'ochio s che sta a esso biaco alluminato o si viene a ristri 6 gniere le sue
popille
I

modo

quatita visiua esse

che se erano prima 7 vna macano piv che '1 3/4 8 di


di 9 quatita esse

sua quatita e macado

ma-

of the sun and goes into a less fully lighted place will see everything as dark. And this happens either because the pupils of the eyes which have rested on this brilliantly lighted white object have contracted so much that, given at first a certain extent of surface, they will have lost more than 3 /4 of their size; and, lacking in size, they
are also deficient in [seeing] power. Though little bird (then) you might say to me: coming down would see comparatively little, and from the smallness of his pupils the

cano

di poteiia,

benche

tu

mi

10

potresti dire

uno piccolo vccello vederebbe alPa"venate molto poco e per le piccole sue popille I2 il
biaco

parebbe nero; a questa parte ti risp6 3derei, che qui s'attende alia proporli
T

so^ma di quella parte del ciervello, dedicata alia vir'stu visiua, e no ad


tione della

white might seem black! To reply that here we must have proportion of the mass of that brain which is given up to the

this I

should

regard to the portion of the sense of sight

o per tornare questa l6 nostra cresce e diminvisce secodo la popilla I7 chiarita o scurita del suo obietto- e perche co qual l8 che tepo fa esso cresciere e discrealtra

cosa;

sciere

dal

9no vede cosi presto vsciedo lume e andado all' oscu 20 ro, e similmete
esso
J

and to nothing else. Or to return this pupil in Man dilates and contracts according to the brightness or darkness of (surrounding) objects; and since it takes some time to dilate and contract, it cannot see immediately on going out of the light and into the shade, nor, in the same way, out of the shade into the light, and this very thing has already
deceived

dallo

scuro

al

luminoso e questa

2I

cosa
di
li

me

in
it.

painting an

eye,

and from

gia m'iganno nel dipigniere


1'imparai.
1 1.

vn ochio e

that I learnt

19*]

37.
dell'
*

Sperieza
nvitione della

a 2 crescimeto

popilla pel

d'altro 6 luminoso. cielo sara 8 piu oscuro, tanto le stelle si dimostrera di maggiore figura, e se tu 9allumini il mezzo,

moto 7Quato il

e di^midel sole o

Experiment [showing] the dilatation and contraction of the pupil, from the motion of the sun and other luminaries. In proportion as the sky is darker the stars appear of larger size, and if you were to light up
.

7.

in sisspechia

he

pi.

8.

Ecquanto.

9.

diminuisscie

mancho

dallei.
. . .

10.

dimosstra

cquando.
.

n. enterra
osscurita.

in

alchuno

locho.

12. osscurita.
.
.

13.
2.
.
.

36. 2. chessi
8.

biano.
di

Quessto acade. 14. enterra. 15. cressce iloco. 4. re tenebroso Ecquesto acade.
.

accresscime.
si.

16.
6.

chella
poille

5.

allumina o

imodo

lelerano.

7.
. .

machano.
acquesta.

[tava parte]

sua

machado.
17.

9.

beche.
. .

10.

dire
18.

picholo vciello vederebe.


. .

n.

pichole.
19.

12.

parebe

16.

cresscie e
20.

diminvisscie.
21.

osscurita
.
.

coquel.

chettepo

cressciere e discressciere.

vsciedo alume

andado

elloscu.

ecquesta.
4.

mlgano
7.

dililaparai.
.

37. 2. cresscimeto.

popila.

Qua

il

...

ossuro.

8.

dimostera

magiore

essettu.

9,

mezo dimostera.

10.

ecquesta.

GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO THE BOOK ON PAINTING.


dimostrera I0 minori, e questa tale mutatione sol' "nascic dalla popilla, la quale crescie e dis- o
esse stelle
si

[38.

39-

the

medium
this

these stars

would look smaller;

and _

difference

arises

cre I-i scie mediante la chiarezza del mezzo che

solely from the pupil which dilates and contracts with the a-

/"

truova infra 1'ochio e'l luminoso; corpo ^sia fatta la sperienza con vna cadela po'Ssta
si

'J

j *"'
N

mount of light in the medium which is interposed between the eye and the luminous body. Let the experiment be made, by placing a candle above your head

sopra
l6

la

testa

in

nel
tu

medesimo tenpo che

risguardi tale stella, di poi vieni

abbassando

'7detta cadela a poco a poco, insino che ella l8 sia uicina alia linia che uiene dalla
stella
19 all'

ochio, e allora uederai diminuire

tato

20

la stella

che quasi

la perderai di uista.

at the same time that you look at a star; then gradually lower the candle till it is on a level with the ray that comes from the star to the eye, and then you will see the star diminish so much that you will almost lose sight of it.

I.I

20 a]

ULa

2 popilla del 1'ochio

stante

all'

aria

3g rado di moto fatto dal sole muta 4gradi-di magnitudine.H 5e in ogni grado- di magnitudine 6 una medesima cosa veduta si dimostre 7 ra di diuerse grandezze, benche spesse vo! 8 te il paragone delle cose circunstanti 9 no lascino disciernere tali mvtationi d'u I0 na sola cosa che si risguarda.
in ogni
C. A. 2Ooa; 594 a]

The pupil of the eye, in the open air, changes in size with every degree of motion from the sun; and at every degree of its changes one and the same object seen by it will appear of a different size; although most frequently the relative scale of surrounding objects does not allow us to detect these variations in any single object we may look at.

39'

La
couerse

luce

operado
2

nel

vedere

le

cose

The eye
retains

which sees

all

alquato

le spetie di quelle
si

ritiene.

pruova per li effetti, perche la vista jn vedere luce alquato (ne) tiene. Ancora dopo lo sguardo ^rimagono nel' ochio similitudini della cosa intesa e fanno parere tenebroso il logo di minor 4 luceper insino che dalP ochio sia sparito il
uestigio della ipresio della
ii.
. .

Questa conclusio

images proved by the results; because, the eye having gazed at light retains some
conclusion
is

the

for

some

objects reversed This time.

maggior
mezo

luce.

impression of it. After looking (at it) there remain in the eye images of intense brightness, that make any less brilliant spot seem dark until the eye has lost the last trace of the impression of the stronger light.
.

nasscie
.

cresscie.

12.

ciareza

chessi.

13.

infrallochio

fatto.

15.

sta

inel

chettu.

17.

apocho apoco

chella.
5.

20. uissta.

38. 3. fatta. 39.


i.

enogni
.

magnitudine [laco].
.
.

6.
2.

dimoster.

8.
.

circhunstanti.
3.

9.

lasscino
.

mvtationi.
.
.

10.

chessirissguarda.
. .

chose chouerse
4.

quele
.

chunclusio.
.

Anchora

lossguardo.

rimagano

similitudine

chosa

effano

ilogo.

insinode

spartito

dela

dela magior.

37.

No

reference

is

made

in

the text to the letters on the accompanying diagram.

Linear Perspective.
We
see clearly

from

addresses the painter,

the concluding sentence of'section 49, where the author directly that he must certainly have intended to include the elements of the

mathematics

in

his

Book on
the

art

of Painting.

They are therefore here placed


is distinctly
,

at the beginning.
expressly

In section 50 the theory of the

"Pyramid of Sight"

and

put forward as
it

fundamental principle of linear perspective

and

sections

This theory of sight can scarcely be traced to any author of antiquity. Such passages as occur in Euclid* for instance, may, it is true, have proved suggestive to the painters of the Renaissance, but it would be rash to say any thing decisive on this point.
52
to

57 treat of

fully.

Leon Battista Alberti

treats

of the "Pyramid of Sight" at some length


lines

in his first

Book of Painting

2
;

but his explanation differs widely

Leonardo, like Alberti,

may have borrowed the broad

from Leonardo's in the details. of his theory from some views


worked out
its

commonly accepted among painters at the time; but he in a perfectly original manner.
The axioms as
tions
to to the

certainly

application

perception of the
its

of

its origin,

and proofs of

universal application (58

pyramid of rays are followed by explanaThe author recurs 69).

it is evidently of fundamental importance in his unnecessary to discuss how far this theory has any practice. so muck as this, at any rate, seems certain: that scientific value at the present day; it may still claim to be of immense practical utility. from the artisfs point of view According to Leonardo , on one hand, the laws of perspective are an inalienable

the subject with endless variations;

artistic theory

and

It is

condition of the existence of objects in space; on the other hand, by

a natural law, the

Si

imaginibus

procedentibus

passio visiva

gignitur

et

profluunt quae nostros sensus


2

commovent, qua de causa


cosi

fit'ut

si ab omni corpora continuae imagines quaerens acum, itidemque librum accurate

legens omnes literas non perspicit.

Questi

razzi

extrinsici,

Ed. L. PACIOLI, Venetiis, 1509. circuendo la superfitie che 1'uno tocchi


e

1'altro,

chiudono

tutta

la

superficie quasi

come

vetrici

ad una gabbia,
seq.

fanno, quanto

si

dice,

quella piramide visiva, &c.

Ed.

JANITSCHEK, Vienna 1877, VOL. I.

p. 61

26

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


whatever

eye,

it

sees

and wherever

it

turns, is subjected to the perception

of the pyramid

target. of of the will of the spectator, since the eye receives the images by means of the pyramid of rays "just as a magnet attracts iron".

rays in the

fonn of a minute

Thus

it

sees objects in perspective independently

In connection with this


obscura,
to

we have
more

the function of the eye explained by the

Camera
less

and

this is all the

interesting

and important because no


73).

writer previous

Leonardo had treated of

this subject

(70

Subsequent passages,

of no

special interest, betray his

knowledge of refraction
82).

and of
image

the inversion of the

image

in

the

camera and

in the eye (74

From

the principle of the transmission of the

to the

eye

and

to the

camera

obscura he deduces the means of producing an artificial construction of the pyramid of The fundamental axioms as to the rays or which is the same thing of the image. the vanishing point are thus presented in a manner which is as comangle of sight and
plete as it is simple

and

intelligible (86

89).
(90, 91).

Leonardo distinguishes between simple and complex perspective


sections

The

last
to

treat
it

of

the apparent size


109).

of objects at various distances

and of

the

way

estimate

(92

Ash.

I.

22 6}

40.

PICTURA.
2
,

ON
ottima della
Perspective P T. Of Painting.
~-

PAINTING.
the best guide to the art General remarks on
perspective

La

prospettiva

e briglia

is

.,

3plttura.

(4041).

A. 38 6}

41.

1 La
ch'ella fa

prospettiva e di tale natura parere il piano rilievo e '1 rilievo

as to

The art of perspective is of such a nature make what is flat appear in relief and
is

piano.

what

in relief

flat.

C. A.

I3

oa; 398 a]
i

42.

Tutti
2

casi della prospectiua


i

sono

intesi

mediante

cinque termini de' matematici


linia

angolo superfitie e corpo, e solo 4 in sua gieneratione punto e questo puto non a altezza ne larghezza o

cioe punto
il

All the problems of perspective are made The eiei f c 1.1. imentsofperby the five terms of mathematicians, sp ective:which are: the point, the line, the angle,
clear
i
..i

de quali

the

superficies

and the
kind.

solid.

The point
the

is

unique

of
it is

its

And

neither height, breadth,

point has length, nor depth,

luSghezza o profondita, onde essere indiuisibile e non auere


e di 3 nature,

si
6

conclude

whence

to

be regarded as indivisible and

loco: linia-

cioe retta curva e flessuosa

quella non a larghezza ne altezza, o 7 profodi ta, onde e indiuisibile, saluo che per
la

as having no dimensions in space. The line is of three kinds, straight, curved and sinuous and it has neither breadth, height, nor depth. Hence it is indivisible, excepting in its length,

sua lughezza i sua termi 8 ni so 2 puti; Angolo e il termine di 2 linie nel puto.

and its ends are two points. The angle the junction of two lines in a point.

is

Tr. 68]

43di linia.

Puto non e parte


40.
42.
2.
i.

A
. .

point

is

not part of a

line.

ottimo [ne]della.
tucti.
3.

41.
.

i.

prosspettiva
.
. .

chela.
4. altezza

essolo. he chorpo gurva e flessuosa" e quella che nona largeza ne

ancolo

nellargeza ollu.

5.

geza.
.

6.
.
.

locho
lugeza.

"edi 3 nature cioe retta

alteza.

7.

onde hessi

indiuisibile

40.

Compare

53, 2.

28
Ash.
III.

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


27*)

14447-

44.

DEL PUTO NATURALE.


2

OF THE NATURAL
The
all

POINT.

I1

tutti ^i

perche
e
il

in 6 finito, tinua, e ogni cotinuo e diuisibile in

minore puto naturale e maggiore di si pruova punti matematici, e que^sto 5 il punto naturale e quan tita conindivisibile,
7

punto matematico e
quatita.

perche

non e
Br.

is larger than mathematical points, and this is proved because the natural point has continuity, and any thing that is continuous is infinitely divisible; but the mathematical point is indivisible because it has no size.

smallest natural point

M.
1

131 1\
1
.

45-

La

superfi tie

e '1 termine d'esso corpo, ^4. e principio d'un che non e parte
2.

e termine del corpo. d'un corpo non e parte e '1 termine d'un corpoaltro 4 3- quello e nietes d'alcuna cosa. Quello e

i,

The
2,

body.

and the

superficies is a limitation of the limitation of a body is

niete che niete occupa.

no part of that body. 4, and the limitation of one body is that which begins another. 3, that which is not part of any body is nothing. Nothing is that which fills no space.

Se un solo
d'infinite
infiniti

punto posto nel circulo


linie,

puo mine
sono
sia

essere principio d'infinite


linie
8
i

?e'l ter-

da

tal

punto separate
ridotti

punti,

quali

insieme
la

ritornano

in

uno qui seguita che

parte

9equale-al tutto.
M.
132 a]

If one single point placed in a circle may be the starting point of an infinite number of lines, and the termination of an infinite number of lines, there must be an infinite number of points separable from this point, and these when reunited become one again; whence it follows that the part may be equal to the whole.
4

Br.

E'l punto per essere indiuisibile niente 2 occupa. Tutte le cose che niete occupano niente sono. 'E '1 termine d'una cosa e 4 2. e Quel si dice principio d'un altra. esser niente che non e parte d'alcuna cosa s i quel che non a termine non a figura6 i termini di 2 corpi insieme conalcuna; sono scanbie ? volmente superfitie giunti
.

The

point, being indivisible, occupies

no

That which occupies no space is space. The limiting surface of one thing nothing. 2. That which is the beginning of another. is no part of any body is called nothing.
i. That which has no limitations, has no form. The limitations of two conterminous bodies are interchangeably the surface of each. All the surfaces of a body are not parts of

1'uno

8 Tutti i termini delle dell' altro. cose no sono parte alcuna d'esse cose.

that body.

W.

L. 145. Ct\

47.

DIFINITIO DELL' ESSER DELLA LINIA.

DEFINITION OF THE NATURE OF THE LINE.

*La
or
the

linia
si

(4748).

jine

alcuna
cosi
44. 2. 45.
i.

ma

non a in se materia o sustatia puo nomi^nare piu presto cosa


sustatia,

The

line has in itself neither matter

substance

and

may

rather

be

called

nor an

che

per

essere

lei

coditionata,
3.

essa

non occupa
i

loco,
5.
. .

imaginary idea than a real object; and this being its nature it occupies no space. Therechontinua
. . .

magiore.

punti natural! matematematici ecques.


5.

divisibile ini.
.

6.

matematicho he.

he termine.
puncto
.

ochupa.
2.

6. se

solo. po.
.
.

8.

equali

innuno
5.

chclla.
.
. .

46.

i.

ochupa.
tutti e.

tucte le chose

ochupano.
chosa

3.

chosa.

cquel

alchuna.

6.

[il]i

ter.

7. altro

"come lacqua

collaria".
47. 2.

8.
. .

nana

ossustatia alchuun

massi.

3.

susstatia.

4.

chosi choditionata

ochupa locho

interseghationi.

44. This definition

was inserted by Leonardo on a

GIORGIO;
says
:

MS. copy on parchment of the well-known " Traltato d* Architettura civile e militare" &c. by FRANCESCO DI

'/

passage opposite prima he da sapere che pvnto

where

the

author

e quella parte

delta quale he nulla

Linia he luncheza senzaapeza; &c.

48 -so.]

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.
fore an infinite number of lines may be conceived of as intersecting each other at a point, which has no dimensions and is only of the thickness (if thickness it may be called) of one single line.

aduque le intersegationi sd'infinite linie si puo immaginare esser fatte in puto, il quale *e sanza mezzo e per grossezza (se grossezza si puo nominare) equate alia grossezza d'una
sola
linia.

COME COCLUDIAMO
10

NOI LA SU 2 PERFITIE

HOW WE MAY
FICIES

RIDURSI IN PUNTO?

CONCLUDE THAT A SUPERTERMINATES IN A POINT?

La

superfitie

angulare
TI

si

riducie in

termina saranno
I2

si punto quando ella nel suo angolo, o se


i

lati

di

tale

angolo
diretto,
J3

prodotti

in

continue

allora

dopo tale angolo si gienerera vn' altra superfitie minore o I4 della equale o maggiore prima.
Ash.
I.

angular surface is reduced where it terminates in an Or, if the sides of that angle. angle are produced in a straight line, then beyond that angle an other surface is generated, smaller, or equal to, or larger than the
to a point
first.

An

21 a]

48.

D
2

PICTURA

LINIALE.
diligieza
:

OF DRAWING
cosiderati-

OUTLINE.

Siano con
>

somma

termini

di

qualunque corpo

il

modo

del

lor serpeg^giare, le quali serpeggiature siano

givdicate

cipano di
angulare.
G. 37
]

separate, se le sue volte particurvita arculare o di cocavita

Consider with the greatest care the form of the outlines of every object, and the character of their undulations. And these undulations must be separately studied, as to whether the curves are composed of arched convexities

or angular concavities.

49-

Li termini delli corpi sono la minima 2 cosa di tutte le cose provasi essere 3vero quel che si propone, perche il termi^ne della chosa e vna superfitie, la qual non Se parte del corpo uestito di tal superfitie,

all

The boundaries of bodies are the least of things. The proposition is proved to be

The
'u

ne

parte
'1

delFaria

circudatricie
infra
1'

d'esso

cor7po

ma

mezzo interposto

a 8 ria e

'1

corpo come a suo loco e pro g vato;

Ma

li

termini laterali d'essi cor I0 pi e la linia termine della superfitie, "la qual linia e di

grossezza

invisibile;
li

aduque

tu

I2

pittore

tua corpi di I3 linie, e massime nelle cose minori I4 che '1 naturale, le I5 quali no che possino mo strare li termini
laterali,

no circudare

because the boundary of a thing is a surface, which is not part of the body contained within that surface; nor is it part of the air surrounding that body, but is the medium interposted between the air and the body, as is proved in its place. But the lateral boundaries of these bodies is the line forming the boundary of the surface, which line is of invisible thickness. Wherefore O painter! do not surround your bodies with lines, and above
true,
all when representing objects smaller than nature; for not only will their external outlines become indistinct, but their parts will be in-

ma

li

lor

menbri

l6

per distantia

sono
A. 3*1

invisibili.

visible

from distance.

Soe fondata
sulla
:

prospettiva non e altro che 2 sapere bene figurare lo vfitio dell' ochio, 4 il quale ofitio s'estede
fia pittura
5.

[Drawing is based upon perspective, which is nothing else than a thorough knowledge of the function of the eye. And this function simply
cocludiano.
10.

Definition of

Perspective '

fatta.

mezo
.

grosseza angholo.
. .

grosseza.

7.
.

grosseza

9.

anghulare.

n. angholo osse sara

angholo.

12.

chontinuo

13.

iminore
. .

magiore.
.

48. 2. sia

chon

cosiderato

43.

i.

chorpi so la minimraa.
8.

chorpo serpe. 3. serpegiature sia givdichato [seperati] selle. 4. churvita archulareodi chochavita' 2. chosa chose. 4. chosa 6. circhudatricie chor. 7. mezo interpossto no. 5. ne parte.
.

infralla.
13. chose.

14.

chorpo chome assuo locho. possi mos. 15. "laterali"


2.

9. Malli.

10.

piella.

n. "di grossezza"

adduque.

12.

circhudare

chorpi.

ma

lelor.

16. disstantia

50.

i.

effondata sula che[lle].


I

ochio

<^

cioe [jn che

modo

le

sono "invisibili" [inchognito]. similitudine]. 3. [delle chose vengano a esso ochio].

4.

il

quale

50.

5.

Compare with

this the

Proem. No.

21.

The paragraphs placed

in brackets: lines

19, 1014,

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


solo
colori
in

[SI-

pigliare per piramide le sdi tutti li obietti contra se

forme e
posti
:

and colours of
it.

consists in receiving in a pyramid the forms all the objects placed before
I say in a pyramid, because there is no object so small that it will not be larger than the spot where these pyramids are received into the eye. Therefore, if you extend the lines from the edges of each

e cosa 6 si per piramide dico, perch non che no sia maggiore che '1 loco, minima

dove si coducono nell'ochio esse 7 piramidi adunque se torrai le linie ali stremi di 8
:

ciascuno corpo e il loro concorso coducierai a vn solo- puto, 6 necie'ssario che dette
linie
10

body

as they converge

sieno piramidali.]

to a single point,

you will bring them and necessarily the said lines

e altro che ragione [prospettiva non dimostrativa la quale s' estede "a considerare come li obietti contraposti al'ochio madano di loro a "quello per linie piramidali la loro propria similitudine; Piramide '-Jsono dette quelle linie che si partono da superfitiali stremi di ciascuno ^ corpo

must form a pyramid.]


[Perspective is nothing more than a rational demonstration applied to the consideration of how objects in front of the eye transmit their image to it, by means of a pyramid of lines. The Pyramid is the name I apply to the lines which, starting from the surface and edges of each object, converge from a distance and meet in a single point.] [Perspective is a rational demonstration,

e per distante cocorso


solo puto.]

si

coducono a un

^[prospettiva- e ragio dimostrativa per laI8 si coprende come li quale effettualmete madano '^di loro la propia similiobiettitudine 20 per linie piramidali all'occhio.]
prospettiva ragione dimostratiua per 2 tutte le cose quale la sperentia coferma madare all'ochio per linie piramidali la lor similitudine 24 e quelli corpi d'equale gradezza farano maggiore o minore agolo a la lor 2S varieta della distatia piramide secodo la che fia da Tuna a 1'altra; 26 linie piramidali intedo essere quelle le quali si partono da 27 stremi de corpi e per distate superfitiali concorso si coducono a un solo puto;TI 28 puto dicono essere quello il quale in nessuna parte si puo diuidere 2 ?e questo puto e quello il quale stado nell'ochio ricieue I
If

by which we may
understand
in the eye.]

how

practically and clearly objects transmit their own

image, by lines forming a Pyramid (centred)

22

la

-5

Perspective is a rational demonstration which experience confirms that every object sends its image to the eye by a pyramid of lines; and bodies of equal size will result in a pyramid of larger or smaller the difference in their size, according to distance, one from the other. By a pyramid of lines I mean those which start from the surface and edges of bodies, and, converging from a distance meet in a single point.

by

se tutte le pute delle piramidi.


C. A. 84 6; 2450]

which [having no dimensions] cannot be divided, and this point placed in the eye receives all the points of the cone.
point
is

said to be that

51
DINAZI.

CHE MODO L'OCCHIO VEDE LE COSE POSTELI


2

IN

WHAT WAY THE EYE


IN

SEES OBJECTS PLACED


IT.

FRONT OF

The

percep-

e iject de-

Pogniamo che quella palla figurata di sopra sia la palla dell'occhio, e quella parte
rninore
^

Supposing that the ball figured above is the ball of the eye and let the small portion
of the ball which
[pi],
6.

della
.
.

palla

ch'e diuisa dalla linia


. .

is
.

cut off by the line s t


7.

pends on the
direction of the eye.

sastede

pigliare periramide
8.

cholori.

5.

cosa

si

magiore chelocho
to.

chonduchano.

piramide
. .

tora

chorpo[e
12.

tire].

[ralealcho] e iloro
. . .

chonchorso choducierai
[e della].

sario.

quasastede.
. . .

n. chonsiderare chome
. .

chontraposti.
.
.

quelo per "linie"

Piramide
solo.
15.

13. [da 2 linie] sonoquelinie

partano

ciaschuno.

14.
is

chorpo
pe].

cho[rien.

chorsosi coduchano
tia).

..at
la

[prospettiva evna ragione dimostrativa per la quale [chon isperi] con uera
si

16.

17. e[vna] ragio.

18.

[chiaro]

choplende chome

obietti [chotra posti allochio].


21.

19.

di loro

"per
.

linie piramidali
.

acuuelle" acquello 4
tualmete
25. dela
28.
. .

propia similitudine.
. .

20. similitudine per.

[prospettiva e ragione dimostrativa


.

per la quale
.
. .

effet-

c|.
. .

23.

chose
26.

lor
.

[propia].
.
.

24.
.
.

ecqueli chorpi dequali gradeza


.

cheffia.
.

esere

partano
.

superfitiali stre.
.
. .

27.
.

chorpi

magiore chonchorso
.
.

ominore
si

piramida.
t

choduchano a

solo.

dichano

inessuna parte parte


iy 26

po.
;

29.

ecquesto
29 of
3.

quelo

nelochio

piramide.

Lines 24

and

25 are in the

original
51.

numbered as

and

27 as i

28

and

114

written

from
are

left to right.

The diagram stands above

the text.

i.

chose possteli.

2.

fighurato

occhi equelle.

3. sie

and 17 20, evidently mere sketches and, as such, were cancelled by the writer; but they serve as a commentary on the final paragraph, lines 2229.

51.

In this

problem the eye

is

conceived of as

fixed

and immovable;

this is plain

from

line

u.

Si-]

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.
be the pupil and all the objects mirrored on the centre of the face of the eye, by means of the pupil, pass on at once and
enter the pupil, passing through the crystalline

s t sia la luce, e tutte le cose specchiate sul


\

mezzo

della
e.

superficie di detta luce subito


nelle popille,

discorrono

vanno

per vn

cierto

umore

crystalline
si

passando che non


dimostri

occupa nella popilla cosa che


alia luce
;

humour,

which

does

not

interfere

in

the

pupil with the things seen by


light.

means of the

essa popilla,

rice 6 vute le
ce,

cose dalla

lu-

ing

And the pupil hav^ received the objects,


of the
refers
light,

immediatamente
e porge allo
la
linia
T

le riitelet-

by

means

feriscie

immediately
intellect

them
to the

to

per

and transmits them


b\

sappi che la popilla no

by the

line

b.

porgie nessuna cosa perfettamete


allo

And you must know

that

intelletto

the pupil transmits nothing perfectly to the intellect

over seso comune

se

non

or
ting

common
when
it

sense excep-

qua do

le

cose a
si

lei

date

the objects pre-

dalla luce
la linia

dirizzano per
-

sented to
light,

by means of
it

reach

a
la
le

sicome vedi
9e

by the
For

line

a b; as, for instance, by


the
line

che

fa

\\n\a' c- a;
linie

b the

c.

al-

beche

sieno vedute dalla po-

n though be seen by and f g may


lines

pilla,

no sono cosiderate
10

perche no si dirizzano
la linia,
si

col-

pupil they are not perfectly taken in, because


the

a b

E la pruova
sopra vorra
poste

they do not coincide with


the
line
is

b.

And
wants

the

e questa, se questo ocqui


di

proof

this:

If the eye,

chio

shown
count

above,
the

to

nvmerare
li

le let"tere

dinazi coverra che 1'oc-

placed in front, the eye will be


ter

letters

chio giri da lettera a lettera


I2
:

obliged to turn from letbecause letter , to

perche no

la discierneit

cannot

discern
lie

them

rebbe, se
linia

no

le dirizasse

unless they

in the line

per la
fa
le
all'

a b siccome
c

la

linia

e tutte

a b; as, for instance, in All visible the line a c.


objects reach the eye the lines of a pyramid,
the point of the
is

cose vedute
occhio per

3uegono

by and

linie pira-

pyramid

midate, e la puta di detta

piramide
fine
pilla,

fa

termine

J*

the apex and centre of it, in the centre

nel

mezzo
di

della po-

of the puas figured

come

sopra e

pil,

above.
figurato.

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


if / A. to*]
.

[52.

Prospettiva e ragione dimostratiua per 2 tutte le Experimen. la quale la sperientia conferma f p fcose>m adare alFocchio per linie piramidali thee ris7e nce f the similitudine pyra-i a j oro
* .

Perspective

is

a rational

demonstration,

confirmed by

all objects transmit their image to the eye by a pyramid

experience,

that

ud of sight sight
(52-55)-

of

lines.

^ linie piramidali intedo esser quelle stremi quali si partono dai superfitiali *de' corpi e per distante cocorso si conducono a vno solo puto, il quale

le

those

puto
di tutti
il

in

questo
nell'
6

caso

mostrerd

essere

collocate
i

ochio,

corpi;
si
1

punto

quale non

puo

vniversale givdice dico esser quello diuidere in alcuna parte;


-

point; and point, in the present instance, I will show to be situated in the eye which is the universal judge of all objects. By a point
this
I

of lines I which start from of the surface of bodies, and from a distance, meet in a single

By a pyramid
lines

understand
the edges converging

mean

that

which cannot be divided into

sendo questo punto indiuisibile che collocato nella uista nessuno 8 corpo fia veduto dal' ochio che no sia maggiore d' esso puto: essedo cosi 9 e neciessario che le linie che vengono dal corpo al puto sieno

aduque

parts; therefore this point, which is situated in the eye, being indivisible, no body is seen by the eye, that is not larger than this point.

This being the case


lines

it

is

inevitable

that the

10

piramidate,
la
in

uirtu

visiua

e se alcuno volesse provareno cosistere in esso punto

"anzi essere quello puto nero che si uede mezzo alia popilla, I2 a questo si potrebbe rispodere che vna piccola cosa mai potrebbe diminvire per alcuna ^distantia- come sarebbe un grano di miglio o di panico o altra simile cosa e quel^la cosa che fusse maggiore che detto punto, mai potrebbe essere veduta interamete ls come appare nella prova di sotto; 16 sia a la uirtu visiua, b e sia il concorso
-

which come from the object to the And if any point must form a pyramid. man seeks to prove that the sense of sight does not reside in this point, but rather in the black spot which is visible in the middle of the pupil, I might reply to him that a small object could never diminish at any distance, as it might be a grain of millet or of oats or of some similar thing, and that object, if it were larger than the said [black] spot would never be seen as a whole; as may be seen in the diagram below. Let a.

che uegono al'occhio I7 e. d. siano grani del miglio dentro a detto concorso vedi per ragione questi I8 mai per distatia diminvire e il corpo n non potersi
delle linie
i
:

be the seat of sight, b e the lines which reach the eye. Let e d be the grains of
millet

within

these

lines.

You
and

plainly

see

that

these

will

never diminish by distance,


that the

da quelle interamete '^copredere: aduque e neciessario

mn could not be en-

body

cofessare

1'

chio avere I un solo puto 20 indiuisibile, a il quale conferiscono tutte


le

ocse

tirely covered by it Therefore you must

confess that the eye contains within itself

one single
point
all

india,

visible

to

punte della pira2I

which

mide

partite

dai
-

the points converge of the py-

corpi, come qui di sotto

appare

ramid of lines
sia
:

start-

"a b

tega
53. i.

il

punto

1'occhio; il cietro suo prenominato se la linia e -f- a


.

ing from an object, as is shown below. Let a. b. be the eye; in the centre of it is the point
4.

Prosspectiva lassperientia chonferma. mostero cholochato. 6. dicho quelo


.

2.
.

chose.
.

3.

partano.
7.

chorpi
.

chonchorso
.

si

chonduchano.
8.

5.

chaso

po
chos
.

alchuna.

cholochato
10. esse
.

ncla

nessuna [chosa].
. . .

[eviden] corpo magiore.

9.

(bisogn) e
.
.

chelle
.

vegano
12.

sieno [mag] piramidate.


. .
i

volessi

esso

anzizi

quelo

imezo.

acquesti

potrebe
.
.

potrebe

alchuna.

13.

puno [a questi]. come sare i grano


16.

n.
di

(si

potrebbe]
di

miglo o
17.
. .

pa-

nicho

chosa ecque.
18.

14. cheffussi
.

magiore
19.

potrebe
.

essere deduto apare nela.


.

conchorso
.

vegano.
21.

chonsocto

chorso.

chorpo

dacquelle.

copledere

chofessare

solo.

20.

chomferiscano

delle.

apare

53-

54-]

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.

33

a etrare
dell'

23 per similitudine per si piccolo foro occhio bisogna cofessare che la cosa

mi^nore no puo entrare nella minore se 2 quella no diminviscie e diminvendosi 5couiene'


che cangi
la piramide.

above mentioned. If the line ef is to enter as an image into so small an opening in the eye, you must confess that the smaller object cannot enter into what is smaller than itself unless it is diminished, and by diminishing it must take the form of a pyramid.

C. 27 1

(3

)1

53-

PROSPETTIVA.

PERSPECTIVE.
Perspective comes in where judgment
[as to the distance] in objects The eye can never be a true
fails

H 2 prospettiva agivgnie doue maca il nelle cose che diminviscono Tf3l'ochio no potra mai essere vero judice a determinare co verita quanto vna quatita 4 la quale altra (sia) vicina a vn altra simile, sia colla sua sommita al pari dell' ochio
givditio
.

which diminish.

riguardatore

d'esse

parti,

se

no

per
della

mezzo
6

della pariete maestra e guida

prospettiva.H
sia

n
3

1'ochio, e

/
a b
a n

sia

la

sopra
sieno
^

detta pariete
le
:

parti

1'una

1'altra

se la linia

sotto e c

n sono lughe a vno modo e 1'ochio n si troua in mezzo, b tato para 8 a b quanto d e piv bassa e piv c c lontana da n aduque para
:

judge for determining with exactitude how near one object is to another which is equal to it [in size], if the top of that other is on the level of the eye which sees them on that side, excepting by means of the vertical plane which the standard and guide of perspective. is Let n be the eye, e the vertical plane above mentioned. Let a b c d be the three divisions, one below the other; if the lines a n and c n are of a given length and the eye

is

in the centre,

then a b will

minore, 9 e questo medesimo appare nelle 3 partitioni del uolto


1'ochio del ritraete pittore all'ochio del ritratto.
I0

look as large as b c. c d is lower and farther off from n, therefore it will look smaller.

quado

And

the

same
of a

effect will

appear
the
is is

in the three

e di pari altezza-

divisions

face

when

painter who is drawing it the eye of the person he

eye of the on a level with

painting.

C. A. 201 a; 597 a]

54'
ALL' OCHIO.

PRUOVA COME LE COSE VEGONO


2

To PROVE HOW

OBJECTS REACH THE EYE.

nosa

il sole o altra cosa lumiserrado poi 1'ochio la rivedrai similemete detro all'ochio 3 per lugo spatio e segnio che le spetie di tepo; questo etrano detro.

Guardado
e

If you look at the sun or some other luminous body and then shut your eyes you will see it again inside your eye for a long time. This is evidence that images enter

into the eye.

22.

lochia
.
.

sella.

23.

picholo

delochio biso[che]gia chofessare chella chosa.

24.

nopo

nella

mino

no.

25.

cho-

viene
53. i.

achagiala.
.
.

macha

chose che diminviscano.


. .

2. 7.

"a terminare co
he
c
.

verita
.

[a chonossciere]
9.

quanto.

3.

sotto vicina

"simile"

chola. rigiardatore
54. i.

mezo
.
.

dela.
3.

luge

iraezo.

apare

partitione.

10. alteza.

vegano.
I.

2.

esserado

lochi.

essegnio.

VOL.

34
A. 36*]

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


55-

[55-

DELLA
2

PROSPETTIVA.
all'ochio
la lor

ELEMENTS OF PERSPECTIVE.
All

Tutte

le

cose

madano
le

similitudine

per

piramidi

sarano

ta 3 gliate piu

quali quato vicine all'ochio tato

eye

in

these

transmit their image to the pyramids, and the nearer to the eye pyramids are intersected the smaller
objects

a
della si dimostrera la similitudine sua cagione 4 aduque taglierai la piramide colla pariete che tochi la base d'essa piramide come s si dimostra nella pariete a n.
;

minore

will

image appear of the objects which Therefore, you may intersect the pyramid with a vertical plane [4] which reaches the base of the pyramid as is shown in the plane a n.
the

cause them.

6 L'ochio-/- e 1'ochio /sono-vna-mededenota la distatia, sima- cosa: ma 1'ochio 7 cioe a vedere tu stai lontano quanto la cosa e 1'ochio / ti dimostra la dirittura cioe 8 se tu sei nel mezzo o da lato: o da cato della cosa che tu riguardi e ricordoti e 1' ochio / sieno che se9pre 1'ochio situati a vna medesima altezza 1' uno che 10 verbi gratia se abasserai o alzerai Paltro, che tu facci quel 1'ochio della distatia medesimo "dell' ochio della dirittura / e mostra quato 1'ochio e disse il puto costo al qua I2 dro e no mostra a qual parte

the eye t are one and the thing; but the eye /marks the distance, that is to say how far you are standing from

The eye f and

same

the object; and the eye / shows you the direction of it; that is whether you are opposite, or on one side, or at an angle to the object you are look-

And remember that the eye / and the must always be kept on the same level. For example if you raise or lower the eye from the distance point/you must do the same
ing
at.

eye

with the direction point /. And if the point shows how far the eye is distant from the square plane but does not show on which
. .

55. i. prosspettiva.
5. nela.
6.
.

2.

chose
.

piramide.
.
.

3.
.

gliate visine all


t.

... dimoste

dela

chagione.
. .

4.
. .

chola

.-.

labassa
. .

chome.

ellochio
. :

chosa
10.

lochio
.

7.

chos

8. settu senel

mezo
.

od.ilalato

chato
. .

chosa chettu
13. chol.

richordoti.
*
.

9. ellochio

Iteza.

dela

chettuffacci.

n.

[Eflassi] esse

dischosto.

12. eli

chosi.

14.

quadro

55.

The two diagrams above


first

the

chapter

are

representing the section or profile of a square plane,

explained by the
ever,

five lines.

They have, howtext,

placed

horizontally

(comp.
is

lines

II,

14,

17)

for

more
Pariete.

letters

than are referred to in the

which the word pianura


(20, 22).

a circumstance
4.

we

Compare

frequently find occasion to remark. the definitions in 85, 2 5,

Lines

13

subsequently employed contain certain preliminary

observations to
the

guide
last

These lines refer exclusively to the third diagram. For the better understanding of this it should be observed that c s must be regarded as
6
27.

diagram;
as
/

the

the reader in understanding three seem to have been

added
writing

supplement.

Leonardo's

mistake

in

denota (line 6) for

f denota has

been

rectified.

56.]

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.
e

35

egli

per riscotro
il

cosi

se
J

'1

puto

mostra

3la distatia; aduque per sapere 1'uno e 1'altro farai 1'uno I4 se coll'altro e .fieno vna medesima cosa
riscotro,

no mostra

1'ochio

f
in
xs

vedera
ciascuna

un

quadro

perfetto
sia

il

quale
simile

delle

sue faccie

spatio che e tra s c, e al pricipio di quella faccia ch'e diuerso esso l6 ochio, si sta bilisca una aste o altra cosa diritta come appare in r s la quale sia
allo

same way, and not the distance, in order to ascertain both you must use both points and they will be one and Thereiations the same thing. If the eye f could see a standpoints to the v n ? ; ,. perfect square of which all the sides were.ishing point r equal to the distance between s and c, (5556). and if at the nearest end of the side towards the eye a pole were placed, or some other
side
it

is

placed

and,

if in

the

the point

show

the direction

ferma
se

per
di

li^nia
la ella

perpediculare

dico

che

riguarderai
te

uerso

della pariete r conda faccia opposita ^paratti che s'alzi in nel puto n della pariete all' altezza
-

del quadro ch'e facia batte l8 ra al nascimeto s : e se riguarderai la se:

up by a perpendicular r s then, I say, that if you were to look at the side of the square that is nearest to you it will appear at the bottom of the vertical plane r s, and then look at the farther side and it would appear to you at the height of the point n on the
straight line as

object,

set

shown

at

tu puoi che se 1'ochio fia piv alto che copredere 2I l'unainfinite cose poste sopra- una pianvra

aduque per questa

dimostratio 20 ne

Paltra quato piv s'alontana piv s'alzano insino a riscontro dell' altezza 22 dell' ochio e no piv inperoche le cose poste sopra

dopo

Thus, by this example, you can understand that if the eye is above a number of objects all placed on the same level, one beyond another, the more remote
they are the higher they will seem, up to the level of the eye, but no higher; because objects placed upon the level on which your even if it feet stand, so long as it is flat be extended into infinity would never be seen above the eye; since the eye has in itself the point towards which all the cones tend and converge which convey the images of

vertical plane.

se

23 se sara piana, pianvra dove posi i piedi, mai pasdetta pianvra fusse infinita sano piv su, che 1'ochio perche Po 2 4chio a in se quello puto al quale si dirizano e cogivngono tutte le piramidi che por2 stano le spetie deli obietti all' ochio; E

la

questo puto senpre si diriza col puto della dimi 26 nvtione il quale appare nel fine delle cose vedute e dalla basa della prima 27 insino al puto della diminvtione. piramide
:

And this point althe objects to the eye. ways coincides with the point of diminution which is the extreme of all we can see. And from the base line of the first pyramid as
far as the diminishing point

A- 37"!

le

no base sanza piramidi diminviscono insino a esso quali sepre puto E dalla prima basa dou'e situata la 2 inverso il puto deH' ochio no pariete sara- se no piramide sanza base come appare
no
si

trova

se

bases without pyramids are only which constantly diminish up to this point. And from the first base where the vertical plane is placed towards the point in the eye there will be only pyramids without bases;
there
5
.

il

del

quale ciascuna. qroche diuerso


. .

15. alo

che

tra

quela.
. .

16. bilischa
. .

asste
19.

chosa
.

dirita apare.
.

17.

perpedichulare dicho
20.

te ella.
. .

18.
.

nasscimeto
.

esse

sechonda.
.

chessalzi

alalalteza

inel.

poi ch5predere

chessellochio
23. sessara

chose

sopra
. .

pianvra.
24.
.

21. laltra[se]

arisschStro delalteza.
. .

22. dellochio [e lechose] e 25.

no piv

chose.
. . .

piana[su]
.

detta
.

chellochio.

quelo

chogivngano
7

piramide.

Ecquesto

chol.

26. nvitione

apare
56.
i.

dele chose
si
. . .

e dala basa dela

pirami"de".
j

n5

base [dele]"sanza" piramide

q. "le quali sepre diminvischano insino a eso p5to"

diminvitione

dalla.

2.

delochio [no

si]

56. For the easier understanding of the diagram and of its connection with the preceding I may here remark that the square plane shown above in

profile

by the
to

line c s is here indicated

by

o p.

According

lines

I,

3 a b

must be imagined as a

at o p. plane of glass placed perpendicularly

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF TAINTING.


figura di sopra cioe prenominata pariete r sia il n puto *delle piramidi terminati nell'ochio: sia il pQto della diminvtione il quale sriguaril da punto visiuo per linia retta e
nello 3esenplo
sia

[57-

della

as
let

shown

la

in the example given above. Now, a b be the said vertical plane and r

the
is

eye,

senpre 6 senpre si mvta co quello come mv tando la sua obra e camina la uerga si mvta non altremeti con seco che camina ? 1'onbra col corpo e ciascuno puto e capo di pira8 midi le quali si fanno comvne basa della inframessa pariete e bech' essi sieno equali di basa ^sono difformi d'angolo inperoche'l punto della diminvtione e capo di minore angolo I0 che quello dell' ochio Se tu mi dicessi co che sperieza mi dimostrerai tu questi puti, "io ti diro che in quato al puto della diminvtione che camina co teco che riguardi qua I2 do camini lugo le possessioni arate co diritti solchi i quali capitino ^coi loro stremi alia strada dode camini vederai che sepre ciascuno paro di solchi I4 ti parra che si voglino a appressare e cogivgnere ai lor fini.

point of the pyramid terminating in the and n the point of diminution which always in a straight line opposite the eye

and always moves as the eye moves just as when a rod is moved its shadow moves, and moves with it, precisely as the shadow

And each point is the apex of a pyramid, all having a common base with the intervening vertical plane. But although their bases are equal their angles are not equal, because the diminishing point is the termination of a smaller angle than that of the eye. If you ask me: "By what practical experience can you show me these points?" I reply so far as concerns the diminishing point which moves with you when you walk by a ploughed field look at the straight furrows which come down with their ends to the path where you are walking, and you will see that each pair of furrows will look as though they tried to get nearer and meet at the [farther] end.
moves with a body.
57-

A.

37-5]

Inquato al puto che viene all' ochio HOW to mea- si con^prende con piv facilita inpero 2 che se U th P r a mid of vi riguarderai nell' ochio a uno, vi vederai sion. t ua similitudine onde se imaginerai ja 32 linie partirsi dai tua orechi concorrere alii orechi della similitudine che vedi di te nell' altrui ochio chiaro conoscerai quelle
-~

As regards the point made more intelligible by


your own image.
ting that

in

the eye;
If

it

is

this:

you look
will see

into the eye of another person

you

linie

sdopo
6

ristrignersi in modo tale che la tua imagine spechiata in

poco
detto

ochio seguitando si tocherebono in v puto. E se volessi misurare il diminuire della piramide per 1'aria che si truova infra la cosa veduta e 1'ochio 7 farai in questa forma di sotto figurata diciamo che m-nsia una torre, E che 8 ^-_/"-sia una uerga, la quale tu tiri tanto innazi e indirieto che i sua stremi 9 S J scontrino colli stremi della torre di poi 1'appressa all' ochio in

imagine from your ears and going to the ears of image which you see in the other man's eye; you will understand that these lines converge in such a way that they would meet in a point a little way beyond your own image mirrored in the eye. And if you want to measure the diminution of the pyramid in the air which occupies the space between the object seen and the eye, you must do it according to the diagram figured below. Let m n be a tower, and ef a rod, which you must move backwards and forwards till its ends correspond with those of the tower [9]; then bring it nearer to the eye, at c d and you

Now

2 lines star-

no

no

[ba] piramide

chome

apare.

3.

dela. 4. dele piramide

terminate nelochio

della diminvitione
7.

quale(sia).

5. retta

essenpre

cho quelo chome.


.
.

6.

chamina
cho

chonsecho che chamina chonsecho che chamina.


[cho]
si
. .

chol chorpo e
.

chiasscuno puto(e ma] e chapo

[el]

lequali [ano].
. .
.

8.

chomvne

bechele.
.

9.
.

difforme

dela diminvitione
12.
|

e
.

chapo.

10.
.

checquello

Settumi diciesi

dimosterai.
.

n. dela diminvitione
.

chamina chotecho.
. .

chamini

possessione
57.
i.

cho
. .

quali [sieno diritta]


.

13. ala
2.

chamini
.

14.
3.
|

Inquato

al

choplende chon.
pocho.
5.

chesse
6.

nelochio.
. .

para apressare chochorere ali


.

chogivgniere
dela.
4.

fini
.

j.
.

nelaltrui

chonosscierai
chessi
. .

risstrigniersi

Tmodo

seguitato.

Esse

misurare

"il

diminuire dela piramide" per laria

chosa.

In the original Manuscript the words above the line are clearly marked as forming part of the text. In Mont. Ravaisson's sia i torre Ecche. 8. sia ! verga . . Trantcript however they are mistaken for a heading of the paragraph. 7. imquesta
. .

57.

9.

sua stremi

della torre (its

ends ... of the tower)

this is the case at e f.

58-6o.]

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.
I0

37

c-d-Q vede

rai

la similitudine della torre


-

apparire minore come vedi in r o poi 1'appressa "all' ochio, e vederai la uerga

avazare

image of the tower seems Then [again] bring it smaller, as at r o. closer to the eye and you will see the rod
will see that the

fori

della similitudine

della

torre

project far

beyond

the image of the tower

I2

da-#--et
oltre

poco piv

da t-b-e poi conoscerai che ^le linie cocorrono al puto.

a to b and from / to b, and so you will discern that, a little farther within, the lines must converge in a point.

from

A. 27 a]

58.

PROSPETTIVA.
alluminata- s'empiera d'infinite spetie, le qua^li son cavsate da vari corpi e colori, che infra essa * sono collocati, Idelle quali spetie 1'ochio si fa bersaglio e calamita.
1'aria
fia
.

PERSPECTIVE.
instant the atmosphere is illuminated xheProducbe filled with an infinite number of ? nof P.y.ra 011 images which are produced by the various "'(ts^fc) bodies and colours assembled in it. And the
it

Subito

che

The

will

ti

-.

eye

is

the target, a loadstone, of these images.

W.

232 d\

59-

1 tutta la superfitie de' corpi oppachi tutto il simvlacro in tutta 1'aria 2 allu-

plays

minata

che

lo

circunda

per

qualunche

surface of opaque bodies diswhole image in all the illuminated atmosphere which surrounds them on all
its

The whole

aspetto. t
C. A. 136,?;

sides.

60.
Paria

Che

attragga

a se

come

cala-

mita tutte le similitudini 2 delle cose che la circudano no che le forme de' corpi, ma ancora le nature chiaramete si vede nel sole il quale e corpo caldo e luminoso - tutta 1'aria che li e per obietto tutta
;

per tutto

s'incorpora di lume e di calore e tutta 4 ricieve I se la forma della cagione del calore e spledore e in ogni minima parte
il

That the atmosphere attracts to itself, all the images of the objects and not their forms merely but their nature may be clearly seen by the sun, which is a hot and luminous body. All the atmosphere, which is the all-pervading matter, absorbs light and heat, and reflects
like a loadstone, that exist in it,

fa

simile;

la

tramotana dimostra per


:

la

calamita fare questo medesimo e la luna e altri pianeti 6 saza diminvtione di se fa il simile; ifra le cose terrestri e fatto il simile dal moscato ?e altri odori.

image of the source of that heat and splendour and, in each minutest portion, does the same. The Northpole does the same as the loadstone shows; and the moon and the
in itself the

other planets, without suffering any diminudo the same. Among terrestrial things musk does the same and other perfumes.
tion,

tuttiri

schontrino cholli

lapressa alochio.

10.

dela tore aparire [piv]

pola.

n. alochio

deln.

12.

chonlossciere poche.

13.

chocorano.
.
.

58. 2. chellaria

senpiera.

3.

chavsati
il

chorpi e chonori
2.

esa

chollocati.
. .

4.

berzaglio e chalamita.

59. i. chorpi
.

oppachi "actutto

simvlacro" in tucta.

chello circhunda
.

asspecto.
.
.

60.

i.

Che [ciasschuno chorpo


le

m]

laria
le

siatraga

asse

chome chalamita
. .
.

similitudine.
3.

2.
.

chose chella
. .

circhudano
,

"ne

che
4.

forme de corpi
. .

ma

ancora
5.

nature" chiaramete
. .

chorp

caldo.
.
.

tuttutta

chagione

chalore einoni.

chalamita

elluna.

6.

diminvitione

tereste effatto

sinchorpora moscado.

chalore

ettutta.

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


61.
22fi\
i

62.

Ash.

I.

Tutti
se

corpi
le

insieme
aria

e ciascuno
d' Ifinite
2

empie

la circustate

per sua

give

All bodies together, and each by itself, off to the surrounding air an infinite
are
all -pervading

similitudini

quali

tutte

nella

parte

portado
colore

son tutte per tutto e co Io3ro la


e
figura
della

number of images which

qualita del corpo loro cagione.

and each complete, each conveying the nature, colour and form of the body which
produces
it.

Che

corpi

siano per similitudine

tutti

It

can clearly be shown

that

all

bodies

per tutta

la circustate aria
5

tutti nella

parte

si per corpo figura dimostra per le spetie di molti vari corpi, che si producono 6 a un solo puto per-

e colore

chiaramete

forate,

doue con Itersegate


7

per piramidi cotrarie


alia

le

linie portano cose sotto sopra


8

prima oscura pariete;


si

la

ragione di

by their images, all-pervading in the surrounding atmosphere, and each complete in itself as to substance form and colour; this is seen by the images of the various bodies which are reproduced in one single perforation through which they transmit the objects by lines which intersect and cause reversed pyramids, from the objects, so that they are upside down on the dark plane where they are first
are,
reflected.

questo

The reason of

this is

W.

L. 146*]

62.
d'Ifinite linie le quali,

Ogni puto e capo

Every point
finite

is

the termination of an in-

2 givgniedo a fare basa subito detta basa per le medesime linie tornano alia piramide

3 si

per colore come per fazione.

imme-

diate che la forma e creata o coposta, subito sdi se gienera Ifiniti agoli e linie, le
quali
linie

which diverge to form a base, and immediately, from the base the same lines converge to a pyramid [imaging] both the colour and form. No sooner is a form created or compounded than suddenly
lines,
infinite lines
it;

number of

per
siti

1'aria,

ispargiedosi con Itersegazione ne resultano Ifiniti 7 agoli, oppoall'

and angles are produced from and these lines, distributing themselves
intersecting each other in the air,

and

give

1'uno

opposti angoli,
e portera
all'
I

akro, degli dato li basa, ritrara triagolo, se forma e proporzione 9 simile


8

co

rise to

an
will

infinite

ciascuno

number of angles opposite

to each other.

angle,

Given a base, each opposite form a triangle having a form

angolo magiore, e se la basa etra 2 volte ciascheduna I0 delle 2 linie piramidali, quel
fara piccolo triagolo.

medesimo

and proportion equal to the larger angle; and if the base goes twice into each of the 2 lines of the pyramid the smaller triangle will do the same.

61.

i.

ciaschuno

enpie

circhustate.

2.

similitudine

pertutta ettutte nela


II,
7.

colo.

3. la

("essentia"] qualita
.
.

etfigura
5.

chagione.

Between

lines 3

and

4 stands the
6.

mete
62.

chorpi chessi producano.


.

diagram given on Plate solo con piramide.


. .
.

No.

i.

4.

"per similitudine"

ettutti nela.

ciara-

prime oscure pariete.

chapo
schuno

afiare
.
.

piramida.
5.

3.

cholore chome.
.
.

Here follow,
6.

in the original

MS.,

ten lines bearing on geometry.


. .

4.

("subito")
.

imediate
.

chopossto.
oposti angli.

agholi ellinie

quallinie.
9.

isspargiedosi
.

chon Iterseghazione
.

risulta.
. .

7.

agholi

cocias-

8.

rinara triagholo.

alangholo

basetra

ciasscheduna.

10. lini

piccholo triagholo.

6z. The diagram intended to illustrate the statement (PL II No. i) occurs in the original between lines 3 and 4. The three circles must be understood

passage the diagram is only intended to explain that the images of the three bodies may be made
to coalesce at

any given

spot.

In the

circles

are

to

represent

three luminous bodies which, transmit

written: giallo

yellow, biacho
off at

white, rosso
8.

red.

their

images through perforations in a wall into a dark chamber, according to a law which is more fully explained in 7581. So far as concerns the present

The

text breaks

line

No. 40 follows here

in the original

The paragraph MS.

^
Heliog-. Dujardin.

,r

63

64.]

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.

39

Ash.

I.

27 II a]

Ogni corpo obroso empie


aria
2

la circustate

sue similitudini le quali da infinite pira 3 midi infuse per essa rappresentano esso corpo 4 tutto per tutto e tutto
d'infinite

in ogni parte. Ogni piramide coposta da lu?go concorso di razzi cotiene


8 detro a se infinite piramidi 9e ciascuna a poteI0 tia per tutte e tutte per

Every body in* light and shade fills the surrounding air with infinite images of itself;' and these, by infinite pyramids diffused in the air, represent this body throughout space and on every side. Each pyramid that is composed of a long assemblage of rays includes within itself an infinite number of pyramids and each has the same power
as
all,

ciascuna;

"I'equidistate
al

and

all

as each.

I2 circuito di pirami dal co-

corso dark

suo obietto
;

equable qualita d' agoli e d'equale gradeza I4 fia


ricievuto la cosa dall'obbietto.
IS I1

corpo

dell'

aria

e pieno d'infinite piramidi conposte da radiose e rette linie le quali 16 si cavsano dai superfitiali
de'

of equidistant pyramids of vision will give to their object angles of equal size; and an eye at each point will see the object of the same size. The body of the atmosphere is full of infinite pyramids composed of radiating
circle
stre-

mi
J

posti corpi e quato piv s'alota7nano dalla loro cagione piv si fano acute: e benche il loro co-

ombrosi

in

essa

(aria)

corso sia intersegato e in l8 tessuto,

which are produced from the surface of the bodies in light and shade, existing in the air; and the farther they are from the object which produces them the more acute they become and although
straight lines,
in
their

no dimeno no si cofondono 1'una con 1'altra e co disgregate concorso si vano aplifi^cado e infondedo per tutta la circustante aria e sono infra loro d'equale potetia
quato ciascuna e ciascuna quato tutte e per esse la similitudine del corpo e portata 21 tutta -per tutto e tutta nella parte e ciascuna piramide per se ricieve in ogni 22 minima sua parte tutta la forma della sua cagione.
e tutte
I0

distribution

they intersect

and cross they never mingle togebut pass throug'h all the surair, independently converging, spreading, and diffused. And they are all of equal power [and value]; all equal to each, and each equal to all. By these the images of objects are transmitted through
ther,

rounding

all space and in every direction, and each pyramid, in itself, includes, in each minutest

part, the

whole form of the body causing

it.

C. A. 100^;

64.

II corpo dell'aria e pieno d'ifinite piramidi radiose 2 cavsate dalla cosa posta in essa, le quali intersegate 3 e intessute sanza 4 occupatione 1'una dell' altra co disgre gante concorso s'infondono per tutta la circQSstate

aria,

e sono d'equale potetia e tutte pos-

atmosphere is full of radiating pyramids produced by the These intersect and objects existing in it. cross each other with independent convergence without interfering with each other and pass and through all the surrounding atmosphere;

The body of

the

infinite

63. i.

chorpo

circhustate.
6.

2.

dinfine
7.

similitudine.
.
.

3.

midi

essa [aria] rapretano


8.

chorpo.

4.

ettutto.

5.

[Ogni radiosa
.

piramide di lugo].
12.

choposta.

chonchorso

chontiene.

asse

pyramide.

9. ettutte.

n.

lecquidistate

circhuito.

chochorso.

Lines
.

the text: 15.


. .

chorpo
18.
.

chochorsia.

of achute 17. chagione [aria], ecquato. -chorpi onbrosi poste piramide chonposte. 16. chavsano 20. ecciascuna. ettutte. essono chonchorso. 19. circhustante . luna per laltra e cho tesuto
are written on the
left side

15
.

and

lines
.

614

on the right side of the diagram.


. .

Below

it is

the rest
.
.

21. e portata tutto

ettutta.
.

22.
.

chagione.
esa.
3.

64.

I.

piramide.

2.

chavsate dala

ochupatione

cho.

4.

chonchorso sinfondano [portado] pertutta

[lari].

5.

ettutte

4o

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


are

[65-

sono quato ciascuna, 6 e ciascuna quato tutte e per esse la similitudine del corpo e porta'ta tutta per tutto e tutta I nella parte,
: .

e ciascuna per se ricieve

a 8

m ogm
.
.

minima

of equal force and value all being And by means equal to each, each to all. of thes images of the body are transmitted everywhere and on all sides, and each receiyes in itsdf eyery minutest portion of the

parte tutta la sua cagione.

object that produces

it.

C. A. 1360; 4120]

65-

PROSPETTIVA.

PERSPECTIVE.
similitudini

Proof by ex(65^56)'

piena cose le quali Ifra quella sono distrib u ' te 3 e tutte s * rapresetano in tutte e e tutte jn ciascuna ode tutte in vna accade che se sarano * 2 spechi volti I
delle
' -

L'aria

d' Ifinite

with endless images of the objects distributed in it; and all are reair
is

The

filled

presented in

all,

and

all

in

one, and

all

in

modo-che per
1'altro-jl

linia-retta-si

guardino 1'uno

5 primo si spechiera nel secondo e '1 secondo nel primo il primo che si spechia nel secondo porta co seco la 6 similitudini similitudine di se co tutte le
:

each, whence it happens that if two mirrors are placed in such a manner as to face each other exactly, the first will be reflected in the second and the second in the first. The first

being reflected in the second takes to it the image of itself with all the images represented in it, among which is the image of the second

che dentro

vi si rapresetano Ifra le quali e la spetie del secondo spechio e da simii litudine T similitudine se ne vanno in ifinito I modo che ciascuno spechio a detro in se li 8 spechi 1'uno minore che 1'altro-e dentro 1'uno all'altro. ^Onde per questo esemplo chiaramete si pruova ciascuna
:

image within image, they go on such a manner as that each mirror has within it a mirror, each smaller than the
mirror,
so, to infinity in
last

and

and one inside the other. Thus, by this example, it is clearly proved that every object sends its image to every spot whence the object itself can be seen; and the converse:
That the same object may receive all the images of the objects that are
of
it.

cosa
lochi

madare
li

la similitudine

10

tutti quelli

in itself
in front

quali possono vedere detta cosa e cosi de couerso detta cosa essere ca-

pace
dini

di pigliare in se tutte le similitudelle cose che dinanzi se le rappresen12

1J

tano.
la

Aduque

1'ochio

mada

Ifra 1'aria

the eye transmits through the atmosphere its own image to all the objects that are in front of it and receives them into itself, that is to say on its surface, whence
are taken in by the common sense, which considers them and if they are pleasing commits them to the memory. Whence I am of opinion: That the invisible images in the eyes are produced towards the object, as the image of the object to the eye. That the images of the objects must be disseminated through the air. An instance may be

Hence

sua similitudine a tutti li obietti che li sono opposti e I se 13 li ricieve cioe I sulla sua superfVie dode il seso comvne
le

they

piglia
le

e le cosidera e quelli

^che

ciono

mada

alia

memoria.

'sQnde

piaio

givdico che la virtu spirituale delle spetie delli ochi si faccino icotro all' obietto come 16 '7 Che le spetie dell' obietto all' ochio. le spetie di tutte le cose sieno seminate Ifra 1' aria lo esemplo si veda I molti specchi 18 In circolo e Ifinite volte spechierano 1'uno Paltro e givto 1'uno nell'altro risalta dirieto '9 alia sua cagione e indi diminvedorisalta vn'altra volta all'obietto e poi ritorna 2I e cosi fa Ifinite 20 volte. Se metti un lume di notte Ifra 2 specchi piani i quali abbino d'intervallo un braccio vedrai I cias-

seen in several mirrors placed in a circle, which will reflect each other endlessly. When one has reached the other it is returned to the object that produced it, and thence being diminished it is returned again to the object and then comes back once more, and this happens endlessly. If you put a light between two flat mirrors with a distance of i braccio between them you will see in each

possano quite.
65.
2.

7.
. .

to.

tutto per tutta ettutti inella.


. .

similitudine

chose
. .

sono strebuite.
\\\.

3. 2

ettutte
el 2
\\\\.
. . :

si

in tutte
.

"ettutte in

vna"

ettutte jn
tutte
\\\.

ciasschuna
6.

acchade
spe.
.

4.

recta
.

sisghuardino
si \\\.

spechier
. .

5.
.

nel.
.

ne pr.
9.

nel 2
io.
\\\.

porta

chosecho cho
.
.

quale

del 2

chio

cho

7.

vano

ciaschuno
sili.
. .

detro Is

esenplo.
s

possano

chosa e chosi de chouerso. detta chosa


.

chapa\\\\. it. similitudine .. chose ..

12. attutti

opositi e T
.
. .

13.

chomvne
18.

chosidera e c
.
.

\\\\\\

piachno.
.
.

15.

chella...

Ichotro
19.

all

obietto ch\\\.
dili

17.

Chelle
. .

chose
e

llaria

molti spe\\\\\.
fa
If

circholo
21.

givta lunel
!

risalta e dirieto.
i

chagione e

diminvedo

alobietto

po ritorna e chosi

|||||||1||.

Si

metti

lume

dintervallo

br.

66. 6;.]

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.
of them an infinite number of lights, one smaller than another, to the last. If at night you .put a light between the walls of a room, all the parts of that wall will be tinted with the image of that light. And they will receive the light and the light will fall on them,
mutually, that
stacle to

cuno di quelli spec 22 chi ifiniti lumi-1'unominore che 1'altro; 2 3se di notte metterai vn lume jfra le parieti d' una camera tutte le parti d'essa pariete rimarano tite di ^similitudini d' esso lume e tutte quelle che sarario viste dal lume, e '1 lume vedera si2 milemete, 5cioe quando ifra loro no fiaalcuna oppositione che ropa il cocorso

Questo medesimo eseplo magiormete appare in nel cocorso de razzi


delle
spetie.
2 ?i quali tutti per tutti, e ciascuno se porta al suo obietto la similitudine per 29 28 Che ciascu corpo per della cagione tutta la cotraposta aria se solo empie delle sue similitudini e che questa mede-

z6

there is no obtransmission of the images. This same example is seen in a greater degree in the distribution of the solar rays
is

to say,

when

interrupt

the

solari,

which
it.

all together, and each by itself, convey to the object the image of the body which causes

its

That each body by itself alone fills with images the atmosphere around it, and that

sima
tepo
altri

aria

fia

capace.
se
ifra

3j quel medesimo

le spetie d'lnfiniti quella fussino, chiaramente $ l si dimostra-per questi- esepli; ciascuno corpo appare tutto per tutta la detta aria e tutto in ogni minima 32 parte di quella tutti per tutta e tutti in onj minima 33 ciascuno per tutta e tutti nella parte. parte,

di ricievere -I

same air is able, at the same time, to receive the images of the endless other objects which are in it, this is clearly proved
the

corpi

che

by these examples. And every object is everywhere visible in the whole of the atmosphere, and the whole in every smallest part of it; and all the objects in the whole, and all in each smallest part; each in all and all in
every part.

W.

L. 145

B.a]

Sono
tutte
in
3

le spetie
2

infuse per 1'aria

de corpi tutte che le vede e


di

The images of
diffused

objects are

all

through the
receives
side
in
e
it.

ogni parte
sie

quella;
le

which

them;

atmosphere and all

provasi
spetie

ace
quali
4

obbietti,

on every
this,
let

To prove
objects

de

penetrano
li

in

be

of

loco oscuro

per

spiraculi

e s'inpremono nella pariete

fi
le

cotraposta

a es s si spiracoli;

which the images are admitted to a dark chamber by the small holes n p and thrown upon the
plane

fi

opposite to these holes.

quali inpressioni sara fatte in tati lochi d'essa parie 6 te quato sara
il

numero

delli predetti spiracoli.

As many images will be produced in the chamber on the plane as the number of the said holes.

C. A.

i 7 6,5; 53i<5]

Tutti j corpi anno infuse e miste 2 in tutta tutte loro spetie e similitudini a se contraposta; deli' aria la quantita 3 La punto delle corspetie di ciascun e in ciascu punto 4 dell'aria; poree superfitie s Tutte le spetie de' corpi sono in ciascu
ciaschuno
24. ettucte 22. chelaltro elluno
. .

All objects project their whole image and General conlikeness, diffused and mingled in the whole of the atmosphere, opposite to themselves. The image of every point of the bodily atsurface, exists in every part of the of the objects are All the

mosphere.
se

images

di\\\\\\\\\.
.
.

minore
25.
.

chellaltro.

23.
. .

"di notte"
.
.

Ifralle

pariete
26. inel

duna
28.
[di]
.

tutte

le
.

parti

chessarano
tutti

da lume.
.

qua

infralloro

opositione

chochorso.

chochorso

"solari" [del
29. ciassu.
. .

d'^esse.

sole].

27.
.

per
.

[ettu]

o ciasciuno

"li obietti ettala


. . .

caione in

oni minima parte


.

dellobietto".
30-

chagione.
.

chorpo
chiar
66.
i.

5pia "tutta" la ch5traposta


31. esepli
. .

[spetie]
.
.

"similitudine"

fia

c\\\\\\\\\\\\.

tepo

chorpi

fussino

\\\\\\\\\\\.
.

ciascuno

apare

aria ettutto Ionlm\\\\\\\\\\.


2.

33. ettutti.
3. 6.

lesspetie
. .

chorpi [infuse per


4.

laria]
.

tutte [infus] fure per laria.


.

chelle vede ettutte.


5.

spetie
67. i.

illocho osscuro.
.

spirachuli
.

essinprememano
2.

contrapossta.

spiracholi.
la

quato saranno
is

siej

c]

c e obbietti
il
.
.

1<

spiracholi.

chorpi
I.

infuso Smisto

"tutte".

essimilitudine.

asse chontrapossta.

3.

spetie di

written onttie margin.

La

VOL.

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


puto d'essa
similitudine
?

[68.

6 Tutta e la parte della aria; dell'aria e in ciascuno puto delle


8
'

in

every part of the atmosphere.

The whole,

antiposti corpi; Adunque 1 tutto delle spetie de' corpi la parte e 9 appare in tutta e nella parte della susuperfitie
delli

perfitie

d'essi

di ciascu possiamo corpo essere "tutto e in parte in ciascuna IZ delli parte e nel tutto scanbievolmete Come si uede nelli spechi oppositi corpi

dire

Onde corpi. la similitudine

IO

chiaramente

the atmosphere is [reflected] in each point of the surface of the bodies presented to it. Therefore both the part and the whole of the images of the objects exist, both in the whole and in the parts of the surface of these visible bodies.

and each part of the image of

1'uno

all

altro opposti.

Whence we may evidently say that the image of each object exists, as a whole and in every part, in each part and in the whole interchangeably in every existing body. As is seen in two mirrors placed opposite to each other.

Ash.

I.

32*]

68.

Ipossibile e che 1'ochio


That the
contrary is impossible,

madi

fori di se
2

It

is

impossible that the eye should proitself,

p er r

ij

razz j visuali

la uirtu

visiua,

perche

ject

from

by

visual rays,

the

visual

nello suo aprire quella prima parte che desse prmcipio all'uscita, ^e auessi d'andare al1'obietto

no

lo
4

essedo cosi no
5

potrebbe fare saza tepo, potrebbe caminare in v mese

virtue, since, as soon as it opens, that front portion [of the eye] which would give rise to this emanation would have to go
it could not being so, it could not travel so high as the sun in a month's time when the eye wanted to see it. And if it could reach the sun it would necessarily follow that it should perpetually remain in a continuous line from the eye to the sun and should always diverge in such a way as to form between the sun and the eye the base and the apex of a pyramid. This being the case, if the eye consisted of a million worlds, it would not prevent its being consumed in the projection of its vir-

forth

to

the

object and

this

do without

time.

And

this

all'altezza del sole,

quado

1'

ochio lo uolesse

vedere

e se la
ch'ella
dall'
6

vi agivgniesse

sarebbe ne-

ciessario
la

fusse cotinuata

uia ch'e

ochio al sole,
in

per tutta e ch'ella


'1

sepre alargasse

modo

che tra
8

sole e

e la puta d'una piramide: essedo questo e'no basterebbe se 1'ochio fusse 9 per un milione di modi che
tutto

1'ochio coponessino la basa

no

si

cosumasse

detta virtu

e se
Ifra

pure que
1'aria

I0

sta virtu
fa 1'odore,

avesse a caminare
i

tue;

and

if this

virtue

come
in
.

venti

no "la torciereb6.

through the
chorpi.
8.

air as

would have to travel perfumes do, the winds


9.

Ciasc

he

in.

5.

lesspetie dechorpi.
it.

ella

... he
12.
3.

in.

7.

chorpi apare.

chorpi appare.

10.

dire
|

''la

similitudine di" ciaschu chorpo.


68.
i.

ciasscuna.

opositi chorpi oppossto.

chellochio

razi.

2.

dessi prlcipo all usita.


.

auessiandare
6.

."hollo potrebe.
fa]

4.
.

potrebe chaminare
.

alteza

uolessi.
. .

. chela. chaminasse] viagivgniessi sarebe basterebe sellochio fussi, chio choponessino. 8. ella .

5. essella [vi

[sepre

fussi
.

chotinuata
.

tuta.

7.

lo alargassi
.
.

imodo

ello-

9.

per

milione
.
.

chettutto
i

consumassi
13.

esse pure.
.

10. avessi
.

chome

ivento

(?).

n. porterebbero no
refuted

cho.

12.

presteza

vederemo

distantia.

dunobr.

alchuno

accidente.

68.

The view here

by Leonardo was

Bramantino).
e Valtra

La prima

prospetliva

fa

le cose

di punto,

others by Bramantino, Leonardo's Milanese contemporary. LOMAZZO writes as follows

maintained

among

prima
effetti

si

non mat, dimanda

piu appresso. Adunque la prospettiva, doe ragione, la quale fa


facendo crescere e calare secondo gli
Questo crescere e calare non procede

e la terza

in his Traltato delF Arte della pittura &c. (Milano 1584.

Peffetto deir occhio,

Libr.
scritti

cp.

XXI): Sowiemmi

di aver gia

letto

in certi

degli

occhi.

alcune cose di Bramantino milanese, celtbratissimo

della cosa propria, che in se per esser lontana,

owero vidnat

pittore, attenente alia prospettiva, le quali

ho valuta

riferire,

per quello
dagli

effetto

non pub
occhi,

crescere e sminuire,
i

ma

procede
e

e quasi intesseie in questo luogo,

ajfinche sappiamo qual

effetti

degli

quali sono picdoli,


cosa,

fosse Vopinione di cost chiaro e famoso pitlore intorno alia Strive Bramantino che la prospeltiva e una prospett'rva
.
.

volendo vedere tanto

gran

perdb bisogna che mandino


tanta larghezza,

fuora la virtu visiva, la quale

si dilata in

fosa che contrafa

il

mturale, e che do
si

si

fa

in tre

modi
in
si

che piglia tutto quello che vuol vedere,

ed arrivando
lei

Circa
la

il

primo modo che

fa con
da

ragione, per essere

quella

cosa la vede dove e:


1

da

agli occhi per

cosa

in poche parole

conclusa

Bramantino

quello circuito fino all' occhio, e tutto quello (ermine e pieno

maniera che giudico non potersi dir meglio, contenendovi


tutta
le

di quella cosa.
It is

Farte del principio al fine,


(cp.

io riferirb

per appunto
di

proprie parole sue

XXII,

Prima

prospettiva

memorandum

worthy of note that Leonardo had made his refuting this view, at Milan in 1492

69.

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.
would bent

43

bono e porterebbero in altro loco; e noi vediamo co quel I2 la medesima prestezza il corpo del sole che noi vediamo una distantia I3 d'uno braccio e no si mvta per sofiare de'ueti,

ne per alcuno

altro accidete.

it and carry it into another But we do [in fact] see the mass sun with the same rapidity as [an object] at the distance of a braccio, and the power of sight is not disturbed by the blowing of the winds nor by any other accident.

place. of the

A. 9 <5]

69.

Si
si

come
cietro

la

pietra

fa

e cavsa

gittata nell' acqua di uari circuli, 2 e '1

Just

as

stone

flung

into

the

water A

suono fatto in nell' aria circularmente si spargie, ^cosi ogni corpo posto infra 1'aria luminosa circularmete * spargie e epie le
circustanti
parti
d'infinite

becomes the centre and cause of many circles, and as sound diffuses itself in circles in the
so any object, placed in the luminous atmosphere, diffuses itself in circles, and fills the surrounding air with infinite images of itself.
air:

sue similitudini
e tutto in ogni
si

e appare tutto Sper tutto 6 [minima] parte; Questo


perietia

And

prova per imperoche se serrerai una finestra volta a ponete e farai uno buso
. .

is-

is repeated, the whole every-where, and the whole in every smallest part. This can be proved by experiment, since if you shut a

window

that faces west

and make a hole [6]

C. A. 133 b ; 404 6]

7'
posta
all'
:

Se

la

cosa cotra

a quello

di se la similitudine

ochio mada acora 1'ochio


alla

mada
della

la

sua similitudine
le

cosa.

If the object in front of the eye sends * , image to the eye, the eye, on the other hand, sends its image to the object, and
,

its

function of the eye as explained

T^

^Vobs^a"
(7- ?0-

cosa per partite similitudini no si strema parte alcuna d'alcuna ragione ne all'occhio ne alia cosa. ^Aduque possiamo piv tosto credere essere natura e potetia di questa aria luminosa * che attrae e piglia I se le spetie delle cose che detro vi sono che natura delle cose in madare le 5 Se la cosa cotra spetie ifra essa aria; posta all' ochio madasse a quello di se la similitudine: quel medesimo avrebbe a fare 6 1'ochio alia cosa, onde couerebbe che
queste
spetie

no portion whatever of the object is lost in the images it throws off, for any reason
either

we may

eye or the object. Therefore it to be the nature and potency of our luminous atmosphere which absorbs the images of the objects existing in it, than the nature of the objects,
in

the

rather believe

to

send their images through the

air.

If the

object opposite to the eye were to send its image to the eye, the eye would have to do the same to the object, whence it might

fussino

virtu

spirituali: -es-

seem

that these
if so,
it

images were an emanation.

sedo cosi sarebbe ? neciessario che ciascuna cosa presto venisse meno Jperoche ciascuno corpo appare per similitudine 8 nella cotraposta aria; cioe tutto il corpo I tutta
,

e tutto nella parte, tutti i corpi I 9 e tutti nella parte, parlado di 1'aria ch'e capace di ricieuere I se le e radiose linie I0 delle spetie madate
1'aria;

tutta

1'aria,

quelrette
dalli

would be necessary [to admit] But, that every object became rapidly smaller; because each object appears by its images That is: in the surrounding atmosphere. the whole object in the whole atmosphere, and in each part; and all the objects in the whole atmosphere and all of them in each
which part; speaking of that atmosphere
fatto inellaria
5.

is

able

69. i. Si

chavsa circhuli. 2. chome nellacqua similitudine spargano] ogni ... 4. circhustanti * finestra effarai i buso. chesse sererai
.

el
.

sono.

spargie

[la

sua voce Cosi].


6.

3.

Cosi

[chorpi

eapare

ettutto in ogni [minima] parte.

per

risperietia in pero-

70.

cossa "e" per mada "aquello" di. 2. se natura "e potetia" di. 4. che Aduque posiamo
i.
.
.

alchuna dalchuna rasione nea locho ne.


"altraee" piglia
. . .

3.

[quel

medesimo

fa locchio]
. .

dele cose
.

"che detro
.

vi
6.

sono" che natura


choso
.
|

chose
.

imadere

Ifra

[1]

"essa"

aria.

5.

Sella chosa chotra


. .

madassi acquello
8.

arebe

affare.

onde chonuerebe
.

chosi sarebe.

7.

ciasschuna chosa

venisi

chorpo,

[inoni

parte

della]

"nella"

chotraposta

tutto

"il

corpo"

69.
6.

Compare Here the

LIBRI, Histoire des sciences mathimatiquts en


text

Italie.

Tome

III, p. 43.

breaks

off.

44
obietti ;

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


Onde per
questo pare
neciessario
ll

aria cofessare essere natura di questa che si trova infra li obbietti la qualc tiri come calamita in se le similitudini delle

to contain in itself the straight and radiating lines of the images projected by the objects.

From
it

this

it

seems necessary

is

in the nature

to admit that of the atmosphere, which

cose

'Ifra

quella

poste.

attracts the

the objects, and which images of things to itself like a loadstone, being placed between them.
subsists

between

1 PRUOVA

SITO

COME TUTTE LE COSE POSTE SONO TUTTE PER TUTTO ME TUTTE NELLA PARTE.1
,

IN

UN

PROVE HOW ALL OBJECTS, PLACED IN ONE POSITION, ARE ALL EVERYWHERE AND ALL IN EACH PART.
I say that if the front of a or any building open piazza or field which is illuminated by the sun has a dwelling opposite to it, and if, in the front which does not face the sun, you make a small round hole, all the

se vna faccia d'uno edifitio o o capagnia che sia illuminata dal sole l6 avra al suo opposito vn' abitatione, e I quella faccja che no uede il sole sia fatto un piccolo spiracolo ^rotodo: che tutte le alluminate cose maderano la loro similitudine
altra piazza

illuminated

per detto spiraculo e apparirano


all'

l8

dentro

abitatione

nella cotraria faccia, la quale

e saranno li appunto e sotto sopra; '^e se per molti lochi di detta faccia faciessi simili buchi, simile effetto sarebbe 1 ciascuno; Aduque le spetie 20 delle alluminate-cose-sono tutte per tutta dettafaccia e tutte in ogni minima parte di quella 21 la ragio si e: noi sappiamo chiaro che

vuol essere biaca

objects will project their images through that hole and be visible inside the dwelling on the opposite wall which may be made white; and there, in fact, they will be

upside down, and if you make similar openings in several places in the same wall

you
are
in

Hence

have the same result from each. the images of the illuminated objects all everywhere on this wall and all
will
it.

each minutest part of

The

reason, as

quello buco debe redere alquato di lume 22 lui mezzano I detta abitatione, e lume che rede e cavsato da vno o da molti corpi

we clearly know, is some light to the


light

that this hole

admitted by

it

must admit said dwelling, and the is derived from one or


If these bodies are

luminosi se detti corpi fieno di vari colori e varie stape di uari 23 colori e stape saranno i razzi delle spetie e di uari colori e stape fieno le rappresetationi in nel

many luminous
of
various

bodies.

mvro.
D. 8 a]

shapes the rays forming the images are of various colours and shapes, and so will the representations be on the wall.
71
-

colours

and

COME S'INTERSEGANO
2

LE SPETIE BELLI OBBIETTI

RICEVUTI DALL OCHIO DENTRO AL ALBUGINO.


3

OMORE

HOW THE IMAGES OF OBJECTS RECEIVED BY THS EYE INTERSECT WITHIN THE CRYSTALLINE HUMOUR OF THE EYE.
An
transmit
.

La

sperietia

bietti
tutta
.
.

mandino
.

-le
.

che mostra come li obloro spetie over si9. ettutti nella

experiment, showing how objects their images or pictures, interde radira] e radiose.
13. 10.

ettutto

tuttutti.

pare

chapace

"I se"

le rette [linie

chofessare.
sito.

n.

aria [la qualej


15.

"che".
. .

si

chome chalamita
.

similitudine.

12. I fracquella.

chome
. .

tutti le
I

pare [essere] chose poste

nvn

14. ettutte.

dicho cbesse
. .

facia
18.

piazao chapagnia chessia.


.
.

16. ara al

suo oposito

fatto
19.

picholo spira. .

cholo.
simile
.
.

17.
.

retodo
T

chose

siraculo.
20.

chotraria

viol

esere biacha e sarano lapunto essotto.


21.

esse per
.
.

bus!

sarebe

ciaschuno.
. .

chose
cholori

facia ettutte inoniniminima.


di uari.

sapiano
;

quello buso.

22.
.

mezano
.

chavsata

da [molti] corpi
.

chorpi

"e varie stape"

23. cholori

"e stape" sarano

irazi

cholori

"e stipe"

fieno

le

rapresentatione inel mvro [osscuroj.

70. 15

23.

in the "Saggio dtlle Opere di Leonardo da Vinci"

This section has already been published Milan


G. Govi observes upon
it,

names Benedettino Don Papnutio as the inventor of the Camera obscura. In his explanation of the
function of the eye by a comparison with the Camera obscura Leonardo was the precursor of G.

1872,

pp. 13, 14.


is

that

Leonardo
the

Camera

not to be regarded as the inventor of obscura, but that he was the first to

CARDANO, Professor of Medicine

explain of the

by it the structure of the eye. An account Camera obscura first occurs in CESARE CE1523, four

'at Bologna (died 1576) and it appears highly probable that this is, in fact, the very discovery which Leonardo ascribes to

SARINI'S Italian version of Vitruvius, pub.

himself in
details.

section

21 without

giving

any further

years

after

Leonardo's

death.

Cesarini

expressly

7274-]

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.
seating

45

militudini intersegate dentro all'o 5 chio nello

dimostra quando alcuno piccolo spiraculo rotodo 7 penetrano le spetie delli obsi

umore albugino

per
c
*

humour,
^

within the eye in the crystalline is seen when by some small round hole penetrate the images of illuPL

bietti alluminati in abitatione for-

temente oscura; allora tu riceverai tale spetie in v?na carta


bianca posta dentro a tale aI0 bitatione alquato vicina a esso ix spiraculo e ve drai tutti li predetti obbietti in essa carta colle propie figure e colori, ma sara minori e fieno sot^to sopra per causa della detta interseI4 gatione li qua li simulacri se nascierano loco alluminato dal I5 sole para propio di I6 la qual" uole essere dipiti in essa carta, e veduta da riverscio, e lo sottilissima I7 colo detto sia fatto in sottipiastra spira l8 a b c d e sieno li detti lissima di ferro; J obietti alluminati dal sole, o r 9sia la faclor
I2

minated objects into a very dark chamber. Then, receive these images on a white paper placed within this dark room and rather near to the hole and
yo.u will see all the objects on the paper in their proper forms

and colours, but much smaller; and they will be upside down
of that very interimages being transmitted from a place illuminated by the sun will seem actually painted on this paper which must be extremely thin and looked at from behind. And let the be made, in a very thin little perforation Let a b c d e be the obplate of iron. illuminated by the sun and o r the ject front of the dark chamber in which is the Let s t be the sheet of said hole at n m. paper intercepting the rays of the images of these objects upside down, because the rays being straight, a on the right hand becomes

by

reason

section.

These

spi

cia della abitatione oscura, nella quale e lo 20 racolo detto in n m, s t sia la detta

carta

dove

si

ta 2I gliano

li

razzi delle spetie


li

d'essi obietti sotto

22 sopra perche esse do

lor razzi diritti , e lo e si 23 nistro

a destro
si

si

fa sinistro in
/"-,

fa

destro in

e cosi fa

dentro alia popilla.

/
72
'

k on the left, and e on the left becomes on the right; and the same takes place inside the pupil.

C. A. 201 b; 598,}] II

lume nel

ufitio della

prospettiva

non

a alcuna differeza coll'ochio.

In the practice of perspective the rules apply to light and to the eye.

same

The

practice

jff%.

W.

L. 145; D.<J]
2

73-

Cio che vede la lucie dell' ochio duto da essa lucie, 3 e cio che vede e ^veduto dalla sua popilla.
M.
II

e ve-

la lucie

The object which is opposite to the pupil of the eye is seen by that pupil and that which is opposite to the eye is seen by the pupil.
74-

Br.

221(5]

concorso
obbietti

delle linie create dalle spetie


all'

ochio no conantiposti corro 2 no in punte dentro a esso ochio per


delli
linie rette.

The lines sent forth by the image of an Refraction of S r object to the eye do not reach the point famng up on within the eye in straight lines.

71. 3.

Lassperientia
.

mosstra.
10.
. .

5.

omore.

6.

picholo
.

retodo peneterano.
13.

8.

te

osscura alora
li

spetie nv.
14.

9.

biancha [dedesstro

pola] posta

attale.
17.

spirachulo.
inpiasstra.

12.
19.

effieno
. .

so.

chausa
.

interseghatione
ello spi.
20.

q"a".
21.

nasscierano dillocho.
22.

16. ello spira.


. .

cholo
e.

fachia

osscura

nei

racol.

razi.

razi

sinisstro

hello

23. desstro.

73.

i.

ufio della.
.
.

2.

differeza chol.

73. 3. eccio

lucie he.
.
.

74. linie crete

antipossti

concorra.

71.

This

chapter
into

is

already

translation
'Essai sur

French by VENTURI.

known through a Compare his

de ritalie.

Vinci avee des fragments tires de ses Manuscnts, apportes classe de Vlnstitut national Lu a la

premiere
Paris,

les

ouvrages physico-mathematiques de L. da

des Sciences et Arts:

An

V (1797).

46
Br.

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


M. 22o]

[7577-

75lui,

giuditio dell'ochio e dentro di 2 si rompono le linie rette delle spetie sulla superfitie sua perche uanno dal raro al denso; 3 se tu sia sotto

Se

'1

If the

judgment of the eye


the
straight
lines

is

situated
sur-

in-

within

it,

of the images

are refracted
face

on

its

they pass through the rarer to the

because

1'aqua e riguardi la cosa vedrai tu infrall'aria essa cosa 4 fori del suo
sito,

denser medium.

If,

when

e cosi fa

la

cosa

are under water, you look at objects in the air you will see them out

you

infrall'acqua veduta dall'aria.

of their true place; and the same objects under water seen from the air.

with

Br.

M.

171*1

The

inver-

Tutte le sirnilitudini delle cose che passano per finestra 2 dalP aria libera all' aria costretta da pariete, sono viste -H cotrario 4 si sito, e quella cosa che nella libera aria movera da oriete a occidete apparira, per obra nelle parie s te alluminate dalla costretta aria di cotrario movimeto.

of objects which pass [glass pane] from the free air to the air confined within walls, are seen on the opposite side; and an
All
the

images

through

a outer

window

object
wall
to

which moves

in

the

east to west will

seem

in its

outer air from shadow, on the


air,

which is lighted by this confined have an opposite motion.

W.

L. 145; B.3J

77-

PRINCIPIO COME LE SPETIE DE' CORPI S'INTER2 SEGANO NELLI LABRI DELLI SPIRACULI DA LOR PENETRATI.
3

THE

PRINCIPLE ON WHICH THE IMAGES OF BODIES PASS IN BETWEEN THE MARGINS OF THE OPENINGS BY WHICH THEY ENTER.

Che
5

diferetia e dalla pe-

The

inter-

netraHionc

in 'drays' passano 6 (76-82). che passa per larghi quelle 7o da quelle che spiracoli ne'la 8 ti de corpi onpassan' sMovansi le spetie brosi?
delli obbietti inmobili,

spetie che spiraculi stretti a


delle

the

What difference is there in way in which images pass

moven-

dosi colo

I0 labri di quello spiradonde li razzi delle spetie


li

_
I

through narrow openings and or through large openings, in those which pass by the sides of shaded bodies? By moving the edges of the opening through which the images are admitted, the images

~^~

a questo accade per la 9 che penetrano I2 di qualunche cor po son dicie lie spetie tutte per tutto e tutte in ogni parte del sito a lor circustateTJ '3 seguita che movedo vn delli

"e

labri dello spiracolo, donde tali spetie peI4 netrano in loco oscuro, esso lascia li razzi

spetie che li era'Sno in cotatto e si congiugono con altri razzi d'esse spetie che
delle
li

era

l6

remoti ecc.

of immovable objects are made this happens, as is shown in the 9 th which demonstrates [n]: the images of any object are all everywhere, and all in each part of the surrounding air. It follows that if one of the edges of the hole by which the images are admitted to a dark chamber is moved it cuts off those rays of the image that were in contact with it and gets nearer to other rays which previously were remote from it &c.
to

move.

And

75. i. adi.

2.

ronpano.

3.

settu
3.

lac q.
.

esa cosa.
.

4. infrallacq 4. ocidete
3.

dellaria.
1

76. i. similirudine.
77. i.
8.

2. dalaria. 2.
.

chososa
.
.

nellalbra.

aparira
5.

"per obra"
.

nelle.
.

chome
chorpi.
.

chorpi.

seghano
.

spirachuli dallor.
labri.

he

dalla.
.

isspirachuli

acquelle.
. .

6.

cheppassa
chelli.

spriracholi.
12.

9.

lesspetie
.
.

movenli

10.

spircholo

donte

razi.

n. ecquesto achade

cheddicie
.

Icsspetie.
15.

son

tucte

ettutte in

allor circusstate.

13.

spiracholo donte.

14.

locho ossechuro e lasscia

razi

chotacto essi

77. 2. In the first of the three diagrams Leonardo had drawn only one of the two margins, at m. When Leonardo refers II. per la 9* che dicie.

diagrams;
proved.

this

can in some instances be distinctly

The

corresponds
reproduced.

ninth sketch on the page to the middle sketch of

W.

L. 145 b

the

three

thus to a

number

it

serves

to

indicate

marginal

7 8.]

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.
SINISTRO,

47

DEL MOTO DEL LABRO DESTRO O


SUPERIORE,
'9
l8

O INFERIORE.

OF THE MOVEMENT OF THE EDGE AT THE RIGHT OR LEFT, OR THE UPPER, OR LOWER EDGE.
If

allora
dell'

Se moverai il si movera

lato destro dello spiracolo, la inpres 20 sione sinistra

you

move

the

right

side
left

of

the

spiracolo,

obbietto destro, che penetrava per esso 2I e '1 simile fara tutti li altri lati 22 di tale spiracolo e questo si pro va coll'aiuto

opening the image on the [being that] of the object

will

move
entered

which

on the right side of the opening; and the same result will happen with all the other

seconda di questo che dicie 1 tutti li che porta le spe^tie de corpi per 1'aria son retti lini U adunque, avendo a passare le spe^tie delli corpi massimi per li minimi
della
razzi
;

sides of the opening. This can be proved nd of this which shows: all the by the 2 rays which convey the images of objects through the air are straight lines. Hence,
if

2 spiraculi e dopo tale spiraco 5lo ricoporsi alia massima dilatatione, egli e neciessario

gienerar

26

si

la intersegatione.

the images of very large bodies have to pass through very small holes, and beyond these holes recover their large size, the lines

must necessarily

intersect.

W.

L. 145; B. a]

78.

tie

Neciessita a proveduto che tutte le spede corpi antiposti all'och'io s'interseghino in due lochi, delle quali I'una intersi

Necessity has provided that all the images of objects in front of the eye shall intersect in two places. One of these intersections
is

gienera dentro alia popilla 1'altra spera cris 4 tallina, il che se cosl no si faciesse, 1'ochio no potrebbe vedere 5 si gra numero di cose quato esso vede; 6 pruovasi perche tutte le linie che s'intersegano gienera tale intersegatione in punto, cociosiache de corpi no ci si dimostra se 8 no le loro superfitie, li termini delle quali so linie per la co^versa della difmitio delle
segatio^ne

in the pupil,

the

other

in the crystalline

dentro

alia

were not the case the eye could not see so great a number of objects This can be proved, since all as it does. the lines which intersect do so in a point. Because nothing is seen of objects excepting
lens;
if this

and

their

surface; and their edges are lines, in of a to the definition contradistinction And each minute part of a line is surface.

e ogni minima parte della linia e equale al puto, perche minima e detta ir quella cosa della quale nessu na altra puo essere minore, e questa tal difinitione e simile al I2 la difinitione del puto; adunque e
superfitie,
I0

equal

to

point;
this

for

smallest

is

said

of

that than

which nothing can be smaller, and


definition
is

the

definition
it

equivalent to of the point.


for
to

Hence
to

is

possible
its

the the

whole circumference of a
transmit

circle

pos^sibile che tutta


ferentia
la

la

circu-

image

d'un

cierchio
alia

mandi
sua intersegatione di que is sto che

sua similitu I4 dine


la

come mostra

quarta

as is of intersection, shown in the 4 th of this which shows: all the smallest parts of the images cross each

point

chongiugnie chon
ecquesto
;8.
i.
.

chelli.
.
.

17.

desstro ossini o.

19. desstro
. .

siracholo.
.

20. sinisstra
.

desstro
.
.

spiracholo.

21. spiracholo

22, choll
.
.

2di.

23.

chorpi
2.

chettutte
si
li
.

chorpi antipossti.
6.

appassare. 24. chorpi chosi interseghatio. 4. stallina


.
.

recti

spirachuli
.

eddopo
.

spiracho.
se.
5.
[il

26. interseghatione.

faciessi
. .

vedere

nvmero
8.
li

delle

chose

che]

chose.

tutte [le ch] le

chessinterseghano.
. .

7.

terseghatione
12.

ciossiache dimosstrase.
. .

termini delUs

qua

termini.

10.

chosa

nesu.

n. ecquesta

essimile al.

Ha

difini5

adunque eppos.

13.

chettutta la circhu-

48
dicie

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


Htutte
le

[79. 80.

parti

minime

delle

spetie

other

l6 penetra una 1'altra sanza occupatione 1'una I8 son dell'altra.H '^Queste dimostrationi ^nessuna spetie di per eseplo dell'ochio;

These
eye.
ject,

without interfering with each other. demonstrations are to illustrate the No image, even of the smallest obenters the eye without being turned

minimo 20 corpo penetra nell'ochio 2I che non si volti sotto sopra, 22 e nel penetrare
si

upside down;
crystalline

la

24 si rivolta sotto 23 spe ra cristallina ancora 26 2 sopra, e co *si ritorna diritta la spe tie dentro all'ochio co^me era 1'obbietto di

penetrates into the more reversed and thus the image is restored to the same position within the eye as that of the object outside the eye.
it

but as
it

lens

is

once

fori

28

dell'ochio.

W.

L. 145; D.6]

79-

DELLA
2

LINIA CIETRALE DELL'OCHIO.


linia e

OF THE CENTRAL
all

LINE OF THE EYE.

Solametevna
le
3

quella

che penetrano spetie alia virtu visiva che no si.inter4 sega, e questa non a virtu seninfra
sibile

Only one line of the image, of those that reach the visual virtue, has no intersection; and this has

no
it

la

perche e linia matematica Squale a origine dal puto


il

matematico
6

quale non a mezzo.

dimensions because a mathematical line which originates from a mathematical point, which has no dimensions.
sensible
is

Neciessita vole secodo Pav-

versa?rio che la linia cietrale di


tut te
sottili
8

le

spetie che
stretti

etra per

li

According to my adversary, necessity requires that the central line of every image that enters

9e

spiraculi in

loco

oscu I0 ro
insieme

sia

volta
I2

sotto

sopra

by small and narrow openings into a dark chamber shall be turned upside down, together
with
the

"co

tutte le

spetie

de

images
it.

of the bodies

corpi che la

vestano.

that surround

Wind. L. 145; C.J]

8O.

SE LA
PUO
IN SE
2

LINIA CIETRALE DELLE SPETIE SI INTERSEGARE DETRO ALLO SPIRACOLO O NO?

AS TO WHETHER THE CENTRAL LINE OF THE IMAGE CAN BE INTERSECTED, OR NOT, WITHIN THE OPENING.
It
is

3lnposibile e che la linia in se si possa 4 lato destro d'una intersegare cioe che '1 delle sua fronti passi al lato sinistro del lato
sdella frote opposita, e cosi
il

impossible
that
its

that
is,

the
its

line

should

intersect itself; cross ever to

that
side, side.

right should

left

suo lato

si-

side

become

its

right

and so, its left Because such

ferentla.
22.

14.

interseghatione [perche]
23. crisstallina
3.
7.

la 4* di

parte.
.

16.
.

ochupatione.
26.

17.

Quesste dimosstrationi.

20. chorpo.

21. socto.

penetrare [piu].
ecquella infralle.

anchora.
si

24. socto

cho.
4.

cho.
[nasscie
dal]
ellinia

79. 2.
6.

visiva

no
.

intersegha ecquesta.
8.

perche

matematicha.
10.

5.

raatematicho.
lesspetie
. .

sechodo laversa.
12.
2.

chella

di tuc.

lesspetie.

9.

esstretti spirachuli illocho osscu.

so

voliti.

n.
chosi

chorpi chella.
80.
t.

ve stano.
interseghare
.
.

sella

po.

spiracholo ono.

3.

he chella

interseghare.

4.

desstro

sinisstro.

5.

sinisstro.

81.]

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.

49

nistro passi al lato de 6 stro, perche tale intersegatione richiede due linie per li due det?ti
lati,

stra e sinistra e

no si puo dar moto da deda sini 8 stra a destra in se medesimo, se no v' e spadelli quali

an intersection demands two lines, one from each side; for there can be no motion from right to left or from left to right in itself without such extension and thickness as admit of such motion.

tio di grossezza, il sia ca^pacie di tal

quale

And
it

if

there

is

extension

e se v'e spatio, e linia, azi e superfitie, I0 e noi cierchiamo la natura della linia e no d'essa superfitie, e perche la "linia non avendo mezzo nella sua grossezza essa no si

moto: essa non

no longer a line but a surface, and we are inis

vestigating

the

properties

of a

line,

and not of a
as the line,

surface.

And

pvo diuidere; adunque cocludiamo la linia no potere aver lati inter^segabili infra loro; I4 in a b, e pruovasi nel moto della linia af
della linia e b in e f, le quali so lati della 1 e b\ se tu moverai la linia super 5 fitie la linia l6 ef colle fronti a e al sito c, tu avrai mosso li oppositi ^stremi b 1'uno

I2

ab&

af

Ma

inverso 1'altro al punto d, e avrai di due lil8 nie fatto la linia retta c d, la quale risiede in mezzo al^la intersegatione d'esse due linie nel puto n, sanza alcuna 20 intersegatione, perche se tu immaginerai tali due 2I linie essere corporee, egli e necessario

of thickness cannot be divided, we must conclude that the line can have no sides to intersect each other. This is proved by the movement of the line a to a b and of the line e b to e f, which are the sides of the surface afeb. But if you move the line a b and the line e f, with the frontends a e, to the spot, c, b you will have moved the opposite ends And towards each other at the point d.

having

no

centre

from the two


straight
line

lines c

d which

the

intersection

have drawn the the middle of of these two lines at the

you

will

cuts

mediate

che 1'una copra integralmete 1'altra, essendo equali sanza 23 alcuna intersegatione nel sito c d, e questo basta a pro 2 3vare il nostro proposito.
.il

detto

mo 22 to

For, you point n without any intersection. imagine these two lines as having breadth, it is evident that by this motion the first will entirely without cover the other being equal with it
is

any intersection, in the position c d. And sufficient to prove our proposition.

this

W.

L. 145;

D.]
RAZZI DELLE INNVME RABILI UN SOL PUTO.
2

8l.

COME INNVMERABILI
SPETIE
SI
i

HOW

POSSA RIDURRE IN

THE INNUMERABLE RAYS FROM INNUMERABLE IMAGES CAN CONVERGE TO A POINT.


Just as
all lines

3 Siccome un punto passa tutte le linie sanza occupatione ^Puna dell'altra per essere

interfering

incorporee, cosi possono passarvi s tutte le spetie delle e siccome o 6 gni superfitie,

with each breadth

dato

punto vede ogni antiposto obbietto, e ogni obiet?to vede 1'antiposto punto naturale, ancora per esso punto

at a point without other being without in the or thickness same way all the images of surfaces can meet there; and as each given point faces the object op-

can meet

posite to

it and each object faces an opposite point, the converging rays of the image can pass

possono
spetie,

transire

diminviti

razzi

di

tali

dopo il transito deMe quali si riformeranno, e ricrescerano le quatita di tali


due
12.

through the point and diverge again beyond it to reproduce and re-magnify the real size But their impressions will of that image.

des.

6.

interseghatione

dec.

7.

desstro
13.

essinistro

ssinis.
li.

8.

stro
15.

a desstro
. .

grosseza

qual
arai.

cha.
arai.

9.

esse cie

mezo

grosseza.
.
.

cocludiano.
20.

seghabili infralloro
. .

Massettu
21.

ella lini.
. .

16.

17.

19. lla

interseghatione

alchuna.

interseghatione
. .

settu inmaginerai tale.

chorporee

neciessario che mediate.

22. chellala
81.
i.

copra.
.

23.
2.

Chome

invme.

alchuna interseghatione ecquesto bassta. 24. nosstro. nu sol. 3. sichome ochupatione. 4. chosi possa. 5. essichome
. .

[in ogni]

ho.

6.

obiec.

'j.

an-

81.

On

the original

diagram

at

the beginning

where

in the facsimile I

have marked A, and

"giall<f

of this chapter Leonardo has written "azurro" (blue) VOL. I.

(yellow)

where

stands.

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

[8

1.

Fig. III.

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.
le loro inpressioni sara rivere provato "nella pritna di sopra, dove dicie che ogni spetie s'intersega I2 nello introito delli stretti spiraculi fatti

spe

I0

tie;

Ma

scie,

come

in materia di

W.

mini^ma grossezza. ^Leggi a riscotro in margine

every image intersects as it enters the narrow openings made in a very thin substance.

appear reversed above; where it

as
is

is

shown
that

in

the

first,

said

Read

L. 145; D.a]

the marginal text

on the other

side.

'SQuanto

lo

In proportion as the

spiracolo e minore del corpo obroso, tan-

opening

is

to
20

meno

le spe-

tie

penetrate

smaller than the shaded body, so much less will the images transmitted through
this

in esso spiracolo penetrano

opening

intersect

1'una nelP altra.

Li simulacri che passano 2 Sper spiracoli in loco oscuro


intersegano li lor lati tanto piu vicino allo spiraculo quato esso spiracolo fia di minore larghezza; pruovasi, e sia a b il
3

each other. sides of images which pass through openings into a dark room intersect at a point which is

The

as the opening

nearer to the opening in proportion is narrower.

To prove

corpo obroso
il

il

quale,

no

1'onbra,

ma

simulacro della sua oscurita e

figura
lo

manda per
e
il

lo spiraco-

quale e della larghezza d'esso corpo obroso, e li sua la35 ti a b essendo rettilini (com' e provato) e neciessario che s'interseghino infra '1 corpo obroso e lo spiracolo,

ma

tato piv vicino allo

this let a b be an object in light and shade which sends not its shadow but the image of its darkened form through the opening d e which is as wide as this shaded body; and its sides a b, being straight lines (as has been proved) must intersect between the shaded object and the opening; but nearer to the

spiracolo, qvanto esso spiraco-lo e di minor larghezza che il cor-

opening
is

in

proportion as
is

it

po obroso, come

si

dimostra dal

smaller than the As object in shade.

shown,

lato tuo destro e dal lato sinistro nelle due figure a b c

n
is

right hand and your left hand, in the two diagrams

on your

a b

o,

dove essendo

al

d e eguale in larghezza corpo obroso a b, la intersegatione de lati di tale obroso si ferdestro

lo spiracolo

m
e,

o where, the right opening being equal in width

ma in mezzo infra lo spiracolo e '1 corpo onbroso nel punto c, sil che far no puo la figura sinistra per essere lo spiracolo o asminore del corpo obroso n m.
sai.

shaded object a b, the intersection of the sides of the said shaded object occurs half way between the opening and the shaded object at the point c, But this cannot happen in the
to the
left hand figure, the opening o being much smaller than the shaded object

Jpossibile e
55

It is

impossible

che

le spetie
si

that the images

de'corpi
fra
chora
.

pos-

sino vedere inli

corpi e
.

of objects should be seen between the objects and the


tale.
9.

puo.

8. le

ricresscierano.
25.

10.

Malle

chome.

n.

sintersegha.
26.

12. spirachuli.

14.

Legge.
pr"o".

15. los.

16. piracholo.

19. lesspe.
.

21. spiracho.

per isspiracholi illocho osschuro.


32.

interseghano.
34.

27. spirachulo.
.

28. spira-

cholo.
38.

29. larghe

essia.
.

30.

chorpo.

31. osscurita.
.
.

fighura
41.

spiracho.
. .

chorpo

elli.

35.

37. ello. 44. spira-

racholo mattanto
45. desstro
.
.

allos.

39. spiracholo

spiracho.

chome

da.

42. tuo

[sin] desstro.

43. fighure. 51. stra


.
.

cholo.

equale illarghezza.

46. intersegha.

48.

mezo

infrallo spiracholo.

49.

chorpo.

losspiracholo.

1523. These
I

lines stand

between the diagrams


I

24

53.
II.

These

lines stand

between the diagrams

and

III.

and

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


li

[82.

spiracoli,
li

quali penetrano li simulacri d'essi corpi;

per

e questo si manifesta perche 6 sdoue 1'aria e alluminata, tali simulacri no si gie-

openings through which the images of these bodies are admitted; and this is plain, because where the atmosphere is illuminated these images are not

nerano evideti.
Li simulacri rapene7doppiati per tratio che scanbievolmete e fat1'altro,

formed

visibly.

When
are

the images

la

made double by

mutually crossing each other they


are invariably doubly as dark
in tone.

ta dall'uno nelsenpre radla loro

?5doppia

oscurita; provasi e sia tal

To
let

prove

this

radoppiameto

8o

quale ancora che es/i,


il

be such a doubling which


although it seen within
is

only,

so no ueda se no dentro allo


spatio de' corpi in b i, e no re8 5sta che esso no
sia

the space between the bodies in


this will
"b

and

not

veduto da
e dal

hinder its being seen from

fg
f
9sto

fg
from

m, il quale e conpodelli si-

/ m;

being composed of the

mulacri a b i k,
quali in

images
li

d
95

s'in-

a b i k which run together in

fondano Tun nel1'altro.

e h.

C. A. 123 I; 380*]

82.
2

Speriezia come no movedo la pupilla del suo sito le cose 3 viste da quella paiono moversi 4 fori del suo loco.
5

An

experiment showing that though the

Se riguarderai vna cosa alquato


6

distate
1'ochio,

pupil may not be the objects seen by from their places.


If

moved from its it may appear

position
to

move

da te

la

quale sia piv bassa


I

che

quella ?le tue due popille, e 8 fermo il coll' una delle mani apri e tieni di sopra e coll'altra alzerai 9 in coperchio

e fermerai

you look at an object at some disfrom you and which is below the eye, and fix both your eyes upon it and with one hand firmly hold the upper lid open while
tance

52.

chorpo.

54. he.

55. chelle.

56. chorpi. So.


3.

58. fralli corpi el.


81. sen.
4.

59. spiracholi.

62. ere

chorpi.
94. si.

63. ecquesto.

66. laria al.

72. cffac. 89. t.

76. osschurita.
2.

77. essia.
. .

anchora.

82. o dentro allos.

87. eddal.
.

95.

fondan"o".
7.

chome.

la

poilla

chose.

dacquella pare.

locho.

5.

chosa

datte.

6.

effermerai.

cholluna

tini.

54

97 are written along the

left

side of diagram

I.

83- 84-]

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.

53

coperchio di sotto, senpre tenedo cosa riguardata, vederai essa cosa "diuidersi in
il

alto

ferme

le luci I0 nella

still with the other you push up the under lid keeping your eyes fixed on the object gazed at you will see that ob-

due e 1'una sta ferma, Paltra si mo I2 ve in cotrario


fai

ject double;

one [image]

fare col dito


;

moto, a quello che ^al coperJ

remaining steady, and the other moving in a contrary direction to the pressure of your finger on the

chio di sotto
'5

Com'e

falsa 1'openione di quegli

che dicono questo accadere perche l6 la lucie escie fori di suo


sito.

lower eyelid. the opinion

How

false

is

of those

who

say that this happens because the pupil of the eye is displaced from its
position.

Come per pra dette cose


1

le
l8 si

sodi-

How
in seeing.

the above

men-

operare '9 sotto, sopra il suo vedere.


popilla
A.

mostra

la

tioned facts prove that the pupil acts upside down

83-

PARIETE DI VETRO.
2

OF THE PLANE OF
is

GLASS.
else

Prospettiva
3

uno

sito dirieto

non e altro che vedere uno vetro piano * e ben'

than seeing nothing Perspective pemonstraa place [or objects] behind a plane of glass, JjrtS^f
quite transparent, on the surface means of a i i .1 L i j j.i- .vertical glass of which the objects behind that plan| These ( 8 3- 8 s)glass are to be drawn. can be traced in pyramids to the
/-

transparete, sulla superfitie del s quale siano segniate tutte le cose che 6 sono da esso vetro
qua?li si possono codurre per piramidi 8 al puto dell'ochio e esse piramidi si
idirieto:
le

"^S^

y^

point in the eye, and these pyra-

mids are intersected on the glass


plane.

^tagliano su detto vetro.


Br.

M. 2200]

84
prospettiva de'pittori in pa ri 3 la cosa di quella gran2

Mai

la

distantia mostrera

Pictorial perspective can never make an the same object at the same distance, look of

dezza ^che

si

mide
8.

fed
14.
. .

mostra all'ochio Svedi la pira6 sua punta tanto essere colla


. .

size as

it

the apex
.

appears to the eye. c of the pyramid

You see d is as
.
.

that
far

choperchio

choll.

9.

perchio.
83. 3.

chome
2.

falso.
4.

15.

choperchio dichano

luce.
.

10.

chosa

chosa.
17.
. .

achadere.
5. sia

16. esscie.
.

u. elluna. 12. chotrario chose. 18. popila. chome


. .

cheffai

chol.

13. co-

mo

!no vetro.

pen transspame

sula.

segnato
3.

chose.

7.

posano chondure
4.

piramide.

8.

piramide.
6.

84. i. prosspettiva.

disstantia mosterra [in

pan

dista].

la [tia la cos]

grandeza.

chessi mosstra alochio.

disstante

82.

14
is

17.

The

subject indicated

by these two

follow

them

in the original

but

it

did not seem to

headings

that fully discussed in the two chapters

me

here. appropriate to include them

54
distante aU'obbietto
7

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


c d,
fatta

[85. 86.

quanto

simo

punto
c

dimeno

d
in

all'

obbi 8 etto
'

basa
I0

medenon dal punto de'


il

b,

is

from the object c d as the same from the object a b', and yet c
painter's
is

point
d,

f
is

which

is

che a b pictori e minore linie delle spetie concorreti

basa fatta dalle all' occhio e ronI2

the base made by the smaller than a b which

point,

the

base of the

pendo"si

s /-superfitie dell'ochio;
colle
linie
I2

di

questo fara esperienza


e poi colle iando esse
linie del

uisuali

una

pictori 'Uagllinie visuali e essentiali so'Spra medesima pariete, sopra la quale l6 si

filo

de

lines from the objects converging in the eye and refracted at s t, the surface of the eye. This may be proved by experiment, by the lines of vision and then by the lines of the

painter's plumbline

by cutting the

real lines

misuri
A. 10 1]

vn medesimo obbietto.
85.

of vision on one and the same plane and measuring on it one and the same object.

PROSPETTIVA.
2

PERSPECTIVE.

Pariete
si si

vna

linia

perpediculare
al

la

quale
;

figura

dinazi

puto comvne,

vertical plane is a perpendicular line, imagined as in front of the central point

The

doue

cogivgnie il concorso delle piramidi E fa questa pariete col detto puto, 4quello medesimo ofitio, che farebbe un vetro piano per
lo

where the apex of the pyramids converge.

And
this

quale

in

ri-

plane bears the same relation to point as a plane of glass would, through which you might see the various
this

guardado s varie cose su ve le disegniasse;

objects and draw them on it. And


the

sa-

objects

thus

cose disegniate tanto mi 6 nori che 1' engine: quato lo spatio che sta tra '1 uetro e 1'ochio fusse minore ? che quelloche dal vetro alia cosa.

rebbero

le

drawn would be smaller than the originals, in proportion as the distance between the glass and the eye was smaller than that between the glass and the objects.
PERSPECTIVE.

PROSPETTIVA.
9 II

cocorso

delle piramidi

cavsulla

sate

da
I0

corpi

mostreranno

pariete

la uarieta delle

gradezze

distazie della loro

different converging pyramids produced by the objects, will show, on the plane, the various sizes and remoteness of the objects causing

The

cagione.

them.
PERSPECTIVE.
i

PROSPETTIVA.
'JTutti
si

quelli

piani che

loro stremi

cogivgneranno con linie perpediculari ^cavsando angoli retti, E neciessario che, essendo di pan larghezza, che quato piv 'Ss'alzano all'ochio meno si uegga e quato piv lo passa piv si vegga la uera gradezza.
PROSPETTIVA.
piv s'allontana dall'ochio sperico piv ne vedi.
A. 38 a]

All those horizontal planes of which the extremes are met by perpendicular lines forming right angles, if they are of equal width the more they rise to the level of eye the less this is seen, and the more the eye is above them the more will their real width

be seen.
PERSPECTIVE.

^ Quato

il

corpo
86.

farther a spherical body the more you will see of it. eye

The

is

from the

Modd
The angle o f le
'.

senplice

e naturale
2

cioe

come

A
how
12.

cose
ochio.

sanza altro
basa Jemi]. used here as in
8.

mezzo appariscono
.

objects appear to the eye

simple and natural method; showing without any


. .

all'

other medium.
9. fatto
.

tance

(8688)
85.

obbiecto.
i.

eminore.

10. concoreti.

quessto

essperienza.

15. pr"

medesima.
is

pro

is

lines 8, it, id as
this

title,

and

is ait

abbreviation

for Prospemva.
3.

The word
. .

written at full length


. .

at the head of the first chapter on


4.

page
5.
.

(see no. 94).


. .

2.

perpedichulare.

chogivgnie

conchorso
7.

piramideEffa.
9.

cheffarebbe
. .

vetro

per

"lo" quale.
.

chose

disegniassi Essarebouo le chose.


10.

6. fussi.
[tutti
.

quelo
.

chosa.

cho-

chorso

piramide chavsate
13. 16.

chorpi

mosterano
.

sula.

gradeze
14.

chagione.
.

12.
.

quelli

piani situati in varie

alteze e di par.]

chSgivgneranno chollinie
salontana dalochio
. .

perpendichulare.

chavsando

largeza.

15. salza

alochio mesi uega

vega

gradeza.

chorpo spericho.

8;. 88.]

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.
The
object
that
is

55
nearest to
the

all'ochio

3Quella cosa ch'e piv presso senpre appariscie maggiore che vn altra di pari qualita che sia
distante.

piv
5 1'

differentia quasi 6 all' altro e questo nascie per esser visino a loro, e se li leverai detti spati sulla pariete in o: lo spatio o v apparira nella

no

ochio conoscie

eye always seems larger than another of the same size at greater distance. The eye m, seeing the spaces o v x, hardly

che vede

li

spati

dall'uno

reason of

detects the difference between them, and the this is that it is close to them [6];

but

if

these spaces are mar-

ked on the

parte della pariete o r e cosi lo spatio 8 v x apparira in r q e se tu'mettessi questo in opera in qualche loco che vi si 9potesse andare attorno ti parebbe una cosa discordante per la I0 lo spatio o r e da gra varieta ch'e da r- q\ e questo diriva che 1' ochio e tanto sotto alia pariete "che la pariete li scorta Onde se pure volessi metterlo in opera, I2 ti bisogniere bbe che essa prospettiva si uedesse da uno solo buso il quale fusse J o veramete stessi lontano3nel loco al meno 3 volte la gradezza della cosa che
:

vertical plane n o the space o v will be seen at o r, and in the same way the space v x will appear at r q. And if you carry this out in any place where you can walk round, it will look out of proportion by reason of

the great difference in the

spaces o r and r q. And this proceeds from the eye being so much below [near] the plane that the plane is foreshortened. Hence, if

you wanted
[to

to carry it out, you would have arrange] to see the perspective through a single hole which must be at the point m, or else you must go to a distance of at least 3 times the height of the object you see. The

vedi;

<?-/-per 1'essere sempre equidistante all'ochio a vno modo rendera J 5le cose bene-e atte a essere vedute da loco a loco.
4

la pariete:

plane o p being always equally remote from the eye will reproduce the objects in a satisfactory way, so that they may be seen from place to place.

W.

L. 145. C./5]

87.

Come
4

ogni gra quatita

manda
3

fuor di

How

every

large

mass sends forth

its

se le sua spetie, le quali sono di diminuire in infinito.

in potentia

Le

spetie d' ogni gra quatita essendo diifinito

images, which may diminish through infinity. The images of any large mass being infinitely divisible

uisibili in

son

di s minuitive in ifinito.

may be

infinitely diminished.

A. 9 *j

88.

quelli
le
2

corpi d'equasituati I uarj

Objects of equal
will

size,

gradezza

situated in various places,

lochi fieno veduti


:

per

le piramidi qua'li saranno tanto piv. strette Squato piv Iontana fia la sua ca-

diuerse

be seen by different pyramids which will each

be smaller
as
off.

in

proportion
is

the

object

farther

gione.
86.
i.

chome
aparira

le
.

chose.
quassi
essettu
.

2.
.

mezo apparischano.
diferentia.
6.

3.
.

chosa
*

apparisscie magiore.
.

4.
.

chessia.
7.

5.

lochio
.

"m"
.
.

che

lisspati
.

chonosscie
8.
.

ecquesto
.

nascie
.
.

alloro esseli leuera


.

idetti.

losspatio
. .

aparira nela
.

chosi.

locho.
si]

9. potessi

parebbe

chosa
i

dischordante.
.

10. losspatio
. .

12.

be

essa [dipintura
15.
.

prosspettiva
. .

si

vedessi da

solo

13.

nelocho

il

me

ecquesto gradeza dela.

ettanto.
14.
. .

n.

schorta.

equi"di"stante

alochio.
87.
4.
i.

chose
.

assere
5.

dallocho allocho.
strette luna [chellal.
4. tra

Lesspetie

diuisibile.
.
.

ifinite.

88.

chorpi

gradeza

uarie.

2.

[distantie]
5.

"lochi"
chagione.

piramide.

3.

li

[sienota] sarano

quanto

fia

piv lontano luno chorpo che laltro].


6.

86.

It

is

M. RAVAISSON,

me why quite inconceivable to in a note to his French translation


esl

clair

que

c'est

visino

au

lieu

par erreur que Leonard a tcrit per esser de per non esser visino. (See his

of this simple passage should have remarked: //

printed ed. of

MS.

A. p. 38.)

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


G. 53*1
Opposite pyramids in
juxtaposition
-

[8992.

8 9Perspective,
in
. .

La nrospectiva adoperait nelle distatie r ir tPna due contrane piramidi, delle quah
,
_i

dealing

with

distances,

i-

a 1'angolo nell'ochio e la basa re 4 mota insino all" orizzote, La secoda s a la basa diuerso 6 1'ochio e 1'angolo all' orizzote; Ma la prima attcde allo ?vniversale, abracciadosi tutte
le

makes use of two opposite pyramids, one of which has its apex in the eye and the
base as distant as the horizon. The other has the base towards the eye and the apex

on

qua

tita

delli

corpi

antiposti

all'ochio,

co 9 me sarebbe vn gra paese veduto per JI 10 nuistretto spiracolo, che tato maggiore mero di cose per tale spiracolo si uede, I2 quato esse cose so piu remote da tal' '3 ochio, e cosi si gienera la basa all'orizzo-

the horizon. Now, the first includes the [visible] universe, embracing all the mass of the objects that lie in front of the eye;
it might be a vast landscape seen through a very small opening; for the more remote

as

the

objects

are from

the

eye,

the greater

M te

'5

La
2a

e 1'agolo nell'ochio, come disopra dissi; 2 a piramide s'astende in un particuil

l6
J

lare,

qual
si

si

dimostra

tanto

minore

number can be seen through the opening, and thus the pyramid is constructed with the base on the horizon and the apex in the eye, as has been said. The second pyramid
extended to a spot which is smaller in proportion as it is farther from the eye; and this second perspective [= pyramid] results
is

7quato piu

18

dall'ochio, e questa prospectiva nascie dalla prima.

remove

from the

first.

G.

gO-

PERSPECTIVA SENPLICE.
On
simple X
2

SIMPLE PERSPECTIVE. Simple perspective is that which is constructed by art on a vertical plane which is equally distant from the eye in every part.
structed

La

seplicie prospettiua e quella che e

p"rspea?ve

sopra sito equalmente dis stante 4 dall' ochio con ogni sua parte, pro6 spettiua conposta e quella che e fatta sopra sito il quale co nessuna sua parte e equalfat^ta

dall' arte

Complex perspective is that which is conon a ground-plan in which none

7mente distante

dall'ochio.

of the parts are equally distant from the eye.

33

91.

PROSPETTIVA.
distance ofobjects from fetta,

PERSPECTIVE.
per>

The proper

n ochio nsguardator di quella no 4 sara equalmete distate ai sua stre^mi.

Nessuna
^se
n
1

superfitie
.

si

dimostrera

/-

if
_

surface can be seen exactly as it is. ,, the eye that sees it is not equally remote
i

No

from

all

its

edges.

Ash.

I.

120]

Q2.

PERCH& LA COSA POSTA VICINA


LASCIA
I

ALL' OCHIO

WHY WHEN AN
THE EYE
ITS

SUA TERMINI

IDISCERNIBILI.

OBJECT IS PLACED CLOSE TO EDGES ARE INDISTINCT.

3 Tutte quelle cose opposte all' ochio che fieno troppo a quello uicine *c6uerra che sua termini sieno cofusi a disciernere, come aca s de delle cose uicine a lume, che fanno obra grade cofusa, e cosi 6 fa quest' ochio col givdicare le cose I fori; I tutti i

When an object opposite the eye is brought too close to it, its edges must become too confused to be distinguished; as
happens with objects close to a light, which cast a large and indistinct shadow, so is it with an eye- which estimates objects opposite to it; in all cases of linear perit
.
.

casi di prospettiva liniale


disstantie.

1'ochio e simile

89.

i.

presspectiva
antiposste
.

2.

piramide.

3.

allangholo

ella.
.

4.
.

orizote

sechota.
12.

5. alia
. .

ellangholo.
13.

6.

Malla.

8.

cho.
15.

10. isstretto

spirachole chettato.
16.

n. chose

spirachol.

chose
18.

dattalo.

chosi.

14. ella-

gholo
90.
2.

chome.

sa^stende nuparticbu.
.

dimosstra.

17. dellochio ecquesta.


4.

presspectiva nasscie.
ecquella chefiacta.

presspectiua

ecquello
ecqual.
scllochio.
3.

effac.

3.

ecqualmente disstante.

chon.

5.

presspectiua chonpossta

6.

quale cho

7.

disstante dell.

91. 2. perfecta.

3.

93. t.

visina al ochio.

chose oposte

tropo

acquello.

4.

chouera

acha.

5.

cheffano

chosi.

6.

q estoch

dal

9395-]
al

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.
spective, the eye acts in the And the reason is the light.

57

lume, e la ragio si e che 1' ochio fala qua 8 le per distatia linia maestra, igrossa e abbraccia co uera cognitione le cose 9 gradi da lontano come le piccole da presso: ma perche 1' ochio mada moltitudi I0 ne di linie che circudano questa pricipale di mezzo, le quali quando le cose si JI trovano piv lontane dal cietro in essa circulatione sono meno poteti 12 a conosciere il uero: accade che la cosa posta presso all' ochio, no J 3sendo in quella distatia, si uicina alia linia maestra capace di copredere i ter I4 mini d' essa cosa; onde couiene a essi termini capitare in nelle linie di debole I5 co presione, le quali sono al' ufitio dell' ochio come i brachi l6 che leua la preda e no la alle caccie,

same way

as

una

that the eye has one leading line (of vision) which dilates with distance and embraces with true discern-

ment

large

objects at a distance as well as small ones that are close. But since the eye sends out a multi-

tude of lines which surround

one and since these which are farthest from the centre in this cone of lines
this chief central

posso pigliare: cosi queste no possono pigliare ma sono ^cagione che la linia maestra l8 bnde si uolta alle cose leuate da esse linie, le cose, delle quali i termini sono 9givdicati da esse linie, so cofuse.
T

less able to discern with accuracy, follows that an object brought close to the eye is not at a due distance, but is too near for the central line to be able to discern the outlines of the object. So the edges fall within the lines of weaker discerning power, and these are to the function of the eye like dogs in the chase which can put up the game but cannot take it. Thus these cannot take in the objects, but induce the central line of sight to turn upon them when Hence the objects they have put them up. which are seen with these lines of sight have
it

are

confused outlines.

A.

93-

PROSPETTIVA.

PERSPECTIVE.

cosa piccola da presso e la grade da lontano, essendo viste dentro a equali


!

La

angoli

apparirano

d'equale

grandezza.

Small objects close at hand and large The relative of ones at a distance, being seen within equal ^ec ts w? regard to will appear of the same size. angles,
from the eye
(93-98)-

their distance

A. lot]

94.

PROSPETTIVA.

PERSPECTIVE.

Nessuno corpo fia di tata magnitudine che per lunga distantia al1'

There

is

no object so large but that at a great distance from the


eye it does not appear smaller than a smaller object near.

ochio non apparisca 3 minore che '1 minore obietto


piv
vicino.

C. A. la,

i 6]

95-

Infra

che
di

fia

le cose d'equal grandezza quella piu distante dalP ochio si dimostrera

Among
is

objects

most remote from

of equal size that which the eye will look the

minor
givdicare
.

3figura.
*
.

smallest.
abracia cho
.

chasi.
.

7.

1'

ochio essimile
chessi
15.

ella
. .

fa

linia.

8.

chose.

9.

chome

le pichole.
. .

10.

circhu-

dano
14.

meza

qua
.

le

n.

dietro
.

circhulatione.
.

12.

vero
16.

onde achade chella chosa.

13. uisina la

copledere.

cosa couiene

inele.

coplesione

chome

ale chaccie.

posono pigliare
grandeza.

maso.

18. 19.

These two lines are

written lengthways on the margin.


93.
94.
2. i. i.

18. delle.
. .

19. cofusi.
3.

chosa pichola
prosspettiva.
Infralle

ella

dallontano
'
|

aeqali.

angholi aparirano

2.
.
.

distantia

alochio" n5n aparisca.


.

95.

chose

grandeza

chef.

2.

disstante

dimossterra.

the

This axiom, sufficiently clear in itself, is in original illustrated by a very large diagram, constructed like that here reproduced under No. 108.
95.

The same idea


as

is

follows:

Infra

le

i a, stated I repeated in C. A. a; cose d'equal grandeza quella si

dimostra di minor figura che sara piu dislante dall' ochio.


II

VOL.

I.

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

[96-98.

C. A. 143*; 425*]

Perche
all'ochio
ochiali
2

la

cosa
si

meno

quanto piv s' auisina conosce-, e perche gli

Why
brought

an

object

is

less

distinct

when

presso

e perche 1'ochio o da lontano.

no ben vede da

near to the eye, and why with spectacles, or without the naked eye sees badly
either close or far off [as the case

may

be].

S.

K. M.

II.

633)

97-

PROSPETTIVA.
2

PERSPECTIVE.
d'

Infra

le

cose

equal

Among
size,

objects

of equal

grandezza 3q U ella che sara


piv distante dall'o^chio
si di-

that

which

is

most
will

re-

mote from the eye


the smallest.

look

mostrera

di

minore sfigura.

A.

ii a]

9 8.

PROSPETTIVA.
2

PERSPECTIVE.
fia

Nessuna
che
la

secoda

cosa

tanto
alta.

piv

bassa
di

sopra

la

prima che, stado secoda no li paia piv

No second object can be so much lower than the first as that the eye will not see it higher than the first, if the eye is above the second.
PERSPECTIVE.

PROSPETTIVA.

sE quella cosa secoda no fia mai tato piv alta che la prima che, stado 6 1'ochio di sotto, no paia la secoda sotto
|

And this second object much higher than the first

la prima.

never be so as that the eye, being below them, will not see the second as lower than the first.
will

PROSPETTIVA.
1'ochio riguardera il secodo quaper lo cietro del minore piv uisino ^apparira li il secodo maggiore esser circudato dal minore
8

PERSPECTIVE.
If the eye sees a

Se

second square through

drato

the centre of a smaller one, that is nearer, the second, larger square will appear to be

surrounded by the smaller one.


PERSPECTIVE
PROPOSITION.

PROSPECTIVA
11

PROPOSITIONS.
I2

cose seconde- no fieno gradezza che le prime minori occupino o circudino.


tata

Le

mai di no le

Objects that are farther off can never be


large but that those in front, though smaller, will conceal or surround them.

so

96.

i.

chosa

mesi chonosscie.
.

97. 2. Infralle 98. i.


6.

grandeza.

3.
.

chessara.
.

4.
3.

dimossterra.

pro.

2.

sechoda chosa
7.

chella.
. .

sechoda

paia "di"

[sopra la prima]
.
.

sechoda.

pro.

8.

sechodo

lo

[mezo] "cietro".

9. aparira

"piv alta". 4. pro. sechodo magiore circhudato.


.
.

5.

cqella

chella.

10.

pro.

it.

chose

99-J

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.

59

DEFINITIONE.

DEFINITION.

Questa propositione si proua per isperiese riguarderai 'Sper uno tia inperoche, l6 che piccolo spiraculo non sara si gra cosa no si vegga *? la cosa veduta per quello
l8 dalli stremi lati parra circudata e terminata e se tu lo stopperai, quello d' esso spiraculo piccolo ^stoppameto fia quello che occupera la ueduta delta cosa grade.
,

This proposition can be proved by exFor if you look through a small periment. hole there is nothing so large that it cannot be seen through it and the object so seen appears surrounded and enclosed by the outline of the sides of the hole. And if

you stop

it up, this small stopping conceal the view of the largest object.

will

Ash.

I.

12 6\

gg.
LINIALE.

DELLA PROSPETTIVA
2

OF LINEAR
nello

PERSPECTIVE.

La

prospectiva

liniale

s'astede

a provare 3 per misura quanto la cosa secoda e minore che la prima; e quato la terza 4 e minore che la seconda, e cosi di grado I grado insino delle cose Syedute: truovo per al fine isperieza che la cosa seconda se sara tato 6 distate dalla prima quato la prima e
ofitio delle linie visuali

Linear Perspective deals with the action Th appa of the lines of sight, in proving by mea- djctt*< a surement how much smaller is a second fin e o^ c than the first, and how much the (99106). object third is smaller than the second; and so on by degrees to the end of things visible. I find by experience that if a second object

distate da-1'ochio tuo, che


,

beche

Tfra loro

che la 2 a fia altret7sieno di pari gradezza tato minore che la prima, e se 8 la terza cosa di pari gradezza alia 2 a e 3 a inanzi a essa fia lontana dalla 2 a 9 quato la 2 a dalla a terza fia di meta gradezza della 2 e cosi
,

as far beyond the first as the first is from the eye, although they are of the same size, the second will seem half the size of the
is

I0 grado in gra do per pari distazia farano sempre diminutione per meta la secoda dalla prima "pure che lo itervallo no passi dentro al numero di 20 braccia e ifra 20

di

third object is of the same and the 3 rd is as far beyond the second as the 2 nd from the first, it will appear of half the size of the second; and so on by degrees, at equal distances, the next farthest will be half the size of the former object. So long as the space does not exceed
first

and

if

the

size as the 2 nd ,

dette braccia la
2

/4

figvra simile a te perdera i di sua gradezza e ifra 40 perdera i 9/ 10 I3 e


i

I2

the length of 20 braccia. But, beyond 20 braccia figures of equal size will lose 2/4 and at 40

60 braccia, e cosi di mano I / 20 I fara sua diminutione, facendo J 4la pa2 volte tua gradezza; riete lotana da te
poi
19

braccia they will lose 9/10, and T 9/20 at 60 bracThis cia, and so on diminishing by degrees.
if the picture plane is distant from you twice your own height. If it is only as far off as your own height, there will be a great difference between the first braccia and the second.
is

mano

che'l fare una sola fa gra e prime braccia alle 2


.

diffe I5 rezia dalle

sechode
16. si

gradeza.

12.

ochupino

o circhudino.

13. difinitione.

15. 17.

pichojo spirachulo

chosa
. .

[chosa di la da esso].
para.
18.

"vegha"
. .

[possa vedere esse stoperai


.
.

detto spircolo

quello].

[stopameto

ti

ochu] ella

spirachulo

essettu
gg. 2. nelo.
ala.
9.

stoperai

picholo.
. .

3.

qua
.
.

la

cosa

ochupera [tutte] la. ecquato. 4. sechoda ecchosi.


19.

5.

chosa sechonda sessara.

7.
.

gradeza chella
la.

esse.
di
.

8.
.

gradeza
gradeza.

dala

gradeza
. .

ecossi.

10. diminvitione
14. parieta
.
.

sechoda.
.

n. 20 br
. .

dette br
.
.

12.

atte

4^

13.

60 br ecossi

diminvitione.

datte

gradeza

fare

sola

dife

15. 2.

gg. This chapter is included in DUFRESNE'S and H. MANZI'S editions of the Treatise on Painting.

ought not

to

regard Leonardo as responsible for

it.

LUDWIG,
time he

in his

commentary,
that
its

calls this

der wichtigsten im ganzen Tractat",


asserts

chapter "fines but at the same

in the case of this chapter, the old MS. is reproduced copies agree with the original as it above. From the chapters given later in this edition,

However,

substance

has

been

so

completely disfigured in the best

M S.

copies that

we

which were written at a subsequent date, it would apon these points. pear that Leonardo corrected himself

6b
A. 84]

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


100.

[100102.

DELLA DIMINUTIONS DELLE PER VARIE DISTATIE.


2

COSE

OF THE DIMINUTION OF

OBJECTS AT VARIOUS DISTANCES.

La

cosa

che

sia

lontana

clalla

prima dal1'ochio apparira la me 3 ta minore che la prima benche infra loro prima quato
la

A second object as far distant from the first as the first is from
the

eye will appear half the size of the first, though they be of the

sieno di pari grandezza.

same

size really.

DE' GRADI DEL DIMINVIRE.


5

OF THE DEGREES OF
If at

DIMINUTION.

Se

ti

all'

ochio prima cosa che fia lontana dal tuo 6 ochio 4 braccia diminvira- j V 4 della sua altezza in detta pariete; E se fia lotana Mall' ochio 8 braccia, diminvira j ?/8 e se fia lontona 1 6 braccia diminvira j 'S/,6 8 di sua altezza-, e cosi fara-di ma-

porrai la pariete uno braccio la

vicina

you place the vertical plane one braccio from the eye, the
object,

first

being
4

at

a distance
will

of 4 braccia
diminish to

from your eye


of
its

height at that plane; and if it is 8 braccia from the eye, to ?/8 ; and if it is 1 6 braccia off, it will diminish to I5/i6 of its height and so on by degrees,
as the space doubles the diminution
will

no

in

mano raddoppiado
raddoppiera
9 la

il

passato

spatio,

diminvitione.

double.

C. A. 4iai 132*]

IOI.
linia

Comlcia prima dalla


coll'

mf
|

Begin from the

line

mf

with

ochio di sotto

poi alza e colla


il

linia

n -fcoll'

rifa
\

medesimo

ochio di po'fa sopra e riscotra le 3 2 mire atte attera


cicc ]

the eye below; then go up and do the same with the line nf, then with the eye above and

m
c

close to the 2 gauges on the ground look


at
is

e
\ \
!

quato
tra
J

en-

to

n; then as cm n so will

?-W'tantoI

-/#-etra J --jn-s. 4 se a n entra 3 volte J fb p fara quel


|

be to n If a n

s.

into/, m p will do the same into


3 times

goes

m
,

'

/ g
che 5 a n

di poi c d-

ti

medesimo J tira tato J dirieto

p g. Then
that c
will will

d goes

e tato

quanto
c entra 6 j

2 volte jn sara da p g da g h e quato d o p tanto p enentri


,

be equal to g h. And m p into h p as often as d c into o p.

go backwards so far as twice into a n and / g

go

tra
Ash.

h- p12 b\
I

I.

102.

lO DO

GRADI DELLE COSE OPPOSTE ALL' OCHIO Z COME IL MVSICO QUELLI DELLE UOCI OPPOSTE ALL'ORECHIO.

THE DEGREES OF THE OBJECTS SEEN BY THE EYE AS THE MUSICIAN DOES THE NOTES HEARD BY THE EAR.
I GIVE

Pochio

le cose opposte altocchino Puna 1'altra di mano I mano, no *di nieno far6 la mia regola di 20 in 20 braccia
3

Benche
si

eye do, in fact, as they recede,

Although the objects seen by the touch each other


I

will nevertheless

found

my
.

rule

on spaces of 20
5.

100.

x.
.
.

diminvitione

chose.
6.
.

2.
.

chosa
.

2
.

chessia
.

aparira.
7.
.

3.

chella

[che] infralloro
.

grandeza.
8. alteza
.

Setti porai
.
.

i
.

br la
rado-_

chosa
.

cheffia.

4-hr

alteza

Ksseffia.

br

esseffia.

16

br.

e chosi

imano

piado
101. t.

radopiera.
.

chomTcia
dala.
2.

oposte al
il

chol.

2.

chola
3.

fa chol
.

risschotra.
4.

102.

t.

chome

mvsicho

delle.

oposte

tocino.

20 br

affatto

il

mvsicho.

5.

apichata.

6.

quele

echosi.

7.

ale.

ioi.

The

first

three lines are unfortunately very obscure.

103106].
come
a fatto
il

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.
mvsico
ifra

6l

$\G voci che,

benche

appiccata Tsieme, nodimeno a posti gra 6 di di uocie in uocie domadado quello prima e 2 a 3 a 4 a e 5 a e cosi di grado ?! grado a posto nomi alle varieta d'alzare e bassare la voce.
S.

la sia vnita e

braccia each; as a musician does with notes, though they can be carried on one into the next, he divides into degrees from note to note calling them i st , 2 nd, 3 rd, 4 th, th 5 ; and has affixed a name to each degree in raising or lowering the voice.

which

K. M. IP. 166]

103.

PROSPETTIVA.
P altezza e distantia
la
dell'

PERSPECTIVE.
ochio,
3

a sia

Let

pariete

dell'
*<e

altezza
sia

d'un

omo
dico
s

be the level and distance of the eye; and a the vertical

vn
fia

omo;
sulla
tia al 2

cotale

plane, as high as a man ; let e be a man, then I say


that

pariete la dista-

on

che dalla parie 6 te

be the

the plane this will distance from

homo.

the plane to the 2 nd man.

C. A. 130,5; 398(5]

IO4.
differences in the diminution of obof equal size in consequence of their jects various remoteness from the eye will bear among themselves the same proportions as those of the spaces between the eye and the
different objects.

Li ecciessi della diminutione che fanno


le

The

cose equali per essere co uarie distatie dallo occhio remote; ano infra loro le mede,

sime proportion!

quali son quelle delli spazi

che

infra P ochio e le cose

s'Pterpongono.

Cierca quado vn

omo

diminviscie in

Find out

how much

man

diminishes at a

tata distatia quato 6 e la sua lughezza, e poi in 2 lughezze e poi in 3, e cosl fa ?tua

certain distance and what its length is; then at twice that distance and at 3 times,

and and

regola gienerale.
H. 2
28 6}

so

make your

general rule.

If

L' ochio no
la

puo giudicare
an

The eye cannot judge where


object

doue

cosa alta debe 3di-

high

up

ought

to

sciedere.1

descend.

G. 296]

106.

PROSPETTIVA.
2

PERSPECTIVE.

Infra le

due cose

simili e equali

3poste

If

Puna dopo
si

Paltra con

una data

distantia

placed

two similar and equal objects are one beyond the other at a given
the
difference
in in
their
size
will

loro gradezze,
103.
2.

dimostrera maggiore sdifferetia in nelle 6 quado esse sara piu vicine


lalteza he.
3.

distance

appear

greater

proportion

as

they

are

alteza.

4.

chotale.
2.

104. i. delle diminuitioni cheffanno.


la

infralloro.

3.

spati

che infrallochio

elle.

4.

terpongano.

5.

ciercha

diminviscie.

6.

he

105.

sua lugeza i. po. 3 R.

lugeze.
3.
2.

dissciedere.
Infralle

106.

i.

presspecctiva.

due chose.

3.

posste

chon.

4.

disstantia

dimossterra magiore.

5.

diferetia inelle lor

Qu5.

62

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


II

[ID/.

alPochio che le ?vede E cosi de coverso 8 si dimostrerk infra loro meno 9 varieta di I0 gradezza quato esse so piu remote dal
predetto ochio. Prouasi mediante le propor1 '

nearer to the eye that sees them.


versely there will
in their size in

And

con-

seem

to

be

less

difference

proportion as they are remote

from the eye.


This is proved by the proportions of their distances

tioni
12

che

anno
perche

infra loro le lor


IJ

among
ves;
first

distantie,

se fra

essi

due
tanta

themselif the of these two


for,

corpi sara distantia F ochio alia quato dalla

'*dal-

prima
first this

objects were as far from the eye, as the 2 nd from the

pri'Sma alia 2 a, questa si dimada 2 a iSproportione, perche se la prima e discoa sta vn braccio dall'oc^chio e la 2 e discosta 2 braccia, il 2 e do l8 pio all'uno e per questo I9 il primo corpo si di mostrera doppio al se tu 2<> rimoverai da te cento braccia la prima e cento uno braccio 2I la secoda, tu trover-

would be called the second propor-

tion: since, if the first is at i braccia from the nd at two braccia, two being eye and the 2

twice as

much

as

2E

one,

the

first

object will

look twice as large as the second. But if 'you place the first at a hundred braccia from you and the second at a hundred and one,

22 rai la prima essere maggiore della secoda 2 quato cen 3to e minore di ceto uno e questa 2 per co versa; *E acora il medesimo si proua a la 4 di questo 25 che dicie delle cose per 26 a equali tal proportione e da gradezza 2 28 a distan?le e da distatia grandezza qua tia 29 delF ochio che le 3 V ede.

you
10 1
;

will find that the first is

larger again,

only so much than the second as 100 is less than and the converse is equally true. And
the

of

this

jects

same thing is proved by the 4 th book which shows that among obthat are equal, there is the same pro-

portion in the diminution of the size as in the increase in the distance from the eye of the
spectator.

E.

107.

Pa
3

1 DELLE COSE EQUALI LA PIU REMOTA

OF EQUAL
The
.
.

PAR MINORE.1I

OBJECTS THE MOST REMOTE LOOK THE SMALLEST.

La

OB

natural 4
5

in

pratica della prospettiva si diuide parti, delle quali la prima figura tut-

\ilj- iog)!

te le cose

vedute

dall'

6
7

distantia e questa in se

cose come F ochio le e obbligato Fomo a stare piu in un sito I0 9 che in la un'altro, pure che il muro non
8

ochio in qualunche mostra tutte esse uede diminuite, e non

practice of perspective may be divided parts [4], of which the first treats of objects seen by the eye at any distance; and it shows all these objects just as the eye sees them diminished, without obliging a man
into
.

to

stand in

so

one place rather than another long as the plane does not produce a

riscorti la
11

Ma la 2 a

secoda volta. pratica e vna mistione

I2

di

pro-

spettiva fattainparte dall' arteein par^te dalla natura, e F opera fatta ^colle sua regole non a

is a combination of perspective derived partly from art and partly from nature and the work done by its rules is in

second foreshortening. But the second practice

6.

chelle.

7.

chosi

seffra.
19.

13. disstantia.
.

mossterra

giore.
107.
i.

23. ceto

si dimosstera infrallorome. n. le pro "ne" che. 12. infralloro . disstantie disscossta 2 br. do. 18. il ppro "ne" perche sella p e disscossta vnbr. 17. ella 21 . troverrai [lultima] "la prima" essere [mij. cento i br Esse 20. "datte" certo br 22. [norej mae cquessta p "no" coversa 24. 4 di quessto. 25. tal pro "ne". 27. disstatia. 28. addisstantia. 29. chelle.

..

coverso
15.

[si

dimo).

8. [stera]

quessta.

16.

chose.
.

chome
cha
. .

3. praticha diminute e ne.


.

presspectiva.
8.

4. in
.

...
.

parte

p fighura
sito.

tuc.

5.

dele chose.
10.

6.
. .

ecquesta

mosstra.

7.

chose

ne obbrighato

asstare
.

piu nun

9. nol.

risscorti
13.

sechoda.

n. Malta

2* prati-

misstione.

12.

presspetdva facta dall

As a marginal

note "in parte".

natura

[e

nonam]

ellopera.

14. reghole.

107.

4. in

... parte.

The space

for the

number

is

left

blank

in the original.

io8.]

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.
every portion of
it, influenced by natural perspective and artificial perspective. By natural perspective I mean that the plane on which

JS parte al cuna che no sia mista colla prospetl6 naturale e colla prospettiva ^accidentiva l8 colla prospettiva na turale intendo tale I9 na dove tale essere la pariete pia prospet20 tiva e figura ta, la qual pariete ancora ch'e 2I lla sia di lunghezza e altezza paralella, 22 ella e costretta a diminuire le parti ^remote piu che le sua parti prime, e que 2 ^sto di sopra e la sua si prova per la prima diminu 2 5tione e naturale; e la prospettiva accide 26 tale cioe quella ch'e fatta dall'arte
||

this perspective is represented is a flat surface, and this plane, although it is parallel both in

length and height,

forced to diminish in its its nearer ones. And this is proved by the first of what has been said above, and its diminution is natural.
is

remoter parts more than in

But

artificial

perspective, that

is

that

which

is

fa

cotra 2 7rio in se, perche crescie nella 28 li corpi che I pariete scorta ta tanto piu 2 lor sono equali, 9quato 1'ochio e piu naturale e piu vicino al3la pariete e quanto la 3 ' dove si figura e piu parte d'essa pariete, remota dall'ochio;
il

devised by art, does the contrary; for objects equal in size increase on the plane where it is foreshortened in proportion as the eye is more natural and nearer to the plane, and as the part of the plane on which it is figured is farther from the eye.

32

33

e questa tal parietc sia d e nel-

And let this be d e on


3 equal
circles

plane

34 la
35

qual

si

which are seen


figv-

ra 3 circoli equa-

which are
this
is
c.

3 6 li

che son dopo

37esso
3 8 li

beyond

plane

e,

cioe

d
ora

<?,

that

circoli

a b

c;

the circles

39 tu

vedi che Pochisulla

Now
h

a b you see

4o h vede
41
42

that the eye sees on the


vertical plane

pariete retti
linia
li

tagli del-

the sections of
the images, largest of those that are
farthest

43 le 44 ri

spetie maggionelle maggiori

and

45distantie o mi46

smallest of the
nearest.

nori nelle vicine.

E.

I08
seguita quel 2 da piedi dirieto margine,

'

Qui

che

manca
a
e

in

questa

Here follows what is wanting in the margin at the foot on the other side
of
this

faccia.

che natura nella sua procon spectiva 4adopera in contrario ciosiache nelle Smaggiori distan6 si dimo stra tie la cosa veduta
3 II

page. Natural

perspective

acts
at

in

r\

for, greater way; contrary distances the object seen appears smaller, and at a smaller distance

minore e nella distantia minore 7 la cosa par maggiore; Ma questa


15

the

this

ta 8 le
chuna.
.

inuencione
.

costrignie
16. cholle presspettiva.
17.

object appears larger. said invention requires the his eye at a spectator to stand with
19. presspettiva effighura. 20. pariete

But

missta cholla prespec.


21.

cholla presspettiva.
chelle
31. 44.
. .

[in se]

anchora.

alteza.

22.

chostretta

parterte.
30.
43.

23.

parte

ecq.
32.

24.

lap'di

ella

sua

<

26. cheffatta dallaltre.

27. cresscie.

28. illorsono.

ecquanto.

fighura eppiu.
46. nor.
.

ecquesta.

34.

fighv.

35. ro 3 cl

equa.

36.

chesson sop.
2.

38.

li
.

cl a.
.

39. chellochi.
3'.

magio.
4.

magior.

108

mancha.
dimos.
7.

[dir]

dappiedi
8.

acquesta.
.

si

Macquesta.
di sopra

chosstrignie

prosspectiva. ueditore as. 9. chollochio

inchontrario
.

chon

chSnel.

5.

magior distant*
spiracholo

vedita,

piracholo.

10. dattale

24.

la

prima

i.

e.

the

first

of the three diagrams which,

in

the

original

MS., are placed

in

the margin at the beginning

of this

chapter.

64
il

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

[109.

20 propia forma che sia possibile; E di 2I questa prospettiua senplicie, della quale la pariete taglia le "piramidi portatricie

a vno ueditore a 9 stare coll'ochio e 10 allora da tale spiracolo si dimostrera "bene; Ma perche molti occhi s'ab I2 battono a vedere a un medesimo tenpo vna '^medesima opera fatta con tale arte e so 14 lo vn di quelli vede bene 1'ufitio di tal l6 pro'Sspectiua e li altri tutti resta confu si; Egli e dunque da fuggire tal pro'^spettiva l8 conposta e a tenersi alia se plicie, la qual no uol uedere pariete in i^scorto, ma piu
spiracolo

small hole and then, at that small hole, it will be very plain. But since many (men's) eyes endeavour at the same rime to see one and

same picture produced by this artifice only one can see clearly the effect of this perspective and all the others will see confusion.
the
It is

well therefore to avoid such

complex

perspective

in

simple perspective which does not regard planes as foreshortened, but as much as possible in their proper form. This simple perspective, in which the plane
intersects the

and hold

to

pyramids by which the images

delle spetie all'ochio ^equalmente distanti dalla virtu visiua 24 ci ne da sperietia la

are conveyed to the eye at an equal distance from the eye is our constant experience,

curva lucie del 25 l'ochio sopra la quale tali z6 piramidi si ta gliano equalmete distanti
dalla virtu
2 7

from the curved form of the pupil of the on which the pyramids are intersected at an equal distance from the visual
eye
virtue.

visiua ecc.

Br.

M.

62 a]

109.

DELLA PROSPETTIVA NATURALE MISTA COLL A


PROSPETTIVA ACCIDETALE.

OF A MIXTURE OF NATURAL AND


PERSPECTIVE.

ARTIFICIAL

Questa dimostratione divide la pronaturale dalla accidetale, ^ma spettiva auanti che piu oltre proceda difmirai quale e naturale e quale ac^cidetale; prospettiva naturale dicie cosl If delle cose d' equal

artificial

This diagram distinguishes natural from perspective. But before proceeding

any farther I will define what is natural and what is artificial perspective. Natural perspective says that the more remote of a series of

a distantia Ma la prospettiua acci8 le co se inequali in varie distantie, riservado la minore piu vicina al1'ochio che 9 la maggiore, co tal distantia che essa maggiore si dimostra essere minore di tutte I0 l'altre, e di questo e causa il mvro doue tal dimostratione e figurata, il quale
stantia

5 la piu remota si dimostra magnitudine minore E de converse la piu propinqua si dimostra maggiore, e tal proportione e da diminutione a diminutione qua?le e da di;

objects of equal size will look the smaller, and conversely, the nearer will look the larger and

the apparent size will diminish in proportion to the distance. But in artificial perspective

detale

pone

"a

distantia

inequale

dall'ochio

in

ogni

when objects of unequal size are placed at various distances the smallest is nearer to the eye than the largest and the greatest distance looks as though it were the least of all; and the cause of this is the plane on which the objects are represented; and which is at unequal distances from the eye throughout its length. And this diminution

II. molti [omi] ochi [p]sa.

12.

battano aumedesimo.

13.

chon.

arte esso.

14.

lo

vn diuuegli vede
22.

pres.

15. elli

ressta.
24.

16.

daffuggire

pre.

17.

chonposta e attenersi.
26. distante.

19. chessia.

20. presspectiva.

piramide portatricie.

23. distante.

cieneda sperietia.
presspectiua
.
.

25. tale

piramide.
2.

109.

i.

cholla presspectiva.
.

presspectiva.
. .

3.

proccieda difinira

ennaturale ecquale.
7.

4.

prespectiua.

chosi.
. .

5.

dimosstra
8.

chonverso
. .

dimos.
.
.

6. ettal
9.

diminuitione addiminuitione.
disstantia
. .

disstantia addistantia
. .

cho.

innequali

disstantie

chel.

cho

magiore

dimosstra

di tuc.

10.

Malla presspectiua eddi quessto ecchausa

LINEAR PERSPECTIVE.
parte della sua'lughezza e questa tal
I2

di-

minutione del
spettiua
in

muro

esso

e naturale, ma la profigurata e accide^tale,

of the plane

is
it

natural,
is

but the perspective


since
that
it

shown upon
agrees plane.

artificial

nowhere

with the

true diminution of the said


it

perche
colla

in nessuna parte non si accorda vera diminutione del det^to muro; onde ne resulta che, removendosi alquato 1'ochio d'essa prospetti I5 va risguardatore, ogni cosa figurata apparisce mostruosa, il che no l6 interviene nella prospettiua natuJ rale, la quale e difinita di sopra ecc. ?ad-

Whence

follows,

when

the

unque diremo

il

quadrate

di sopra essere un dall'ochio situate in mezzo della larghezza J che a la sua fronte; Ma 9la prospettiva accidetale mista colla naturale fia trovata 20 nel quadra to detto el main, cioe e h,

ngurato in iscor l8 to, veduto

abed

eye is somewhat removed from the .[station point of the] perspective that it has been gazing at, all the objects represented look monstrous, and this does not occur in natural perspective, which has been defined above. Let us say then, that the square figured above is foreshortened being seen by the eye situated in the centre of the side which is in front. But a mixture of artificial and natural perspective will be seen in this
tretragon
e

abed

called

el

main,

that

is

to

say

fg

il

quale a a parere all'ochio che lo vede


2I

h which must appear to the eye of the spectator to be equal to a b c d so


long as the eye remains in
its

fg

simile

al

a b

cd

state 1'ochio

fermo nel

first

position

22 primo sito infra c d, e questo si dimostrera fare buono effetto: perche la prospettiua
2 naturale del muro fa 3 che tal muro occuldi tal mostruosita. tera il mancameto

between c and d. And this will be seen to have a good effect, because the natural
perspective of the plane will conceal the defects which would [otherwise] seem monstrous.

dimosstratione e fighurata.
nuitione del dec.
interviene
.

n.

disstantia
. .

ecquesta.

12.
15.

diminuitione

malla presspectiua.
.

13.

acchorda cholla

dimi16.

14.

cherremovendosi
.

presspecti.
17.
. .

rissghuardatore
.

chosa fighurata apparisscie mosstruoso.


.

ne

presspectiua
.

eddifinita.

addunque direno
apparere
. .

fighurato

innissco "r".
22.

18.

largheza
. .

froncte.

19. lla

presspectiva
.

missta cholla.
. .

20. decto

chello.

21. ecquesto.

dimossterra

presspectiua.

23. chettal

ochulture

il

manchameto

musstrvosita.

109.

20. el

main

is

quite

legibly written

in

the original;

the

meaning and derivation of the word

are equally doubtful.

VOL.

I.

Six books on Light and Shade.


Linear Perspective cannot be immediately followed by either the "prospettiva de' perdimenti" or the "prospettiva de' color!" or the aerial perspective ; since these branches of the subject presuppose a knowledge of the principles of Light and Shade. No apology, therefore, is here needed for placing these immediately after Linear Perspective.

We have
in

various plans suggested by Leonardo for the arrangement of the mass of

materials treating of this subject.

Among

these

I have given
,

the preference to a scheme

No. ill, because, in all probability we have here a final and definite propounded purpose expressed. Several authors have expressed it as their opinion that the Paris Manuscript C is a complete and finished treatise on Light and Shade. Certainly, the

and Shade form by far the larger portion of this MS. which consists two separate parts; still, the materials are far from being finally arranged. It is of also evident that he here investigates the subject from the point of view of the Physicist rather than from that of the Painter.
Principles of Light

The plan of a scheme of arrangement suggested in No. 1 1 1 and adopted by me has been strictly adhered to for the first four Books. For the three last, however, few materials have come down to us ; and it must be admitted that these three Books would find a far more appropriate place in a work on Physics than in a treatise on Painting. For this reason I have collected in Book V all the chapters on Refiections, and in Book VI I have put together and arranged all the sections of MS. C that belong to the book on Painting, so far as they relate to Light and Shade, while the sections of the same

MS. which
the series

of the "Prospettiva on Light and Shade.


treat

de' perdimenti" have,

of course, been excluded from

GENERAL INTRODUCTION.

Br.

M.

171 a]

110.

Bisognia
2

ti
3

descrivere la teorica e poi


discriuerai

You must
the

first

explain
First

la

pratica;

primo de obra e

then the practice.

lumi de'corpi
parenti.

^densi e poi de'corpi tras-

shadows and lights and then on transparent bodies.

the theory and you must describe on opaque objects,

C. A. 246 a; 733 a]

III.

PROEMIA.
2

INTRODUCTION.
della

[Auedo

io

trattato

natura
trattero

de' obre _ e loro

percussione, Ora

de
3

i quali da esse obre tochi fieno, loro curuita, obbliquita o dirittura o di di

lochi,

[Having already treated of the nature of shadows and the way in which they are cast, I will now consider the places on which they fall; and their curvature, obliquity,
flatness
or,

Scheme
'

of

Light a^d" ^hade.

in

qualunque qualita trovare per me si potra.] iQbra e privatione di luce; spa rendo a me le obre essere di somma neciessita in nella
prospettiva, peroche sanza quelle 6 opachi e cubi male sieno intesi
i

short,

any character

may

be able

to detect in them.]

Shadow is
appear to

the obstruction of light.


to

Shadows

corpi

che detro

a'

sua termini collocato

quello fia, e

be of supreme importance in perspective, because, without them opaque and solid bodies will be ill denned; that which is contained within their outlines and their boundaries themselves will be ill-understood
unless they are
therefore in

me

male i sua cofini itesi fieno se essi no terminano I capo di uario 7 colore da quello
del corpo;

shown
first

of a different tone from

against a background And themselves.

per questo jo propogo nella

my
state

shadow
is

that

prima propositione dell' obre, dico I questa forma come ogni corpo 8 opaco fia circu-

proposition concerning every opaque body

surrounded
in

veloped

and shadow

its

whole surface enAnd on and light.

no.
in.

x.
x.

teoricha.

2.

praticha.
.
.

3.

ellume.
.

4.

tractate delle nature


6.

elloro

perchussione.
.
.

chorpi trapareti. 2. choruita

diritti.
. .

3.

Obra
.

he.
.

5.

ame
[

inella prosspettiva .. chorpi


.

"oppachi e" chubi.

malle esua chofini

chapo.

7.

dacquello

chorpo

allobre

"dicho Iquesta forma" chome

in.

some
scritti

slight
e

This text has already been published with variations in Dozio's pamphlet Degli disegni di Leonardo da Vinci, Milan 1871,
31.

to

him, but from an old copy (MS. .H. 227 in the


Library).
io Jractato.

Ambrosian
2.

Avendo
refers

We

may suppose
MS.,

that

he

pp. 30

Dozio did not transcribe it from the original MS. which seems to have remained unknown

here

to

some

particular

possibly

Paris C.

;o

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


this

[112.

dato e superfitialmete vestito d'obre e di il primp libro; lumi, e sopra questo edifice a di questo 'esse obre sono in se di Oltre uarie qualita d'oscurita perche da varie

proposition I build up the first Book. Besides this, shadows have in themselves various degrees of darkness, because they are caused by the absence of a variable amount

abbadonate spno, e quatita di razzi luminosi I0


queste

domado obre

originali,

perche sono

i corpi dpue prime obre, che uestono sono, e sopra questo edifichero il appiccate 2 libro; "da queste obre originali ne re-

le

of the luminous rays; and these I call Primary shadows because they are the first, and inseparable from the object to which they belong. And on this I will found my second From these primary shadows there Book.

sultano

razzi obrosi

quali

si

uano

dila-

tando per 1'aria, e sono di tante qualita, quate "sono le uarieta dell'onbre originali, donde essi derivano e per questo io chi-

amo
altre

esse obre obre diriuatiue, perche da obre ^nascono, e sopra di questo

jo faro

il libro; Ancora queste 3 T tanti diriuative nelle loro percussioni fanno vari effetti quato son van i lochi dove

onbre

shaded rays which are diffused atmosphere and these vary in through character according to that of the primary shadows whence they are derived. I shall therefore call these shadows Derived shadows because they are produced by other shadows; and the third Book will treat of these. Again these derived shadows, where they are
result certain

the

E
16

esse percuotono, e qui fard il quarto libro *s percussione della diriuativa perche la obra e senpre circudata da percussione di
.

luminosi razzi

la

quale per reflesso cocorso

risaltando indirieto uerso la sua cagione trova


originate

intercepted by various objects, produce effects as various as the places where they are cast and of this I will treat in the fourth Book. And since all round the derived shadows, where the derived shadows are intercepted, there is always a space where the light falls and by
reflected dispersion
is

e si mischia e si couerte variadola di sua J ?natura alquato e sopra questo edifichero il quito libro Oltr'a di questo faro il sesto libro, nel quale l8 e molte diuersificationi si coterra le uarie delli risultanti razzi reflessi, i quali uarierano

Ton bra

thrown back towards

its

in quella

cause, it meets the original shadow and mingles with it and modifies it somewhat in its

nature; and on this I will compose my fifth Book. Besides this, in the sixth Book I will
investigate

the

many and

various diversities

la originale

di

tanti vari colori

I9 qua to

fie

vari

lochi

ode
20

essi reflessi razzi

deriuano .lancora faro


delle uarie

la

luminosi settima diuisione

of reflections resulting from these rays which will modify the original [shadow] by [imparting] some of the various colours from
different objects whence these reflected Again, the seventh Book rays are derived. will treat of the various distances that may

distantie, che fia infra la percussione del razo reflesso al loco dode nasce; quato fie uarie le similitudini de co2I

the

lori

che esso nella percussione

al

corpo

opaco appicca.

between the spot where the reflected rays fall and that where they originate, and the various shades of colour which they will acquire in falling on opaque bodies.
exist

Ash.

I.

6b]

112.

ITratterai
Different
' P CS PCS and' p?a ns en t f

prima

de'

lumi
2

fatti dalle

First I will treat of light falling

through

finestre ai quali porrai


.

nome

aria costretta

poi tratterai de lumi della capagnia, ai quali

16)

porai nome lume sUbttO-di poi del lume de corpi luminosi.1I

,..,,..
. .

tratterai

windows which I will call Restricted [Light] and then I will treat of light in the open coun"Ill JilVV, MIX, UO.IUV, \J1 UlllU' "J L<J "IV11 try, to which I will give the name of diffuof & e Hght of sed Light Then : win

^^

luminous bodies.

vari [razi] "quatita dirazzi" luminosi [sono] abbacirchudato vesstito edificho. 9. dosschurita chorpo oppacho resulta razi e quali ix. dacqueste libro [dopo questo]. donate "sono" ecqueste. io. vestano i chorpi apichate Ibro Anchora laria [i quali] e. siuano 12. originale essi obre "5bre" diriuatiue. perchussioni. 14. effe 13. naschano
.

effetti

dove

"esse" perchotano
17.

perche [dintorno
.

alia].

15.

perchussione
.

circhudata

perchussione
.

chochorso.
.

16. essimista essi chouerte.

essopra

cholera.
.

18. diuersifichationi
. .

risaltand razi refressi


21.

cholori.

19. refressi

anchora.
1X3.
i.

20. cheffia infralla


2.

perchussione
tratta.

allocho

nasscie

similitudine.

perchussione

chorpo oppacho appicha.

porai.

aia costretta

j. libro

dipo trara.

US
K.3,

16].

ON LIGHT AND SHADE

IN GENERAL.

25,5]

"3-

DE
2

PITTURA.

OF
The
conditions

PAINTING.

Li aspetti dell'onbre e lumi 3coll'ochio sono 3, de quali ^I'uno e quado 1'ochio e 6 '1 lu^me son da un medesimo lato del corpo
8 veduti; 72 e quando 1'ochio e dina ti al1'obietto e '1 lume e do9po esso obbietto; 11 I0 3 e quel che 1'ochio dinati al !' obbietto e '1 lume e da lato I2 i modo che la linia che

of shadow and light [as

seen] by the eye are 3. Of these the first is when the eye and the light are on the same side of the object seen; the 2 nd is when the eye is in front of the object and the light
is

behind
front

in

s'aste^de dall' obbietto all'ochio, e da es^so obbietto al lume, giugne^dosi la cogiutio sara rettagulare.

one drawn from the object to the eye and one from the object to the light should form a right angle where they meet.

The 3 it. is when the eye is of the object and the light is on side, in such a way as that a line

rd

K.3, 26 a]

114.

DE
2

PITTURA.
3

OF
cioe della na-

PAINTING.

Ecci vn altra partitione,

tura dell'ob^bietto riflesso posto isfra 1'ochio


e'l Iu 6

me

per diuersi aspetti.

This is another section: that is, of the nature of a reflection (from) an object placed between the eye and the light under various
aspects.

M. So a]

"5-

DE
2 3
-

PICTURA.

OF
si

PAINTING.
visible

Di

tutte le cose

vedute

a a cosiderare

As

regards

all

objects

things

4 3 cose cioe il sito dell'ochio che vede, e '1 sito della cosa veduta e '1 lume, 5 el sito del 6

lume che allumina

tal

corpo

must be considered. These are the position of the eye which sees: that of the object seen [with regard] to the light, and the po-

(JL

Tb. e

1'

ochio

a e

la

cosa veduta c e

il

sition
ject,

lume;
8

of the light which illuminates the obis the eye, a the object seen, c the

# e 1'ochio b e
il

la cosa che allumina, corpo ch'e alluminato.

light,

is

the eye, b the illuminating body,

c is the illuminated object.

M.

79*1

116.

a
c

sia

il

lume b

1'ochio

Let a be the

light,

b the
'

e la cosa 2 veduta dal1'ochio e dal lume; 3Q U este dan vna volta 1'ochio fra '1

eye, c the object seen eye and in the light.

show,

first,

by the These the eye between

113.

115
i 2.
.

R.

2.
. .

asspetti

ellumi.
13. e

4.
e.

equ"a"do
14.

ellu.

6.

veduto.

7.

ecqu"a"ndo locho.

10.

chellochio.

n.

dallato.

12. chella

chessaste.
3.

da
4.

gugne.
6.

15.

cogutio sare rettagule.


hellochio a ella
c ellume.
8.

114.

6 R.

2.
.

partione.
.

coe.

refresso posto.
3.
[la].

asspetti.
il.

115.

chose
6. ella

siaha chosiderare.

3.

cose coe [lochio]

5.

[che a]

el.

7.

b.

ellochio

cosa [veduta] che alluma.

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTIM;.


lume
e'l 6a
-

[II7-II9.

e'l

corpo
a
il

Ma

2a

il

lume
s

fra

1'ochio

corpo corpo, 3 e 1'ochio b la cosa alluminata c e il lume.

fra

1'ochio e'l

lume

nd the light light and the body; the 2 , between the eye and the body; the 3 rd the body between the eye and the light, a is the eye, b the

the

illuminated object, c the light.

E. 3*1

"7
OF PAINTING. OF THE THREE KINDS OF LIGHT THAT
INATE OPAQUE BODIES.
ILLUM-

PlCTURA. DELLE 3 SORTE DE' LUMI CHE ALLUMINANO 3 LI CORPI OPACHI.


+ 11

primo de lumi

colli quali

s'alluminano
that

The
inate

first

kind of Light which

may

illum-

Different
*(ii7. us),

cor s pi opachi e detto particulare- e questo e 6 il sole o altro lume di finestra o fuoco:
\\

opaque bodies is called Direct light as of the sun or any other light from a win-

II

?secondo e vniversale come accade ne'tepi nu 8 bolosi o di nebbia e simili; II 3 e copo'sto, cioe quando il sole da sera o da mattina
I0

or flame. The second is Diffused [universal] light, such as we see in cloudy weather or in mist and the like. The 3 rd is Subdued light, that is when the sun is entirely below
the horizon, either in the evening or morning.

dow

e integralmete sotto 1'orizonte.

G.

118.

DE' LUMI.
lumi che alluminano li corpi opachi 4 sorti, cioe vniversale come quello e del' aria ch' e * dentro al nostro orizzonte s quello del sole o d'una particolare com'e finestra o porta o altro spa 6 tio; e'l terzo e il lume riflesso ed ecce ne vn 14, il quale 8 o passa per cose traspareti, come tela
1
2

OF
The
lights

LIGHT.

which may illuminate opaque

sono

di

bodies are of 4 kinds. These are: diffused light as that of the atmosphere, within our horizon. And Direct, as that of the sun, or of a window or door or other opening. The third th is Reflected which light; and there is a 4
that which passes through [semi] transparent bodies, as linen or paper or the like, but not transparent like glass, or crystal, or .other diaphanous bodies, which produce
is

carta o simili,

ma no
effetto

traspareti

come

vetri,

9o
il

cristali o' altri

mede I0 simo

corpi diafani, li quali fan come se nulla fusse

interposto i^fra'l corpo obroso e'l lume che


I2 1'allumina, e di que sti parleremo distintamete nel nostro discorso.

same effect as though nothing intervened between the shaded object and the light that falls upon it; and this we will discuss fully in our discourse.
the

Ash.

I.

119.

CHE COSA E OBRA E


2

LUME.

WHAT
Shadow

LIGHT AND SHADOW ARE.


is

Obra e

priuatio di luce e sola opposi-

Definition of tione de' corpi desi opposti a razzi luminosi : of shadow" obra e di natu^ra delle tenebre: lume e di

(119-122).

natura del i a

uce

p una 4c j e i a e
1

i'

a it ro

diai

mostra

sono sepre

absence of light, merely of the luminous rays by an opaque body. Shadow is of the nature of darkness. Light [on an object] is of the nature of a luminous body; one conceals and
the the obstruction
the other reveals.

copagnia cogivti

corpi, e 1'onbra e di

maggiore potetia che


7. ellochio.

They are always associated and inseparable from all objects. But shadow

116.

i. 2.

c ella.

4.

ilumc frallochio.
3.

117.

oppachi.
.

chorpi oppachi.

4.

cholli

li

chor.

5.

oppachi he detto partichulare ecquesto he.


refresso.

6.

offuocho.

7. sc-

chondo he
118.
3.

achade.
sorte coe
.

8.
.

3" he chopo.
quel.
fussi.
4.

9. dassera.
5.

di [3]

"4"
2.
.

nosstro orizonte.
. .

quel.

6.

7.

trasspareti.

8.

charta

ossitnili

trasspareti.

9. crisstali.

10.

chome

12. parlere

nosstrodisscorso.
. .

119.

eltume.
ellaltro
.

Obra "e
5.

priuatio di luce" e sola opositione


proibissce.
6.

opostia razi.

3.

luna

[e privatione e laltro].

4.

[di

mo]

ciela

magiore.

luce ella luchc

chaciare.

I2O

122.
j

ON LIGHT AND SHADE


is

IN GENERAL.

73

'1

lume Ipero-che quella proibisce e priva iteramete i corpi della luce, e la luce no puo mai cacciare I tutto 7l'6bra de' corpi
6

a more powerful agent than light, for it can impede and entirely deprive bodies of their
light,

cioe corpi desi.

dow from a body,


120.

while light can never entirely expel shathat


is

from an opaque body.

W.

L. 145;
11

Da]

Obra

lume diminuito

positio dell'opacoll. ^Obra e '1 suppliomeHo del razzo luminoso taSgliato dallo opacol. 6 Pruovasi, perche il razzo ^obroso e della medesima 8 figura e quatita

mediante Pop-

Shadow is the diminution of light by the intervention of an opaque body. Shadow is the counterpart of the luminous rays which are cut off by an opaque body.
This is proved because
the

che era 9 il razzo luminoso nel quale 'essa obra si trasmuta.

shadow cast is the same in shape and size

as the luminous rays were which are transformed into a shadow.


121.

W.

232,*]

L' obra e diminutione di lucie e di tenebre ed e interposta infra esse tenebre e lucie; 3 L' onbra e d' infinita oscurita e d' infinita diminutione d'essa oscurita; s Li principi e fini dell' onbra s'astedono infra 6 la lucie e le tenebre ed e d' infinita
2

Shadow is the diminution alike of light and of darkness, and stands between darkness and light.

shadow may be

infinitely dark,

and also

of

dimi?nuitione e d'ifmita aumetatione. L' onbra e pronutiatione de' corpi delle


lor
9

degrees of absence of darkness. The beginnings and ends of shadow lie between the light and darkness and may be infinitely diminished and infinitely increased.
infinite

figure.

Le figure de corpi delle lo TI ro qualita sanza

10

no dara
1'

notitia

onbra.

Shadow is the means by which bodies display their form. The forms of bodies could not be understood in detail but for shadow.

Ash.

I.

122.

DEL'ESSERE DEL' OBRA PER


2

SE.

OF THE NATURE OF SHADOW.


vni-

L' obra

versali

e della natura che tutte sono piv


il

delle cose
3

Shadow partakes of
versal

the nature

of uni-

poteti
;

cipio

e luerso

fine ideboliscono

nel prldico nel

matter.

All

such

matters

are

more

4 d' principio ogni forma e qualita evidete ed inevidete e no delle cose codotte s di piccol pricipio I molto accrescimeto dal tepo,

powerful in their beginning and grow weaker towards the end, I say at the beginning, whatever their form or condition may be and whether visible or invisible. And it is not from
small beginnings that they grow to a great size in time as it might be a great oak which has a feeble beginning from a small acorn. Yet I may
;

come sarebbe una gran


pricipio per

quercia che a debole


azi diro la

una piccola ghiada;

piv potete al nascimeto 8 ch' ella fa della terra, cioe nella maggiore sua
quer?cia

essere

grosseza,

adunque

le

tenebre sono

il

primo

9grado del' onbra e la luce e 1' ultimo: I0 aduque tu pittore farai Po bra piv scura alia sua cagione e il fine fa che appresso si coverta in luce, cioe che paia saza
fine.

is most powerful at its beginwhere it springs from the earth, which is where it is largest (To return:) Darkness, then, is the strongest degree of shadow and light is its least. Therefore, O Painter,

say that the oak


is

ning, that

make your shadow


ject that casts it, ding into light,

darkest close to the obfa-

and make the end of it seeming to have no end.

iao. i. ellume.
lai.
i.
.

2.

oppacho.
. .

3. 2.

Obra

[ellume].

4.

te del.
4.

5.

oppacho.
. .

8.

ecquatita.
5.

diminuitione
nuitione.
. .

eddi.

ellucie.

3. osschurita.
. .

minuitione

osscurita.

effini

sasstedano

infral.

6. el'le

tenebr.

8.

chorpi.
.

10.

chorpi
3.

no dara.
4. 8.

122. 2. dela

chose
7.
. .

chettutte.
. .

Ideboliscano.

ecqualita.
. .

5.

pichol

Imolt

sarebe

gra.
9.

6.

che he debole
10.

per
.

pichola.

cie essere

chela fa dela tera.

magiore

grosseza adunq

le

tenebre

e.

ella luce.

apresso

chagione

coverti.

VOL.

I.

74
C. .4']

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


3
2

123-125.

or

.he various kin.U

^ Tenebre e pri vatio di luce;


3

of shadows

(123-125).

nu tio di luce: obra primitiva e quella che je appiccata a corpi obrosi 4 obra dinvativa e quella che si spicca da corpi obrosi e scorre
;

.--.

...

obra e dimi-

Darkness
diminution of

is

absence of

light.

Shadow
is

is

light.

Primitive

shadow

that

per 1* aria 5 obra ripercossa e quella che e cir6 cudata da luminata pariete; l'6bra senplice e quella che no uede alcuna parte
;

causa H 7 l'6bra senplice comlcia in nella linia che


del
la
si

lume che

from a body not in Derived shadow is that which is disengaged from a body in shadow and pervades the air. A cast transparent shadow is that which is surrounded by an illuminated A simple shadow is one surface. which receives no light from the luminous body which causes it. A
which
the
is

inseparable

light.

simple
line

shadow

begins within the

parte da' termini de' corpi minosi a b.

lu-

which starts from the of the luminous body a b.

edge

Br.

M.

248

<5|

124.

1
3

Onbra senplice e

quella che

no vede alcu

simple shadow

is
it.

one where no

light

Iumi 2 noso1f

at all interferes with

onbra composta e quella che da vno o

4 piu Iu minosi e alluminata.

A compound shadow is one which is somewhat illuminated by one or more lights.

Ash.

I.

125.

CHE
^

DIFFERETIA

COI CORPI A'

E DA OBRA COGIUTA OBRA SEPARATA?

WHAT
THAT
si

is IS

THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A SHADOW INSEPARABLE FROM A BODY AND A


CAST SHADOW?

quella che parte dai corpi alluminati, *come una palla la quale state al lume una parte di se 5 occupata dall' obra, mai si diuide per mvtatio di sito

Obra cogivnta e

mai

sarebbe
sepre a la quale
fatto

da

essa 6 palla; Ombra separata puo essere e non essere creata dal corpo; 7poniamo che essa palla sia distate a uno muro uno braccio e dal'opposita parte sia 8 il lume; il detto lume madera I detto mvro apputo tanta dilatazione di 69bra quat' e quella che si troua sulla parte della palla ch' e volta a detto
lp muro Quella parte dell' obra separata che non appare fia quado il lume "fia di sotto alia palla che la sua obra ne va luerso il cielo e no trovado resi I2 stetia pel cami-

inseparable shadow is that which is never absent from the illuminated body. As, for instance a ball, which so long as it is in the light always has one side in shadow which never leaves it for any movement or change of position in the ball. A separate shadow may be and may not be produced by the body itself. Suppose the ball to be one braccia distant from a wall with a light on the opposite side of it; this light will throw upon the wall exactly as broad a shadow as is to be' seen on the side of the ball that That portion of is turned towards the wall. the cast shadow will not be visible when the
is below the ball and the shadow is thrown up towards the sky and finding no

An

light

no

si

perde.

obstruction on

its

way

is

lost.

II
obra separata e cogiuta
(separate

obra separata inevidete


(separate invisible shadow).

and inseparable shadow).

123.

R.
.

2.
.

obra he diminuitio.
dalluminata.
.

3.

he quella
.

che he appichata achorpi.


7.

4.

he quella

spicha

escore.

5.

ecquella

che he
124.
i.

6. lo
3.

senplice he

chella.
.

inella

chessiparte.

ecquela

alchu.

chonposta ecquella
1
. .

oppiu.
5.

125. 3. ecquella.

4.

chome sarebe
chessi troua.

parte.
.
.

ochopata.
.

6.
.

po

corp"o".

7.

muro

br e

oposita.

8.

detta

aputo data.

9.

ro.

Quela

seperata

apare

ilume.

n.

ala pala.

12.

chamino.

126128.]

ON LIGHT AND SHADE

IN GENERAL.

75

Br.

M.

171 a]

126.

COME SON
i

RAGIONI LUMI 2 L'UNO SEPARATO E L'ALTRO COGIVTO 3Ai CORPI.


DI
2

HOW THERE ARE 2 KINDS OF LIGHT, ONE SEPARABLE FROM, AND THE OTHER INSEPARABLE
FROM
BODIES.
that which falls upon the or th Separate light io " s body. Inseparable light is the side of the body f
is
is illuminated by that light. One is called primary, the other derived. And, in the same way there are two kinds of shadow: One primary and the other derived. The primary

Separate e quello che illumina


6

s il

corpo

cogivnto e quella par te del corpo alluminato da esso Iu7me; 1'uno lume si dimada
8 primi tiuo e Paltro dirivatiuo; 9 e cosi sono di 2 nature obre, I0 l'una primitiva e obra

that

I26

I2 7).

dirivatiua;

"primitiva e quella -ch'e appic-

cata ai

I2

corpi, dirivatiua e quella

^che

si

separa dai corpi, portado

^i se

alle parieti

de'mvri

la

forma 'Sdella sua cagione.

inseparable from the body, which proceeds from the body conveying to the surface of the wall the form of the body causing it.
is
is

that

which
is

the derived

that

Br.

M.

170-5]

127.
2

Come sono 2 different! lumi uno si chianm libero e altro costretto, 3 libero e quello
1' 1'

How

there are 2

different kinds of light;

il

che libero allumina

corpi,

costretto e quello

one being called diffused, the other restricted. The diffused is that which freely illuminates

che per qualche Sspiracolo o finestra

allu-

objects.

The

restricted

is

that

which being
or

mina

medesimamete

corpi.

admitted
illuminates

through

an

opening

window

them on

that side only.

C. A. 114

i/ I}

355 a]

128.
2

Lucie e discacciatore
e

di tenebre,

onbra
is

Light

is

the chaser

away of darkness. Shade


is

General

priuatione di luce, flume primitiuo e 4 il quale e cagione d' alluminaSre i quello 6 e li diriuatiui lumi so quelle corpi obrosi; 7 de' corpi 8 dal primo lume allumiparti I0 nate; sQnbra primitiva e quella parte de' dal lume "veduta esser no puo; corpi che

the obstruction of light. Primary light

that

which

falls on objects and causes light and shade. And derived lights are those portions of a body which are illuminated by the pri-

mary

A primary shadow is that side light. of a body on which the light cannot fall.

126. 2. seperato
12. ecquella.

elalto.

4.

[seperato

ecquello]

seperato ecquello chellumina.


15.
.

5.

ecquella.

8.

ellaltro.

n.

que che apicata.

13. chessi sepera.

14. ale pariete.

chagione.
4.
7.

127. i. difenti.

2.

ciama
3.

libro.

3.

libre ecquello

alumina.

costeto ecquelo.
. .

5.

alumina.
9.

6.

chorpi.
10.

128. i. discaciatore.

ecquello.

4.

chagione.

6.

el diriuatiui.

parte

corpi [alluminate].

hecquella.

chorpi

da-

127. At the spot marked A in the first diagram Leonardo wrote lume costretto (restricted light). At

the spot

on the second diagram he wrote lume


light).

libero (diffused

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


"Cocorso obroso e luminoso I5 e quella soma de'razzi che da M corpo obroso o lumisi parto'Sno scorrendo per 1'arie sanza J percussione obrosa o luminosa ?e quel l8 il loco che inpediscie e sopra se taglia obrosi e lumi I9 nosi. concorso de'razzi 2l le quell' ochio meglio conosciera

[12 9

noso
l6

*E

figure de' corpi che infra le parti e luminose situato fia.

22

onbrose

of shadow and of the rays thrown off by a shaded or illuminated body passing through the air without any interference and the spot which intercepts and cuts off the distribution of the dark and light rays. And the eye can best distinguish the forms of objects when it is placed between the shaded and the illuminated parts.
general
distribution
light is that

The

sum

total

A.

129.

METIONE DELLE CHOSE LE QUALI 10 DIMANDO CHE MI SIANO COCIEDUTE 2 IN NELLE PROVE DI
QUESTA
MIA
PROSPECTIUA. ^Io dimado che mi sia coceduto lo aflfermareche ciascuno razzo 'passando per aria che sia d' equale sottilita scorrino per retta linia dalla s loro cagione all' obbiecto

MEMORANDUM OF
GRANTED

THINGS

[AS AXIOMS] IN

REQUIRE TO HAVE MY EXPLANATION OF


i

PERSPECTIVE.

o percussione.
lume.
16.

much granted me every ray passing through air of equal density throughout, travels in a straight line from its cause to the object or place it falls upon.
I

ask to have this


that

to

assert

ii.

po.

12.

elluminoso.

13.
. .

ecquella

soma

razi.
18.

14.

olluminoso
. .

si

parta.
20.

15.

scornendo
.
.

sanza percussione.
21.

perchussione.

17.

ecquellocho

inpedisscie essopra.

chonchorso

razi.

ecquellochio

chonossciera.

de-

corpi infralle.
139.
i.

chose

sia

chociedute.

2.
.
.

inellc.

3.

chocieduto lo
. .

aflfermarc |che
5.

razi

visuali

e razi

luminosi]

che ciasscuno

razo".

4.

aria [duna] chessia

soctilita scorino

data.

chagione.

FIRST BOOK ON LIGHT


W.
L.
I 4 6a]

AND SHADE.

130.

ragione perche il lume a I se vn 2 noi conosciamo si e questa; chiaramente vn lume grade avaza 3 re molte volte vna cosa piccola, il quale niete di meno, 4 benche lui co sua razzi la circudi molto piu che mezza, 5 senpre 1'onbra apparisce nella prima pariete e senpre si
solo
cietro

La

The reason by which we know


light

that
is

a On

the na

radiates

from a single centre

this:

We

'^^i

plainly

much broader
nevertheless

see that a large light is often than some small object which

vede;
6 Poniamo che c \f sia il lume grade ?e che n sia la cosa opposta gli che genera 8 1' obra nella pariete, e che a b sia la pariete; 9chiaro apparisce che il gra lume no coducerebbe I0 1'onbra n alia pariete; ma
I
j

and although the rays [of the large light] are much more than twice the extent [of the small body] always has its shadow cast on the nearest surface very visibly.
Let
c

f
it

be a broad
of
it,

light

and n be

the

object in front the plane , and


clear that
is

casting a shadow on It is let a b be the plane. not the broad light that will
it

cast the

shadow n on

perche rimetado, 1'onbra


il

lume a

se "cietro,
si

provo speI2

the light has within

coduce
o
\

alia

come

lo figura \

pariete,

t
\

this experiment. The plane as is shown at m o

the plane, but that a centre is shown by shadow falls on the


t r.

^Perche
14

due o dinazi

ai

dua

occhi,

rappresentatovi 3 cose si fario 2. J5 co Perche liuellado vna dirittura mire la prima apparisce l6 falsa: dico

to two [eyes] or in front of [13] Why two eyes do 3 objects appear as two? Why, when you estimate the direction of an object with two sights the nearer
,

130.

i. 7.

ilume.
e

2.

noi choi chogniossiamo.


|

3.

chosa
9.

mene.
il

4.
.
.

beneche

lui

cho

razi

circhudi

m[eza].

5.

apparissce.

che

sia

la

chosa
13.

gienerare.
ai

aparirebe

chonducerebe.
. .

n.
15.

cietro
. .

12.

chomel fighura.

dueo odinaza

dua.

14. rapresentatovi

chose.

cho

pro sperimetado lonbra schoduce. apparisscie. 16. dicho chellochio


.

130.
it

13.

In the original

and the

text

beginning

at line

MS. no explanatory text 15 comes next.

is

placed after this

title-line;

but a space

is

left for

UK IHKoKN

"1

'I

Hi:

ART OF PAINTING.

:i

3 o.

che 1'ochio portado con seco jfinite linie '^sono appiccate overo vnite co le sopravenienti che si partono dalle cose I8 vedute e solo la linia di mezzo d'essa sesuale e quella che conosce I9 e givdica e colori, tutte 1'altre sono false e j corpi 20 e quado tu porrai 2 cose distant! bugiarde; vno gomito 1'una dall'altra 2I e che la prima
le quali

appears confused. I say that the eye projects an infinite number of lines which mingle or join those reaching it which come to it from And it is only the the object looked at. central and sensible line that can discern and discriminate colours and objects; all the

appresso alPochio, la superfizie della prima "rimarra in alto piv cofusa che la 2 secoda, la ragio si e ^che la prima e vinta da maggior nvmero di linie. false che 2 *la
sia

secoda, pero e piv dubbiosa.

And if you are false and illusory. place 2 objects at half an arm's length apart if the nearer of the two is close to the eye its form will remain far more confused than that of the second; the reason is that the first is overcome by a greater number of false lines than the second and so is rendered vague.
others

sll

lume

fa

negli

effetti

delle

questo medesimo, perche 2<3 sue linie e massime

2 nell'opere di prospettiva e molto simi ?le e '1 suo cietro porta il uero nella alPocchio; 28 dell'onbre e quado la cosa posta ripruova dinazi sara troppo 2 9 presta vita da' razzi gli tristi mostrera obra grade e spropor^zionata e mai terminata; ma quado la cosa che a a giene 3 'rare 1' obra tagliera i razzi del lume e sara apresso alia 3 2 percussione allora 1'ombra s'aviene buona e massime 33 quado il lume sara discosto, perche il razzo del cetro 34 nella lunga distazia a meno co-

Light acts in the same manner, for in its lines (=rays), and particularly in perspective, it much resembles the eye;
the effects of

and

rays are what cast the true the object in front of it is too quickly overcome with dim rays it will cast a broad and disproportionate shadow,
its

central

shadow.

When

defined; but when the object which is to cast the shadow and cuts off the rays near
ill

to

the place

where the shadow


distinct;

falls,

then
in

the

shadow

is

and the more so

pagnia de razzi

falsi

>

perche

le linie del-

6 1'ochio, e solari e altre linie luminose, ^ scorredo per 1'aria couiene a loro osservare retta dirit^tura; se gia no fussino ipedite per 1'aria piv spessa o piv rara ^rimarebbero in alcuna parte torte; ma se 1'aria e net 39 ta

proportion as the light is far off, because at a long distance the central ray is less overcome by false rays; because the lines from the eye and the solar and other luminous
passing through the atmosphere are Unless obliged to travel in straight lines. are deflected by a denser or rarer air, they when they will be bent at some point, but so long as the air is free from grossness or moisture they will preserve their direct course, always carrying the image of the object that intercepts them back to their point of origin.
rays

di grossezze la

di umidita quelle
4

osserueranno

senpre portando I dirieto alia lor derivazio^ne la cagione del lor ropimento, e se sara 1'occhio li sa 42 ra givdicato '1 ronpimeto per colore come per fazione o gradezza; Ma se la pariete di detto ropimeto avra I se alcuno piccolo foro 4l il quale etri in abitazione oscura no per titura ma per priva 4 5zio di lume: vedrai le linie entrare per detto forame li )6 portano nella secoda pariete tutta la forma del lor nascimeto, ^s\ per colore come per fazione;
chonsecho.

loro retta

natura,

And
will

if this is

the eye, the intercepting object

be seen by its colour, as well as by form and size. But if the intercepting plane
in
it

some small perforation opening chamber not darker in colour, but by absence of light you will see the rays enter through this hole and transmitting to the plane beyond all the details of the
has
into a darker
.
.

18. apicchate cho [quelle] "le sopravenienti" chessi partano chose. 18. mezo chogniosscie. 19. givchose disstan vnoghomito. 21. chella chofusa chella sechoda. dichaj chorpc cholori. 20. porai apresso. 22. rmara . razi trissti magior. 24. sechoda. 25. quessto. 26. prosspettiva emolto. 28. chosa posstali. 29. pressa vita 23. chella mostera chosa. 31. razi delume sara. 32. perchussione alora lombra savemebuona. esspropor. 30. ziona e ma terminata
. .

33. disschossto 38. ara

razo

zietro.
. .

34.

lugha disstazia
39.
.

chopagnia
.
.

razi.

36.

schoredo
retta.

chouiene alloro

diri.

37. Ipedita.
. .

rimarebono in alchuna
.
.

sellaria cne.
.

grosseze
|

oseruerranno loro

41.
45.

cholore chome

gradeza.

43.

Massella

ara

alchuno

"picciolo" foro.

44. osschura.

chagione forame "-f.

esse.
li

42. givdichato

-\-" porta.

46. donella

FIRST

BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.

79

* & Ma ogni cosa sara sotto sopra; quado sara tato dal forame al' ultima percussione delle 49 linie, quato e da lor nascimeto, sara la percussione per grandezza a sri-

Ma
e'

object they proceed from both as to colour and

form; only every thing will be upside down. But the size [of the image] where the lines are reconstructed will be in proportion
to the relative distance of the aperture from the plane on which the
lines
fall

nascimeto delle
e
53 nerare

linie, Itersegarsi 2 piramidi 54colle gie 55 e le basi opposite; pute Isieme s 6 sia b il nascimento delle linie, s 7 sia d e la prima pariete sia c
;

52

[on one hand] and from

their origin [on the other]. There they intersect and form 2 pyramids

s 8 il

forame dov'e

la intersegazione

59

delle linie; sia 6o troverai riete :


riete

-f-g- 1' ultima pa'1 a nelP ultima pa-

a percussione 6l rimanere di sotto nel 2 risalire di sopra luogo del g e '1 b di sotto
63

with their point meeting [a common apex] and their bases opposite. Let a b be the point of origin of the lines, d e the first plane, and c the aperture with the intersection of the lines \fg is the inner plane.

nel luogo del/";


rira ali

chiaro appa-

You

will find that

falls

upon

sperimetatori che ogni 64 corpo luminoso a per se una virtu recodita che e tie65 tro, dal quale e al quale

the inner plane below at g, and b which is below will go up to the spot/; it will be quite evident to experimenters that every luminous body has in itself a core or centre, from which and

capitano tutte le linie gienerate dalla luminosa super6 ficie e di li 7ritornano o risaltano J fuori, esse non ano

66

ipedimento

68

si

spargeranno per

1'aria.

which all the lines radiate which are sent forth by the surface of the luminous body and reflected back to it; or which, having been thrown out and not intercepted, are dispersed in the air.
to
131.

C. 8 a]

IRAZZI ONBROSI ELUMINOSI-SONO-DI MAGGIOREPOTENTIA E VALITUDINE NELLE PUNTE LORO

CHE NE'LATI.

THE RAYS WHETHER SHADED OR LUMINOUS HAVE GREATER STRENGTH AND EFFECT AT THEIR POINTS THAN AT THEIR SIDES.
Although the points of luminous pyramids may extend into shaded places and those of pyramids of shadow into illuminated places, and though among the luminous pyramids one may start from a broader base than
another; nevertheless, if by reason of their various length these luminous pyramids acquire angles
will

Benche le punte delle luminose piramidi s'astedino in obro sisiti e quelle delle 3 piramidi obrose discorrino I luminosi lochi, e che infra le luminose 4 egli nasca da maggiore basa 1'una che 1'altra, no di
di uarie esse luminose pislunghezze ramidi pervengono a equale 6 grossezze d'agoli saran no di pari lume infra loro e il simile farano le piramidi obrose, come

meno, se per cagio

of equal size their light

^ si dimostra nelle tagliate pirache midi a- b- c e cosi d e

be equal; and the case will be the same with the pyramids of shadow; as may be
seen in the intersected pyramids

benche

elle

gradezze di mili di gradezza e


sechoda
deza.
. .

nascano 8 da uarie base pur son sidi


47.

a b

and d

e /,

which though
in
size

their bases

differ

are

lume.
cholore
51.
-Jli

equal as to breadth and


chome
-{-.
. .

light.

nasscimeto.

chosa.

48.

Mquada

perchussione.
54.

49.

nasscimeto

perchusione per ghan58.

50.

a rianassimeto.
60.

52. Itersegharsi.

53. piramida.

chole.

55. elle base.

56. nassimeto.

dove

laterseghazione.
eccietro.
I.

perchussione.
67. esse

61.

luogho.
Ipe.

62.

luogho.

63.

aparira alissperimetatori.
laria.
3.

64.

chorpo

ape serecodita

65. chapitano.
.

nonano
2.
.

68.
. .

sesspargha per
piramide
.
.

i.

razi

elluminosi
. .

magiore.
.

benchelle
.

ecquelle.
.

piramide
.

dischorrino

infral[loro]eluminose.
ellsimile
. .

4.

enascha
.
.

piramide

6. infralloro chellaltra piramide peruegino grosseze. chagio. magiore 5. lungeze simile benchelle nasscino. 9. di uarie chome. 7. piramide echosi gradeza.
.
.

51

55.

This supplementary paragraph

is

indicated as being a continuation of line 45, by two small crosses.

8o

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

[132-135.

Ash.

I.

J 32-

Th

e nce b e-~ tween light U e


.

^e
come
i

differetia
lustri

e da lumi
in nel

lustri

Of
and

the difference between light


is

and

lustre;

^no sono

nvmero de

*i"1- r5)

coMori ed e saziare di bianco s e nascie ne'stremi de 6 bagniati corpi; II lume e 7 del colore della cosa doue 8 nascie come oro o arieto o 9 simile cosa.

not included among colours, but is saturation of whiteness, and derived from the surface of wet bodies; light partakes of the colour of the object which reflects it
that lustre
(to the eye)

as gold or silver or the like.

Ash.

I.

3*1

133-

DE'COLMI DE LUMI CHE si VOLTANO E TRASMUTANO 2 SECONDO CHE SI TRASMUTA L' OCHIO VEDITORE D'ESSO CORPO.

OF THE HIGHEST LIGHTS WHICH TURN AND MOVE AS THE EYE MOVES WHICH SEES THE
OBJECT.

corpo detto sia questo todo qui d'acato figurato, e che il lume sia il puto a e che la parte del corpo alluminata sia b c, e che 1'ochio 5 sia nel puto d\ dico che '1
'1

Poniamo che

Suppose the body to be the round object figured here and let the light be at the point a, and let the illuminated side of the object be b c and the eye at
I say that, as lustre is every where and complete in each part, if you stand at the point d the lustre will appear at c, and in proportion d as the eye moves from d to a, the lustre

the point d\

lustro

perche

e tutto

tutto nella parte d, che il lustro parra nel puto c tato quato 1'ochio si tras?mvtera

per tutto e che stado nel puto


e

da

all'

a tanto
;/.

il

lustro

si

trasmutera

will

move from

c to n.

da

c a

134-

DE
2

PICTURA.
il

OF
lustro di

PAINTING.
light

lumi de' lumi cioe


3

Heigh
is

or

lustre

on

any

qualuque

cosa non sara situate


,

nel

mezzo
fara
1'

della

taste
ri

parte alluminata azi mutazioni quate fara


di quello.

not situated [necessarily] in object the middle of an illuminated object,

but

ochio

guardatore

moves as and moves in looking at

where
it.

the

eye

E.

135-

DEL LUME
2

E LUSTRO.
3

OF LIGHT AND
che
the

LUSTRE.

Che

differetia

e dal lume al lustro


delli

What

is

si

dimostra nella superfitie Uersa


si

corpi

lustre

the difference between light and which is seen on the polished

opachi? s Li lumi che


6

gienerano nelle super-

terse delli corpi opachi sa?ranno inmobili ne' corpi inmo 8 bili, acora che 1'ochio
fitie

surface of opaque bodies? The lights which are produced from the polished surface of opaque bodies will be stationary on stationary objects even if the
lights will,

d'essi vedito^re si
I0

mvova;

Ma

li

lustri sa-

ran sopra li medesimi corpi in tati JI lochi della sua superfitie quati sono I2 li siti dove
1'ochio
si

eye on which they strike moves. But reflected on those same objects, appear in

as

many

different

move.
echorae
inel

different positions are taken

places on the surface as by the eye.

133. 2.
9.

lusstri

ilusstri.

3.

decho.

4.

saziaredi doubtful.

6.

chorpi Elume.

7.

cholore dela chosa.

8.

chome.

chosa.
chessi
. .

133.

i.

trassmutano.
. .

2.

sechondo chessi trassmuta.


7.

3.

dachato.

4.

chella

chorpo

chellochio.

5.

dicho.

6.

che-

lustro para
134.
2.

ettato

sistra.

trassmutera.

lusstro.

3.
2.

chosa

mczo.
. .

5.

quato.
3.

,35. i. ellustro.
5. chessi. 6.

differetia

Ittstro so.
7.

|p]

che

si

dimosstra nella superfitie


9. Mallilusstri.

(del).

4.

[li \\\\

cho] terse

chorppi oppachi.
13. chorpi.

chorpi oppachi.

chorpi.

8.

achora chellochio.

10. chorpi.

12.

dove Ihio

si

move.

136.

37-]

FIRST

BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.

8l

QUALI CORPI SON QUEL^LI CHE HANNO LUME


SAZA LUSTRO?
15 Li corpi opachi che avra superfitie densa l6 e aspra no gienerano mai lustro J 7in alcuno loco della sua parte al l8 luminata.

WHAT

BODIES

HAVE LIGHT UPON THEM WITHOUT LUSTRE?

Opaque bodies which have a hard and rough surface never display any lustre in any portion of the side on which the light falls.

20 CHE AVRA LUSTRO QUALI CORPI so QUELGLI E NO PAR 2I TE LUMINOSA?

WHAT

WHICH WILL DISPLAY LUSTRE BUT NOT LOOK ILLUMINATED?


BODIES

Li corpi opachi densi con desa 2 3 superfitie son quelgli che anno tutto il lustro
in 24 tanti lochi della
25

22

Those bodies which are opaque and hard with a hard surface reflect light [lustre] from
in

parte alluminata quati


26

sono

li

siti

che possino ricievere I'ango

lo

della incidentia del


2 7

lume e

dell'ochio;
le

ma
cose

perche tale superfitie spechia tutte


28

cir

custati

la

alluminata no

si

cono 2 9scie

in tal parte del

corpo alluminato.

every spot on the illuminated side which is a position to receive light at the same angle of incidence as they occupy with regard to the eye; but, as the surface mirrors all the surrounding objects, the illuminated [body] is not recognisable in these portions of the illuminated body.

Br.

M.

1710:]
J

136-

2 Ogni /2 d'obra e lume cogiu to a' 3 mezzo del suo corpi obrosi si dirizza al lume primitiuo. 4 Ogni lume e obre si ritrae 5 a linie pirimidali; 6 e neciessario che il mezzo 7di ciascuna obra ris8 guardi il mezzo del suo lume per linia retta che passi il cietro I0 d'esso corpo; IJ il mezo del lume sara a, I2 dell' obra

The middle of
on an object
posite
to

the

in light

light and shade The and shade is op1[/

reia[

the

middle

of

J""

the

primary
expresses

All light and shadow light. itself in pyramidal lines. The


the
sarily

illuminated bodies.

middle of

shadow on any object must neces-

fia

d,

[ancora
J

corpi obrosi

circuscritti

convie

4da obre e lume che '1 mez'Szo di ciasal cietro d'esso e sia linia retta dal-

cuno
corpo
1'uno
J

si dirizzi l6

all'altro
al

mezzo passa-

be opposite the middle of its light, with a direct line passing through the centre of the body. The middle of the light will be at a, that of the shadow at b. [Again, in bodies shown in light and shade the middle of each must coincide with the centre of the
body, and a straight line will pass through both and through that centre.]

7do

cietro].

w.

i.

1372

PRUOVA COME OGNI


3 4

PARTE DI LUME FA UNO

PUTO.

SHOWS HOW LIGHT FROM ANY SIDE CONVERGES TO ONE POINT.


Although the balls a b c are lighted Experiments from one window, nevertheless, if you follow ion of light and shado<w the lines of their shadows you will see they within a room intersect at a point forming the angle n. (137140).
16.

Benche
finestra

vna

se seguiterai ?le 8 a quelle fare iterlinie delle sue obre vedrai 9 segatione e puto nel angolo n
14.

le palle niete di

abi lume

da

meno

chea lume saza


luminoso.
chusstate
2.

lusstro.

15.

chorpi "oppachi" che ara.


23.

easspra no
24.

lusstro.

17.
25.

alchuna [po] locho.


cheppossino
.

20. ara lusstro. 27.

21. 28.

22.
[la

chorpi oppachi [chonass] chon. no si chon. allume] lo


.

cheantutto.

quato.

langho.

chose.

136. i. ellume.

accorpi

diriza.

3.

mezo.

4.

lumeme.
. .

5.

allinie piramidale.

6.

mezo.

7.

mezo.

13. circhuscritti.

14. obrel-

lume convie chouie chel me.


137.
i.

15. dirizi.
6.

16. essia

dalluno alaltro mezo.


7.

chome.

2.

fa

i.

3.

benchelle balle.

seghuiterai.

obr"e".

8.

acquele

Iterseghatione.

136.

In the original MS., at the spot marked a


first

137.

of the

diagram Leonardo wrote

primitiuo,

and

slightly

The diagram belonging to this passage is sketched on PL XXXII a square with three
;

at the spot

marked

-primiliva (primary); at the spot dirivatiuo

balls

below

it.

The
are

first

three

lines

of the text

marked
VOL.

he wrote

and

at

deriuatiua

belonging to

it

written
it.

above the sketch and

(derived).
I.

the six others below

82

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

[138.

Ash.

I.

io6\

138.

linia del

Ogni obra fatta da'corpi si dirizza colla mezzo 2 a vn solo 3punto fatto per itersegatione di linie luminose in nel mezzo

a body has a a single point produced by the intersection of luminous lines

Every

shadow

cast

by

central

line

directed to

dello spatio e grossezza della finestra s la ragione promessa di sopra chiaramete appare 6 per isperieza, Iperoche se figurerai vno sito colla finestra a tramotana la quale sia s
;

in the

middle of the opening and thickness of

the window.
plainly seen

The proposition

stated above,
if

is

orizzote di levate produrre vna 8 linia che toccado li 2 agoli de! la finestra o in d- e 1' orizzote di ponete capitera produrra la sua 9 linia toccando li altri 2 agoli della finestra r s e finira in c e questa
^

vederai

all'

you draw a place with a window looking northwards, and let this be s f, you will see a line starting
from the horizon
to the east, which, touching

by experiment. Thus

intersegatione viene apputo nel mezzo dello spatio e della grossezza della "finestra;

I0

acora ti cofermerai meglio questa ragione a porre due basto I2 ni come nel loco di g h Xvi vederai la linia fatta dal mezzo del' obra 3 reale dirizzarsi al cietro e col-

1'

orizzote

-f.

window of, reaches d; on the west another line, touching the other 2 angles r s, and ending at c; and their intersection falls exactly in the middle of the opening and thickness of the window. Again, you can still better confirm this proof by placing two sticks, as shown at g h\ and you will see the line drawn from the centre of the shadow directed to the centre m and prolonged to the horizon n f.
the 2 angles of the and from the horizon
6.

138.

i..

diriza
i.

mezo.
.
.

4.

inel

mezo
9.

grosseza.
li

5.

apare.
. .

figurerai
.

cola.
10.

7.

alorizote
.
.

produre
it.

tochado
.

de.
. .

8.

d.

ellorizote
12.

produra.
linia [del

tochando
fatta
. .

atri 2

effinira

ecquesta.
.

mezo

grosseza.

achora

meglo

apore.

locho

me]

mezo.

13. dirizarsi

lorizote.

138.

here stands for cerchio derorizonte tramon-

horizon towards the North);

for levante (East)

and

tane

on the original

diagram

(the

circle

of the

for ponete (West).

139-

I40-J

FIRST

BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.

Ash.

I.

20 a]

139-

Ogni obra co tutte sue varieta che per distatia cresce 2 per larghezza piv che la sua-cagione, le sue linee esteriori 3 si cogivngono insieme ifra
il

Every shadow with which becomes larger as


the

all
its its

its

variations,

distance

from

object

is

greater,

has

external lines

lume e '1 corpo obroso. Questa propositione chiaramete appare e si coferma s dalla esperie*

intersecting in the middle, between -the light and the

za,
fia

Jperoche

se

a>b-

una finestra saza alcuna tramezzatura, 6 l'aria luminosa che sta da destra in a e vista, da
sinistra

This proposition very evident and is confirmed by experience. For, if a b is a window without any object interobject.
is

posed, the luminous

at-

mosphere hand at a
left

to
is

right seen to the

the

\n-d-. e

I'a^ria

at

d.

And

the

at-

che sta da

sinistra allu-

mina da destra nel punto c e dette linie s' inter8 secano nel puto m.

mosphere at the left illuminates on the right at c, and the lines intersect at
the point m.

Ash.

I.

20 a]

I4O.

ramidi
si

Ogni corpo obroso si truova ifra 2 pi2 vna scura e Paltra luminosa, I'una uede e 1' altra no, 3 e questo solo accade

Every body in light and shade is situated between 2 pyramids one dark and the other luminous, one is visible the other is not.

quado il lume etra per una finestra; fa coto che a b sia la finestra e che r sia il s corpo obroso il lume destro z passa il in corpo da lato sinistro del corpo obroso 6 sinistro k passa a il lume e va in p g detto corpo nel lato destro in i e va
-,
-

But

this only happens when the light enters a window. Supposing a b to be the window by and r the body in light and shade, the light to the right hand z will pass the object to the left and go on to /; the light to the left at k will pass to the right of the object at / and

139. i.
. .

cho

chresscie.
5.

2.

largeza
i

chella.
.

3.

cogivngano
6.
. .

chorpo.
ella.
3.

4.

Questa [cosa chiaramente] propositione

apare

essi.

dala
2.

fia

finestra

tramezatura.

in

140.

i.

piramide.

uno scuro e

laltro

luminoso luno

ellaltro.

ecquesto

achade

Hume

per

finestra.

4.

chorpo

139.

here stands for leuante

(East),

B for ponente

(West).

84
in

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

[I4II44.

e queste 2 linie s' Iter^segano i-cfano piramide dipoi a b tocca il corpo 8 fa sua obroso in * piramide in /; mai egli puo vei-g-f fia oscuro perche dere il lume a b\ v-i-g-c- sepre fia luminoso perche egli uede il lume. e
li

go on to m and the two lines will intersect at c and form a pyramid. Then again a b falls on the shaded body at i g and forms a
pyramid fig, f will be dark because the light a b can never fall there; i g c will be illuminated because the light falls upon it.

C. 10

141.

Tutti
Light and

che

la

popilla
e'
1

corpi obrosi di maggior gradezza i quali s' interporranno infra

the

rcgar7o

thc posiiion of the eye

l'occhio

corpo

luminoso

si

dimo'stre-

Every shaded body that is larger than pupil and that interposes between the luminous body and the eye will be seen dark.

ran no
3

d'

oscura

qualita.
'

(141145)-

E
i

L' ochio posto infra 1 corpo luminoso corpi da esso lume alluminati vedra detti corpi saza alcun obra.
i

When the eye is placed between the luminous body and the objects illuminated by it, these objects will be seen without any shadow.

Ash.

I.

I2a]

142.
i

Come
2

2 lumi che mettino in


lati

mezzo

Why

the 2 lights one


it

on each

side of a

piramidato di basse 3piramidi lo lasciano saza obra.

vno corpo da 2

body having two pyramidal


apex leave

sides of an obtuse

devoid of shadow.

Br.

M.

171 a]
2 corpo obroso situate inlume e 1' ochio no mo-

143-

H
fra
il

A
-n

body

in

between the

shadow light and


its

situated

the

eye

3strera

se parte lumi1' ochio no uede tutto no*sa se


di
il

mai

can never display

illuminated

lume

originate.

portion unless the eye can see the whole of the primary light.

Tr. 20]

144.

L' ochio
1'

onbra e

che si trovera in mezzo fra lumi circuda 2 tori delli obrosi

The eye which looks (at a way between the shadow and the

spot)
light

half

which

[luminoso]
cheli uede.
141.
i.

obroso ilume.

5;

pasa

ecque

2.

7.

piramida

effa.

8.

piramida

oschuro

mailipo

ilume.

9.

per-

Tucti

chorpi "5brosi" di magior gradeza chella


3.

quali

[saranno situati]
. .

"sTnterporanno" infrallocchio

el

chorpo.

2.

steranno dosschura.

chorpo
2.

chorpi
3.

vedera

chorpi

sanzalchun.

142. i.

comeme
.

imezo.
stera.
. .

chorpo.

piramide.

143. 2. infralume.

3.

5.

lume

[primiti] originate.
2.

144. i. chessi

mezo

ellumi circhuda.

chorpi

vedera

chorpi

magiore.

3.

sieno

rischotarsi

chosecho.

141.

The diagram which


line
I

in the original stands


II,

142.

The sketch

illustrating this is

on Plate XLI

given on Plate after a blank space of about eight

above

is

No

2.

Then,
is

No

i.

lines,

the diagram

143.
144.
(light)

stands for corpo (body),

B for lume (light).


A
stands for lume

Plate II

No

is
it

placed in the original. There

no
it.

In both these diagrams


for

explanation of

beyond the one

line written

under

ombra (shadow).

145-

FIRST BOOK
vedra
in

ON LIGHT AND SHADE.


surrounds the body in shadow will see that the deepest shadows on that body will meet

corpi
3

che

esse

in essi corpi le maggiori obre sieno a riscotrarsi co seco

infra

equali agoli ^cioe della incidetia vi-

suale.

the eye at equal angles, that angle as that of sight.

is

at the

same

Ash.

I.

170]
2

DELLA DISCRETIONS DEL'ONBRE


DELLE COSE POSTE
3
I

DE'

SITI

OF THE DIFFERENT LIGHT AND SHADE IN VARIOUS


ASPECTS AND OF OBJECTS PLACED IN THEM.
If the sun is in the East- and you look towards the West you will see every thing in full light and totally without shadow because you see them from the same side and if you look towards the as the sun: South or North you will see all objects in light and shade> because you see both the side towards the sun and the side away from it; and if you look towards the coming of the sun all objects will show you their shaded side, because on that side the sun cannot fall upon them.

QUELLI.

Se

il

sole

fia

neP oriete e guarderai

occidete vedrai 4 tutte le cose luminate essere iteramete private d'obra perche vedi cio che vede 1 sole, e se riguarsdi a mezzodl e tramotana vedrai tutt'i corpi essere circudati da 6 6bra-e lume perche vedi quello che no vede e vede il sole e se riguarderai Tverso il camino del sole, tutti i\ corpi ti mostreranno la loro luerso

parte avbrata, perche quella parte essere veduta dal sole.

no puo

Tr. 29]

146.

1 J labri della finestra che sieno allumida 2 vari lumi 2 d' equale chiarezza no metteranno lume
nati

The
minated

detro

all'

abitatione

d'

of a window which are illu- The law of 6" lights of equal degrees of^tf^ brightness will not reof flect light equal
brightness into the cham-

equale qualita. 1 4 Se b fia vna cadela e a c sia il nostro 5 l'uno e emisperio 1' altro allumina i labri
;

ber within.
If b
is

a candle and

a c both

our

hemisphere

will illuminate the

della

finestra
Iu 6

m
g
d-

n
allu-

ma

il

me

b non

edges of the window m n, but light b will only


illuminate

mina se no '/ emisperio a


nera 7insino in

e lo
e.

fg

and the
will light

-allumi-

hemisphere a all of d e.

145. 3. vederai.

chudati.
146.
i.

6.
.

finesstra

chorpi dobra "perce vedi co ce vedel sole" esse. 5. mezodi ettramotana vederai 4. tute lecosse chamino. 7. chorpi .. mostrerano .. quela. lume "perce vedi quelo ce no vede 'e vede il sole" esse ello emissperio. 6. aluma finesstra. lumi [che]. 2. chiareza. 4. chadela et. 5. alumina
. . . . . . .

cir-

8.

po.

86

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

[147-

Ash.

I.

28*]

147-

PlTTURA.

OF
che ricieve

PAINTING.

1 Quella parte sopra se il razzo lu^minoso infra equali an5 goli Quella fia piu ch'altra parte d'esso obbietto luminosa.H 6 1 E quella parte che fia ferita da lumijioso

dell'obietto

That part of a body which receives the luminous rays at equal angles will be in a higher light than any other part
of
it.

And
will

the

razzo

infra

qua apparira

me

angoli piv lumi 8 nosa.K

disequali

rays strike

part which the luminous between less equal angles

be

less strongly illuminated.

147. 2. [Illume

che

ferisscie lobietto infra cqueliangoli].

3.

soprse

razo.

6.

Ecquella

cheffia

razo

aparira.

?L. HI

>

A** ^:

SECOND BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.


Ash.
I.

22 a]

148.

QUELL A PARTE DEL CORPO OBROSO FIA MENO LUMINOSA 2 CHE FIA VEDUTA DA MINORE QUATITA DI LUME.
3

THAT PORTION OF A BODY IN LIGHT AND SHADE WILL BE LEAST LUMINOUS WHICH IS SEEN UNDER THE LEAST AMOUNT OF LIGHT.
That part of the object which
is

La

di

lume

e primo grado parte del corpo perche 11 vede tutta la finestra a

marked
it

Gradations
f

m
it

4 per la linia -a- f-, n e'l secodo grado perche 11 uede il lume b d per la linia b e o e '1 terSzo grado perche 11 vede il lume c d per la linia c h p e '1 penoltimo perche 11 ue 6 de c d per la linea d v Q e 1' ultimo grado perche 11 non uede nessuna parte 7della finestra8 Tanto quato c d 9 entra in a d tanto I0 e piv scuro n r s "che e tutto Paltro I2 canpo sanza 6 bra.
,
\

d-

the highest light because the window a d by the line af; n second grade because the light b
is

in

faces
in the
strikes

is

dows
148. 149).

by the

light falls

line b e; o is in the third grade, as the on it from c d by the line c h ; is the

lowest light but one as c d falls on it by the line d v; q is the deepest shadow for no light falls on it from any part of the window. In proportion as c d. goes into a d so will n r s be darker than m, and all the rest is space without shadow.

Ash.

I.

21 b\

149.

sopra ai corpi * il primo grado di chiarezza e quello fia piv scuro che ricieve 1' agoli meno equali ^e il lume o
obrosi
Ifra equali

Ogni lume

che cade

agoli tiene

The light which falls on a shaded body at the acutest angle receives the highest light,
it

1'onbre fario loro-ofitio per piramide; 4 l'angolo c tiene jl primo grado di chiarezza

and the darkest portion is that which receives at an obtuse angle and both the light and the shadow form pyramids. The angle c receives the
it is

highest grade of light because

directly in

143. i.

149.

i.

Quela chade

chorpo
chorpi.

luminoso.

2.

cheffia.
3.

4.

f
4.

el

secodo.

6.

novede.

n.

ettutto.
. .

2.

chiareza ecquelo.

ollonbre.

chiareza.

5. ettutto

lorizote

pocha

diferetia mettano.

6.

socto

148.

No

The diagram belonging to on Plate III. The letters

abed

this chapter is

No

and

are not reproduced in facsimile of the original, but have been replaced by ordinary type in the margin.
5
12.

The

original text of these lines

is

repro-

duced within the diagram. Compare No 275149. The diagram belonging to this chapter

In the original it is placed 2 on Plate III. between lines 3 and 4, and in the reproduction The semi circle above these are shown in part. The number 6 at the is marked orizonte (horizon). left hand side, outside the facsimile, is in the place of a figure which has become indistinct in the
original.

is

88

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

[150.

perch6 gli uede tutta la finestra a b 5e tutto 1'orizzote del cielo 1'angolo d fa poca differetia da c perche li agoli

>*,
altri
?

che
e

lo

mettono

mezzo no sono
quato
li

tato difdi sotto

formi di proportione

front of the window a b and the whole horizon of the sky m x. The angle d differs but little from c because the angles which divide it are not so unequal as those below, and only that portion of the horizon is

solamete quella parte delch'e tra -y x bench' eli acquisti altrettat;o dall' opposite lato- nodimeno la sua 8 linia e di po ca poteza perch il suo angolo minore che' 1 suo copagno, rangoli-^' e
macagli
1'orizzote
/

intercepted

which

lies

between

y and

x.

gains as much on the other side its line is nevertheless not very strong because one angle is smaller than its fellow.

Although

it

The

non minore lume 9perch egli vede manco il lume m s e 1 lume v x ei loro agoli sono assai disformi: 1'angolo 10 k e 1'angolo sono messi in mezzo ciascu per se da agoli molto diformi 1'uno dal'altro e pero fieno "di poco lume perche in k vede solamete il lume / / e in /; no uede se no / q o g f\a 12 1' ultimo grado di lume perche 11 no uede nessuna parte del lume del' orizzote e sono quelle le linie che vn altra ^volta ricopogono una piramide- simile alia piramidefia

di

'

'

/ si trovera I4 nel d'obra, perch acora lei cade primo grado ifra equali agoli e essi agoli si dirizzano la

quale

piramide

i will have less light because do not see much of the light m s and they the light v x and their angles are very unequal. The angle k and the angle f are each placed between very unequal angles and therefore have but little light, because at k it has only the light / /, and at /only t q; o g is the lowest grade of light because this part has no light at all from the sky; and thence come the lines which will reconstruct a pyramid that is the counterpart of the pyramid c; and this pyramid / is in the first grade of shadow; for this too is placed between equal angles directly opposite to each other on either side of a straight line which passes through the centre of the body and goes to

angles e

'Se si sguardano per una linia retta che passa dal cientro del corpo obroso e capita l6 al mezzo del lume; le spetie luminose

the

centre of the

light.

The
the

several lumi-

nous

images

cast

within

window

at the points

of the a and b make a light

frame

mvltiplicate ne' termini della finestra ne' b fano '^chiarore che circuda puti a 1'obra diriuativa creata dal corpo obroso ne' lochi 4-6 6- I8 le spetie oscure si mvltiplicano

which surrounds the derived shadow cast by The the solid body at the points 4 and 6. shaded images increase from o g and end at 7 and 8.

jn

e finiscono

in

8.

C. A. 46(5; 1440]

ISO-

si dimostra piu obroso che alluminato da minor luminoso 2 e quel S dowsL de-l ummoso alluminera minor parte del corpo

Quel corpo

Ontheinten-sia
on

pendent

the distance from the

(150-152)-

obroso il quale ^li fia piu vicino; per la ,,," couersa tanto maggior quatita n allu 4 mmera S n fi a pi" lontano. Quel lume che sia minore dell' obroso 6 n' alluminera tanto minor quatita quan to li fia piu vicino e per la couersa fara essendo
.

The smaller the light that falls upon an object the more shadow it will display. And the light will illuminate a smaller portion of the object in proportion as it is nearer to it; and conversely, a larger extent of it in
proportion as
it

is

farther off.
is

light
it

which
it

on which
extent of

smaller than the object light up a smaller in proportion as it is nearer to it,


falls

will

remote Ma ?quando il lume sara maggiore che 1' obroso allor tanto piu ne vedra 8 dell'6mbroso quato esso fia piu
piu
;

and the converse, as it is farther from it. But when the light is larger than the object
will light a larger extent of it object in proportion as it is nearer and the converse when they are farther apart.

illuminated
the

vicino e

per

il

contrario

fara essedo pi 9 v

remoto.

e e machali.
12.
.

7.
.

orizote
. .

daloposito.
13. volto

8.
.

cha poteza
.

delume
chapia
.

orizote

quele.

piramide

chopagnio langolo. 9. mancha ilume. dirizano. ala. ecquali 14. chade


. . .
.

10.

ellangolo
. .

imezo.
.

15. essi

per

linia

mezo.
2.
.

18.

effiniscano.
3.
[fia]

150.

i.

dimosstra.
.

ecquel.

lifia

piu

magior.

4.

quato

eli fia.

5.

Quelume chessia

quatita q.

7.

cquando

thellobroso

tanta.

SECOND BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.


C. A. 130,$; 398 6}

89

151.
2

HQuella partedella cosa


piv lumi^nosa,

alluminata sara

qual cavsa del suo lume.t

la

fia

4 piv vici na alia

That portion of an illuminated object which is nearest to the source of light will be the most strongly illuminated.

H. 1 i8a]

152.
2 sara primitiva 3 lotana dai sua

Quella parte dell'obra meno oscura che fia piv


stremi.

be

4 L' obra dirivativa che cofisna colla primitiua fia piv 6 oscura d'essa primitiva.

That portion of the primary shadow will dark which is farthest from the edges. The derived shadow will be darker than the primary shadow where it is contiguous
least
it.

with

E.

153-

2 opaco sa ra piu 3 aobrato o alluminata che fia piu vicina all' obroso che la oscura 1 o luminoso che P alumina. sLe cose vedute infra lume e 1'obre si

Quella parte del corpo

That portion of an opaque body will be On the pro in shade or more in light, which is ^"'"anc^ she nearer to the dark body, by which it is shaded,

more

di 6 mostrera di
7

maggiore

rilievo

che quelle

che so nel lume o nell'obre.

or to the light that illuminates it. Objects seen in light and shade show in greater relief than those which are wholly in light or in shadow.

S.

K. M.

II.

r 54-

DE
3Le

PROSPETTIVA.

OF
The
portion
jects[6].

PERSPECTIVE.

parti aobrate e alluminate de'corpi ^opachi sarano nella medesima Sproportione 6 di chiarezza e oscurita qual fie quelle de'

opaque objects

illuminated sides of display the same proof light and darkness as their obwill

shaded

and

loro obbietti.

G. 320]

r 55-

DE

PICTURA.
3

OF
parte

PAINTING.

Li termini e figura di qualunche

de' corpi obrosi male si conos 4 cono nelle 5 nelle obre e ne' lumi loro, parti inter6 poste infra li lumi e 1'onbre le parti d'essi

ma

The outlines and form of any part of a body in light and shade are indistinct in the shadows and in the high lights; but in the portions between the light and the shadows
they are highly conspicuous.

corpi sono

Fprimo grado

di notitia.

E. 150]

PICTURA.
2

OF
oscurita, pri3vati

PAINTING.

jfra

li

corpi

di uarie
tal

Among
when

d'un medesimo lume,


151.

proportione

4 fia

objects in various degrees of shade, the light proceeds from a single source,

14
7.

R.
3.

152. 2. osschura. 153. i.

dasua.
2.

4.

chofi.
3.

5.

cholla.

6.

oschura.
4.

chorpo oppacho.
chesso.

cheffia.

chella osscura.

olluminoso chellalumina.

5.

chose

infrallume ellobre.

6.

mossterra.

154. 2. [le parte


155. 2. effigura.

obrose elluminose].
3.

3.

parte.
5.

5.

ciareza e osscurita.
6.
5.

chorpi.
. .

4.

chanelle.
3.

interposste infralli.
4. iafralle.

ellonbre le parte

chorpi.

156. 2. Jfralli chorpi

osschurita.

proportio.

osscurita.

154.

6.

The meaning of

obbietti

(objects)

is

ex-

plained in no 153, lines VOL. i.

14.

Between the

title-line

and the next there is, in the original, a small diagram representing a circle described round a square.

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


infra le loro

[157-

obre qual

fia

la proSportione
6

delle loro natural! oscurita


ai

il

medesimo

ad intendere

delli lor lumi.

will be the same proportion in their shadows as in the natural diminution of the light and the same must be understood of

there

the degrees of light.

E.

157-

II lume particulare e causa di dare migliore rilievo alii corpi onbrosi che ^lo vniversale come si mostra il para^gone
2

A
causes

single

and

distinct

luminous

body

sole e
6

d'una parte di campagnia alluminata sdal vna aobrata dal nuvolo che sol si
allumina del lume vniversale
dell' aria.

stronger relief in the object than a diffused light; as may be seen by comparing one side of a landscape illuminated by the
sun, and one overshadowed by clouds, and so illuminated only by the diffused light of the

atmosphere.

157. i.

Hume

partichulare e chausa.

2.

chorpi

chel.

3.

chome

si

mosstra.

4.

ghone

chanpagnia.

6.

delume.

THIRD BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.


W.
2323]
I

Onbra diriuativa non. e in essere sanza lume primitive; pruovasi per la prima
dicieTI

Derived

shadow

cannot

exist

without

Definition

3di questo che

tenebre essere inte-

grale pri^vatio di lucie, e obra e alleuiation di te s nebre e di lucie, e tanto parti6 o me delle tenebre che della cipa piu lucie, quato la ?tenebra e in se corrotta da essa lucie.

primary shadow. This is proved by the first of this which says: Darkness is the total
absence of
tion
light,

shadow

and shadow and of

is

an

alleviait
is

of darkness
less

light,

and

more or

dark or light in proportion as the darkness is modified by the light.

E.

159-

Onbra e diminuitio di lume. 2 Tenebre e privatione di lucie.


3 L' onbra si diuide in due parti delle *quali la prima e detta onbra priSmitiva, la secoda e 1' onbra diriuativa; 6 senpre 1' onbra
7 primitiva si fa basa dell' onbra diriuativa. 8 Li termini dell'onbre dirivative 9 son

Shadow Shadow
the
is

is

Darkness
is

is

diminution of light. absence of light. divided into two kinds, of which

first is

called primary shadow, the second

The primary shadow is derived shadow. always the basis of the derived shadow. The edges of the derived shadow are
straight
lines.

retti

linii.

158. i.

non

[po]

"e in"
3.

essere.
4.

2.

per la

p*.

3.

essere ingral pri.


8.

5.

eddi

ettanto.

6.

ome

delle.

7.

tenebre

conrocta.

159. i.

honbra.

parte.

he decta.

5.

ellonbra.

dirivativi.

10. diminuisscie la osscu.

12. eppiu.

the ombra dirivativa a techwhich there is no precise English equivalent is elaborately treated by Leonardo. But both text and diagrams (as PL IV, I 3 and PL V) must at once convince the student that the distinction he makes between ombra primitiva and
158.

The theory of

room
is

in

nical expression for

investigated,

which the existence of the ombra dirivativa when the shadow becomes visible.
perceive

Nor

is it difficult to

how much

of Leonardo's

teaching depended on this theory. The recognised, but extremely complicated science of cast shadows
percussione
is

ombra
tific.

dirivativa

is

not

Ombra
This

dirivativa is
is

merely justifiable but scienby no means a mere abstract

idea.

easily proved by repeating the experiment made by Leonardo, and by filling with smoke the

dirivative as Leonardo calls them more intelligible if not actually simpler, and we must assume this theory as our the investigations which chief through guide

deW ombre

thus rendered

follow.

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


Tanto piu diminuisce dell'onbra diriuativa, quato remota dall'obra primitiva.
IO

[160.

161.

la

oscu"rita essa I2 e piu

The darkness of the derived shadow diminishes in proportion as it is remote from


the primary shadow.

C. 76]

160.

ONBRA
2

E LUME.

SHADOW AND

LIGHT.

Tre
sc
al

sono
la

le figure

ochc
pari
(160162).

materia
,

che

lume

1'

ombra

dell'pbre inperfa 1'onbra e e simile a vna co-

The forms of shadows are three: inasmuch as if the solid body which casts the
shadow
is

equal

(in

size)

to the light, the

ne a termine alcuno. Se la mamaggiore che "1 lume 1'onbra sua e simile a vna retrosa e contraria piramide e la sua longitudine 5& sanza
teria e
:

shadow

resembles

column

without

any

alcuno

termine;

Ma

se la materia- e

minore-che la lucie 1'ombra fia simile a vna piramide ed e finita come s


dimostra ^nelle
eclissi della luna.

termination (in length). If the body is larger than the light the shadow resembles a truncated and inverted pyramid, and its length has also no defined termination. But if the body is smaller than the light,
the

shadow

will
is

come

to

an end, as

resemble a pyramid and seen in eclipses of the moon.

E. 31 a]

161.

DELLE OBRE DERIVATIVE


^

SENPLici.
di

OF
due
in-

SIMPLE DERIVED SHADOWS.


is

La

sorti cioe

senplicie obra dirivativa e vna finita in Munghezza e

The simple derived shadow


kinds: one kind which has
its

of two

due

length denned,

finite 6
8

e la finita e piramidale ?e delle

infi-

vna ve n'e colonnale e I0 di tabile, e tutte tre son


nite

^I'altra dilalati

rettilini;

Ma
e

1'onbra co 11 correte cioe piramidale naI2 sci e dall'onbroso minore del lumino^so,

da on I4 broso equale da obroso luminoso, del Iu l6 minoso ecc. maggiore


la

colonale nasce
e
la

al

dila 1 stabile

and two kinds which are undefined; and the defined shadow is pyramidal. Of the two undefined, one is a column and the other spreads out; and all three have rectilinear outlines. But the converging, that is the pyramidal, shadow proceeds from a body that is smaller than the light, and the columnar from a body equal in size to the light, and the spreading shadow from a bo:!y
larger than the light; &c.
.
.

160.

2.

obr

sella
.
.

chefla
5.

lume [lonbra] 1'ombra


6.

essimile
. .

cho.
7.

3.

alchuna.

4.

Sella materia

magiore

essimile

chontraria
161.
3.

ella.

alchuno.

Massella
6.

chella

chome.

nello.
el.

he.
. .

4. sorte ciee.

5.

lungheza eddue.

ella .. he.
17.

8.

cholunnalee
18. posste.

9. ettutte.

10. rectilini

[Mallonbra] co.
.

n. chor-

rete

nassci.

13. ella

cholunale nasscie.

14. ella.

cho.

19.

onbra

conposste. 20. sortti

cho/unali. 21. labile.

PL. IV

r**> "j

.
(

Tf^n #*/

\
\

:u*

* 1
1

Heliog- Dujardin

Imp.

Eudes

162.]

THIRD BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.


DELLE OBRE DIRIUATIVE co l8 POSTE.

93

OF COMPOUND DERIVED SHADOWS.

deriuative conposte sono 2I 20 di due sorti cioe colonali e dila tabili.

onbre

Compound
kinds; that
is

derived shadows are of two columnar and spreading.

E. 32 a]

162.

DE
2

ONBRA.

OF SHADOW.
Derived shadows are of three kinds of which one is spreading, the second columnar,
the third converging where the two sides meet and
to

delle
s

L' onbre dirivative sono di tre nature, quali 1'una e dilatabile, 1'altra co^lunnale, la terza concorrete al sito della

the

point

intersegatione delli sua lati, li quali dopo ta6 le intersegatione sono d'lfinita lunghez?za se tu diciessi ta 8 le overo rettitudine; onbra essere terminata nell'angolo 9 della congiutione de sua lati e no passare piv

intersect,

and you

beyond
tely

this intersection the

sides are

infiniif

prolonged or straight

lines.

And

say, this shadow must terminate at the angle where the sides meet and extend no farther,
I

questo si ni ega perche nella prima ir dell' onbre sopra 6 pro vato Hquella cosa esI2 sere interamente termi nata della qual parte alcuna non eccede 3li sua terminal il che I4 qui in tale onbra si ve de il contrario conT ciosiache mediante che 5 nascie tale onbra nascie manife l6 stamete la figura dirivativa di due piramidi obrose, le quali nel I7 li sua l8 se per angoli son congiute; addunque 1'aversario la prima piramide obrosa e ter^minatricie dell' onbra dirivativa col suo
oltre,
J

I0

deny shadow

this, because I have proved:


its

above

in

the

first
is

that a thing

on com-

pletely terminated

beyond

when no portion of it goes Now here, in terminating lines. this shadow, we see the converse of this, in as much as where this derived shadow originates

we obviously have
of

the figures of two


at

pyramids
angles. the first

shadow which meet

their

Hence, if, as [my] opponent says, pyramid of shadow terminates the

derivative
starts,

shadow

at

the

angle whence

it

donde nascie, addunque la seconda ango 2I dicie 1'aversario esser pira mide obrosa cavsa 22 ta dall'angolo e no dal corpo obroso;
lo

20

e questo si questo che dete create

a 3niega coll'aiuto della 2 di obra essere vn'acciHI' 2 dalli cor Spi obrosi interposti d'essa obra 26 e '1 corpo lumi'1 sito infra 2 nosoH, e per questo e chia 7rito 1'onbra no
2

^ dicie

second pyramid of shadow so says the adversary must be caused by the angle and not from the body in shadow; and this is disproved with the help of the nd 2 of this which says: Shadow is a condition produced by a body casting a shadow, and interposed between this shadow and the luminous body. By this it is made clear that the
then the

28 esser giedal angolo dell' onbra dirivativa ma sol dal corpo obroso ecc. 29 Se nerata, lo sperico obroso fia alluminato dal lumi-

3noso
dalla
di
si

luga figura, 1'onbra che si gienera parte piu lunga d'esso luminoso fia termini 32 men noti che e quella che
di
3
1

not produced by the angle of the shadow but only by the body casting the shadow; &c. If a spherical solid body is illuminated by a light of elongated form the shadow produced by the longest
is

shadow

derived

gienera dalla Iarghez3-za del medesimo lume; E questo si prova per la pas34sata che disse quell' obra essere di termini me noti 35 C h'e creata da maggiore lumin-

oso e de coverso, que! 36 la essere di termini piu noti che s'allumina da minor luminoso.

will have less defined which is produced by the breadth of the same light. And this is proved by what was said before, which is That a shadow will have less defined outlines in proportion as the light which causes it is larger, and conversely, the outlines are clearer

portion

of

this

light

outlines than that

in

proportion as

it

is

smaller.

162. 2.

[si]

dirivativ.

3.

cho.
8.

4.

choncorrete.
9.

5.

interscghatione.

6.

interseghatione

dlfinita
ati.

"righor" lunghe.

7.

Essettu

"di"
the

ciessi [chella] ta.

angholo.
oltre.

della [interseghatione] "congiutione"

de sua

Questo.

margin
13.

no passare piv

10.

egha
14.

perche [terminata] nella p" dellonbre so pro.


chontrario chonciossiache.
chol suo angho.
. .

The following occurs in n. chosa. 12. alchuna


. .

eciede.
17.

qui [no] in "t" ale onbra


[ella].

sivi.

15.
.

nasscie
.

nasscie.
21.

16.

piramide "obrose".
.

angholi son chongitite


22.

18. 23.

etter.

19.

20. nasscie 24. chor.

sechonda.

obrosa [perche]
.

dicie

chavsa.
27.

angholo

quessto.

niegha [medi] choll

ch'ed.
31.

26.

chorpo luminoso) [addunque] e


32.

quessto.

angholo.
33.

29. Sello spericho.

30.

lugha fighura
35.

chessi.

[parte piu] lungha.

[chen]

"men"

noti

che ecquella

chessi.

Ecquesto.

34. cheddisse.

magiore.

36.

termini menoti chessalumina daminor.

162.

The two diagrams

to this chapter are

on Plate IV, No.

I.

94

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


163.

[163

166.

H.* 28*]

TIL'

onbra diriuatiua no
il

on
u

the reia-

corpo dove nascie se

mai simile 2 al lume no sara della


fia
.

The derived shadow can never resemble


the body from which 16 D d y
t}

it

proceeds unless the


size as the

ved and""3figura _ _ primary sha-

do*

1L

e gradezza del corpo obroso 1 .. -. _ _, obra dinvativa no puo essere simile


. .

*&

R same form and


the shadow.
,

body causing

5 per figura alia primitiva, se essa no percuote fra equal! 6 angoli.U

The derived shadow cannot be of the same form as the primary shadow unless it is intercepted by a plane parallel to it.

Ash.

I.

6a]

164.

COME L'OBRA SEPARATA NO


2

FIA

HOW

MAI SIMftE PER GRADEZZA ALLA SUA CAGIONE.

A CAST SHADOW CAN NEVER BE OF THE SAME SIZE AS THE BODY THAT CASTS IT.
If the rays of light proceed, as experience

3Se li razzi luminosi sono, come sperieza coferma, cavsati da uno solo puto e I corso circulate al suo puto si vanno
disgregado e sparg edo per 1'aria, quato piv s'alontanano piv s'a6 largano e sepre la cosa posta fra lume e la pariete e portata per obra maggiore perche ?i razzi che la toccano 8 givnto lor cos

shows,

from a single point and are diffused in a sphere round this point, radiating and dispersed through
the
air,

the

farther

they

spread

cor^so alia pariete e fat I0 to piv


largo.

must spread; and an object placed between the light and a wall is always imaged larger in its shadow, because the rays that strike it [7] would, by the time they have reached the wall, have become larger.
the wider they

Br.

M.

170/5]

Ogni obra separata dal corpo obroso e tutta della natura e qualita di quella 3 ch' e 4 il mezzo cogivnta a esso corpo
2
;

Any shadow cast by a body in light and shade is of the same nature and character as that which is inseparable from
the body.

della

obra s sepre si dirizza al mezzo del corpo luminoso 6 neciessario e che o 7 gni obra 8 risguardi col suo mezzo 9il mezzo del suo lume.
.

lughezza

di ciascuna

The

centre of the length of a

shadow always corresponds to that of the luminous body [6], It is inevitable that every shadow must have its centre in a
line with the centre

of the

light.

E. 31 a]

166.

DEL' OBRA PIRAMIDALE.


L' onbra piramidale gienerata dal 3 corpo On the shape parallelo sara tanto piu stretHa che '1 corpo "shadow! obroso, quato la seplisce onbra deriuativa 6 (166-174). fi a taglia ta piu distante al suo corpo obroso.
163.
i

OF THE PYRAMIDAL SHADOW.


The pyramidal shadow produced by a columnar body will be narrower than the body itself in proportion as the simple derived shadow is intersected farther from the body which casts it.
. .

6 R.

2.

nasscie selume.
3. razi
.
.

3. figure e

gradeza.
. .

4.

dirivativ
5.

po.

5.
6.
.
.

percote.
. tocano. magiore perche d_. 7. A.' i razi mezo. 6. [Egli e] neciessario e cheo. 7. gni obra
.

164. 2. gradeza.
165. i. obr.
[si dirizi

da

solo.
3.

4.

circhulare
4.

van.
.

essepre.
5.

2. ettulta

quela.

chorpo.

mezo
.

lugeza.
9.

diriza

al
.

mezo
.

del suo].
4.

8.

[lume] risguardi
6.

mezo.
.

mezo.

166. 3.

chorpo

strec.

chel chorpo.

disstante

chorpo.

164.

7-

The following

lines are

wanting to com-

plete the logical connection.


165.
6.

166. Compare we here conceive

the

first

diagram

to

No. 161.

If

This second statement of the same idea

of
its

shadow
apex
is

on
this
is

of the outlines of the pyramid the ground as prolonged beyond


rise

as

former sentence, but in different words, does not, in the original, come next to the foregoing sections 172 and 127 are placed between them.
in

the

gives

to

second
the

this

what

spoken

of at

pyramid; beginning of

No. 166.

167

169.]

THIRD BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.

95

B.

M.

170,5]

167.
2

QueP onbra separata


avra
il

fia

piv luga

che

The
the light

cast
is

shadow

will

be longest when

lume

piv basso.

lowest.

^QuelPobra separata 6 quale avra il lume piv

sfia piv brieve,


alto.

la

The
the light

cast
is

shadow

will

be shortest when

highest.

Tr. 28]

L' onbra primitiva e dirivativa fia mag3 giore a essere cavsata da lume di cadela dell' aria 11 ^tato quato spobra diche quello
If

will

Both the primary and derived shadow be larger when caused by the light of
light.

a candle than by diffused

The

differ-

minor riva 6tiva entra 7 la maggiore nella I0 tato la 9cavsa della mi nore e piv "luminosa che
la
I2

will

ence between the larger and smaller shadows be in inverse proportion to the larger
lights causing them.

maggiore.
*

and smaller

'

Ash.

I.

25 a]

QUELLI CORPI CHE FIENO PIV PROPINQUI O REMOTI DAL LORO LUME ORIGINALE FARANO PIV 2 O MENO BRIEVE LA LORO OBRA DERIVATIVA.
4 3jfra i corpi d' equal gra dezza quello che da maggior slume alluminato fia avra 6 la sua obra di minore lughezza; 7 Nello sperimetare s' afferma la sopra detta propos m-n-e sitione per cagione che '1 corpo

ALL BODIES, IN PROPORTION AS THEY ARE NEARER TO, OR FARTHER FROM THE SOURCE OF LIGHT, WILL PRODUCE LONGER OR SHORTER
DERIVED SHADOWS.

Among bodies of equal size, that one which is illuminated by the largest light will have the shortest shadow. Experiment confirms this proposition. /Thus the body m n is surrounded by a larger amount of light
6.

167. i. 168. 2.

ombra

[sia]
. .

separata.

2.

ara ilume.

4. 7.

magiore

chausata.

3.

chadela.
3.

169.

i.

chorpi cheffiano.

36

R.

chorpi.

Quello obra [fia piv] separata. 5. ara. magiore nela. n. chella. 12. magiore. magior. 5. ara. 6. lungeza. 4. deza
.

ilume.

7.

chagione.

8.

abraciato.

9.

chefFa

168.

In the

diagrams

stands

for

celo

(sky),

for cadela (candle).


169.

The diagram, given on


between
lines 2

PI.

in the original

and

IV, No. 2, stands 7, while the text

of lines 3 to 6 is written on its left side. In the reproduction of this diagram the letter v at the outer right-hand end has been omitted.

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


abbracciato da piv parte di lume che '1 corpo q come di sopra si dimostra; 'Diciamo che v c a b d x sia il cielo che fa il lume originate e che s t sia una 10 finestra / dode etri le spetie luminose e cosi " cotraposti a \p q sieno i corpi obrosi n sara di minore obra dedetto lume; riuativa perche la sua obra ori I2 ginale fia poca e il lume diriuatiuo fia grade perche
|

[170.

than the body / q, as is shown above. Let us say that v c a b d x is the sky, the source of light, and that s t is a window

by which the luminous rays enter, and so m n and / q are bodies in light and shade as exposed to this light; m n will have a small derived shadow, because its original shadow will be small; and the derivative
be large, again, because the origid will be large and p q will have more derived shadow because its original shadow will be larger, and its derived light will be smaller than that of the body m n because that portion of the hemisphere a b which illuminates it is smaller than the hemisphere c d which illuminates the body /// n.
light will

ancora
'
|

fia

grande

\p q- avra piv sua obra '* originale fia maggiore; il lume suo derivative fia minore che quello del corpo '5; perche quella parte dell' emis1<5 che perio a b che 1'allumina e minore 1' n. emisperio c d alluminatore del corpo

originale c-dobra diriuativa perche la


'^il

lume

nal light c

w.

H.J

170.

Quella proportione

che

The shadow
same proportion

m
to

bears the
the sha-

a
c

la linia

b c

colla

linia

tale

avra

la

scurita

*m

dow n
the line

as

the

line

to

colla oscurita n.

c.

Ash.

I.

25 IrtJ

171.

PlTTURA.
Infra
di pari 1' onbre quella che sia piv
all'

OF
Of

PAINTING.

different

shadows of

qualita visina

ochio

appari-

equal strength that which is nearest the eye will seem


the least strong. Why is the

ra

minore oscurita. 4 Perch e a 1' onbra


di
in
5

shadow
the

b e

primo

grado

di

a b

in

the
c

first

grade of
se-

scurita

do

ragione b non vede

b c e in secoe in terzo ? La si e che 6 c a


-

strength,

b c

in

cond;
e

in
is

the
is

third?

The reason
visible,
it

that as

il

cielo in al-

a b the sky

cuna parte aduque ? nessuna del cielo parte uede lui e per questo e 8 priva to del lume origib c vede la parte nale

gets

from nowhere no light

whatever from the sky, and so has no direct [pri-

mary]

light.

faces

the portion

of the sky

sia
15.

J.

10.

dodetri

echosi.
.

12.
.

pocha ellume

anchora.

13. c

.
||

[AJ p

ara.

14.

magiore ilume.

chorpo.

perche [lemisper] quella


ara.
3. osscurita.
.
.

chellalumina.

16.

chorpo.
sechodo.
cieno in alchuna.
10.

170.
171.

2. 2.

Infrallonbre

chessia.

3.

aparira

osscurita.

4.

schurita.

5.

6.

il

9.

dacquela.

ma-

I73-J

THIRD BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.

97
it.

del cielo
d.

da quella e alluminata: c k essendo visto c d da maggiore soiiia di cielo "che non e b c e ragiohe vole che sia piv luminoso, I2 e cosi insino a cierta distantia il muro a
9

vede

il

f-g-z I0
cielo

g and

is

illuminated by

faces

the

/z

senpre
il

I3

insino a tato che la


viciera

rischiarera per le dette ragioni I4 scurita del' abitatione

sky at h k. c d, being exposed to a larger extent of sky than b c, it is reasonable that it should be more lighted. And thus, up to a certain distance, the wall a d will grow lighter for the reasons here given, until the darkness of the room overpowers the light

lume

della finestra.

from the window.

Br.

M.
2

I70<5]

172il

lume dell' aria 3 sara costretto 4 corpi 6brosi, essedo essi corpi sdal cietro d'essa equidistati 6 finestra, quello che si trovera traverse fara maggiore piv

Quado

When
restricted

the

a luminare

[by

76bra dopo

se.

light of the atmosphere is an opening] and illuminates bodies which cast shadows, these bodies being equally distant from the centre of the window, that which is most

obliquely placed will cast the


largest

shadow beyond

it.

Ash.

i.

24^]

*73-

Quelli corpi sparsi situati in abitatione alluminata 2 da una sola finestra faranno

These bodies
a

standing apart in a

room

Fobra diriuativa piv o meno brieue secodo 3 che fia piv o meno a riscotro d'essa finestra. 4 \ Jfra 1' onbre fatte s da equali corpi
6

derilighted by single vative shadows more or less short according as they are more or less opposite to the
will

window

have

window.

8 disequali distatie ?dallo spiraculo Io ro

queMa fia piv luga che suo corpo meno "luminoso: e tato
alluminatore
I2

I0

il

Among the shadows cast by bodies of equal mass but at unequal distances from the opening by which they are illuminated, that shadow will be the longest of the body
And in prois least in the light. portion as one body is better illuminated than another its shadow will be shorter than another. The proportion n m and e v k bear to r t and v x corresponds with that of the
4 and y. those bodies which are placed most in front of the middle of the window throw shorter shadows than those
to

fia

which

Fu Fombra sua quarto


piu

luminoso
17

"3

che
T

1'altro

fia

5piv

corpo, corta che

F al 1 6 tra.1

Q uella
^k
co
21

n
2

J8 proportione che a in se co r t et v x, 20 tale

shadow x

avra onbra

4- y
i

The reason why

3La ragione che


situati
2

corpi obrosi, che


al

si

trovano
finestra,

piv

dritti

mezzo
brievi

della

obliquely

situated
in
its

*fanno

Fobre
I

piv

che

appears

That proper form


is:

the

window
to

and

the

quelli situati I

trauerso

sito si e,

che vedono
i

mag'Sgiore la finestra
corpi
traversi
2fS

propia forma, e
in

la

uederanno
la finestra

iscorto;

a quello

di

mezzo

pare grade,

obliquely placed ones it appears foreshortened; to those in the middle, the window shows its full size, to the oblique 'ones it appears smaller; the one in the middle faces the whole and those on the side hemisphere that is e

ai traversi

pare piccola, quel


12. chosi. 13. risciarera

di

mezzo vede
attato.
[si

have only a
.
.

strip;

that

is

q r faces a b;

giore soma.
172. i.

14- surita

ilume.
3. cosstreto.
. .

[lobra reale sia piv luga quato piv].

2.

trova]
2.

Quado
i

ilume.
.
.

5.

al 3.

chessi

magiore.
Ifrallonbre.
5.

173. i.
6.

chorpi [separati chessi troueranno] sparsi.


e Idisegli.
7.

da

sola

omeno
r.

sechodo.
il

cheffia.

4.

ecquali.

spirachulo.

8.

chorpo qu*'a". 15. chorta. mezo. queli 24. lobra


.

alumatore que. 9. m oo "e" 18. n


. .
.

la effia piv luga.


.

10. fia
.

19.

k cho
25.

suo chorpo m. n. ettato fi"a". 13. chellaltro 22. [situati]. c"o". 20. ara onbra 23. chessi

+
.

sie.

[questa]

che vede ma.

propia

uechano

acquelo.

26.

mezo

picola

173.

Compare the diagram on


this

PI.

IV, No.

3.

In

the

original

drawing

is

placed between lines

3 and 22; the rest, from line 4 to line 21, on the left hand margin.

is

written

VOL.

I.

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


quelli da lato lo uedono q r vede a b a8 d\ il corpo di mezzo e cosi m n vede di lume che quelli perche a maggiore quatita 2 da cato, e allumi 9nato assai piv basso che'l
a

[174-

Pemisperio

?grade cioe

<?/

piccolo cioe

and m n faces c d\ the body in the middle having a larger quantity of light than those at the sides is lighted from a point much
below
shorter.
its

suo cientro, e per6-P6bra e piv breve, e tato 3 in tanto la piramide e quato a b entra g 4 entra in l-y appunto. 3 Ogni mezzo d'obra dirivativa passa per 6 /a e si dirizza

col mezzo dell'obra 3* originate e col cietro del corpo obroso e del lumederiuatiuo 3e col mezzo della finestra e in vltimo col mezzo di quella 34parte del lume originale fatto 6 dal' emispe^srio cieleste; 3 -y h e il mezzo
-

pyramid g 4 goes into / y exactly as often as a b goes into e /. The axis of every derivative shadow passes through 6'/2 [31] and is in a straight line with the centre of the primary shadow, with the centre of the body casting it and of the derivative light and with the centre of the
that finally, with the centre of the portion of the source of light which is celestial hemisphere, y h is the centre of the derived shade, / h of the primary shadow, / of the body throwing it, / k of the derived light, v is the centre of the window, e is the final centre of the original light afforded by that portion of the hemisphere

And

centre, the

and thus the shadow

is

window and,

dell'obra diriuatiua / h del'obra originale / sia il mezzo del corpo obroso 37 / k del lume deriuativo v sia il mezzo della e sia 1' ultimo mezzo del lume finestra
37

originale fatto

da quella parte dell'emispeil

rio del cielo


C. 21 a]

che lumina

corpo obroso.

of the sky which illuminates the solid body.


174-

QUANTO
TANA

PIU

L'ONBRA
CIPA

DIRIVATIUA

DELLA PRIMITIUA

TANTO

S'ALLON2 PIU PARTI-

THE FARTHER THE DERIVED SHADOW


PROLONGED THE LIGHTER
IT

IS

DI CHIAREZZA.

BECOMES.

3Tal proportione quale a il diamitro dell' onbra- diriuatiua


lo della
4

You

will find that the

con quel-

primitiua, tale trouerai nella oscurita

proportion of the diameter of the derived shadow to that of the primary shadow will be the

dell'obra s primitiua -con quello della diriuatiua.


6

same as
ry
<x

that

between the
the

darkness of
of the

primathat

a b

sia

il

dia-

shadow and

mitro dell' onbra primitiua c d- sia-quello della -di 7 riuatiua-,

derived sha-

dow.
[6] Let a b be the diameter of the pri-

dico che etrando come vedi a b 3 volte in d- c 8 che


1'

mary
c

shadow
that

and
the

of

onbra
volte

d
piv

fia

derived

chiara

che quella di a b. 9se la grandezza del corpo alluminate supera quella del corpo I0 alluminato accadera onbrosa intersegatione dopo la quale
giore
.

shadow, I that a b going, say as you see, three ti-

mes into d shadow d c

c,

the

will

be

three times as light as the shadow a b. [8]


If the size of the

illuminating
larger
.

body
that
31.

is

than
piramida.

of

queli

chato e alumi.

29. asai.

30.

mez

per 6'/2 (passes through 6'/2). The mean the ing of these words is probably this: Each of three axes of the derived shadow intersects the
31. passa

This
but
it

is
is

self evident

only in the middle diagram

equally true of the side figures if we conceive of the lines 4 /, x n v m, y I k v, and 4 e, as

centre

(mazo)

ginale) and,

of the primary shadow (ombra oriby prolongation upwards crosses six lines.

prolonged beyond the semicircle of the horizon. 8. 174. 6 Compare No. 177.

175

I78-J

THIRD BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.


in

99

"I'onbre correranno
corsi
,

due

diuersi

condi-

co

I2

me

se

da due

diuersi

lumi

nuassmo.

body an intersection of shaoccur y beyond which the shadows will run off in two opposite directions as if they were caused by two separate lights.
the illuminated

dow

will

175-

PlTTURA.
2

ON
sua principi.
portion as
it

PAINTING.
is
its

L'onbra diriuatiua 3e tato piu potete


ell'e

The derived shadow


is

quango

piv vicina

Salli

nearer to

stronger in pro- One the ti

reia-

place of origin.

o f derived

shadows
(175-179)-

Ash.

I.

is]

176.

COME L'OBRE PER LUGA


PERDONO.

DISTATIA

si

HOW

SHADOWS FADE AWAY AT LONG


DISTANCES.

L'onbre-si perdono I lunga distatia perche la gra quatita dell' aria luminosa, 3 che si truova Ifra 1' ochio e la cosa veduta tigne le sue obre d'essa cosa nel suo
,

fade and are lost at long because the larger quantity of illuminated air which lies between the eye

Shadows

distances

and the object seen


its

tints

the

shadow with

colore.

own

colour.

Tr. 22]

177.

LUME

Quate volte a b
tato fia piv scuro
3

etra in

c b d.

a b

will

be darker than
c

in
b.

a b che c

proportion as

d is broader

than a

C. A. 3 6a;

II5]
1'

178.

Pruovasi perche
piv oscura,
1

onbra o p

h e tanto
is

It

can be proved why the shadow o p


it

h
to

quanto

ella

lima / k, ed e tanto piu 3 quato essa piu s'avicina alia linia o c e sia il Mume # b fine,

piu s'avicina alia chiara

darker in proportion as
the
line

is

nearer

stra, e la pariete oscura,

dove
sia

h and is lighter in as it is nearer to the proportion Let the light a b, be line o c. a window, and let the dark wall

tale
riete.

finestra

collocata,
lati

in

which

this

b s cioe vn de

d'essa palinia

s, that is, the wall.

window is, be b one of the sides of


say that the darker than any

6 Addunque diremo la h essere piu oscura che

Then we may
line

?al-

is

tra parte dello

spatio

p c h,

8 perche essa linia ve de ed e da tutto lo spatio obroso veduta

other part of the space o p c h, the because this line faces whole surface in shadow of

175.

14

R.

3. ettato

potete q"a".
distatia si perdono.
z.

176. i.

come

[son] lobre

illunga

dellaire luminoso.

3.

chessi

ella

le

sue obre d'essa cosa.

177. 2. suro.
178. i.

op c h e ettanto

osscura

tanto pi.

3.

essia.

4.

ella

osschura

tal finesstra.

5.

e cholochata.

6.

direno

is

177. In the original MS. the word lume (light) written at the apex of the pyramid.

178.

In the original the diagram

is

placed be-

tween

lines

27 and 28.

100

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


the wall b
s.

[179-

della pariete b s , ma 'la linia o c & piv I0 chiara che altra' parte d'esso spa tio o p linia vede lo spatio luc h perche essa

The

line

is

lighter
c h,

than

the other part of this space o


this

because
b.

"minoso a
I2

line faces the

b.

luminous space a
is

1 Doue 1'obra e maggiore o minore o equale '^al corpo obroso sua origine.1 ['*Di prima della qualita de lumi divisi.

Where

the

shadow

larger,

or smaller,

or equal the body which casts it. [First of the character of divided lights [14].

DELL'ONBRA COMPOSTA p. R, c, 11 l6 NATA DAL LUME PARTICULARE.

OF THE COMPOUND SHADOW


tal
si

F. R, C.

H
such

CAUSED BY A SINGLE LIGHT.

modo
fa

'^L'onbra composta r c h & in conditionata l8 che quanto ella piu remota dal suo lato intrinsi\
:

The

shadow

is

under

'9co, tanto perde della suaoscurita; pruovasi 20 Sia adunque il luminoso da e 2I 1' obroso a e vna delle n, e sia laterali della finestra cioe parieti

conditions as that where it is farthest from its inner side it loses depth in proTo prove this: portion.

Let d a, be the light and n the solid body, and let a e be one of the side walls of the window that is d a.

/
nd

Then

say

according to the

[pro-

22

a; Dico per

la 2

a
,

la superfitie

2 d'ogni corpo par 3ticipa del color del suo obbietto, adunque il lato r c, ch' e 2

position]: that the surface of any body is affected by the tone of the objects

4yeduto dalla oscurita a

e,

participa

d'essa oscuri 2 sta e similmete il lato estrinsico ch'e veduto dal lume 2(> da participa d'esso lume e cosi abia de2 finite tale stremo ?del niezzo cote-

surrounding it, that the side r c, which faces the dark wall a e must participate of its darkness and, in the same
that the outer surface which faces the light d a participates of the light ; thus we get the outlines of the extremes on each side of the centre inclu-

way

nuto
28

dalli stremi]
'

Questa si diuide in 4 parti 29 prima delli stremi c6tene"3ti 1'onbra conposita, 3'seconda, Dell'onbra coposita tro alii sua stremi.
32

ded between them.]


is

This

den-

the extremes,

divided into four parts. The first which include the compound

shadow, secondly the between these extremes.

compound shadow

C. A. 201 a; 597 a]

179'

L'OPERATIONE DEL LUME COL SUO

CIETRO.

THE ACTION

OF THE LIGHT AS FROM

ITS

CENTRE.

quello che cavcorpi a quello cotraposti converebbe, 3che quello corpo ch'e molto minore che' 1 lume facesse dopo se vn obra piramidale -, e la spe^rieza non lo mostrado couiene che'l cietro d'esso lume
tutto
il

Se

sasse

1'

onbre
,

lume dopo

fusse

If it were the whole of the light that caused the shadows beyond the bodies placed in front of it, it would follow that any body much smaller than the light would cast a pyramidal shadow; but experience not showing this, it must be the centre of the light that

sia

quello che facci

tale ofitio.

produces

this

effect.

osschura.
15.

8.

dactutto losspatio.
16. partichulare.

9. [losspatio] la linia.

10. tio [perche]

o p c h
20.

vede

\\\\\
.

12.
.

magiore ominoe.
21.

13.
. .

chorpo.

chonposste.

17.

chonposta.
.

19.

cho
24. a
.

osschurita.
. .

ellobroso
. .

essia.
25.

pariete

finesstra.

22.

Dicho
lume

26. chosi

179. i.

. ilato. dongni chorpo. 23. cholor stre'"me". 29. 4 p"a" p"a" delli. 31. chosuo. 2. scttutto fussi chavsassi
.
. .

vedvuta

osschurita

osschuri.

esstrinsicho

che vcduta.
.

"a" De Dellonbra chonposita.


acquello
.
.

chonverebe.

3.

chorpo

faciessi

ella.

4. rieza

nol

divisi. The text here breaks off abruptly. The diagram belonging to this passage is between lines 4 and 5 in the original. Comp. the reproduction PI. IV, No. 4, The text and drawing of

14.

lumi

179.

rable

chapter have already been published with toleSee M. JORDAN: "Das Main-buck accuracy. des Leonardo da Vina". Leipzig 1873, p. 90.
this

i8o.

181.]

THIRD BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.


PRUOVA.
PROOF.

IOI

gradezza del lume d' una quale dia il lume a vno bastone ritto i pie 7 da a c e da a d sia dove la finestra. tutta iteramete da il suo lume Jn c e no puo vedere quella parte 8 ch' e ifra / b della finestra E simil
'

sia la

finestra

la

Let a b be the width of the light from a window, which falls on a stick set up at one foot from a c [6]. And let a d be the space where all the light from the window is visible. At c e that part of the window In which is between / b cannot be seen.
the

mete -d-f- no uede a


cagione
I

questi

lochi

e per questa co9micia a stre-

same way a m cannot be seen from and therefore in these two portions
fail.

mare

il

lume.

the light begins to

c. 84]
1

180.

Quel corpo obroso che


fia,

infra equali

lumi
i

collocate

fara tate obre

qua
fia

ti;

fieno

lumi, le quali obre fieno tato piv scure 1'una

che

1'altra,

quato

il

lume

che

dall'oppo-

A body in light and shade placed between Shadow two equal lights side by side will shadows in proportion to the [amount of] And the shadows will be one darker light.

as

sita
li

parte

fia

piv visino a

esso corpo

che

altri.

than the other in proportion as one light is nearer to the said body than the other on
the opposite side.

equalmete distate infra 2 lumi situate sia, fara 6 due obre tanto piv oscure 1' una- che 1'altra
quato i lumi d'esso ^ 1' una che 1' altra.
cagio
sie

Quel corpo onbroso

che

A
light other.

body placed

at

an equal distance be-

tween two

maggiori

deeper which causes

lights will cast two shadows, one than the other in proportion, as the
it

is

brighter

than

the

Br.

M.
II

170^]
2

l8l.

lume minore che corpo obroso T ombre terminare in esso corpo


3

fa

light
it

which

is

smaller than the body

illuminates

produces shadows
the

e fa poca obra
di

mista, e lo vede
5 il

of which the outlines end within


[the

surface

*meno
giore

mezzo;

lume magobroso
fa
6

of]

body,

and

not
falls

much compound shadow; and


on less than half of it. A which is larger than the
it

che'l

corpo

lo

vede piv di mezzo e obra mista.

molta

light

body

illuminates, falls

on more

than half of

it, and produces much shadow. compound

mostrado chouiene
iochl cho.

cheffacci.

6.

gradeza

pie [c d].

7.

sie

Itera raeta

po.

8.

Essimil

mete

chagione

9. ilu ne.
i.

180.

17

R.

Infrae.
6.

2.

Quel chorpo
.
.

chollochato
.

chellaltra.

4.

cheffia
.

oposita
7.

chorpo piv

chelli.

5.

chorpo

lumi [ch] situato. 181. i. ilume . . obrso.

osschure
3.

chellaltra
.

quato
5.

elumi

chagio

magiori

chellaltra.

effa

pocha

mezo.

magiore chel chorpo.

6.

mezo

effa.

6.

bastone (stick).

The diagram has a sphere

in

180.

In

the

MS. the

larger

place of a stick.

above the

first

line; the smaller

diagram is placed one between 1. 4 & 5.

IO2

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

[l82.

183.

Ash.

I.

5*1

182.

DEL'OBRA FATTA DA UNO CORPO SITUATO


IFRA 2 EQUALI LUMI.

OF THE SHADOW CAST BY A BODY PLACED


BETWEEN
2

EQUAL LIGHTS.

Quello corpo che


The
effect

si

trovera collocato

se 2 obre le diffc'rfnt' dlquali si dirizzerano per linia a 2 Mumi e se stances, nrnoverai detto corpo e farai lo piu presso 6 all'uno-de'lumi, 1'ombra sua, che si dirizzera
ifra 2 equali

lumi

movera da

al piu
rita,
8

^ proplquo lume, fia di minore oscuche quella che si dirizzera al piu lotano

body placed between 2 equal lights will shadows of itself in the direction of the lines of the 2 lights; and if you move this body placing it nearer to one of the lights the shadow cast towards the nearer light
cast 2
will

be

less

deep

than

that

which

falls

lume.

.towards the more distant one.

W.

L. 145.

Ao]

183-

oscurita delle obre e la seonbra dirivatiua, perch essa no ve^de lions in "h e nessun de'due lumi a I, c d. derived La shadows .... secoda di minore oscurita e oscurita (183187). dmvativa e j n, e questa e la minore la meta perch6 da vn sol lu^me
Further
'

La massima

The
simple
lighted

greatest depth

plice

derived

of shadow is shadow because it

in the
is
b,

not
c d.

ll

by

either
less

of the two

lights

The next
ved shadow
is

..

less

deep shadow is the deriand in this the shadow by half, because it is illuminated by
e

n;

rischiarata cioe c d.
8

E questa e d'uniforme oscurita natu^rale,

I0 la perche per tutto vn sol de'due luminosi vede; Ma si varia colla oscurita "accidentale, I2 da tale lume, perche quato piu si scosta '3 sua chiarezza. me participa della

uniform in natural tone because it is lighted throughout by one only of the two luminous bodies [10]. But it varies with the conditions of shadow, inasmuch as the farther it is away from the light the less it
is

a single This

light,

that

is

c d.

is

terza oscurita e 1' onbra ^ media, ma questa non e di vniforme l6 oscurita natural e, perche quato piu 17 s'avicina alia senl8 plice obra diriva tiva, tanto si fa piu oscura, e la uni IQ formita vniformemete difforme acciden 20 tale e quella che la corronpe cio che 2I qua to piu si discosta dalli due luminosi si 22 fa piu oscura.
14

illuminated by

La

La quarta e 1' onbra k r s, e questa si tanto piu oscura di scurita naturale, 2 quanto Sessa s'avicina al k s, perch me vede del lu-' 6 me a b, ma per accidentale piu
23

is the middle But this is not uniform in natural tone; because the nearer it gets to the simple derived shadow the deeper it is[i8], and it is the uniformly gradual diminution by increase of distance which is what modifies it[2o]: that is to say the depth of a shadow increases in proportion to the distance from the two lights. The fourth is the shadow k r s and this

The

it [13]. third degree of depth

shadow [15].

fa

2*

is

all
it

the darker in natural tone in proportion


is

perde

d' oscu-rita,

perche piu

s'avicina al
li

lume
lumi.

c d,

&

28 que sta sepre vede

due

nearer to k s, because it gets less of the light a b, but by the accident [of distance] it is rendered less deep, because it is nearer to the light c d, and thus is always exposed to both lights.
as

182. i.

da

corpo.

3.

quelo chorpo chessi

chollochato.
7.

4.
.

muvera obre che


.

quali.

5. esse

detto

\\\

corpo effara.

6.

de

lumi [che

allaltro]
.
.

lombra
4.

chessi dirizera.
. .

oschurita
5.

chessi dirizera.
6.
(pi]

183. i. osschurita
9.

ella.

sechoda
.
.

osschurita ello.

osschurita.
di.

10.
16.

Massi

cholla osscurita.
.

n.
18.

sisschossta.

he efn ecquessta ella. 12. dattale lume


20.
.
.

osscurita.

7. rissciarata.

8.

ecquesta.
15.

me.
.

14.
.

osschurita

cllonbra.

ma-

cquessta e
22.

osschurita
. .

quato

pi.

osscura ella unifor.


26. acidentale

quela chella
27.

cioe cheq"ua".
29. osschurita.

21. disschosta.

osschura.

23. hellonbra

ecquessta.

24. osschura.

dosscu.

cd ecq.

30. ciasscuna.

183.
PI.

V.

The diagram to To the left is the

this

section

is

given on

15.

We
20.

gather from what follows that


(the

facsimile of the beginning


it.

means pmbra media


18

middle shadow).

of the text belonging to

Compare

lines

1013.

JHf

'.,

/]

Heliog-.

Dujardin.

Imp, Kudes.

84.]

THIRD BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.


The
fifth
is

103

9La quita e di jninore oscurita 3 c he ciascuna delle altre perche sen3 I pre vede u de due lumi interi e tutto 3 2 o parte dell'altro, e questa tanto 33 pi u perde d' oscurita quanto 34 ella piu s'avicina alii due Iu35mi, e tanto 36 s a vicina al lato esteriore piu quanto piu
2
'

deep in shadow than because it is always entirely exposed to one of the lights and to the whole or part of the other; and it is
less

either

of the

others

t,

37

&a

perche piu vede del secodo lume

b.

deep in proportion as it is nearer to the two lights, and in proportion as it is turned towards the outer side x /; because it is more exposed to the second light a b.

less

C. A. 174^; S 2 3 a l

184.

DELL'ONBRA

SENPLICIE.

OF SIMPLE SHADOWS.
Why, at the intersections a, b of the two compound shadows e f and m c, is a simple
shadow produced as at e h and while no such simple shadow is produced at the other two intersections c d made by the very same compound shadows?

Perche nelle intersegationi a-b delle due obre coposte 3 e f, c, si gienera 1'onbra 4 e senplicie e cosi in e h e ing, no si gienera tale obra senplicie

m g,

nelle
fatte

due

altre intersegastioni c d,

dalle

medesime obre com-

poste dette di sopra?


RISPOSTA.
7

ANSWER.
miste

Le obre conposte son

Compound shadow

are a mix-

di chiaro e di scuro, e 8 le senplici so di senplicie oscurita; aduque


1'

9 due lumi n o 1'uno vede obre coposte da vn lato e 1' altro 10 vede 1'onbre conposte dall' altro, ma nessu lume vede le inter 1 'segationi a b e per6 e senplicie obra, ma nell'obra I2 vede 1'uno o 1' altro lume; e coposta dubbio T 3per 1'aversario, qui nasce vn dicie nelle intersegatio dell'onbre perche c6po I4 ste per neciessita vedi li due lumi causa d'esse obre, e per J 5questo tali onbre si debbono annullare; concio l6 siache dove no vede li due lumi, noi diciamo 1' obra essere ^senplicie, e dove vede v solo de' due lumi diremo tal'onbra l8 esser coposta, e dove vede li due lumi, essere obra ^annullata, perche dove vede li due lumi, no 20 si 6bra di nessuna sorte, ma solo gienera

delli

ture of light and shade and simple shadows are simply darkness. Hence, of the two lights n and o, one falls
side,

on the compound shadow from one and the other on the compound
side, but where they as at a b; therefore

intersect
it

shadow from the other no light falls,


is

simple shadow.

Where

there

is

compound shadow one


and

light or the other falls; here a difficulty arises for adversary

my

since he says that, where the compound shadows intersect, both the lights which produce

the shadows must of necessity fall and therefore these shadows ought to be neutralised;

2I circudatore esser vero 22 il Qui rispode detto d' esso aversario, il quale sol fa mentione di quella veri 2 3ta ch'e I suo fauore, ma se vi agivgnie il rimanete, egli cocludera 24 esser vera la mia proposta, e questo e 25 che, se vedendo li due lumi in tale interse 26 gatione, tali obre sarebbono annullate';

copone

la chiarezza del
si

capo

inasmuch as the two lights do not fall there, say that the shadow is a simple one and where only one of the two lights falls, we say the shadow is compound, and where both the lights fall the shadow is neutralised; for where both lights fall, no shadow of any

we

delle obre;

kind

is

limiting

what

my

produced, but only a light background Here I shall say that the shadow. said was true: but he adversary
such
truths

only mentions favour; and if conclude that


that
is:

as

are
is

in

his

we go on

to the rest he
true.

must

my
if

proposition

And
the

That

both

lights

fell

on

31. 184. 2.

ettutto. 32. dellaltro

ecqua tanto.
3.

33. dosschurita.

35. ettanto.

36. allato seriore.


5.

37.

sechodo.
6.
. .

interseghatione
.
.

coposste.
8.
.

chosi in a h he
9.
.

g.

4.

intersegha.

composste.

risspossta.

7.

conposste son
1.2.

misste
nasscie.

edidisscuro.

osscurita adduque.
. .

ellaltro.

10.

conposste.

n. seghationi

essenphcie.
. .

ollaltro

noi dicia. 17. senplicie chausa. 15. annulare [sima] concio. 16. novede chopo. 14. sta 21. circhudatore. 23. se ciarezza del chSpo. 20. soli eduve vedi vsol de due lumi diriStal. 18. chSpossta 28. vedessino. 29. vede. tale. 27. Quando. uagivgnie il rimanete e chScludera. 24. ecquesto. 25. chesse. 26. ghatione
13. interseghatio
.

104
2?

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


28

[185.

186.

questo cofesso esser vero, quando obre no vedessimo nel medesimo

le
2

due

9sito,

point of intersection, the shadows neutralised. This I confess to be true


of]
the two

would be
if

[neither

3 lume, perche se dove vedi vn'obra e vn obra coposta, e dove 3'vedi due si gienera obre e due lumi simili, no si pu^ 2 6 variare

parte alcuna essa obra, 33essendo le obre 54 equali e equali li Iu mi, e questo si prova
in

shadows fell in the same spot; because, where a shadow and a light fall, a compound shadow is produced, and wherever two shadows or two equal lights fall, the shadow cannot vary in any part of it, the shadows and the lights both being equal.

de ^sproportione dove dicie, tal proportio3 ne a senplicie potetia co senplicie


nell'ottava
6

And
sition]

this

is proved in the eighth [propoon proportion where it is said that if

a given quantity

has a single unit of force

resisted 7tia

quale a duplicata potetia co du-

plicata resistetia.

and resistance, a "double quantity will have double force and double resistance.

Br.

M. 2430)

185-

DEFINITIONS.

DEFINITION.
fatta

La intersegatione n e create dal lume *b, perche nera 1'onbra x b e 1'obra * la e fatta intersegatione
2

dall'onbre

tale

lume b

gie-

s b, ma dal lume

a che gienera M'obra


a.
6

a e Pobra

due lumi a due obre n 7 in u medesimo tepo, e oltre a di questo se ne gienera due altre di 8 senplicie onbre cioe r o, nelle quali no uede nes^su de due luminosi. 1 I0 tanto sono li gradi della oscurita che acquista 1' onbre c6po jl ste, quanto saran minori li numeri de' luminosi che la vedono.H
se tu scopri
si
li

Ma

b,

allora

gienera

le

The intersection n is produced by the shadows caused by the light b, because this b, light b produces the shadow x a and the shadow s b, but the intersection m is produced by the light a which causes the shadow s a, and the shadow x a. But if you uncover both the lights a b) then you get the two shadows n m both at once, and besides these, two other, simple shadows are produced at r o where neither of the two

lights falls at all. The grades of depth in compound shadows are fewer in

proportion

as

the

and crossing them are


1

lights falling on, less numerous.

Br.

M.

248^]

86.

Perche la intersegatione n essendo co2 posta di due c6 poste obre diriuatiue gie-

Why

the

intersections

at

n being com-

posed of two

compound derived shadows,

30. coposita.

31.

vede
n
.

"simili".
3.

32.

alchuna.
4.

34. ecquesto.

37.

co dup "ta".
5.

185. 2. interseghatione

cflfatte.

ellobra.

interseghatione
it. site
.
.

effatta.
. .

sa he lobra. .6.

Massettu

gienera.

7.

nu me-

desimo

addi

gienera.

10. osscurita.

numere

chella \\\\dano.

I8/.J

THIRD BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.


.

105

nera onbra coposta


s

^ e no senplicie come fan 1'altre intersegationi dell obre copos^te.

Questo accade per


6

la 2 a di

questo che

di-

cie U

intersegatione dell' obre dirivativenata dalla ^ intersegatione delli obrosi collunali alluminati da u sol Iu 8 minoso non gienera onbra sepliciell; e questo nascie 9 per
la

La

plici rita

prima che dicie la intersegatione delle senI0 onbre diriuatiue mai acquista oscu:

perche
giunte

I:

tutte le

somme

oscurita in-

sieme

non

ac I2 quistano

maggiore

oscurita che vna sola, perche se le mol^te somme oscurita crescessino oscurita nelle lor dup^plicationi, esse non si potrebbino no-

forms a compound shadow and not a simple as happens with other intersections of compound shadows. This occurs, according nd to the 2 [diagram] of this [prop.] which The intersection of derived shadows says: when produced by the intersection of columnar shadows caused by a single light And does not produce a simple shadow. st this is the corollary of the i [prop.] which The intersection of simple derived says: shadows never results in a deeper shadow, because the deepest shadows all added together cannot be darker than one by itself.
one,
if many deepest shadows increased in depth by their duplication, they could not be called the deepest shadows, but only part-shadows. But if such intersections are illuminated by a second light placed between the eye and

Since,

minare oscurita so'Sme

Ma
e
T

se

tali

parte di oscurita; interse l6 gationi sara alluminate

ma

da un secondo lume po I7 sto


li

infra 1'ochio l8 6bre sara corpi intersegati, allora tali obre conposte e avra vniforme oscurita

the

intersecting

bodies,

then those shadows

9cosi nella intersegatione come nel rima20 nete; per la prima e seconda di sopra
le intersegationi i k no si raddoppiano di 22 oscurita elle si raddoppiano di qua tita,
2I

would

become compound shadows and be

come

ma
2

in

questa 3

le intersegationi

gn

si

rad-

^doppia

di oscurita e di quantita.

uniformly dark just as much at the interIn the i st section as throughout the rest. and 2 nd above, the intersections i k will not be doubled in depth as it is doubled in quanBut in this 3 rd at the intersections g n tity. they will be double in depth and in quantity.
,

C. A. 187 lla; 562 a]

187.
2

COME
3

.E

DOVE L'OBIETTO OSCURO

si

MISCHIA

COL LUME DIRIUATIVO DEL CORPO LUMINOSO.

HOW AND WHEN THE SURROUNDINGS IN SHADOW MINGLE THEIR DERIVED SHADOW WITH
THE LIGHT DERIVED FROM THE LUMINOUS BODY.

^L'onbre

diriuative delle

parieti

oscure

The derived shadow of


on
of

the

scolaterali dello splendore della finestra son


6 que! le che colle lor varie oscurita si mischiano col 7 lume diriuativo d'essa finestra e

window

bright are what mingle their various degrees shade with the light derived from the

each

side

of

the

dark walls light of the

co uarie oscu 8 rita tutto


nel
:

lo

tingono eccietto

lume massi 9 mo c provasi e sia d a I0 1' onbra primiti va la quale tutta vede e fa
oscuro colla sua obra "diriuatiua
il

puto

e,

come

si

dimostra per

il

Tangolo e vede tutta la il puto v e veduto dalla oscur^ita a s, parte del ado. per esser piu il tutto che
186.
i.

# e d del quale basa ^oscura d a c,


I2

window; and these various depths of shade modify every portion of the light, except where it is strongest, at c. To prove this let d a be the primary shadow which is turned towards the point e, and darkens it by its derived shadow; as may be seen by the
a e d, in which the angle e faces triangle the darkened base d a e; the point v faces
the

dark shadow a s which is part of a and as the whole is greater than a part,

d, e

interseghatione
7.
.

choposta

cho.

2.

posste

choposta.
.

3.

interseghatio
10.

chopo.

4.

site.

5.

achade.
12.

6.

inter-

seghation.
osschurita
16.

interseghation chollunali.
selle. 13.

9. la

p'che

interseghatione.
14.
. .

osschurita.
. .

u. some
15.
19.

osschurita.

magiore

some osschurita
2*

cressciessino osschurita.
elli

plichationi
18.

osscurita.
.

disschurita

Massettale.

ghatione
20.
.

sechondo.

17. infrallochio

chorpi interseghati
21.

tale.

ara

osscurita.

chosi
22.

interseghation
. .

chome.

per la p* e
.

disopra

interseghatio.

radoppiano disscurita chomelle se radoppia.


chol

quessta

inter -

seghationi
187.

ra.

24. disschurita eddi.


2.
.
.

come
[cheso

[1]

e dove lobbietto osscuro.


5. finesstra.

si

missta colla suobra diriuatiua.


8.

3.

lumi "noso".
12.

4.

lonbra dmuativa
. .

osscure

la].

6.

cholle

misstaro.

tinghano.

9. essia.

10. effa.

langholo.

14. eser

chella.

15. osscu.

187.

The diagram on
r.

PI.

IV, No.

belongs to

this

passage;

but

it

must be noted that the text

side. explains only the figure on""the right-hand

VOL.

io6
5

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

[l8 7

sara parte e, che vede il tutto della basa, oscu l6 ro che v che ne vede parte; mepiu
diate la coclusio'^ne
t

di

sopra
'1
'

alia

figura,
la

sark

meno

os l8 curo che

v e e parte della similmete succede / meno o 20 scuro del /,


del /
y

v perche ^ basa del


t

basa

which faces the whole base [of the triangle], be in deeper shadow than v which only faces part of it. In consequence of the conclusion [shown] in the above diagram, / will be less darkened than z/, because the base of the / is part of the base of the
will

perche
del

e parte della ba 2I sa /-e'l c e termine del'obra dirivatiua


la

basa del

A/

e pri"cipio
alluminata.

massimo

della

massima parte

v; and in the same way it follows that-/ is less in shadow than /, because the base of the /. / is part of the base of the And c is the terminal point of the derived shadow and the chief beginning of the

highest

light.

17.

fighura

[c piu] sara.

18.

churo.

19.

essimilmete suciede

meno

os.

FOURTH BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.


I.i

37 e\
2

188.

La stanpa dell' onbra di qualuque cor po uniforme grossezza mai sara simile ^al corpo donde ella nasce.
di
c. A. 184

The form of the shadow cast by any On the shape body of uniform density can never be the of cast sha same as that of the body producing it. (188-191).
~

6-,

5553]

189.

sulla pariete la

Nessuna obra separata potra stampare uera forma del corpo obroso, se il cietro del lume no fia equidistate dalli

No cast shadow can produce the true image of the body which casts it on a vertical
plane unless the centre of the light is equally distant from all the edges of that body.

stremi d'esso corpo.

A.

a]

190.
If a a room,

il

Se la fmestra a b mada per se in casa cresciera codesto sole la gra 2 dezza sole della finestra e diminvira 1' onbra
,

window a b admits
the

of

the sunlight into sunlight will magnify the size the window and diminish the

che quado detto omo acco^stera quella obra di se persa a quella che porta la uera gradezza della finestra, vedra 4 in sul contatto dell' onbre perse e codell'

omo

in

modo

shadow of a man in such a way as that when the man makes that dim shadow of himself, approach to that
which defines the real size of the window, he will see the shadows where they come into contact, dim and confused from the strength of the light, shutting off and not allow-

fuse dalla potetia della luce chiudere e no laSsciare passare i razzi solari, e fara 1' onbra fatta dall' omo

**

cotatto 6 lo effetto e figurato apputo. sopra


sul detto

che

qui

di

ing the solar rays to pass; the effect of the shadow of the man cast by this contact will be exactly that figured above.

188. 2. grosseza.

3.

nassciesi.
2. sel
.
.

189.

stapire suli.
sella
. .

alii.

190.

i.

chasa

desto sole.
5.

2.

deza

imodo checquado
acjeffara.
6.

acho.

3.

acquella

gradeza

vedera.

4.

chontatto

civdere e no [po]

la.

razi solari

[chome

effigurato aputo.

188.

Comp.
is

the drawing on

PI.

XXVIII, No.

5.

190. It

scarcely possible to

of this sentence with strict

render the meaning accuracy; mainly because


is

In the very slight original important part line 4. sketch the shadow touches, the upper arch of the window and the correction, here given is perhaps not justified.

the grammatical construction

defective in the most

108

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


75*1
si

194.

C. A. 237 II;

I91

L'onbra no

dimostrera mai d'uniforme

2 loco dove essa si taglia se tale oscurita nel 3 loco non e equidistante dal corpo luminoso;

che diceTI quell' obra provasi per la ; * dimostrera chiara o piu oscura che fia piu circunda s ta da capo piu oscuro o piu chiaro, 6 avra per la ottava di questol quel campo le sua parti tanto piu ?scure o piu chiare 8 sara piv remoto o piu vicino al
a

si

A shadow is never seen as of uniform depth on the surface which intercepts it unless every portion of that surface is equidistant from the luminous body. This is th which says: The shadow proved by the ;
will

quato egli distancorpo luminoso- ell infra li siti d' equal <>tia dal luminoso quel si dimostrera piu alluminato I0 che ricieve li razzi luminosi infra angoli piu equali, "senprel 1'onbra segnata I2 si dimoin qualunche inequalita di sito trera colli sua vari termini equali al corpo

appear lighter or stronger as it is surrounded by a darker or a lighter background. And by the 8 th of this: The background will be in parts darker or lighter, in proportion as it is farther from or nearer to Of various spots the luminous body. And equally distant from the luminous body those will always be in the highest light on which the
:

^onbroso, se 1'ochiosi pone dove


del luminoso.
T*

fu

il

cietro

rays fall at the smallest angles: The outline of the shadow as it falls on inequalities in the surface will be seen with all the contours similar to those

QuelF onbra si dimostra piu oscura che I6 l'6bra e piu remota 'sdal suo corpo obroso; nata dallo '?a se equidistate corpo c d, 6 l8 broso a b, no si dimostra ^equale in 20 oscurita per esse re in capo di uarie chiare 2 ^ze.

of the body that casts it, if the eye is placed just where the centre of the light was. The shadow will look darkest where it is
farthest

dow

from the body that casts it. The shacast by the body in shadow a b, ,

is equally distant in all parts, is not of equal depth because it is seen on a back ground of varying brightness.

which

C. A. I24<i; 3830) I
51

192.
di

termini
fia

''""adow?
(192-195)-

piu cussione
ginale.
C. A. 3630;

distinti

quella obra diriuativa sadella quale la sua per,

The edges of
most
distinct

a derived shadow will be


it

where

is

cast nearest to the

piv propiqua

all'

ombra

ori-

primary shadow.

193-

dall'obra

piu 1'onbra diriuativa si primitiva, piu si uaria 3 primitiva co! li sua termini.

Quato

remove da essa

As
tant

the

derived

shadow

gets

mqre

dis-

from the primary shadow, the more the cast shadow differs from the primary shadow.

C. A. 146^; 4340]

194.

D
2

OBRE CHE MAI SO TERMINATE.


il

OF SHADOWS WHICH NEVER COME TO AN


The
light

END.

Quato
5

lume sara maggiore


li

del corpo
di tal

obroso,

tanto

termini dell'onbre

corpo
191.
i.

sara piu confusi.


duniforme osscurita.
5.
.
.

greater the difference between a and the body lighted by it, the light being the larger, the more vague will be the outlines of the shadow of that object.
.

dimossterra mai

[de]

2.

locho

settale

locho

al.

3.

chorpo.
8*.
.

4. 6.

dimosstera
quessto
9.
.

chiarara
.

oppiu osschura cheffia circhunda.


.

ara

parte.

7.

oppiu

osschuro oppiu chiaro [ecqua] per la chapo infralli esara "piv remoto o" piu vicino [orremoj. 8. to al
. .

chanpo[sia]
.
.

disstan.

tia al

dimossterra.

10. angholi.

12.

dimossterra cholli.

13. sellochio si po.

14.

dimosstra

osscura.

15.

chorpo.

17. asse equidisstate

chorpo.

19. iscurita.

20.

chapo.

193. i. disstinti.

193. i. dellobra.

2.

chol.
7.

194. 2. magore.

6. ara.

cofusil termini

percu.

191.

Compare

the three diagrams

on PL VI, no

which, in the original accompany this section.

PL, VI

p.

Eude

1956

FOURTH BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.


The derived shadow will be most confused towards the edges of its interception by a plane, where it is remotest from the
body
casting
it.

li

Quell'obra dirivatiua avra piu ^cofusi termini della sua percus 8 sione nella pa9 e riete, la quale piu remota dal suo corpo obroso.

W.

232^]

195-

dell'

2 termini quella che fa li obra cofusi e in^gnoti? 4 Se'l'e possibile di dare termisni spediti

Che causa e

What

is

the

outlines of the

Whether
definite

it

cause which makes the shadow vague and confused? is possible to give clear and

e noti

alii

cofini

delle obre.

outlines to the edges of shadows.

Ash.

I.

196.

QUEL CORPO CHE


3

E PIV PROPIQUO 2 AL LUME FA MAGGIORE OBRA, E PERCHE?


obietto
fia di

THE BODY WHICH


If an

IS

NEAREST TO THE LIGHT

CASTS THE LARGEST SHADOW, AND


light is very close to

WHY?
<?n the reucast

antiposto a uno partipropiqua vHcinita vedrai a quello fare obra gradissima nella cotra5 posta pariete e quato piv allotanerai detto obbietto dal Iu 6 me, tato si diminvira la forma
culare

Se uno lume

object placed in front of a single it you will see that it

shadows
I97)-

casts a very large shadow on opposite wall, and the farther you remove the object from

( I9<5 -

the light the

smaller will the image of the

d'essa obra.

shadow become.

PERCHE L'ONBRA MAGGIORE CHE LA SUA


8

WHY

CAGIONE
9

SI

FA DI DISCORDATE PROPORTIONE.

A SHADOW LARGER THAN THE BODY THAT PRODUCES IT BECOMES OUT OF PROPORTION.

La

discordantia della proportione delI0

l'obra grade piv che la sua

cagione nascie,
1'

il lume sendo minore che no puo esse^re di equale distatia

perche

obietto,

alle stre-

disproportion of a shadow which is than the body producing it, results from the light being smaller than the body, so that it cannot be at an equal distance from the edges of the body[n]; and the
larger

The

mita
I2

d' esso obbietto, e quella parte ch' e piv distate piv cresce che le propique, e pero
. . .

portions which are most remote are made this larger than the nearer portions for

piv cresce

reason [12].

PERCHE L'ONBRA MAGGIORE CHE LA SUA


CAGIONE

WHY

^A

TERMINI COFUSI.

A SHADOW WHICH IS LARGER THAN THE BODY CAUSING IT HAS ILL-DEFINED OUTLINES.

15 Quell' aria che circuscrive il lume e l6 quasi di natura d'esso lume per chia rezza

is

The atmosphere which surrounds a light almost like light itself for brightness and

195. i. 196. i.
8.

chausa ecquella cheffa. che piv. 2. alume


.

2.
.

chofusi.
3.

4.

selle.
i
.

5.
.

ennoti.
i

magiore.
9.

se

partichulare.
. .

4.

acquelo
. .

chotra.
ecquella.

5.

ecquato.
13.

7.

magiore
15.

chella.

chagione

dischordate.

dischordantia.

10.

chagione

ilume

po.

n.

magiore.

circhuscriue

196.

il.

12.

H. LUDWIG

in

his

edition

of the

old copies, in the Vatican library in which this chapter is included under Nos. 612, 613 and 614
alters this

passage as follows
cresce che le distanti,

propinqua piu

quella parte ctfe piu although the Vatican

for instance, that on PI. XXXI No. 3. the spot where the light is that illuminates the and that the line behind figure there represented, the figure represents a wall on which the shadow of

Supposing
is

copy agrees with the original MS. in having dutante in the former and propinque in the latter place. This

the figure is thrown. It is evident, that in that case the nearest portion, in this case the under part of the and the rethigh, is very little magnified in the shadow,

supposed amendment seems

to

me

to invert the facts.

moter

are parts, for instance the head,

more magnified.

THE THEORY OF THE ART


e quato piv si allotana, piv 17 cosa che fa perde sua similitudine, e la grande obra e vicina al lume e truovasi allue per colore,

<>1

PAINTING.

'197.

198.

minata dal lume


quest' aria lascia
i

l8

termini

e dal'aria luminosa, ode confusi del' obra.

colour; but the farther off it is the more it An object which loses this resemblance. casts a large shadow and is near to the light, is illuminated both by that light by the lu-

minous

atmosphere;

hence

this

diffused

light gives the

shadow

ill-defined edges.

E.

197.

Quel luminoso
fa
^li
5

lunga e stretta figura termini dell' obra diri 4 vativa piv condi
il

narrow

fusi

che

lume sperico, e
alia
li

questo e quel

che c67tradicie

propo
I2

sitione sequete:

body which is long and shape gives more confused outlines to the derived shadow than a spherical light , and this contradicts the proposition next following: A shadow will have
luminous
in

QueM'obra avra
il

termini

I0

piu noti che

fia

its

outlines
it

piu "vicina all'onbra pri


'-Jcorpo obroso,

mitiva,

o voi dire

as

is

more clearly defined in proportion nearer to the primary shadow or, I

ma
l6

di

questo e cavsa la

'5

figura luga del

luminoso a c ecc.

should say, the body casting the shadow; [14] the cause of this is the elongated form of the luminous body a c, &c. [16].

E. 32*1

198.

DE
2

OBRE CORRO1TE.

OF MODIFIED SHADOWS.
Modified shadows are those which are cast

Obre
4

Effects on

vedute

corrotte so dette ^qiielle che so da parieti chiare o alstro luminoso.

on

light walls or other illuminated objects.

b\h e

h ad
tone

back ground.

6 l Quell'obra si dimostra 7 piu oscura che e in 8 canpo piu biaco. U 9 Li termini di quell' 610 bra diriuatiua sara piu noti IJ che fien piu

A
to the

shadow looks darkest against a

light

background.

The

outlines

obra primitiva.il ^L'obra dirivativa I4 avra li termini del is la sua impressione pi l6 v noti, li quali si ta'^gliano infra l8 ango li piu equali nella '9 sua pariete.
vici

I2

ni

all'

'Quella parte d'u2I

34
35
36

na medesima obra
si

e quello obietto

will be clearer as primary shadow. A will be most defined in shape where it is intercepted, where the plane intercepts it at the most equal angle. And the Those parts of a

shadow

derived they are nearer derived shadow

of

shadow
will

22

dimostrera piv 2 'oscura che avra cotra se piu oscuri 2 si dimosobietti; 26 strera me24

oscuro 37 che fia


38

appear darkest which have

larger the

surface

di

mag-

27

no oscura che fia 28 veduta da obbiet2

39giore qu-tatita, piu 4I oscure42 ra 1'obra


43

darker objects opposite to them. And they will appear less dark when they face
lighter objects.

of the dark
object the more
it

will

darken

^to piu chiaro; 3quello obietto chia3 1 ro che fia maggiore, pi32

diriuati-

And

the larger

the derived

44

va nel
suapercussione.

^sito della
46

the light object opposite, the more


the

shadow
where
interit

is

v rischiarera;

shadow

will

47

be lightened.

cepted.

ilume ecquasi
197.
i.

percia.

16.

reza

chalore ecquato
chonfusi.
5.

ella.

17.
6.

alume

aluminata da.
. .

18.
7.

chonfusi.
9.

lungha.

2.

esstretta

fighura.

4.

spericho.

quessto ecquel

cho.

traddicie.

ara.

ij.

chorpo.

14.

quessto echavsa.
chorrocte.
2.

15. fighura

lugha.
3.

198.

i.

obra chorrotte.
15.

chesso.
17.

4.

pariete.
19.

0.

dimosstra.
22.

7.

osscura.

8.

chanpo
23.

biancho.

10. 24.

bra "diritrasse
33.
.

uatiua" sara.
osscuri.
25.

14. ara.

inpresione.
|piu]

angho.
27.

par"i"ete.
30.

dimossterra.
31.

osschura che ara.


32.

Essi.

26.

sterra

me.

osschura.

cquello.
45.

cheffia magiore.

rissciarera.

[ech].

35. osschuro.

37. cheffia.

38 ma.

39. givre q.

41. osscure.

perchu.

197.

1416. The

lettering refers to the

lower diagram,

PI.

XLI, No.

5.

199-

FOURTH BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.

Ill

Ash.

I.

13 6}

199.
1

OPENIONE D'ALCUNI CHE UN TRIAGOLO NO FACCI IN VNA PARIETE ALCUN OBRA.


^ Sono stati alcuni matematici che anno tenvto per fermo che uno triagolo, che abbia ^la basa volta verso el lume, no facci in vna pariete alcuna obra-, la qual s C osa prouano diciedo: cosi, nessuno corpo spe6 che lume puo givgnere alia rico minore

OF THE OPINION OF SOME THAT A TRIANGLE CASTS NO SHADOW ON A PLANE SURFACE.


Certain mathematicians
that a triangle, of to the light, casts

have maintained A which the base is turned P r no shadow on a plane;

disputed P sition -

and

this

they

spherical reach the


lines

body smaller than

prove by saying [5] that no the light can middle with the shadow. The

meta col' obra le linie radiose sono 7aduque poniamo il lume sia g h e '1 triagolo sia / m n e _ dica 8 no il la pariete sia i k lume g vedere la faccia del triagolo / n e la parte della ^e cosi Ji vede pariete i q
: ;
:

rette,

of radiant light are straight lines [6]; therefore, suppose the light to " - be g h and the triangle I m n, and let the plane be i k; they
say the light

falls

on the side

of the

come

la

faccia

e poi

vede -m-n-e

and the' , triangle / portion of the plane / q. Thus again h like g falls on the side
/ m, and then on m n and the plane / k', and if the whole plane thus faces the lights g it is evident that the triangle has no //, shadow; and that which has no shadow can cast none. This, in this case appears cre-

r e se I0 essa 5 e vista dal lume g h couiene essere il triagolo saza obra, e che "non a obra -no la puo dare: la qual cosa

k la pariete tutta la pariete

pare
*

questo

caso credibile se'l triagolo


,

ri-p-g-nd fusse visto da 2 lumi -g- h ma-z'-/-e cosi g-k-n.6n e ciasuno per se 3 visto se no da uno sololume-, cioe i-pno puo esser visto da h g\ k no sara mai *4 visto da g aduque / q fia piv chiaro il doppio che dua visiui spati che tega
J
-

But if the triangle n p g were not illuminated by the two lights g and h, but by / / and g and k neither side is lighted by more than one single light; that is / p
dible.
is

d'

obra.

k will never be lighted be twice as light as the by q two visible portions that are in shadow.
invisible to

g and
will

g; hence

C. A. 30,?;

2OO.

1 3 Quel loco e piv obroso che da mag^gior di razzi obrosi veduto fia Ifsquel loco che sara 6 percosso da piv g?rosso angolo I0 a fia fat 8 to da razzi obrosi, 9 fia piv scuro; di doppia osc^urita che b perch I2 e da I5 14 doppia base ^nascie in pari dist atia 1 quel l6 loco sara piv luminoso che da mag gior somma di razzi luminosi ripercosso fiat I7 de il principio dell' onbra d /-, e tignie poco l8 d /; e piv 1' onbra in- c- d-e- e mezza tignie ^nella percussione b di -f e tutto lo intervallo 20 obroso e interamete tignie di se il loco a.

A
large

spot

is

most

in

the

shade when a On

the reia-

soma

number of darkened

spot which widest angle and by darkened rays will be most in the dark; a will be twice as dark as b, because it originates from twice as large a base at an equal distance. A spot is most illuminated when a large number of luminous

The

rays fall upon it. ca^tfhadowl 2 2 )receives the rays at the (2

rays fall upon it. d is the beginning of the shadow df, and tinges c but a little; d e is half of the shadow <// and gives a deeper tone where
it

is

cast

shaded space

at b than at f. And the whole e gives its tone to the spot a.

199.

i.

dalchuni cun

faci.

3. Estati
7.

alchuni
8.

che
. .

triagolo cheabi.
9.

4.

facinvna.
10.

5.
.

6.

po

[avere]
12. fussi.

givgnere.
13.

ilume.
.

facia

dela.
. .

facia
. .

esse.
. .

esse

cosa [riprouo I questa forma] prouano. dalume obreche. n. nona obr


.
.

po.

da

solo
delli
.

po.

14. vsto

da

charo

dopio

spatio.
2.

120

i.

ettinta
5.
.

[del cholore]

chontra se posti chorpi obrosi e luminosi.


6.

della
10. 19.

chiareza osscurita.
12.
.

3.

Quelocho

ma.

4. razi.

qel locho
.

chessara.
.
.

perchosso.
17.

7.

fa.

8.

razi.
.

9.
.

schuro.
.

dopia ossc.
perchussione

dopia ossc.
.

13. nasscie.

15.

locho

ma.

16. razi

riperchosso.

pocho.

18.

he

meza.

ettutto.

20. illocho.

199'

56.

This

passage

is

so

obscure that

it

200.

The diagram here


2.

referred to

is

on

PI.

would be rash to offer an explanation. seem to have been omitted.

Several words

XLI, No.

112

THE THEORY OK THE ART OF PAINTING.

201. 202.

Tr.

201.
,|

1
in

Tato quato a b d 2 tanto a n


3

etra
fia

A
c

will

be darker than
to

in

proportion

the

piv scuro che

r.J

number of times
goes into c d.

that a b

Ash.

I.

28/.]

202.

fatta dall'obbietto sosara minore che la sua ca3 gione, tanto esso obbietto fia alluminato da piv deboli razzi luminosil *d e &

TIQuanto 1'onbra
la pariete
2

pra

The shadow cast by an object on a plane will be smaller in proportion as that object is lighted by feebler rays. Let d e be the object and d c the plane surface; the

g
si e la pariete tanto- quato obietto </ ^<?-entra s'm-f-g- tante volte- fia- piv lume in /"// che in d-c-\ 6 Quanto il razzo1'
j

number of times
gives

that

e will

go

into
to

/g
d
c.

the proportion of light at

/h

The

luminoso fia piv debole, tato tano dal suo spiracolo.

fia

piv Ion-

ray of light will be weaker in proportion to its distance from the hole through

which

it

falls.

202.

i.

[tanto]

Quanto.

2.

chella sua chagione.

3.

razi.

4.

qua

e.

5.

pivllume.

6.

razo.

7.

spiracholo.

FIFTH BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.


Ash.
I.

203.

MODO DOVE DEBBONO


3

TERMI 2 NARE FATTE DALI OBBIETTI.

L'

ONBRE

OF THE WAY

IN

WHICH THE SHADOWS CAST


the mountain here figured, light is at the point a,

BY OBJECTS OUGHT TO BE DEFINED.


If the object
is

obietto fia questa motagna qui e 1 lume fusse il puto figurata d-e sia ^dico che da- b no fia lume se milmete da c no per ra s zzi reflessi e questo nasce che i razzi luminosi no 6 s'adoprano se non per liniasecond! e quel medesimo fanno recta
1'
'

Se

principles of
(

and the

I say that

cf

from b d and also from there will be no light but from


rays.

ct
2 j,"

reflected

And

this

results

from the fact that rays of light can only act in straight lines ; and the same is the case with the secondary
.

razzi

che sono

reflessi.

or reflected rays.

W.

232-}]

204.

Li termini dell' onbra dirivativa son 2 circundati dai colori delli obbietti allumi3nati circustati 4 al corpo luminoso, causatore di essa S 6bra.

The edges of the derived shadow are defined by the hues of the illuminated objects surrounding the luminous body which
produces the shadow.

Ash.

I. .21

a]

205.

DE
2

RIVERBERATIONE.

OF REVERBERATION.
da corpi semidesa
.

Le

riverberationi sono cavsate


qualita
le

di

chiara

di

piana

superfitie,

3quali, percosse dal lume a similitudine del balzo della palla, lo ripercuotono nel primo obbietto.

is caused by bodies of a On nature with a flat and semi opaque bright surface which, when the light strikes upon

Reverberation

rever

them, throw it back again, like the rebound of a ball, to the former object.

203. 3. fussi.

4.

essimilmete.
3.

5.
li

nasscie.

6.

fano

razi chessono.
4.

304.
205.

2. 2.

circhundati de.

nati
3.

[quali circudano] circhusstati.

chausatore dessa.
. .

chavsate
I.

chorpi.

perchosse dal lume quelo assimilitudine del bazo

riperchuotano.

5.

chorpi desi

si

vestano

VOL.

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


DOVE NO PUO
s

[206. 207.

ESSERE RINVERBERATIONE LUMINOSA.


clesi

WHERE THERE CAN

BE NO REFLECTED LIGHTS.

Tutti

corpi

rivestono

le loro su6

i di lume-eobre; perfitie di uarie qualita lumi-sono di due nature , 1'uno si domada

^ originale dico originale 1* altro derivatiuo essere quello che diriva da vapa di foco o dal lume del sole 8 o d'aria lume dirivatiuo fia il lume reflesso ; ma per tornare alia 9 difinizione dico che riverbera; :

All dense bodies have their surfaces occupied by various degrees of light and shade. The lights are of two kinds, one called original, the other borrowed. Original light is that which is inherent in the flame of fire or the light of the sun or of the atmosphere. Borrowed light will be reflected
light;
I

promessa

tione luminosa

corpo
boschi

che
,

fia

lochi scuri

parte del volta a corpi obrosi, come prati "di varie altezze d'erbe
fia
, ,

no

da quella

I()

benche la verdi o secchi i quali I2 parte di ciascu no ramo volta al lume originale si veste della qualita d'esso lume , niete I3 di meno e' sono tate 1'onbre fatte da ciascuno ramo per se e tate 1' onbre fatte dal^Funo ramo sulP altro che in soma ne risulta tale oscurita che il lume
v'e

but to return to the promised definition: say that this luminous reverberation is not produced by those portions of a body which are turned towards darkened objects, such as shaded spots, fields with grass of various height, woods whether green or bare ; in which, though that side of each branch which is turned towards the original light has a
share of that
cast by
light,

nevertheless the shadows

each branch separately are so numerous, as well as those cast by one branch

on the
is

per niete-, onde no possono simili alcuno dare a corpi oppositi obbietti
'5

others, that finally so much shadow the result that the light counts for nothing.

Hence

objects

of

this

kind

cannot
objects.

throw

lume
28-5]

l6

riflesso.

any reflected
206.

light

on opposite

PROSPECTIVA.
Reflection

PERSPECTIVE.
object mirrored in water in small avelets, will walways be larger than the external obin

w
(rf.

r
>* ).

L'onbre over le cose ^spechiate nell'acqu*a movete, cioe co5m' onde piccole, se8 6 ? che la cosa di fo ri, pre sara maggiori

The shadow or
that
is

motion,

to say

donde nasce.
Br.

ject

producing

it.

M. It

93/5] 93 ]

*W
e

Inpossibile

che
sia

la

cosa
in

spechiata
figura
al-

sopra

dell'acqua

simile

It is impossible that ah object mirrored on water should correspond in form to the

1'obbietto che

3 si

spechia, essendo
4

il

centre

dell'ochio
le loro.
ii.
7.
.

sopra
dicho
.

la

superfitie
8.
.

dell'acqua.
Hume
.

is

object mirrored, since the centre of the eye above the surface of the water.
dicho.
ij.
.

focho o dalume.
.

refresso.
12.

9.

dacquella.
.
.

10.

chorpo cheffia
14.

achorpi

chome.
15.

alteze
. .

bossci
.
.

verdi

ossechi

ciasscu.

vessta.

ciasscuno

ettante.

isscurita

che lume.

po

simili

chorpi
3.

alchuno.
5.

16. refresso.
6.

306.

2.

chose.

achu.

pichole.

magiorc.

7.

chella chosa.

8.

nassce.

207.

stands

for

ockio

[eye],

for aria [air],

original
line
13.

MS. the second diagram

is

placed below

for acqua [water],

for cattto [cathetus].

In the

2O8

2IO."

FIFTH BOOK
di

ON LIGHT AND SHADE.


This is made plain in the figure here given, which demonstrates that the eye sees the surface a b, and cannot see it at //, and at r t;
it

sQuel che
6

sopra

si

manifesta nella

da parte, nella quale si uede F oc^chio uedere la superfitie a d, e non la puo 8 poi vedere in-//-e in r t, vede 9 la superfitie. del simulacro in r t e non la 10 vede nella cosa reale c d: adunque "e inpossibile vedere quel ch'e detto di sopra, 12 se Fochio non e situato nella superfitie dell'a^cqua, come si mostra qui di sotto.
figura
fatta qui

sees the surface of the

image
real

at

t,

and
d.

does

not
it

see
is

it

in

the

object c

impossible to see it, as has been said above unless the eye itself is situated on the surface of the water as is

Hence

shown below [13].

S.

K. M.

III.

37 6]

208.

SPECHIO.

THE
If the
size

MIRROR.
is

Se la alluminata fia della 3 gradezza della cosa allumi^nate e di quella dou' esso si reflette tal propor 6 tione avra la
lume 8 mezzano, quale avra esso lume secodo 9 col primo, essedo essi corpi
qualita del
7reflesso

illuminated object

of the same

Experiments

as

the

luminous body and as that in


(2

nbn
8

which the
of

lume

col

light is reflected, the amount the reflected light will bear the same

-210

)-

I0

piani e biachi.

proportion to the intermediate light as this second light will bear to the first, if both bodies are smooth and white.

W.

232*]

209.

Descrivi come nessu corpo in se e terminate nello 2 spechio ma lo termina F ochio, che detro a tale spechio 3 lo vede, inperoche,
se tu rappresenti il tuo viso neMo spechio, la 5 parte e simile al tutto, conciossiache la parte

Describe

how

it

is

that

no object has

its

limitation in the mirror but in the eye which For if you look at sees it. in the mirror.

e tutta per tutto lo spechio, ed e s tutta in ogni parte del medesimo spechio, e il simile ac 7 cade di tutto il simulacro di tutto F obietto cotra po 8 sto a quello spechio ecc.

your face in the mirror, the part resembles the whole in as much as the part is everywhere in the mirror, and the whole is in every part of the same mirror; and the same is true of the whole image of any object placed opposite to this mirror, &c.

C. A. 139^; 419-5]

210.
2

Nessuno omo vedra


Faltr'

la similitudine
3

del-

No man
man
CL
in

omo
si

sopra

lo spechio nel propio

loco
,

dove
4

riferiscie,

perche

ciascuno

proper place with regard to the objects; because every


its

can see a mirror in

the image

of another

obietto cade sopra s lo spechio ifra 6 angoli, e se F omo, che vede equali Faltro nello spechio, 7 non e posto
colla linia delle spetie, no lo vedra 8 nel loco dove cade, e s'egli entra nelle linie, 9egli occupa Faltr'omo e

object falls on [the surface of] the And if the mirror as equal angles.

one man, who sees the other in the mirror, is not in a direct line with the image he will not see it in the and if he it really falls; into the line, he covers the other gets and puts himself in the place occupied
place where

mette-se medesimo
similitudine:

I0

"

o sia

sopra lo spechio

la

sua
b
sia

man

207.

i.

chella chosa.

2. infigra.

3.

sisspechia.

4.

dellacq "a".

5.

manifessta.

6.

dapparte.

7.

po.

9- nolla.

12.

sellochio.

13.

qua
sella.

mossstra.
3.

308.

2. i. al

gradeza.
. .

4.

edidi quella douessolu.


2.
.

5. 3.

rifretta.

6.

ara.

7.

refresso

mezano.
spechio
.

8.
[il

ara.

10. ebbianchi.
.
.

209.

desscriui
fuch.5.
5.

etterminato.

mallo
.

attale.
.
.

inperochessettu rapresenti.
7.

4-

tutto ettutta] la
8. sta

essimile

chonciossia chella
locho.
4.

ettutta

losspechio.

chade
8.

di tutto
.

il

il

simulacro
9.

cStrappos.

acquale.
17.

210.

i.

vedera.

3.

chade.

6.

nelo.

7.

cola

vedera.

nelocho

esseli.

elli

ochupa.

16. tocha.

tochera

u6
1'ochio dell'amico tuo
'31'ochio

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


I3

[211. 212.

dti

sia

del

tuo amico

tuo ochio; pare in -a: e


il

all'amico par ^che'l tuo sia in c '5e la IterI6 si fa in e segatione delle linee visuali tocchera 1'ochio deltocca 17 in

o be the mirror b and d your own eye. Your friend's eye will appear to you at a, and to him it will seem that yours is at c, and

by

his

image.

Let

the eye of your friend

qualuque
1'altro

the intersection of the visual rays will at m, so that either of you touching

occur

will

omo
al'
2I

che
altro

fia

aperto;

l8

Se toccherai
20

1'ochio

'sdell'altr'omo

sopra
il

lo

spechio

parrk

che tocchi

tuo.

touch the eye of the other man which shall be open. And if you touch the eye of the other man in the mirror it will seem to him that you are touching your own.

E. 2t\

211.

DELL'ONBRA o suo MOTO.


Appendix:On shadows. in movement
(211.

OF THE SHADOW AND

ITS

MOTION.

212).

2 obrosi che Pu dopo Paltro son . e la panete con alqua^to S p ati o s' interponghino, sponbra dell'onbroso, che sara vicina alia 6 pariete del muro, sara mobile, se P o^broso propinquo alia 8 finestra fia in moto traversale a
2

Se
.

li

p m fra
3

When two
one
in

la finestra

front

bodies casting shadows, and of the other, are between a

window and
them,
the
will

the wall with

shadow
to

nearest
the

some space between of the body which is the plane of the wall
the

move
window

if
is

body nearest

to

essa finestra; prova^si e sia li due obrosi a b interpo I0 sti infra la finee la pari i: ete o /, con stra n I2 alquanto spatio interpo sto infra loro il quale e lo spatio a b; X 3dico che se Pobroso a si movera in'^verso s che Pobra dello obroso b, la qua'Sle e c, si movera in d.

put in transverse moTo prove tion across the window. this let a and b be two bodies plam and the ced between the window
plane surface o p with sufficient space between them as shown by the space a b. I say that if the body a is moved towards s the shadow of the body b which is at c will move towards d.

E. 30/5]

212.

DEL MOTO DELLA


2

OBRA.

OF THE MOTION OF SHADOWS.


The motion of a shadow is always more rapid than that of the body which produces
it

Senpre il moto della obra e piu 3 veloche il moto del corpo, che 4 la genera, essedo il luminoso imobile; provasi e sia il lumi s noso a e Pobroso b e Pobra d\ 6 Dico che in pari tepo si moue Ponbro7so b in c, che il d onbra si move I % e, e 9 quella proportione e da ve Iocita a velocita fatta in medesi I0 mo tepo, zl di moto a quale e da lunghezza di moto; a I2 duque pella lunghezza e proportione che a la ^lughezza del moto fatto dall'6bro I4 so b insino in c colla
cie

if

let

the light is stationary. To prove this a be the luminous body, and b the body casting the shadow, and d the shadow.

Then
solid

I say
will

that in the time while the

body moves from

b to

c,

the shathis

dow d
ments

move

to

<?;

and

pro-

portion in the

made

rapidity of the movein the same space of

lughezza

I4

del

moto

fatto dall'obra

time, is equal to that in the length of the space moved over. Thus, given the

in e,

proportion of the space

moved over by

the

cheftia.

Lines 18
3.

n,

are placed in the margin opposite lines 3


4.

5.

20. spechi.
5.

21. tochi.
6.

311. i. ossuo.

2. delli.

fralla finesstra ella.

sinterponghino (disellonbraj.
12. infralloro
il

chessara.

mobile

scllo.

8.

fmcsstra.

9. essia.

10. infralla fmcsstra

m ella.

n.

interpos.

quale he.

13.

dicho chessellobroso.
essia.
16.
5.

14. chellobra.
l>

15. le he<r.
6.
all

312. 2. eppiu.
8.

3.
. .

ccquella

chorpo chel. 4. gieuera "essedo il luminoso i mobile" provasi he da. 10. dallungheza. n. allunghezza. 14. cholla lugheza.

ellobroso
18.

ellobra.
19.

Dicho.

predecte.

Masse.

moto.

212.]
16

FIFTH BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.

117

tale

anno

infra loro le predette

ve I7 locita

de' moti.
18

Ma
20

se
al

il

luminoso
dello

sara

ve I9 locita
1'onbra

moto

equale in obroso, allora


infra

1'onbroso

fieno
il

loro

di

2I se equali; 22 velocie dello 6 broso

moti

body b to c, to that moved over by the shadow d to e, the proportion in the rapidity of their movements will be the same. But if the luminous body is also in movement with a velocity equal to that of the solid body, then the shadow and the body
that
casts
if
it

luminoso sara piu


allora
il

will

move

with

equal

speed.
ra-

1'obra sara piu

tar 2 3 do

che'l

moto delmoto dello

And

the luminous

body moves more

obroso.

pidly than the solid body, the motion of the shadow will be slower than that of the body
casting
it.

luminoso fia piu tardo che 2s allora 1' obra sara piu velocie che 1' onbroso,
se
il

But

if

the luminous

body moves more

F obroso.

slowly than the solid body, then the shadow will move more rapidly than that body.

20. ellonbroso fie infralloro

ecquali.

21. Essellluminoso.

23.

da chel.

24.

Masse

chellonbroso.

25. alora

chellobroso.

SIXTH BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.


C.
7

a (9*)]

213-

PROSPETTIVA.
2

PERSPECTIVE.
If you transmit the rays of the sun through a hole in the shape of a star you will see a beautiful effect of perspective in

Se

farai in

passare

razzi del sole per lo


Stella

The effect of spiracolo


6

forma

di

vedrai

belli

"ihro^T
holes
(213. 214).

effetti

di

fa tta dal

prospettiua *'m nella percussione passato sole.

the spot where the sun's rays

fall.

A. 64*]
2

214.

spiraculo puo trasmutare razzi luminosi I modo che per lunga -Mistantia-non porgino all'obietto la similitudine della lor cagione ^jnpossibile e che i razzi luminosi passati per paralello non dimostrino nelP obbietto la forma s della loro cagione; 6 perche tutti li effetti de' corpi luminosi son dimostratori delle loro cagioni la luna di forma ? naviculare passata dallo spiracolo figurera nell' obietto uno corpo naviculare. 8 Perche 1'ochio vede le cose distati
il

Nessuno

concorso

de

No small hole can so modify the convergence of rays of light as to prevent, at a long distance, the transmission, of the true form of the luminous body causing them. It is impossible that rays of light passing through a parallel [slit], should not display the form of
body causing them, since all the effects produced by a luminous body are [in fact] the reflection of that body: The moon, shaped
the
like a boat, if transmitted through a hole is figured in the surface [it falls on] as a boatshaped object. [8] Why the eye sees bodies

maggiori
riete?

die

no

le

misura

sulla

pa-

a distance, larger than the vertical plane?


at

they measure on

313. 2. seffarai
314.
i.

razi

spiracholo

vederai
.

prosspettiua [in esso sole].


2.

2.

inella perchussione.
.

[ogni spirachulo per lunga disstantia


disstantia
. .

porgie allobiecto la forma]. forma] la


.

spirachulo potrassmutare
5.

il

chonchorso
.

imodo.

3. 6.

porghino
7.

allobiecto

[la
.

chagione.

4.
. .

razi.
i

non
8.

if

wanting in the original

chagione.

chorpi

chagioni.

navichulare

spiracholo [alo] figurera

corpo.

chose.

213.

the order of the


to,

In this and the following chapters of MS. original paging has been ad-

which occur on these pages,


plained, with the exception are here given.

are hardly ever exof those few which

hered

and

is

shown

in parenthesis.

Leonardo

himself has but rarely worked out the subject of these propositions. The space left for the purpose

has occasionally been


matter.

made

use of for quite different

214. This chapter, taken from another MS. may, as an exception, be placed here, as it refers to the same subject as the preceding section.
8.

Even the numerous diagrams, most of them very delicately sketched, lettered and numbered,

In the MS.

a blank space

is

left

after

this

question.

215. 2i6.1

SIXTH BOOK ON LIGHT

AND SHADE.

119

215.

larghezza e lunghezza dell' onbra e benche per li scorti si facci piv 2 e piu non diminuira ne stretta corta, cresciera la qualita e quantita di sua chiarezza o scurita.
del

La

lume

Although the breadth and length of lights p n and shadow will be narrower and shorter in tlon d 2i sforeshortening, the quality and quantity of the light and shade is not increased nor dimi(

nished.

3L'ofitio

dell'

onbra

nvito

per li scorti da luminare *jl contraposto corpo secondo la qualita e quatita che a esso corpo
appare.

e del lume-dimisara da onbrare e 1' altro

function of shade and light when by foreshortening , will be to give shadow and to illuminate an object opposite, according to the quality and quan-

[3] The

diminished

tity
1'

sQuanto- piv
cinera
ai

onbra diriuatiua
stremi
:

s'aui-

sua penvltimi

di

tanta

6 maggiore scurezza apparira g-z-e dopo la sol ueduto dalla parte delintersegatione

fall on the body. proportion as a derived shadow is nearer to its penultimate extremities the deeper it will appear, g z beyond the intersection faces only the part of the shadow [marked] y z;

in

which they

[5] In

z- che piglia per itersegatione n ? e per dirittura 1' onbra a z onde ha -due tanti piu obra che 8 y x uede per intersegatione -n-o-e per diretto -n-m- a onde x-y si dimostra auere1'onbra 1' on-bra

m
3

piu obra che z -g\ x-f- vede per 9 o b e per diretto vede o itersegatione n-m a; onde diremo adunque che 1' onbra x sara 4 tanti piv I0 scura che ch'e tra 1' onbra z perch e vista da 4 tanti piv
tanti
.

by intersection takes the shadow from n but by direct line it takes the shadow a m hence it is twice as deep as g z. Y x, by intersection takes the shadow n o, but by direct line the shadow n m a, therefore x y is three times as dark as z g; x f, by intersection faces o b and by direct line o n m a,
this

therefore

we must
will

say that the shadow be-

obra

a b- sia la parte del' onbra primitiua/ b c fia il lume primitiuo,- d sia il loco della intersegatione, I2/~-^-sia 1' onbra diriuatiua < il lume diriuatiuo. J3 questo uole essere nel principio

11

be four times as dark as the shadow z g, because it faces four times as much shadow. Let a b be the side where the primary shadow is, and b c the primary light, d will be the spot where it is intercepted, f g the

tween

fx

derived shadow and_/<? the derived light. And this must be at the beginning of
the explanation.

della dimostratione.
C.

216.

che

Quella parte della superfitie de' corpi fia percossa da maggiore angolo delle spetie de' contra se posti corpi piv si tig2

That part of the surface of a body on which the images [reflection] from other
placed opposite fall at the largest angle will assume their hue most strongly. In the diagram below, 8 is a larger angle than 4, since its base a n is larger than n This diagram below should the base of 4. end at a n 4 8. [4] That portion of the
bodies
<?

niera

in nel color di quelle

8 di sotto
la

maggiore agolo che 4, perche a-n-e maggiore che * n basa


figura di

sua basa

Questa sotto vol' essere terminata da a


8. 4

di

n e 4 e
215. i. largeza

Quella parte
.

dell'

alluminato

ellungeza
4.

schorti

pivsstrecta

eppiu
. .

chorta.
5-

2.

cressciera
vltimi
. .

osschurita.

3.

lisschorti
6.

e[llaltroj
.

dalluminare.
piglia.
9.
.

chontrapossto chorpo sechondo che. 10. schura sara. adumque


. . .

chorpo.

"pen"

magiore scureza.
13.

dellonbra

[z]

y
a

n. lume
.
.

[diriuatiuo] "primitiuo".

ecquesto.
. .

316.

i.

chorpi
.

cheffia
8. 4.

he

he

perchossa da magiore circhunda la perchussione


.

chontra
.

chorpi.

2. inel

cholor diquele

magiore

magiore.

3.

percusio.

In the original MS. the text of No. 252 precedes the one given here. In the text of No. 215 there is a blank space of about four lines between
215.

much

clearer if he

first

reads the final lines II

13.

Compare 216. The diagram

also line

4 of No. 270.
originally placed

between

lines

the lines 2 and

3.

The diagram given on

PI.

VI,

placed between lines 4 and 5. Between lines 5 and 6 there is another space of about three lines and one line left blank between lines 8 and 9.

No. 2

is

In the diagram given 3. 3 and 4 is above line 14 of the original, and here printed in the text, the words corpo luminoso [luminous body]

on PL VI, No.

are
b

written

in

the

circle

m, luminoso

in

the circle
o.

The reader

will find the

meaning of the whole passage

and ombroso [body

in

shadow]

in the circle

120

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


illuminated surface on

[217.

On
r

relative

o? ught and S Sh a i a -2*i )

la percussione dell' onbra fia luminosa, la quale sara piu a essa perpiv cussione uicina. 5 Siccome vna cosa toccata da maggior soma-di razzi luminosi si fa piv chiara, cosi quella si fara piv scura che da 6 maggior soma di razzi obrosi sia percossa. 74 Sia la parte delFalluminato-4 8 che circuda la percussione dell' onbra- g c 4, e 8 fia esso loco 4- piv luminoso-perche 11 uede minor soma d' onbra che no fa nel loco e 8 -, perche 4 9 vede solamete 1' obra 8 vede ed e percosso dall' onbra a c e daP obra I0 / n ch' e 2 tati piv scura, e questo medesimo accade quado "1'aria col sole metterai in loco dell' obra e del lume. 1 2 II concorso dell'onbra, nata e terminata

che circunda

which a shadow

is

cast will be brightest which lies contiguous to the cast shadow. Just as an object which is lighted up by a greater quantity of lumi-

nous rays becomes brighter, so one on which a greater quantity of shadow falls, will be darker. Let 4 be the side of an illuminated sur-

And
less

face 4 8, surrounding the cast shadow g e 4. this spot 4 will be lighter than 8, because

/,

shadow

falls

on

it

than on

8.

Since 4

faces only the shadow / ; and 8 faces and receives the shadow a e as well as / n which

makes

it

twice as dark.

And

the

same thing

happens when you put the atmosphere and the sun in the place of shade and light.
of shadow, origiplane surfaces placed near to each other, equal in tone and directly opposite, will be darker at the ends than at the
[12]

The

distribution

propinque et piane superfitie di pari qualita- e retta oppositione, "^avra piuscuro fine che principio jl quale terminera ininfra
fra la

nating

in,

and limited by,

percussione
razzi.

de' luminosi

^Quella proportione troverai di oscurita infra 1'obre


diriuatiue

which be determined by the incidence of the luminous rays.


beginning,
will

You
the

will find the

quale
della

fia

vicinita

quella de'

same proportion

in

corpi luminosi
b, 15

che le cavsano, e seessi corpi luminosi fieno di pari grandezza ancora


troverai
tal proportione delle percussioni de' cierchi luminosi e 1'obre qual'e quella della distantia

depth of the derived shadows a n as in the nearness of the luminous bodies m b, which cause them; and if the luminous bodies

were of equal
find the

d'essi corpi luminosi.

the

size you would still farther same proportion in the light cast by luminous circles and their shadows as in

the distance of the said luminous bodies.

C. 4

217.

QUELLA PARTE DEL REFLESSO FIA PIV CHIARA BELLA QUALE I RAZZI DELLA REFLESSIONE
FIEN PIU CORTI.
2

THAT PART OF THE REFLECTION WILL BE BRIGHTEST WHERE THE REFLECTED RAYS ARE
SHORTEST.
darkness occasioned by the casting of combined shadows will.be in conformity with its cause, which will originate and terminate between two plane surfaces near together, alike in tone and directly opposite each other.
[2] The

La

oscurita

fatta

nella

dell'

onbroso
infra

concorso
la

avra

percussione conformita

col suo
finita

principio,

3 fia nata e quale e piane superfitie propinque

di pari

qualita e retta

oppositione.

5.

Sichome
.

.'

chosa tocha da magior


8.

razi
i
.

Chosi
.

pivsschura
. .

magior.
.

6. razi

perchossa.
.
.

7.

circhuda

la per-

chussione

effia.

locho

locho.
.

9.

he

perchoso
.
.

he dallobra.

10.

schuro

achade.

n. chol

sole
. .

meterai ilocho.

12.

chonchorso

etterminata.
15. essehessi

13.
.

ara
.

infralla

perchussione.
.
.

14. troverrai di

osschurita infrallobre
16.'
.

luminosi "m. b." chelle chavsano.


317. i. refresso
.

grandeza anchora
.

perchussioni luminosi dello.


.

bri

quale quella.
3. effinita
. .

razi

chorti.

2.

osscurita facta per"ne"la perchussione

comchorsso

ara

chonformita

chol.

217.

Diagrams are inserted before

lines 2

and

4.

2i8. 219.]

SIXTH BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.


fia
il

121

Quanto maggiore noso tanto piu 1 corso


'

delli

corpo lumionbrosi e lumi-

is

fia insieme misto; speffetto della sopra detta propositione accade perche doue si truoua essere maggiore somma di razzi luminosi 6 ll si e maggior lume e doue n'e meno minor lume ne resulta onde i razzi obrosi si uegono a mischiarsi

nosi razzi

be

[4] In proportion as the source of light larger, the luminous and shadow rays will more mixed together. This result is prois

duced because wherever there


quantity
light, least light, consequently come in and mingle with

a
is

larger

of luminous rays, but where there are


the

there

most
is

fewer

there

shadow rays

them.

Isieme.
218.

Di tutte-le proportion! ch'io faro s'intende che '1 mezzo che si trova infra corpi 2 sia per se equale Quanto minore fia il
;

corpo luminoso tanto piu distinto fia il concorso dell' onbroso. 3 Quando due obre opposte, nascienti da u medesimo corpo fieno 1'una all'altra4 per oscurita duplicate e per figura simili due lumi causa di quelle-, fieno infra loro di dupplicato diametro e distantia da esso corpo 5 onbroso 1'uno alPaltro duplice; 6 Se 1' obietto fia mosso co tardita dinazi al corpo luminoso e la percussione dell'onbra d'esso obbietto sia lontana da esso obbi 7 etto tal proportione avra il moto dell' obra diriuativa
,
:

I lay down it medium between the bodies is always the same. [2] The smaller the luminous body the more distinct

In

all

the

proportions

must be understood

that the

will

the
[3]

When

transmission of the shadows be. of two opposite shadows, produ-

ced by the same body, one is twice as dark as the other though similar in form, one of the

two

lights

causing them must have twice the diameter that the other has and be at twice the distance

from the opaque body.

If the

object is lowly moved across the luminous body, and the


is intercepted at some distance from the object, there

shadow
will

le

quaobbietto 8 e lume con quello che tra F obbietto e la percussione modo che movedosi F obietto avra lo spatio che tra
1'

col

moto

della primitiva

dell'

onbra

co

tardita,

Fobra

fia

veloce.

be the same relative proportion between the motion of the derived shadow and the motion of the primary shadow, as between the distance from the object to the light, and that from the object to the spot where the shadow is intercepted; so that though the object is

moved

slowly the shadow

moves

fast.

Quel corpo luminoso parra di minore splendore jl quale da piv luminoso campocircundato fia. 2 Ho trovato che quelle stelle che so piv
maggiore apparisca presso figura che Faltre perche esse vedono e so vedute 3 da maggior soma del corpo solare che quado esse so sopra di noi e per ueder piv sole esse ano maggior lume e 1 corpo che
, '

A
liant

when

luminous body will appear less brilsurrounded by a bright back-

ground.
[2]! have found that the stars which are nearest to the horizon look larger than the others because light falls upon them from a larger proportion of the solar body than when

all'orizote

di

they are above us ; and having more light from the sun they give more light, and the bodies
.
.

ecpiane

errecta.
.
.

4.

chorpo

chorso
2.

missto.
. .

5.

decta
.
.

achade

razi.

6.

318. i. proportione

mezo
fia
.

del chessi.
.

chorpo
4.

disstinto

fiel

chonchorso

dall.
.

razi siuegano a misticharsi. magior nasscienti 3. due "obre" oposite


. . . .

chorpo [onbroso]
chussione
219.
i.
. .

iscurita

duplicata.

infralloro di dupplichoto
.

diamitro
8.

chorpo.

6.

obiecto cho
. .

ella

per-

obbiecto.
.

7.

eto

ara
2.

il

chol
. .

ara

trallobietto.
. .

trallobbiecto ella perchussione

cho.
. .

chorpo

chanpo circhundato.

chesso

aparissca di magiore

chellaltre hesse

vegano

esso.

3.

hesse

hesse ano

218.

There

are

2 and 3 but they

are

diagrams- inserted before lines not reproduced here. The

219.

Between

lines

and

there

is

in

the

original a
this text.

large diagram which

does not refer to

diagram above line 6 is written upon as follows: at A lume (light), at B obbietto (body), at C ombra
<f obbietto

(shadow of the
I.

object).

VOL.

122

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


4

[220. 221.

sara piv luminoso

si

dimostra

maggiore figura, come si mostra il sole nella nebbia sopra di noi che par maggiore,
di

Sessedo sanza nebbia, e colla nebbia diminvisce; 6 Nessuna luminoso parte del corpo mai fia veduta dalla piramidal pura

ombra

diriuativa.

which are most luminous appear the largest. As may be seen by the sun through a mist, and overhead; it appears larger where there is no mist and diminished through mist. No portion of the luminous body is ever visible from any spot within the pyramid of pure derived shadow.

C. 26 (14*)]

220.

II

corpo che riceve


delle

razzi so-

lan passati
ficationi

infra le sottili rami-

andare
2

no

piante, a lungo fara piv d' un' obra.


lu-

A body on which the solar rays fall between the thin branches of trees far apart will cast
but a single shadow. [2] If an opaque body and a luminous one are (both) spherical the base of the pyramid of rays will bear the same proportion to the luminous body as the base of the pyramid of shade to the opaque body.
[4]

Se'l

corpo onbroso -e

minoso fieno
dita-, tal

di sperica retonproportione avra la

basa

della

luminosa
dell'

3pirapira-

mide
a
la

col suo

corpo-, quale

basa

onbrosa

mide col suo corpo onbroso. 4 la percussione Quanto


fatta
dall'

When

the transmitted sha-

onbroso

concorso

dow

is

intercepted

by a plane

contra se posta pariete, fia piu distante al corpo luminoso e piv s propinqua a sua diriuatione, tanto piu scure e
nella
di termini

surface placed opposite to it and farther away from the luminous body than from the object [which
casts
will appear propordarker and the edges tionately
it]

it

piu

distinti

appari-

ranno.

more

distinct.

C. 2 a

(14/5)]

221.

II

corpo
razzi

alluminato

dai

A
solar

body illuminated by the


rays

passati per le ramification! delle piate grosse fara tate obre quat' e il nvmero de' rami che infra 1 sole 2 e esse interposti sono.
solari
'

passing between the thick branches of trees will produce as many shadows as there are branches between the sun

and

itself.

H 3 La
brosi

percussione
nati
,

delli

on-

razzi

da piramidal

the shadow-rays from an opaque pyramidal body are

Where

sara di biforcata figura e uaria oscurita nelle sue puteTl 4 jl lume che sara maggior della puta e minor della basa del contra se posto
magior
aao.
i.
. .

corpo obroso

dow of
light

intercepted they will cast a shabifurcate outline and various depth at the points.

which is broader than the apex but narrower than the base
. .

5.

come diminvisscie. 6. chorpo. el [ume] chorpo. magiore. 5. cholla 4. magiore figura [Macq] ramifichatione infralle ara. allungo. 2. elluminoso spericha chorpo che ricievfono] "e"" J razi chonchorso disstante alchorpo chol chontrassepossta chorpo. 4. perchussione facta chorpo assua schure term! piu disstinti.
.
.

"il

3.
.

chol

eppiv.

391.

razi chorpo biforchuta chorpo


i.
. .
. .

paate fara per'Me" grosse ramificadone osscurita propo. 4. chessara magior


. .
.

in fral sole
. .

esse interpossti.
.

3.
.

eminor

chontrasse

possto

chorpo

perchussione . . razi . . chellonbroso .


.

The diagram which, in the original, is placed above line 2, is similar to the one, here given on The diagram here given in the margin stands, in the original, between lines 3 and 4. pa'ge 73 (section 120). 221. Between lines 2 and 3 there are in the original two large diagrams.
220.

221.]

SIXTH BOOK ON LIGHT AND SHADE.

123

piramidal corpo onbroso fara che 1' onbroso cavsera sin sua percussione 6bra-di biforcata figura e uaria qualita di scu,

rezza.

corpo onbroso minor del lumidue onbre e il corpo obroso simile al luminoso, e il maggiore ne fa vna, e coue^niete cosa che '1 corpo piramidale che a parte di se minore parte pari e parte maggiore dal luminoso, faccia obra

Se
,

'1

noso

fa

of an opaque pyramidal body placed in front of it, will cause that pyramid to cast a shadow of bifurcate form and various degrees of depth. If an opaque body, smaller than the light, casts two shadows and if it is the same size or larger, casts but one, it follows that a pyramidal body, of which part is smaller,
part equal to,

and part larger than, the lumia bifurcate shadow.

nous body,

will cast

biforcata.

chausera.
hel chorpo
.

Here in
.

the

luminoso e hel magiore

margin: propo (proposition). vna echoue.


.
.

5.

perchussione
in th:

biforchuta
7.

disscureza.

6.

chorpo
. .

onbre e
.
.

Here

mirgin: come.

chosa chelchorpo

magiore dal

faccobra biforchata.

IV.

Perspective of Disappearance.
The theory of the "Prospettiva de' perdimenti" would, in many important details, be quite unintelligible if it had not been led up by the principles of light and shade on which it is based. The word "Prospettiva" in the language of the time included the
principles of optics;

what Leonardo understood by "Perdimenti"


224.
// is in the very nature

will be clearly seen in

the early chapters, Nos. 222

of the case that the farther

explanations given in the subsequent chapters must be limited to general rules.


sections

The
only

given as 227

231

"On

indistinctness at short distances" have,

it is

true,

an

indirect bearing on the subject] but on the other hand, the following chapters, 232
indistinctness at great distances,"

234, 239,

"On

go fully

into the matter,

and in

chapters 235

which treat "Of the importance of light and shade


naturally followed by the statements as to
the apparent size of bodies" (Nos. 240
ie

in the Perspective

the practical issues are distinctly insisted on in their relation to


tJie effect

of Disappearance", This is the theory.

250).

of light or dark backgrounds on At the end I have placed, in the order


treat

of the original, those sections


appearance" and

from

the

MS. C which

of the "Perspective of Dis262).

serve to some extent to complete the treatment of the subject (251

E.

Sort] 2

222.

PERSPECTIVA DE'PERDIMETI DE'CORPI


*

CHE FA

LI

STREMI

OF THE

DIMINISHED DISTINCTNESS OF THE OUTLINES OF OPAQUE BODIES.

veri stremi de' corpi opachi sin qualunche minima distantia, 6 maggiormente sara invisibili nelle lughe
inuisibili
li

Se

son

If the real outlines of

indistinguishable at even they will be more so at


since

opaque bodies are a very short distance/ long distances; and,

Definition

distatie; Ife se la uera figura

per

li

termini

di

cias 8 cu

si cognosce corpo opaco e

know
by
its
its

macado per
tutto,

it is by its outlines that we are able to the real form of any opaque body, when

distantia la

maggiormete manchera

9cognitio d'esso I0 la cognitione

remoteness we

fail

to discern
fail

it

as

whole,

much more must we


and
outlines.

to discern

delle sue parti e termini.

parts

E. 80 6]

223.
Z

DELLA PROSPETTIVA DIMINUTRICE


OPACHI.
3

DELLI CORPI

OF THE DIMINUTION

IN PERSPECTIVE OF

OPAQUE

OBJECTS.

Infra

li

orpi

tudine *tal

fia la

opachi d' equal magnidiminutione delle lor figure

Among opaque

objects of equal size the

in apSparetia qual' e quella delle lor distantie da! 6 Pochio che le vede, tale propor-

ma

tione e ?c6uersaT[ perche dove la distantia e mag 8 giore, il corpo opaco si dimostra minore 9 e dove la distantia e minore, esso I0 dimostrera maggiore, e di qui corpo si nasce la pro^spectiva liniale e in seguito

size will be in proportion to their distance from the eye of the spectator; but it is an inverse proportion, since, where the distance is greater, the opaque body will appear smaller, and the less the distance

apparent diminution of

the larger will the object appear. And this is the fundamental principle of linear perspec-

converra
tia

corpo per lunga distaUogni quel^la parte di quel corpo, perde prima
in se

I2

and it follows: [n] every object as it becomes more remote loses first those parts which are smallest. Thus of a horse, we
tive

la

quale

e piu

I4

sottile

come

dire:

d'un cavallo si perdera pri'Sma le ganbe che la testa, perche le ga l6 be son piu sottili d'essa testa, e prima si per^dera il collo che il busto, per la medesima ragio l8 ne detta; aduque seguita che 1' ultima parte
222. 2. cheffalisstremi

should lose the legs before the head, because legs are thinner than the head; and the neck before the body for the same reason. Hence it follows that the last part of the horse which would be discernible by the eye would be the mass of the body in an oval
the
chu

de chorpi op.
9.

4.

chorpi oppachi.
10.

5.

disstantia.
. .

6.

disstatie esse.

7.

chogniosscie

fighura.

8.

oppacho
223.
i.

machado.

magiormete.

chognitione

parte
.

||

"ettermini" adunque.
4.

prosspectiva diminuitrice.

3. Infralli
si
. .

chorpi oppachi
9.

magrritudi.
10.

diminuitione.
. .

5.

Quale "qu"lla

delle.

6.

chelle.

7.

chonversa.

8.
.

chorpo oppacho
14.

dimosstra.
chavallo.

chorpo.

dimossterra
il

nasscie.

n. seguita chonve "ra"


dessa tessta.
17.

(?)

ogni.
.

12.

chorpo

lungha.

chome

15.

ghanbe [che

cho] chella tessta.

16. soctile

chollo

128

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


form, or rather
this
its

[22 4

che della cognitione del cavallo fia al20 vata sara il busto restate in forma ovale, 2I ma piu tosto traente al colonnale e perderas"si prima la grossezza che la a 23 lunghezza per la anti detta 2 conclusione ecc. 2
'9

in
its

a cylindrical form

and

1'ochio riser

would lose

length above, &c.


If

apparent thickness before nd rule given according to the 2


[23].

1'ochio e in 5mobile, la prospet2 28 26 tiva termina ?la sua distanti a in punto; 2 9ma se 1'ochio ^si move per ret^ta linia

*Se

34 perche pro 32 spettiva ter33mina in linia, e prova^sto la linia es 3<3 sere gienera 3 ?ta dal moto del 38 puto e il no& stro vedere 4'e per 4 2 questo seguita ^che chi move il 6 ve^'dere, move il pu^sto e chi mo' ve il puto,

la

remains stationary the perspective terminates in the distance in a point. But if the eye moves in a straight [horizontal] line the perspective terminates in a line and the reason is that this line is generated by the motion of the point and our sight; therefore
the

eye

it

follows that as

the point moves, and as we the line is generated, &c.

we move our sight move the

[eye],

point,

giene^ra

la linia ecc.

Ash.

I.

23

224.
allo ofi -

Ogni forma corporea


si

quato

Every
say:

visible

body, in so

far as

it

affects
is

tio

divide in 3 parti- cioe dell'ochio-, 3 corpo figura e colore: la similitudine corporea s' astede piv lontana dalla sua origine che no fa il colore o la figura -, di poi il colore s' astede piv che la figura,
,

the eye, includes three attributes;

that

to

ma

questa regola no

si

osserua da corpi

luminosi.
ilust
'

mass, form and colour; and the mass is recognisable at a greater distance from the place of its actual existence than either colour or form. Again, colour is discernible at a greater distance than form, but this law does not apply to luminous bodies.

La propositione di sopra e molto bene dimostrata e cofermata dalla sperieza, inpero?che, se tu vedrai uno uomo da presso -, tu conoscerai la qualita del corpo -, la qua8 lita della figura, e similmete del colore-, se quello s' allontana da te alquato spatio, e,
tu no conoscierai 9 c hi quello si sia perche maca-la qualita della figura :se s'astedera I0 no potrai disciernereacora-piv lotano il colore suo anzi ti parra uno corpo oscuro di piv lontano ti para IJ un minimo corpo
:

The above proposition is plainly shown and proved by experiment; because: if you see a man close to you, you discern the exact appearance of the mass and of the form and also of the colouring; if he goes to some distance you will not recognise who
he
will
is,

because the character

of the

details

disappear, if he goes still farther you will not be able to distinguish his colouring,

but he

will appear as a dark object, and still farther he will appear as a very small dark

retodo
distatia

mebra

e scuro retodo parra perche la diminv I2 isce tanto le particulari che non ne apparisce se non la

rounded
distance

object.

It

appears rounded because

maggiore massa; '3 la ragione e questa Noi sappiamo chiaro che tutte - le similitudini delle cose etrano nella inpressiua per uno dell' ochio piccolo spiracolo aduque se tutto 1'orizzote a d 5 etra per simile spiracolo sendo il corpo b c una minimis:

-,

sima parte

d' esso orizzote, l6

che parte avra

diminishes the various remains visible but the And the reason is this: We larger mass. know very well that all the images of objects reach the senses by a small aperture in the eye; hence, if the whole horizon a d the is admitted through such an aperture, object b c being but a very small fraction of this horizon what space can it fill in that
so
greatly
details that nothing

bussto.

18.

chelluhima.
. .

21. tossto 29.

cholonale e perdera.
. .

22.

grosseza chella
[ecc].
41.

perle ami.

24. sellochio he.

25. la perspc.
[li

27. disstanti

puncto.

Massellochio
f).
.

rcc.

39. sstro.
3.

40.
5.

elnputo e per.
6.

42. quessto.
7.
.

45.
.

qualj e chi.
.

934. i. |lc similitudine


.
.

delle chorpi

2.

chorporea.
. .

cholore.
9.

macquesta.
.

chofermata.

chessettu
i

vederai
. .

homo
n.
in
. .

chonoscierai.
.

8.
.

essimilmete

esse quelo

datte.

chicquello
12. isscie
.

macha.

10.

cholore
. .

para

chorpo

para.
.

minimo chorpo

escuro

[di

forma quasi] retodo para.

none apariscie

magiore.

13.

ecquesta

sapiamo

223. 23.

224.

Compare line 1 1. The diagram belonging

is

placed

between

lines

and

6;

it

is

No. 4

to

this

passage

on PL VI.

225
egli

22 7-l

PERSPECTIVE OF DISAPPEARANCE.

129

tione di

a occupare della minima rappresetaJ si grade emisperio; ?e perche i corpi luminosi soho piv poteti ifra le tenebre che nessun altro corpo, l8 e neciessario che-, essendo lo spiracolo della vista assai tenebroso, com'e la natura ^di tutti i busi-, che le spetie de' corpi lotani si cofondino ifra tata luce del 20 cielo, e se pure appariscano, che paiano oscure e nere come fa ogni

minute image of so vast a hemisphere? And because luminous bodies have more power in darkness than any others, it is evident that, as the chamber of the eye is very dark, as is the nature of all colored cavities, the images of distant objects are confused and lost in the great light of the sky; and if they are visible at all, appear dark and black,
as every small body must when seen in the diffused light of the atmosphere.

corpo piccolo

2I

visto nel chiarore dell' aria.

E.

79-5]

225.

DELL' ARIA ITERPOSTA !FRA L'OCHIO


E L'OBIETTO VISIBILE.

OF THE ATMOSPHERE THAT INTERPOSES BETWEEN THE EVE AND VISIBLE OBJECTS.
A object will appear more or less distinct at the same distance, in proportion as the atmosphere existing between the eye and that object is more or less clear. Hence, as I know that the greater or less

sL'pbbietto si dimostrera tanto piu o meno ^noto i" u na medesima distatia, 5 quato P ari a, interposta infra 1' ochio e esso 6 sara piu o me rara; Adunque obbietto, conosce?do io che la maggiore o minore 3 quantita del !' aria interposta infra 1' ochio e P obietto re9de all' ochio piu o me confusi I0 li termi ni d' essi corpi, tu farai li perdimeti "delle notitie d'essi corpi tanto nella

An

quantity of the air that lies between the eye and the object makes the outlines of that object more or less indistinct, you must diminish the definiteness of outline of those
objects in proportion to their increasing distance from the eye of the spectator.

me I2 desima
J

proportione infra loro quale e quella delle loro distatie dall' ochio d' esso r* risguardatore.
3

L. 77*1

226.
io
fussi

Quando
2

in

vn

sito

di

mare

When

was once

in a

equalmete

distante

at

infra la spiaggia 3e'l

an equal distance from the shore and the

expei place on the sea, Anment.


i

j-

mote, molto piv lugo mostra essere 4 quello che della spiaggia quello del mote.
Br.

a
10

mountains, the distance from the shore looked much greater than that from the mountains.

M.

lisa]
2

227.
alii

Se ti porrai uno corpo obroso dinati ochi per spatio di 4dita, 3 e ch' egli sia minore che non e dall' una all' aHtra luce,
non occupera il uedere d' alcuna 6 scosa che sia dopo quella; nessituata dopo il uisiuo suna cosa 7 obietto dell' ochio no puo essere
8 occupa ta da esso obbietto se sara mino^re che lo spatio che
,

If

vou place an opaque object


at a distance
i
/?<-

in front
it.

of On

your eye

of four fingers breadth, S h if it is smaller than the space be(22 tween the two eyes it will not interfere with

jii

indistinctness at distan-

^ ^,
2

your seeing any thing


it.

that

may be beyond
beyond

No

object

another object seen by the eye can be concealed by this [nearer] object if it is smalsituated
ler

sta

infra le luci.

than the space from eye to eye.


c
orizote.
16.

chettutte

le similitudine

delle chose.

14. ala

inpresiua

picholo
.
.

settutto lorizote. 15. b


infrattSta.
5-

ara
. .

ochupare

dela
825.
i.

rapresetatione.
2.

17.

chorpo.
3.

18. spiracho.
.

19. chelle
4.

chofondino
.

20. esse

apariseano.
. .

infrallochio.
8.

ellobietto.

diraossterra
9.

6meno.

noto nuna

disstStia.

interpossta

obbiecto.
14.

paino enere. 6. chonossiS

7. chella.

interpossta .. ellobietto.
3.

chonfusi.

n.

chorpi.

12. infralloro

quale he.

13. disstltie.

rissghuardatore.

326. 2. disstante infralla spiagga.


227. i. settiporai
!-

mosstra.
3.

chorpo.

2.

ispatio.

echella

sia

alia.

4.

ochupera.

5.

chosa chessia.

6.

chosa.

7.

oc

ispatio.

VOL.

I.

130

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

[228231.

228.

L'ochio no conprende

il

propl-

The eye cannot


ous angle which
is

take in a lumin-

'quo-angolo luminoso.

too close to

it.

C. 120]

229.

Quella parte della pariete alluminata 2 che da piv grosso anpiv luminosa luminoso alluminata fia; E quel loco golo da detti razzi osseruera meno ^la conveniete qualita del lume che da piv grosso angolo obroso adombrata fia.
fia

That part of a surface

will

be better lighted
falls

on which the

light falls at the greater angle.

And
least

that part,

on which the shadow

at

the greatest angle, will receive from those rays

of the benefit of the

light.

E. 150)

230.

DELL'OCHIO.
Li termini di quel corpo antiposto alia pu'pilla dell'ochio si dimostrera tanto meno noti * quanto e' sarano piu vicini a essa
5 provasi per lo stremo del 6 antiposto alla popilla d, la nel uedere es?so termine et quale popilla vede ancora tutto lo spatio a c, 8 che j e di la da esso termine, e le spetie C che vengono 9 d a esso spatio si mischiano colle spetie di tal ter I0 mine e cosl 1'una spetie cofonde Taltra^e tale cofusione priva la popilla della notitia di tal termine. 2

popilla;

corpo

;/

The edges of an object placed in front of the pupil of the eye will be less distinct in proportion as they are closer to the This is shown by the edge of eye. the object n placed in front of the pupil
d; in looking at this edge the pupil also sees all the space a c which is beyond the edge; and the images the eye receives from that space are

mingled with the images of the edge, so that one image confuses the other, and this confusion hinders the pupil from
distinguishing the edge.

Br.

M. i88al

231.

termini di quella cosa saranno manco 2 sequali sara piu vicini agli ochi, guita che gli termini piu remoti saran piu 3 infra li noti; corpi minori della popilla delli ochi 4quelli sara maco noti, che sara piu vicini 5 a essa lucie.
I

noti

li

The outlines of objects will be least clear when they are nearest to the eye, and therefore remoter outlines will be clearer.

Among

objects which are smaller than the pupil of the eye those will be less distinct which are nearer to the eye.

998. 999.

I.

2.

R.
.

i. 2.

piv

[luminosa)

230.

chorpo

antipossti.
10.

stano cholle.
231.

luminosa [che da magiore soma). 2. Ecquel locho. razi 3. chonveniete. 3. dimossterra. 5. chorpo n antipossto. losspatio. 8. lesspetie che vengh"a". 7. anchora chosi chofonde. u. attal chofusione termi"ne".
.

9.

mi-

15.
4.

The writing runs from

left to right,
. .

i.

qlla cosa seran

mancho

note a qual sera piu vicina.

2.

scran.

3.

infralli

chorpi.

sara

macho

nota chessara

vicin.i.

232235.]
i

PERSPECTIVE OF DISAPPEARANCE.
232.

a]

Le
4

cose vicine

all'

ochio

pare rano
s

di

maggiore obbietto che

le di3stati.
6

Le cose vedute co

Objects near to the eye will appear larger than those at a distance. Objects seen with two eyes will appear if they are seen with only one.
seen,

du' ochi parirano

on indistinctness at great
(232-234).

rotonde, che quelle che co uno


fieno.

piv ochio vedute


8

rounder than
e 1'obra
will

?Le cose vedute ifra il lume parirano di maggior relie 9vo.


C. A. 173 6; 520(5]

Objects

between
relief.

light

and shadow

show

the

most

233-

DE
2

PICTURA.

OF
3dimi-

PAINTING.

Tanto

si

perde della uera cognitione

figura, quanto per distantia nvisce della sua grandezza.

della

Our true perception of an object diminishes in proportion as its size is diminished


by distance.

A. 86]

234-

PROSPETTIVA.
2 Perche le cose da lontano paiono ochio grandi e la ripruova fatta nella ^pariete le dimostra piccole.

PERSPECTIVE.

Why
large
to

al'

objects seen at a distance the eye and in the image

appear

on the

vertical plane they

appear small.

PROSPETTIVA.

PERSPECTIVE.
I ask how far away the eye can discern a non-luminous body, as, for instance, a mountain. It will be very plainly visible if the sun is behind it; and could be seen at a greater

sDomado quato 1' ochio puo vedere lontano un corpo che no sia luminoso 6 come
una motagnia; vedrassi assai, se '1 sole la -da lei e vedrassi 7piu-o menolontana secodo dove fia il sole nel cielo.
dire

fia-di

or less distance according to the sun's place


in the sky.

A.

2 a]

235-

II

corpo obroso

che

fia

veduto per

la

An opaque body

seen in a line in which

J^'J^

]^

linia

della incidetia del lume, 2 di se all' ochio al;

no dimostrera

the light falls will reveal

no prominences to and shade in For JB-'SUSTC' the eye.


stance, let a be the appearance (235-239)1-J I J solid body and c the

cuna eminete parte


3
il

esenpli gratia
sia
-

sia
,

corpo obroso a

m
no

lume e cosi c n
il

c
sia-

light; will

and
the
is

be
that

lines

of incidence of the
light,
-

4 le

linie jncideti

to say

luminose, cioe quelle- linie scono-il lume al corpo *a\


233.
i

che trasferi1' ochio sia in


la

the

lines

which transmit the

light

to

the

object a.
cho.

The eye being

at the point b, I say

6 R.
8.

2.

magiore
. .

chelle dis.

4.

chosa veduta

5.

retonde checquelle checho.

6.

ochi.

7.

chose

infral-

lume.
333.
2.

ellobra

magior.
3.

cognitione "dela figura" della cosa Quanto.


. .

diminvisscie
5.

sua [propia] grandeza.


6.

334. 2. chose dallontano paiano


rassi.
7.

grande.

3.

pichole.

po

chorpo.

chome

dire

montagnia vederassi

dallei evede-

sechodo.
. .

935. i.

chorpo

cheffia

dimostera.

2.

alchuna.

3.

chorpo

echosi.

4.

Incidete luminosa

trasferisschano

chorpo.

234.
!

The

clue to the solution of this problem (lines

Objects seen with both eyes appear solid since they are seen from
3)
is

given in lines

46,

No. 232.

two distinct points of sight separated by the distance between the eyes, but this solidity cannot be represented in a flat drawing. Compare No. 535.

132
nel

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


puto b
,

[236-239.

dico che vededo

il

lume
che

c
ui

that

tutta la parte

m-n

che

quelli rilieui

part
will

sono sarano tutti alluminati: aduque 1'ochio 7 posto j c no ui potra vedere obra- e lume-, no la 8 vededo ogni parte li para d'uno colore 9 6de le differetie delle parti emineti 10 e globose non aparirano.

at c

the light c falls on the whole n the portions in relief on that side all be illuminated. Hence the eye placed cannot see any light and shade and, not since
///

portion will appear of the therefore the relief in the promitone, nent or rounded parts will not be visible.
seeing
it,

every

same

Ash.

I.

si a]

236.

DE
2

PITTURA.

OF

PAINTING.

ficulta e

L' onbre le quali tu discernerai con dii loro termini no puoi conosciere

anzi

con

scrivi in nella

co >fuso givditio lo tua opera, no

pigli

tra-

le farai finite
fia di

overo terminate,
legniosa

che

la

tua opera

When you represent in your work shadows which you can only discern with difficulty, and of which you cannot distinguish the edges so that you apprehend them confusedly, you must not make them sharp or definite lest your work should have a wooden
effect.

resultatione.

E. 17 a]

237-

PITTURA.
2

OF

PAINTING.

Noterai nel tuo ritrarre


insesibili

come

infra 3le

You
the

will

observe in drawing that

among

obre sono obre

d' oscurita

e di

a 5 che diciel figura e questo si prova per la 3 6 di tante varie le superfitie globulenti so oscurita e chiarezza, qua?te so le uarieta delle oscurita e chia 8 rezze che le stan per

obbietto.

shadows some are of undistinguishable rd gradation and form, as is shown in the 3 which says: Rounded surfaces [proposition] display as many degrees of light and shade as there are varieties of brightness and darkness reflected from the surrounding objects.

E.

238.

DE
2

OBRE E LUME.

OF LIGHT AND SHADE.

Vedi

le quatita le qualita

tu che ritrai dell' opere di na3tura, e le * figure de' lumi e

You who draw from


fully) at the extent,

onbre
6

muscolo e nota nelle ludella lor figura a qual muscolo si ghezze dirizzano colla rettitudine de 8 lle lor linie ciedi cias s scun

of the lights
in

and the form and shadows on each muscle; and

nature, the degree,

look (care-

their position lengthwise observe towards which muscle the axis of the central line is

trali.

directed.

Ash.

I.

256]

239-

Quella cosa-, che per chiarezza fia piv 2 fia veduta- piv-dalontano luce e di maggiore forma che non si 3 richiede
simile alia
,

alla qualita del

corpo

in

detta distatia.

An object which is [so brilliantly illuminated as to be] almost as bright as light will be visible at a greater distance, and of larger apparent size than is natural to objects so remote.

5. inel

dicho.

6.

checquelli

.illuminate
.

J|e]c.

7.

ellume nolla.

8.

cholore.

9.

diferetie.
2.

10.

globbose.
inclla
. .

336.

2.

dissciernerai

chon

difichulta

poi [dissciernere] "chonossciere"

anzi

chon cho.

ettrasscrisse

nolle.

3. chclla.

337. 2.
8.

chome
chelle.

infral.

3.

dosscurita.

4.

fighura ecquesto.

5.

cheddicie

globbulenii.

6.

osschurita.

7.

toso

osschurita.

338.
239.

i.
i.

ellume.

3. elle.
.

4.

fighure.
2.

5.

scun musscholo.
.
.

6.

gheze.

7.

dirizano cholle.

chosa

chiareza.

dallontano

magiore.

3.

chorpo.

240-243.]

PERSPECTIVE OF DISAPPEARANCE.

133

E. 32

6]

24O.

2 Quell'onbra si dimostrera piu oscu ra che fia circundata da piu 3 S plendida biachezza e de conveHso sara meno evidete dov'ella e giene^rata in piu oscuro canpo.

A
it

to the brilliancy of the light conversely it will be less


is

effect appear dark in proportion The of light or surrounding it and dark backconspicuous where ^apparent size of ob seen against a darker background.

shadow

will

(240250).
176]

241.

DE
2

PROSPETTIVA COMUNE.
3

OF ORDINARY

PERSPECTIVE.

li Quella cosa d'uniforme grossezza e colore che sara veduta in ca^po di disuniforme colore si dimosstrera di disuniforme

grossezza 1
6

se

di uarii colori sara

una cosa d'uniforme grossezza ?e veduta in ca 8 po d' uniforme

colore, essa cosa 9 si dimostrera di uaria grosI0 e quanto i colori del canpo o della sezza,

An object of equal breadth and colour throughout, seen against a background of various colours will appear unequal in breadth. And if an object of equal breadth throughout, but of various colours, is seen against a background of uniform colour, that object will appear of various breadth. And the more the colours of the background or of the object
seen against the ground vary, the greater will the apparent variations in the breadth be though the objects seen against the ground be of equal breadth [throughout].

canpo veduta sara di colori ch'abmaggiore varieta, allora le grossezze par^rano piv varie, ancora che le cose ^nel canpo vedute sieno di pari grossezza.
cosa bino
nel
J2

IJ

242.
If

chiaro
4

Quella cosa oscura che fia veduta in capo essa si dimostrera minore ch' essa
ell
i

3non

dark object seen against a bright background will appear smaller than it is.

Quella cosa chiara s s dimostrera di 6 maggiore figura che sara veduta in canpo di piv oscuro 7 colore.
C. A. 124 6; 383-5]

A
is

light

object

will

seen against

look larger when it background darker than

itself.

243-

DEL
2

LUME.

OF
che
si

LIGHT.

Quel corpo luminoso,

trouera

luminous body when obscured by a


will

essere occupato 3 da piv grossa aria, apparira di minore gradezza, 4 come si dimostra nella luna o sole occupati dalla snebbia.

dense atmosphere

be seen by the

moon
OF

appear smaller as may or sun veiled by mists.


;

DEL
7

LUME.

LIGHT.

corpi luminosi d' equal grandezza 8 si dimostrera distantia e spledore quello forma il quale da piu oscuro di maggiore canpo circhQ9dato fia.
Infra
i
,

several luminous bodies of equal size and brilliancy and at an equal distance, that will look the largest which is surrounded by

Of

the darkest background.

DEL

LUME.
lumi,

OF
I

LIGHT.

"Jo trouo che ciascuno corpo I2 nebbia noso, veduto nella folta e spessa
240.
241.
i.
i.

any luminous body when seen a dense and thick mist diminishes through
find that
biachezza
6.

dimosstera piu osicu.


prosspectiva.
.
.

2. cheffia

circhundata dappiu.
5.

3.

[e

de chon ver],
.
.

4.
7.

dovella giene.
vari[a] colore.

3.

osschuro chanpo.
8.

2.

grosseza.

3. chessara.

tera

grosseza.
.

esse

grosseza.
14. in].

cholore.

9. di-

mosterra
242.
i.

grosseza.

n.
.
.

colori cabino.

12.

magiore
4.

grosseze pa.
. .

13. chelle.

grosseza.
5.

Quala
6.

oscura
.

fia
.

chapo.
. .

2.

dimossterra.
7.

Quala

chiara [sara veduta.

[canpo

di] si

dimosterra

ma-

giore.
243. 2.

chessara
. .

chanpo
. .

osscuro.

cholore.
3.

chorpo

chessi troverra
8.

ochupato.
.

35 R.

arie aparira.

5.

esspredore.

dimossterra di magiore

dappiu osschuro chanpo circhu.

ossole ochupati. 7. chorpi cheme si dimosstra 12. dimiesspessa. n. checciasscuno chorpo


. . . .

134

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


in

[244.

245.

s' allontana dall' occhio piu die cosi '^fa-il sole di dl come la minuisce, luna-e li altri immortali lumi di notte. E 4 essi lumiqua' do 1'aria-e pura quanto _:.\. ~ .1l^.<4-irin/-i /-Inll' r\f*r-h'\r\ Sr\'iii rar* ci dall'occhio, '5 piu pare si s* allontanano piu faccino di maggiore forma.

quanto piu

Thus

lnrnr^r in r>rrrrrl-ir>n as f-h^i/ are AirfVit- from ac nr* farther fmm larger in proportion they the eye.

proportion to its distance from the eye. it is with the sun by day, as well as the moon and the other eternal lights by night. And when the air is clear, these luminaries appear

F. 12 a\

244.

Quella parte dello obbietto oscuro d' uniforme grosse'zza si dimostrera piu sottile che fia veduta in capo 3pj u luminoso. *e e il corpo dato oscuro in se e d'uniforme gross sezza, abzcd son capi oscuri piu 6 1'uno che 1'altro, b c e canpo luminoso come se fusse vn loco percosso ^ da vno spiracolo 8 che di sole in una camera oscura; dico, 1'obietto e g parra piu grosso in -V/" che in g h perche ef a 1 canpo piu oscuro che esso log h ancora la parte / g parra sotjl tile per esse re veduta dall' ochio o in campo b c che e chiaro. I2 La parte del corpo lu'
;

That portion o/ a body of uniform breadth which is against a lighter background will look narrower [than the rest]. [4] e is a given object, itself dark and of uniform breadth a b and <r^are two backgrounds one darker than the other; b c is a bright background, as it might be a spot lighted by the sun through an aperture in a dark room.
;

minoso d'uniforme grossezza ^e splendore


I4 in parra esser piu grossa che fia veduta oscuro e questo luminoso essere canpo piu

say that the object eg will appear larger than at g h ; because ef has a darker background than g h; and again s&fg it will look narrower from being seen by the eye o, on the light background be. [12] That part of a luminous body, of equal breadth and brilliancy throughout, will look largest which is seen against the darkest background; and
I

Then
at e

ifocato.

the luminous

body

will

seem on

fire.

Ash.

I.

245I

ACCOMPAGNATI DA ONBRA E VARIANO I LOR TERMINI DAL COLORE E LUME ^DI QUELLA COSA CHE COFINA COLLA SUA SUPERFITIE.

COME

CORPI

LUME

SEMPRE

WHY BODIES IN LIGHT AND SHADE HAVE THEIR OUTLINES ALTERED BY THE COLOUR AND BRIGHTNESS OF THE OBJECTS SERVING AS A BACKGROUND TO THEM.
If you look minated portion
at a
lies

4 Se vedrai uno corpo che la parte alluminata campeggi e termini I campo oscuro 5 la parte d' esso lume che parra di 6 che maggiore chiarezza fia quella E se terminera coll' oscuro in d. detta parte alluminata cofina col 7 il termine d'esso corcanpo chiaro po alluminato parra men chiaro che 8 prima e la-sua-soma chiarezza apparira al termine del campo m-f-e. 1'onbra; ifra 9 medesimo accade all'obra, imquesto peroche '1 termine di quella parte del corpo
,

body of which the illuand ends against a dark

background,
will

that part of the light which look brightest will be that which lies against the dark [background] at d. But if this brighter part lies against a of the oblight background, the edge ject, which is itself light, wil) be less

appear
thing

distinct than before, and the highest light will to be between the limit of the backin

ground
is

and

the

shadow.

The same

seen with regard to the dark [side],

nuisscie e chosi.
244.
i.

ij.

chome

altrimortali

Ecqua.
.
.

14.

eppura.
4.

barte

obbiecto osscuro.
6.

2.

seza

dimosterra

cheffia veduto.

he

il

duniforma.

5.

seza ab he
. .

osscuri
13. es-

piu lucellaltro.

fussi
14.
.

percoso.

7.

spiracol di sole
. .

nuna

osscura.

8. chellobietto.

n. veduto

chia"ro".

splendore
345.
i.

eser.
.

osscuro ecquesto
2.

esere
3.

"focato".

achompagniati
parira
. .

ellume.
6.

cholore ellume.

chosa
.
.

cholle.
. .

4.

chorpo

chella
.

champegi ettermini
chiareza
. .

oschuro.

5.

chiareza.

chetterminera cholloschuro

Esse

col.

7.

chanpo

para.

8.

champo.

9.

achade.

244.
refers, is
4,

The diagram
placed

to

in the original

which the text, between

lines

II,

PL XLI, No.
after line
14.

4.

In

the

original

these are

placed

lines 3

and

and is given on PL XLI, No. 3. Lines 12 to 14 are explained by the lower of the two diagrams on

ded surface

245. In the original diagram o at the level of d.

is

inside the sha-

246248.]
aonbrato che
di
I0

PERSPECTIVE OF DISAPPEARANCE.

135

capeggia in loco chiaro in /, molta maggiore oscurita che '1 resto parra E se " detta obra termina in campo oscuro,
il

inasmuch as that edge of the shaded portion of the object which lies against a light
background, as at /, looks much darker than the rest. But if this shadow lies against a dark background the edge of the shaded part
appear lighter than before, and the deepest shade will appear between the edge and the light at the point o.
will

termine dell'onbra parra I2 piv- chiaro che prima e la sorha sua scurezza fia infra detto

termine

e'l

lume ^nel punto

o.

C. A. 124*1; 383^]

246.
will appear smaller when surrounded by a highly luminous background, and a light body will appear larger when it is seen against a darker background. This may be seen in the height of buildings at night, when lightning flashes behind them
it

nore gradezza,
fia

Quel corpo obroso si dimostrera di miil quale da piu luminoso capo

An opaque body

is

2 e quel luminoso si dimostrera che cofinera co piv oscuro capo maggiore 3 come si dimostra nelPaltezze degli edifiti la notte, quado dirieto a quelli vapeggia che subito par 4 che '1 vapeggiado diminvisca 1' edifitio di sua altezza: e di qui nasce che essi 5 edifizi paiono maggiori quado e nebbia o notte che quado 1'aria e purificata e allumi-

circudato,

it

suddenly seems, when

it

lightens, as

though

the height of the building were diminished. For the same reason such buildings look
larger in a mist, or atmosphere is clear

nata.

by night than when the and light.

G.

247.

DE'LUMI INFRA L'OBRE.


2

ON
member,
in

LIGHT BETWEEN SHADOWS.


are drawing any object, recomparing the grades of light in

Quando
fai

ritrai

alcuno corpo,
4

When you

quando
6

parago

della

potetia de' lumi

5 parti alluminate che spesso I'ochio s'inganna, paredogli piu chi7aro quello ch'e me chiaro, e la 8 cavsa nascie mediante I0 li con pa9ragoni delle parti che cofinano se avra due par"ti di chiarezza loro, perche ine I2 guali e che la me chiara confirm con parti oscure e la pi^v chiara cofini co parti chia'Sre chom'e il celo o simili chiarez l6 ze allora quella ch'e me chi^ara o vo dire l8 lucida, para pi v lucida e la piu lucida parra ^piu oscura.

delle sua

the illuminated portions, that the eye is often deceived by seeing things lighter than they are. And the reason lies in our cpmparing those parts with the contiguous parts. Since if two [separate] parts are in different grades of light and if the less bright is conterminous with a dark portion and the brighter is conterminous with a light background as the sky or something equally bright , then that which is less light, or I should say less radiant, will look

the brighter and the brighter will seem the darker.

C. A. I24<*; 383*]

248.

Infra le cose di pari oscurita che dopo lunga e pari distantia situate sieno, quella

Of objects equally dark in themselves and situated at a considerable and equal distance,
that will

apparira piu oscura, 2 collocata fia.

che piv alta da terra

look the darkest which


earth.

is

farthest

above the

to.

chapegia illocho
. .

para
2.

magiore

ischurita Esse.
.

n. jn champo oschuro
3.

parira.
4.

12. ella

scureza.
.
.

246. i. dimosterra

gradeza.

dimosterra magiore

osscuro.

alteze

vapegia.

che vapegiado dimivisca

alteza

nasscie.
247.
5.

5.

paiano magiori.
parendoli.
7.

parte.

6.

ara quelle

ella.
.

9.
.

parte.

10.

colloro

ara.

it.

ti

d[equale] di chiareza inne.

12. chella.

13.

parte osscure ella


Infralle

14. parte.
.

15. ossimili

chiare.
. .

18. ella
. .

piu lucia.
datterra..

19. osscura.
2.

248.

i.

chose

osschurita

eppari disstantia

hoschura

chollochata.

136

OF PAINTING. THE THEORY OF THE ART

[249251,

249.
A.
64-51

PRUOVA-COME

LONTANO-MAGGIORI-CHE 3Se porrai-2-candele

DI CORP. LUMINOSI_ 'PA.ONO NO SONO.


.

TO PROVE HOW
If

IT IS THAT LUMINOUS BODIES AT A DISTANCE, THAN THEY ARE. APPEAR LARGER,

acciese appresso e a lontanerati da all'altra '/, braccio I'unavedrai 4 per P accrescimeto esse 200 braccia uno -solo corpo lummoso di ciascuno farsi uno solo -de' due lumi-e parra braccio.
-

candles side by you place two lighted from them to half a braccio apart, and go side will see that by a distance 200 braccia you will appear the increased size of each they with the light as a single luminous body wide. the two flames, one braccio

grande-uno

'

A VEDERE-LA UERA GRADEZZA


CORPI LUMINOSI.

DE

TO PROVE HOW YOU MAY


If

SEE THE REAL SIZE

OF LUMINOUS BODIES.

Se vuoi vedere
corpi luminosi-abbi
faui

la

vera gradezza d'essi

uno buso quato

una assetta sottile sareb^be uno piccolo pual-

pressotale-di striga-e I modo che nguardado 1'ochio quato puoi lume tu gh 'per esso buso il sopra detto e cosi assai spatio d' aria dintorno vegga co prestezza essa asse leuado e ponedo vedrai dal tuo-ochio-cosi cho prestezza cresciere esso lume.

ponitela tato

you wish to see thin board and luminous bodies take a very the tag o make in it a hole no bigger than it as close to your eye a 4ace and place this that when you look through possible, so can see a 1 hole, at the said light, you Then by rapidly movit. space of air round and forwards being this board backwards
;

the real size of these

see the light increase fore your eye you will [and diminish].

250.
C. 24 a (6*)]

Infra
Propositions dall'
c : tive of d!s

corpi di

pan
-

qualita

che

sien

parira

occhio equalmete distanti, que^ap2 da piv Immo di minor figura che


fia

and equally several bodies of equal size smalfrom the eye, those will look the distant the lightest background. lest which are against

Of

appearance
fr

S C ,To-262)

campo circundato fia. -hOgni corpo evidete


6

da lume e obra

rotodita, circQdato.il I^Quel corpo d'equale avere s e obra circudato fia, parra che da lume

tanto piv

quato

fia

1'una che piv 7alluminata

grande 1'una parte

chelakra
1

be surrounded by Every visible object must and shade. A perfectly spherical body light to will appear surrounded by light and shade the other in have one side larger than j than one is more highly lighted portion as
the other.

altra.1

251.
C. 23 a
'

PERSPECTIVE.

PROSPETTIVA.

umani Nessuno evidete corpo puo dagli ben giudicato ochi-essere ben conpreso-e 3 Se no per la uarieta del canpo-doue2

e cofinano, stremi- d'essi- corpi terminano


4

de' nessuna cosa inquato a liniameti


essi
di-

da capi sua stremi apparira essere distante s la luna benche-sia molto uisa;

human eye and comprehended by the the difference of the background cepting from termiwhich the edges of the object against no which they are bounded, and nate and by stand out] separate object will appear [to as the outlines from that background so far
of
its

No

visible object

can be well understood

borders are concerned.

x.

chomc

chorpi.

2.

paiano

magiori.

3-

P.

aoresso

1/2 '

br. vederai. br, e alontanerati 200

6.

^^

4-

la "

cho rpi.

8. sc volli

'.,

252

257-]

PERSPECTIVE OF DISAPPEARANCE.
though when,
it

137

dal corpo del sole qua 6 do per le eclissi-si truoui- infra li ochi nostri e' 1 sole, perche essa lu?na Canpeggia sopra il sole appare ali
,

ochi
8

vmani congivnta e appiccata con esso

sole.

at a great distance from the sun/ an eclipse, it comes between our eyes and the sun, appears to the eyes of men to be close to the sun and affixed to it, because the sun is then the background to the moon.
is

in

c. s

(*)]

252.

Quel corpo luminoso parra piv splendido il quale da piu oscure tenebre circundato fia.

A
liant

luminous body
in

will
it

proportion as

is

appear more brilsurrounded by

deeper shadow.

c.

MIS *))
I retti

253.

termineranno

termini de' corpi parrano rotti che in loco tenebroso rigato da percussione di luminosi razzi.

The straight edges of a body will appear broken when they are conterminous with a
dark space streaked with rays of
light.

C.

(15-5)]

254.
i

Infra

corpi

d'

equal gradezza e distatia alluminato parra


all'

quello- che fia-

piv

ochio

piv propiquo e maggiore.

Of several bodies, all equally large and equally distant, that which is most brightly illuminated will appear to the eye nearest
and
largest

C. 14* (i6a)]

255.
If several luminous bodies are seen from a great distance although they are really separate they will appear united as one body.

Se mold corpi luminosi fieno veduti di lontan paese, benche infra loro sien diuisi parranno insieme vniti e cogivnti.

C. 14 <* (166)]

256.

Se mold

corpi obrosi di quasi congiunta

vicinita fieno veduti

lunga distatia
intervallo.

capo luminoso in parrano separati da grade


in

If several objects in shadow, standing very close together, are seen against a bright back-

ground they
intervals.

will

appear separated by wide

c. 21 6

(i 7 a)]

257.

Jnfra le cose d' equal gradezza e colore quella che fia piv lontana parra piv chiara

Of
that

which

several bodies of equal size and tone, is farthest will appear the lightest

e di minore figura.
meti

and
lume
ealtre ste] la luna
.

smallest.

aparira.
7.
.

5.

[II
. .

sole

perche.
352.
.

chapegia
.

apare chongivnta

e appichata

chorpo b chon esso.


.

pe"r"

le clissi.

6. nosstri

sole [e che essa luna chape]

chorpo
chorpi chorpi chorpi chorpi
.

253354. 955-

osschure circhundato. parra [di magiore] piv splendido [che] jl tenebroso [limato] "rigato" da perchussione Chettermineranno illocho
. . .

razi.

gradeza
paesse
.

Quello

cheffia
. .

para
. .

magiore.

infralloro
.
.

parano
.

vnite e chogivnte.

356.
357.

chapo chongiunta illunga. cheffia. cholore Jfralle chose gradeza


. .

252.

placed after this text, has


VOL.
I.

The diagram which in the original no connection with it.


, ,

is

253. 254.

nal have

Here again the diagrams no connection with the text. S

in the origi-

138

THK THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

^258260.

C. 120)

258.

bianle cose d' equal grandezza capo e longitudine quella- che fia di piu chiara superfitie apparira di maggior 2 I1 ferro d' equal grossezza mezzo figura; Ifocato ne fa proua, *peroch& essa parte Ifocata pare piu grossa che '1 resto.
Infra

chezza

di

Of several objects equal in size, brightness of background and length that which has the flattest surface will look the largest. A bar of iron equally thick throughout and of which half is red hot, affords an example, for the red hot part looks thicker than the rest.

C.

259-

Infra i corpi d'equale grandezza e longitudine e d' equale figura e oscurita quella 2 di minor grandeza che da piu apparira luminoso canpo circundata fia.

of equal size and form and in depth of shade, that will appear smallest which is surrounded by the most luminous background.
several

Of

bodies
in

length,

and

alike

c. 8*]

260.
FIA
PIV

OSCURA

QUELLA PARTE DELLA PARIETE O LUMINOSA CHE DA PIV

GROSSO

ANGOLO OSCURO
2

LUMINOSO FIA PERCOSSO.

DIFFERENT PORTIONS OF A WALL SURFACE WILL BE DARKER OR BRIGHTER IN PROPORTION AS THE LIGHT OR SHADOW FALLS ON THEM AT A LARGER ANGLE.

mete

sopra detta propositione chiaraquesta forma si pruova diciamo q essere il corpo luminoso e cosi *f-gin
:

La

The foregoing proposition can be clearly proved in this way. Let us say that m q is the luminous body, then_/- will be the opaque

il corpo obroso e a e sia la nominata pariete, doue sopra detti agoli percuotono, li rappresentado la natura e qualita di loro base ora 1 a fia piv luminoso che b la basa dell' angolo a e piv grossa che 5 di b e pero fa piv grosso agolo, quella il q e la piramide b p quale fia a

sara

6 piv stretta, e piu sottille sia quella in mano , quato piv o c e cosl di s'appressa a e fieno le piramidi piv strette

fia

-m

body; andletd^be the above-mentioned plane on which the said angles fall, showing [plainly] the nature and character of their bases. Then a will be more luminous than b; the base of the angle a is larger than that of b and it therefore makes a greater angle which will be a m q; and the pyramid b p m will be narrower and m o c will be still finer, *"and
:

mano

so

on by degrees,
e,

in proportion as they are

e piu oscure 7 Quel puto della pariete fia di minore chiarezza nel quale la grossezza
;

pyramids will become narrower and darker. That portion of the wall will be the darkest where the breadth of the
nearer to
the

358.

i.

Infralle

chose

grandeza biancheza
.

"capo" ellongitudine.

Quella cheffia

di piu

piana superfitie aparira

magior.

2.

fero

'grosseza

mezo Ifochato

Ifochata.
osschurita.

259. i. chorpi

260.

i.

. . grandeza ellongitudine osschura olluminosa . dappiu


. .

Quella [cheffia] apparira.


[fia
.

2.

grandeza
. .

dappiu
3.

chanpo circhundata.
. .

osscuro olluminoso
5.

perchosso].

2.

chorpo

chosi.

chorpo
.
.

douessopra
. .

perchuotano.

4.

ecqualita

hora.

agolo [ode]

il

ella piramide.

6.

echosi dimnnonoimano

sapressa

piramide

26 1. 262.]

PERSPECTIVE OF DISAPPEARANCE.

139

della piramide obrosa supera la grossez 8 za della luminosa.

a fia di tata potetia la piraJ>Nel puto mide luminosa quato la obrosa, perche la basa e simile alia basa
-

pyramid of shadow is greater than the breadth of the pyramid of light. At the point a the is pyramid of
equal in strength to the pyramid of shadow because the base is equal to the base rf. At the point d the pyramid of light is narrower than the pyramid of shadow so much as the base s/is less than the by base/,?-. Divide the foregoing proposition into two diagrams, one with the pyramids of light and shadow, the other with the pyramids of light
light

/
I0

piramide luminosa che la obrosa piv quato s-f-e minore che la basa /-.
sottile
,

puto

aMa

-r-f-

nel

fia

tanto

fg

la

basa

''Diuidi
in

la

sopra
cioe

detta

due

proposition
colle

figure

una

colle

obrose e
nose.

luminose e

1'altra

piramidi I2 lumi-

[only].

C. 13 1]

261.
di pari qualita
all'

Infra 1'onbre
fia

piv propinqua nore oscurita.

Quella che ochio apparira di mi-

Among shadows of equal depth those which are nearest to the eye will look least
deep.

C. 100]

262.

po luminoso

Quanto-di maggiore splendore fia-il cordi tanta maggiore oscurita fieno 1'onbre-fatte da'corpi da esso alluminati.

more brilliant the light given by a luminous body, the deeper will the shadows be cast by the it illuminates.
objects

The

p^rr J,,,m:
261. i. Infrallonbre
36*.
z.
. .

quale '"

*""""' u
. .

~. .

*-

- -

oho,.

cheffia

Apparira
.

hosscurita.

magiorel-splendore"

chorpo

magiore osschurita

lonbr

chorpi.

Theory of colours.
Leonardo 's theory of colours
of light
is

even more intimately connected with his principles

and shade than


to

his Perspective

of Disappearance and
the

is in fact

merely an appendix
264, 267,

or supplement

those principles, as

we gather from

titles

to sections

and

276, while others again (Nos. 281, 282) are

headed Prospettiva.

very

few of

these chapters are to be

found

in the oldest copies

and

editions

of

the Treatise on Painting,

connection

and although the material they afford is but meager and the between them but slight, we must still attribute to them a special theoretical
utility

value as well as practical

all the

more

so because our knowledge of the theory


is still

and

use of colours at the time of the Renaissance

extremely limited.

37

263.

DE
2

PICTURA.
3

OF
del

PAINTING.
is

II colore dello alluminato participa colore dello alluminante.

The hue of an illuminated object ted by that of the luminous bodv. J J

affec- The reciprocai effects of

colours on
objects pla-

ced opposite each other


E.

264.

(263

272).

DE
2
If

ONBRA.
d'ogni opaco participa

OF SHADOW.
The surface of any opaque body is affected by the colour of surrounding objects.

La

superfitie

del colore del suo obbiettot.

W.

232,5]

265.

L'onbra participa sepre suo obbietto.

del

color

del

shadow is always affected by the colour of the surface on which it is cast.

Br.

M.
II

266.

simvlacro inpresso nello spechio par2 ticipa del co lore del predetto specchio.

An image produced
by

in a

mirror

is

affected

the colour of the mirror.

Ash.

I.

2 a]

267.

DE
2

OBRA E LUME.
,

OF LIGHT AND SHADE.


Every portion of the surface of a body is varied [in hue] by the [reflected] colour of the object that may be opposite to it.

cuda
di

che cirdella superfitie trasmuta I parte del colore corpi, quella cosa che gl'e posta per obietto.

Ogni parte
i

3 si

363. 2. cholore
364. 2.

3.
3.

cholore
.

alluminancte.

oppacho.
delcho.
2.

cholore

obbieto.

265. obbiecto.

266.

i.

267. i. ellume.

circhuda

chorpi.

3.

trassmuta

cholore

chelle posta.

5.

settu porai unofpalla da]

uno chorpo

sperL-

144

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


ESEPLO.

[268270.

EXAMPLE.
If

tu porrai-uno corpo-sperico-I mezzo a van obietti, 6 cioe che da una parte sia lume del sol* e dall' opposita parte sia uno muro 7 alluminato dal sole il quale sia verde o d'altro colore, il piano dove si posa 8 sia,

you place a spherical body


objects
that is
to

between

various

say with [direct] sunlight on one side of it, and on the other a wall illuminated by the sun, which wall may be green or of any other colour, while the surface on which it is placed may be red, and
the two lateral sides are in shadow, you will see that the natural colour of that body will

rosso
il

dai 2

lati

traversi
di detto

sia

scuro

vedrai

natura^le colore

corpo participare

de' colori

che
il

potete
della
dell'

fia

sono per obietto; IO I1 piu luminoso; II secondo fia quello


li

ll pariete allumina ta-,


,

II

terzo quello-

obra

Rimane poi una

quatita,

che par-

I2 ticipa del colo re delli

stremi.

assume something of the hue reflected from those objects; The strongest will be [given by] the luminous body; the second by the illuminated wall, the third by the shadows. There will still be a portion which will take a tint from the colour of the edges.

E. 17

268.
]

parsuperfitie d'ogni corpo opaco Ma co ticipa del colore del suo obbietto tanta maggiore o minore < inpressione quato esso obietto s fia piu vicino o remote o di
-3

La

The

surface of every opaque

body

is

affec-

ted by the colour of the objects surrounding it. But this effect will be strong or weak in

proportion as those objects are more or less

maggiore o minore potetia.

remote and more or

less strongly [coloured].

W.

240 i\

269.

PlTTURA.

OF
par-

PAINTING.

La superfitie d'ogni corpo opaco 3 colore del suo obbietto. ticipa del
2
*

The

surface of every opaque

body assumes

tanta maggiore potetia si tignie la del corpo s opaco del color del suo obbietto quato li razzi 6 delle spetie di
superfitie
tali

Co

the hues reflected from surrounding objects. The surface of an opaque body assumes
the hues of surrounding objects more strongly proportion as the rays that form the images of those objects strike the surface at
in

obbietti feriscono essi corpi infra angoli piu equali. 8 tanto piu si tigne la superfitie de' 9 del suo obietto corpi opachi del colore tal superfitie e piu biaca e'l coquato lore dello I0 obietto piu luminoso o allu?

more equal

of an opaque body assumes a stronger hue from the surrounding


the

And

angles. surface

minato.

objects in proportion as that surface is whiter and the colour of the object brighter or more highly illuminated.

W.

L. 145;

Ba]

270.

DELLI RAZZI CHE PORTA PER L'ARIA LE SPETIE DE CORPI.


1

OF THE RAYS WHICH CONVEY THROUGH THE


AIR THE IMAGES OF OBJECTS.
the minutest parts of the image All intersect each other without interfering with

H Tutte le parti minime delle spetie penetra 3]' una 1'altra sanza occupatione 1'una
cho Imezo
to.
. .

sia
. .

muro.

7.

cholore.

8.

schuro

vederai

[detto chorpo) al

natura.

9.

cholore

chorpo

cholori.

iluminoso

sechondo.
2.

268.

i.

chorpooppacho.
orremoto.
6.
4.

del cholore del cholore del suo

obbiecto.

3.

Ma[cqua] tanta

ominore.

In the margin: 4. cho.

5.

ominore.
8. Ettanto. 10. aluminato. razi. 6. feriscano. 9. biacha. magiore. 5. oppacho de chorpi. 3. ochupatione. 4. essia spiracholo. 5. ris.-cotro. 6. losstrcmo. 7. le(spemo no po
. . . .

369.

2. i.

oppacho.
razi
. .

370.

lesspetie

attale.

270.

13.

This probably refers to the diagram given under No. 66.

li

271. 272.]

THEORY OF COLOURS.
each other.

'45

dell'altrajU 4 pruovasi e sia r 1'un de'lati dello spiracolo s a riscotro del quale sia s

To prove

this

let

r be one of

ochio,

il quale ve de lo stremo inferiore o della linia n o, il qua 7 le stremo no puo madare la similitudine di se a tale 8 ochio s ch'ello no tocchi esso

the sides of the hole, opposite to which let s be the eye which sees the lower end o of the line n o. The other extremity cannot

transmit

stremo
d'essa
10

r, e' linia

si g mile

fa

mezzo
allo
,

cosi

accade

stremo superiore n all' ochio u e se lo stremo n "e rosso u ochio no vedra in tal labro di spira I2 colo r il colore verde di o, ma solo il rosso J 3di n per la 7 a di questo,
dicie ogni simula I4 cro

its image to the eye s as it has to strike the end r and it is the same with regard to m at the middle of the line. The case is the same with the upper extremity n and the

dove
per

mada

eye u. And if the end n is red the eye u on that side of the holer will not see the green colour of o, but th of only the red of n according to the 7

fori di
Tfla

se spetie

sue per

linia

bre I5 vissima

quale

where it is said: Every form projects images from itself by the shortest line, which
this

neciessita e retta ecc.

necessarily

is

a straight

line,

&c.

C. A. 178 a; 536^]

271.

PlCTURA.

OF

PAINTING.

La superfitie d'ogni corpo participa del 3 Li colori delli colore del suo obbietto. obbietti alluminati s'imprimono nelle superfitie 1' u del' altro 4 in tati vari siti quate son
2

The surface of a body assumes in some degree the hue of those around it. The colours of illuminated objects are reflected from the surfaces of one to the other in various spots, according to the various positions of those objects. Let o be a blue object
in
full

le uarieta delle situationi


6

1'

obbietto

di tali obbietti; azzurro alluminato e vede

solo sanza altra ^conpagnia 1 8 spatio b c della spera bia ca a b c d e f, e la tignie di colore azzurro; ^m el obbietto giallo il

light,

facing

all

by

itself

quale allumina

e lo copagnia a tigne in colore verde Tfper la 2


12

lo spatio dello o azzur lj ro

I0

b in

space b c on the white sphere a b c d e f, and it will give it a blue tinge. ;;/ is a yellow body reflected onto the space a b at the same time as o the blue
the

body, and they give


colour (by the
ri-

it

a green

questo che prova lo azzurro e giallo fa T 3re verde bellissimo eccll-e'l


3i

2 nd

[proposition]

manete
in

si

dira

I4

nel libro della pictura;

make
will

of this which shows that blue and yellow And the rest a beautiful green &c.)

questo libro

si

pro'Svera facciedo pene-

be

set

forth in the
it

Book on

Painting.

trare la spetie de' corpi e co l6 lori delle cose alluminate dal sole per piccolo ^spiracolo

In that

rotondo in loco oscuro I pa l8 riete piana in se bianca ecc. 19 Ma ogni cosa fia sotto sopra.

be shown, that, by transmitting the images of objects and the colours of bodies illuminated by sunlight through a small round perforation and into a dark chamber onto a plane surface, which itself is quite white, &c. But every thing will be upside down.
will

Book

C. A. 44 (5; 137 J]

272.

2 fa 1'obra 3 no la ue 4 de. 1'obre 6 son fatte 7 da lumino 8 so gignitor'e 9circudato I0 re del'obre. "L'onbra fatta dal luminoso e che e I2 giallo,

Quel che
Perche

That which casts the shadow does not because the shadows are produced it, by the light which causes and surrounds the shadows. The shadow caused by the light e,
,

face

111

Combination
of different colours in c

^^f"

8. chella

g no tochi
3. 8.

stremo

[o]r.

9.

chosi achade.
4.

10. essello.

u. errosso
6.

la [pr]bro.

12.

cholo

ongni.
7.

271. 2.

obbiecto.

obbiecti
.
.

"alluminati" sinpremano.
9.

quato.

5. bietta.

ellobbietto azurro

"alluminato".
12.

Losspatio
15.

be dulla.
piecho.

cha

ella.

ellobbietto gialloiquale.

10. losspatio. 18.

n.

ello tugnie in cholore.


19.

azurro -egualle.

chor-

16.

picholo.

17.

spiracholo retondo ilocho osschuro.

biancha.

onchosa.

VOL.

I.

146

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


which
the
is

[273. 274.

viene a essere '^azzurra perche e 1'onbra corpo **a fatta sopra il pauimcto in b, nel'Ma quale 6 veduta dal luminoso azzur l6 ro, e cosl 1' onbra fatta dal lumi' 7 noso d che e azzurro fia gialla nel l8 sito c per lumi^noso dal essere veduta e '1 canpo circudatore giallo, 20 d'esse onbre b c sara (oltre al suo 2I natural colore) tinto d'un colore mi 22 sto di giallo e d' azzurro perche e vedu 2 3to e alluminato
del

yellow, has a blue tinge, because

shadow of the body a is cast upon the pavement at b, where the blue light falls; and the shadow produced by the light d, which is
blue, will be yellow at c, because the yellow light falls there and the

surrounding background to the'se shadows b c will, besides its natural colour, assume a hue compounded of yellow and blue, because it is lighted by the yellow light and by
the blue light both at once. Shadows of various colours, as affected by the lights falling

da luminoso giallo

<e

da luminoso

azzurro in u medesimo 25 tenpo 26 Onbre di uari co 2 ?lori se28 condo Iu mi da loro veduti. 2 9Quel lume che fa 1'obra no 3<>la
i

on them.
the

That light which causes shadow does not face it.

3I

uede.

c. A. 187

s6a]
2

273

The

effect of

spiracoli
,

Li termini d'ogni color che passa per so piu ^evideti che i loro mezzi. Li termini delle spetie ,
5

the'ckmera
scura
.

di
,

qualuche co-

274).

lore

che per stretto


il

loco o?scuro fien


lore che

spiraculo penetrano i 8 sepre di piu pote te co-

The edges of a colour(ed object) transmitted through a small hole are more conspicuous than the central portions. The edges 01 the images, of whatever A nc 01 wnaiever euges of me colour^ which are transmitted through a small
aperture into a dark chamber will always be stronger than the middle portions.

suo mezzo.

w.

L. 145;

D*]
2

274.

DELLA INTERSEGATIONE DELLE SPETIE POPILLA DELL'OCHIO.


3

NELLA
nello

OF THE
The

INTERSECTIONS OF THE IMAGES IN THE PUPIL OF THE EYE.


intersections

La

intersegatione

delle

spetie

introito della popilla *no s'infondono 1'una nell'altra in quello spatio dove tale intersegastione le vniscie, e questo si manifesta 6 perche se li razzi del sole passa per li dua
vetri
7

of the images as they enter the pupil do not mingle in confusion


in

the

space where that intersection unites

tigniera d' azzurro ne di giallo, ma simo verde, e il medesimo accaderebbe alI0 1'ochio se le spe tie de' colon giallo e verde
di 9 bellis-

che sieno infra loro in cotatto, de quali uetri 1' un sia azzurro e 1' altro giallo, allora il razzo 8 in esso penetrate non si

them; as is evident, since, if the rays of the sun pass through two panes of glass in close contact, of which one is blue and the other
yellow, the rays, in penetrating them, do not become blue or yellow but a beautiful green. And the same thing would happen in the
if the images which were yellow or green should mingle where they [meet and] interAs this does sect as they enter the pupil.

nella

intersegatio da lor fatta in"fra se nello introito della popilla s'avessino a inI2 fondere 1'una ne l'altra, la qual cosa non accadendo tal mistione non e in essere.

eye,

not happen such a mingling does not


13. azurra.
15.

exist.
natura

273. 6. facte.

ii. del.

12. giallo

vede lonbre viene a essere.


cho.
27.
.

del

azur.

16.

chosi.

17. azurro.

21.

colore.
273. 474.
2.

22.

eddazzuro.
3. illoro.
3.

26.
5.

sechondo.
istretto.
4.

28. dalloro.

29.
.

Quellume

chefla.

isspiracoli.

cholore

6.

spirachulo
. .

illocho os.
5.

i.

interseghatione.
7.

interseghatione.
. .

sinfondano
9.

intersegha.
.
.

ecquessto

selli razi
.

[solarij.

6.

passa

inchofrasse

tacto.

azurro ellaltro

il

raz.

8.

azurro.

achaderebbe'

selle.

10. cholori gialli

interseghatio dallor.

n.

272. In the original


e "giallo"

diagram we
cirle

find in the circle

and

(yellow) and the also under the circle

"azurro"

(blue)
left

in a

In the second diagram where four circles are placed row we find written, beginning at the left hand,
(yellow),

of shadow to the

"giallo"

"azurro"

(blue),

"z/mfc"

(green),

"giallo" is written

and under that

to the right "azurro".

"rosso" (red).

2/5-]

THEORY OF COLOURS.
DELLI RAZZI CHE si COPOGONO DE CORPI E LORO ITERSEGATIONE.
1

NATURA
"4

OF THE NATURE OF THE RAYS COMPOSED OF


THE IMAGES OF OBJECTS, AND OF THEIR
INTERSECTIONS.

DELLfi SPETIE

rettitudine delli razzi che porta per 1'aria la figura l6 e color de' corpi donde
si

sLa

The directness of the rays which transmit the forms and colours of the bodies whence
they proceed does not tinge the air nor can they affect each other by contact where they intersect. They affect only the spot where they vanish and cease to exist, because that

partono no tingono di se 1'aria, cora possono tignie I7 re 1'uno


nel

ne an-

1'altro

cotatto

della

loro

intersecatione,

ma

sol tin l8 gono

il loco dove eglino perdono il loro essere perche tale loco ve'9de ed e veduto dal'origine

d'essi razzi, e nessuna altra cosa che circuisca 20 essa origine puo

essere veduta da loco dove tale 2I razzotaglian dosi resta destrutto, lasciado la preda da lui quivi
portata.
22

spot faces and is faced by the original source of these rays, and no other object, which surrounds that original source can be seen by the eye where these rays are cut
off

spoil they

And
questo
corpi
si
a prova per la 4 de codove dicie la su 2 3perfitie

and destroyed, leaving there the have conveyed to it.


th
:

sition],

this is proved by the 4 [propoon the colour of bodies, which says

lori

de'

d'ogni corpo opaco participa del colore del suo obbi 2 4etto; aduque e concluso che 2 il loco che mediate il razzo 5che porta le vede ed e veduto dall' origine di tale spetie 26 spetie si tinga del colore d'esso obbietto.

surface of every opaque body is affected by the colour of surrounding objects; hence we may conclude that the spot which, by means of the rays which convey the image, faces and is faced by the cause of the

The

image, assumes the colour of that object.

Ash.

I,

22 a]

275-

OGNI OBRA FATTA DAL CORPO OBROSO MINORE DEL LUME ORIGINALE 2 MADERA LE OBRE DIRIVATIVE TITE DEL COLORE DELLA LORO
ORIGINE.

ANY SHADOW CAST BY AN OPAQUE BODY SMALLER THAN THE LIGHT CAUSING THE SHADOW WILL THROW A DERIVED SHADOW WHICH IS TINGED BY THE COLOUR OF THE LIGHT.
Let n be the source of the shadow ef; it On the assume its hue. Let o be the source of h e deriveTsha do * s which will in the same way be tinged by its hue 6) and so also the colour of v h will be affected by/ which causes it; and the shadow of the triangle z k y will be affected by the colour of q, because it is produced by it. [7] In proportion as c d goes into a d, will n r s be darker than m; and the rest of the space will be shadowless [i i]. f g is the highest light, because here the whole light of the window a d falls; and thus
will
,

tita in

L' origine dell' obra e sia n, e fia suo colore 1' origine di h e sia *e fia similmete tita T suo colore, e cosl il colore di-z>->$-fia tito nel- colore di-/s e 1'obra del triaperche nascie da lui golo z k y fia tita nel colore di Q perche 6 8 7 Tanto diriva da lui quato c d entra in I0 9e a d tanto e che piv scuro n r s
3
[

|j

tutto 1'altro

"canpo sanza 6bra;-/-^-e


di

'1

lume perche quivi allumina tutta la finestra a d I2 e cosi nel corpo obroso -m- e e di simil chiarezza z k y e vno triagolo ^ che cotiene in se il primo
primo grado
;
. .

light; z

on the opaque body m e is in equally high k y is a triangle which includes the

"mistione". 13. razi chessi copoghano. 14. chorpi elloro interseghatione. anchora possa. 17. intersechatione Massol. partano" no si tinghano chosa che cirrazi e nessussuna locho. 19. de "ede veduto da" lorigine 18. ghano il locho dove e perdano illoro cholori de chorpi. 22. ecquesto dallui. chuissca. 20. dallocho do tale razo. 21. ressta desstrutto "quivi" lassciado
popila.
12.

chosa non achadendo

tal [fusione]
si

15.

fighura.

16. e

cholor de chorpi "donde


.
.

23.

chorpo oppacho
delume.
3.

cholore.
effia
. .

24. ecto
sie. 4.

choncluso.
. .

ilocho.

25. 10.

veduta.
ettutto.

26. tingha.

875.

i.

sie

effia

nel

cholore.

n. alumina

tucta.

12.

chiareza

k.

275.

The diagram

PI. Ill,

No.

belongs to this

chapter as well as the text given in No. 148. Lines 12 of No. 148) which are il (compare lines 8 7

written within the diagram, evidently apply to both been inserted in sections and have therefore both.

148

THK THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

[2 7 6.

capita

grado d'onbra, perche in esso triagolo no & '1 2 grado '*il lume a d\ x h d'obra perch egli non allumina se non */3
sdella- finestra cioe

deepest shadow, because the light a d cannot reach any part of it. x h is the 2 nd grade of shadow, because it receives only '/3 of the
light

c- d>\li- c fia
i

il

tcrzo

from the window, that

is c d.

The

third

I6 dua terzi grado d'obra perche egli uede della finestra b d- c -f fia 1' ultimo grado d'obra perche I7 1' ultimo grado di lume della finestra allumina nel loco di /.

grade of shadow is // e, where two thirds of the The last light from the window is visible. grade of shadow \sbdef, because the highest grade of light from the window falls at /.

W.

L. 145;

C]
2

276.

DELLI COLORI DELL'OBRE DIRIVATIVE


SENPLICI.

OF THE COLOURS OF

SIMPLE DERIVED

SHADOWS.

Li colori dell'obre diriuative fie ^senpre participant delli colori de corSpi che le rischiarano: pruovasi 9e sia il corpo onbroso
-J

The colour of derived shadows


affected

is

always

by

are cast.

body towards which they To prove this let an opaque body be


that of the
:

I0

interposto
riete

infra
li

la

pa-

lu^minosi a b rosso; I2 dico d e luminoso azzurro ve I3 de tutta la pariete sctd ecciet^to op, il quale occupa 1' onbra del 15 corpo obroso q r, come mostra l6 le linie rette d q o, e r p\ E il simple accade del luminoso a b, l8 vede tutta la il quale

sctd e e azzurro e

placed between the plane and the blue light d e and the red light a b, then I say that d e, the blue light, will fall on the

sctd

ting at o red by the

whole surface sctd excepp which is coveshadow of the

body q r,

as

is

shown by

the

straight lines d q o e r p, And the same occurs with

eccietpariete J 9to il loco occupato dalP

sctd

the light a b which falls the whole surface

on

sctd

obroso q r co 20 me mostra le linie d q o e e r p; 2I aduque si coclude che 22 vede il luminoso azzurro d e e 1' onbra n m no 2 3 potendo vedere il luminoso a b rosso 2 n m resta vn' obra azzurra in capo 2S rosso
s c td perche in campo vede 1'uno e Paltro luminoso, 2 7ma nell'obre no vede se no vn sol Iu 28 minoso e per questo 2 tale obra e obra me 9zzana, perche se tale obra no fusse veduta 3 da nessun luminoso 1 essa sarebbe obra J massima ecc. Ma nel1'onbra o p no ve3 2 de il luminoso azzurro, 33 colla sua interpositione perche il corpo q r

excepting at the spot obscured by the shadow q r;


as
is o,

may conclude

that

shown by the lines d and e r p. Hence we the shadow n m is


light

exposed to the blue red light a b cannot

e;

but,

as

the

fall

there,

will ap-

misto

d' azzurro,

26

pear as a blue shadow on a red background tinted with blue, because on the surface sctd both lights can fall. But in the shadows only one single light falls; for this reason these shadows are of medium depth, since, if no light whatever mingled with the shadow, it would be of the first degree of darkness &c.' But in the shadow at o p the blue light

13.

chotiene.
cholori.

14.

ilumc

dobra percheli
5.

alumina.

15.
6.

dela

percheli

(L la.

17. dela
il

alumina
7.

locbo.
il

276.

i.

3. cholori. 8.
[t

4. cho'lori.

chelle risciarano.
d].

[essia
9. essia

il
il

luminoso azzurro de

qua).

[le
.

allvmina
.

chanp
addu-

la pariete sc.]

d cholla dilatatione a b c d d e c
. .

chorpo

interpossto.
. .

10. infralla

elli.
.

n. azzurro
21.

he

ab.
si

que
.

chome mosstra. 12. dicbo. 14. ochupa. 15. chorpo choclude chellonbra. 22. iluminoso. 24. ressta chapo.
. .

19.

locho ochupato

cho.
.

20.

mosstra

ahcf.

25. missto
.
.-

da dazurro

fussi.

30.

sarabe.

32.

iluminoso.

33.

lielo.

35.

tigngnie

tal.

36.

chanpo. 26. ellaltro. 29. settale ressta inchapo. 38. del 37. dazurro errosso.
.

276. In the original diagram

Leonardo has written

body);

at

within the circle q r forfo obroso (body "in shadow); at the spot marked A, luminoso azzurro (blue luminous

E
at

we read ombra

B, luminoso rosso (red luminous body). At azzurra (blue tinted shadow) and
rossa (red tinted shadow).

ombra

277. 278.]

THEORY OF COLOURS.

149

glielo proibi-^sc-ie;

Ma

sol ui

vede

il

lume

rosso a b il jSquale lo tignie di color rosso e cosi ta3 6 le obra rosseggiate resta incapo mi 37 sta d'azzurro e rosso.
38 L'onbra del q r in o p 39 mediante il luminoso azzurro d e 4e rossa e 1'obra d'esso q r mediate il rosso luminoso a b e azzurra 4 * in 5 p adunque diremo che 43 il lume azzurro fa in questo caso 44 fare 1'onbra dirivativa rossa al cor^Spo onbroso 46 fa fare al medeq r Q che'l lume rosso simo obroso 1'obra 4 1 dirivativa azzurra, ma
;

1'onbra

48

primitiva

no

fia

d'esso colore

ma

49fia mista di rosso e azzurro.

sLe
rita
.tetia

se

le

obre dirivative sara d' equal 5I oscunascono da 52 lumi d'equale po. .

because the body q r interposes it there. Only the red light a b falls there and tinges the shadow of a red hue and so a ruddy shadow appears on the background of mingled red and blue. The shadow of q r at o p is red, being caused by the blue light d e ; and the shadow of q r at <?' /' is blue being caused by the red light a b. Hence we say that the blue light in this instance causes a red derived shadow from the opaque body <?'r', while the red light causes the same body to cast a blue derived shadow; but the primary shadow [on the dark side of the body itself] is not of either of those hues, but a mixture of red and blue. The derived shadows will be equal in depth
fall,

does not

and intercepts

if

e distas^tia; pruova

and

they are produced by lights of equal strength at an equal distance; this is proved [53].

F. 23 a]

277.
2

Nessu bianco o nero

e trasparete.

No

white or black

is

transparent.

On

the nature of colours


(277. 278).

75 a]

278.

PlCTURA.
2

OF

PAINTING.
is

Perche

il

bianco non e colore,

ma

e in-

[2]

Since

white

not a colour but the

potentia ricettiva 3d'ogni colore, quando esso e in capagna alta tutte le su 4 e obre sono azzurre; e questo nasce per la 4 a che
dice: la superfitie d'ogni opaco participa del colo 6 re del suo obbietto; Aduque tal
s

neutral recipient of every colour [3], when it is seen in the open air and high up, all its

shadows are bluish; and

this is

caused,

ac-

bianco essendo pri7vato del lume del sole 8 infra per interpositio di qualche obbietto
'1 sole e esso biaco, resta adunque biaco che vede il sole e 1' aria parI0 del colore del sole e dell' aria, e ticipante jl quella parte che non ue de il sole, resta onbrosa participante del colore dell' aria, e se I2 tal biaco non vedesse la verdura della capagnia l^sino all' orizzonte, rie ancora vedesse la biachezza di tale I4 orizzote, sanza dubbio esso biaco parrebbe essere j sdel senplice colore del quale si mostra essere

messo
9

infra
il

tutto

1'

aria.

th cording to the 4 [prop.], which says: the surface of every opaque body assumes the hue of the surrounding objects. Now this white [body] being deprived of the light of the sun by the interposition of some body between the sun and ifself, all that portion of it which is exposed to the sun and atmosphere assumes the colour of the sun and atmosphere; the side on which the sun does not fall remains in shadow and assumes the hue of the atmoAnd if this white object did not sphere. reflect the green of the fields all the way to the horizon nor get the brightness of the horizon itself, it would certainly appear simply of the same hue as the atmosphere.

[dea]qr[m]in.
48. cholore.

40.

errosso ellobra.

42. direno.

43.

Hume

inquessto chaso.

44.

lonbra [azzu] "dirivativa" rossa al chor.

49. missta.

51. osschurita selle

nasschano.

52. eddissta.

277. 2. he.
378. 4.

azzurro
ii.

ecquessto nassce.

5.

oppaco.

6.

biancho.

7.
.
.

interpositiode.

8.

biacho.

9.

ellaria.
. .

10.

ecquella parte che


14.

ue.

resta

"onbrosa"

dellaria esse.

12.

biacho

vedessi.

13.

orizonte neacora vedesse

biacheza.

orizote

biacho parebbe.

53.

The
2.
3.

text
/'/

is

unfinished in the original.

ALBERT! "Delia
trary
:

278.
ricettiva

bianco

non e

colore

ma

e inpotentia

pittura" libro I, asserts on the con"II bianco e 7 nero non sono veri colori, ma sono
delli

d'ogni colore (white is not a the neutral recipient of every colour).

colour,

biit

alteratione

altri

colori"

(ed.

JANITSCHEK,

p.

67;

LEON BATT.

Vienna

1877).

5o

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

[279281.

C. A. 192 6; 571 6\

279.

il nero dipinto in cofine del Perch 2 no mostra piv nero che dove confina e depth of co- col nero, n il biacho no mostra piu bianco U in cofine del nero che del biaco, co s me fan (279? 28o). 6 le spetie passate per ispiraculo o per termine d'alcuno ostaculo opaco ...

biaco
-5

Since black, when painted next to white, looks no blacker than when next to black; and white when next to black looks no whiter than white, as- is seen by the images transmitted through a small hole or by the edges of any opaque screen.
.

C. A. l8l<5; 546^)

280.

DE
2

COLORI.

OF
Of
will

COLOURS.

De colori d'equal bianchezza quel si mostrera 3 piu candido che sara in campo nero si mostrera piu tenepiu oscuro broso che fia in caSpo di maggior bianchezza. 6 E'l rosso si dimostrera piu focoso che

several colours, all equally white, that

;'!

look whitest which is against the darkest background. And black will look intensest
against the whitest background. And red will look most vivid against the yellowest background; and the same is the case with all colours when surrounded by their

sara
lori.

in

capo piu

giallo,

e cosi fara
retti

tutti

li

colori cir 8 cundati

da loro

contrari co-

strongest contrasts.

A.

281.

PROSPETTIVA.
2

PERSPECTIVE.
si

Ogni corpo sanza colore


o
in

colorisce

On

the reflection of

tutto
3

parte

in

nel

colore

cotra se

colours

(281283).

4 posto; questo si uede per isperieza inpero che ogni corpo che spechia si tignie nel co s lore che gli per obbietto; E quel corpo che si tignie in parte -si e il bianco, e quella 6 parte che fia luminata da rosso parra rossa ed ogni altro colore luminoso o obroso.

Every object devoid of colour in itself less tinged by the colour [of the This may be seen object] placed opposite. by experience, inasmuch as any object which mirrors another assumes the colour of the
is

more or

object mirrored in it. thus partially coloured

And
is

if the surface white the portion

which has a red

reflection

will

appear red,

or any other colour, whether bright or dark.

PROSPETTIVA.
8

PERSPECTIVE.

Ogni corpo

opaco

ticipa
9

di quel colore ch' egli

sanza colore para per obietto


;

the

Every opaque and colourless body assumes hue of the colour reflected on it; as
wall.

questo -accade a uno mvro biaco.

happens with a white

379.

i. 2.
.

biacho.

4.

cho

biacho.
.

5.

pasate.
3. 8'
.

6.

ostachulo oppacho.
.
.

380.

biancheza cholori
.

mosstera.
.

chandido
chundati

chanpopiu osschuro.
cholori.
4.

4.

mosstera

cheffia.

5.

magior.

6.

dimosstera

fochoso.
2.
.

7.

chosi
. .

cholori.
.

281.

i.

pro.

cholore

colorisscie
6.

inel cholore chotra.


7.

[ognij questo
.
.

si

chorpo chesspechia
. .

nel cho.

5.

chorpo
i

chessi

biancho checquela.

para.

pro.

8.

chorpo oppacho

cholore

cholore chellia.

9.

quessto achade a

muro biacho.

281. 282. The title line of these chapters is in the original simply "fro", which may be an abbreviation for either Propositione or Prospettiva taking Prospettiva of course in its widest sense, as we often

has here been understood to

mean

Prospettiva,

in

accordance with the suggestion afforded by page io b of

find

it

used

in

Leonardo's writings.

The

title

"fro

where the first section is headed No. 94), while the four followsections are headed merely "/ro" (see No. 85). ing
this

same

M.S.,

Prospettiva in full (see

282284.]

THEORY OF COLOURS.

A. 2Oa]

282.

PROSPETTIVA.

PERSPECTIVE.

Quella parte alluminata madera all' ochio la similitudine delle 3 sue particule piv disciernibili e spedite che quella che si trovera nel1' onbra.
fia

del

corpo obroso che


of

That side of an object


which
its
is

in light

and shade

towards the light transmits the images

details

more

distinctly

and immediately
is

to the eye than the side which

in

shadow.

PROSPETTIVA.
si razzi
solari ripercossi

PERSPECTIVE.

sopra

lo

spe-

chio
di

quadro risalterano nel distate obbietto rotoda forma.


PROSPETTIVA.

rays reflected on a square mirror will be thrown back to distant objects in a circular form.
solar

The

PERSPECTIVE.

7 Ogni corpo biaco e opaco si tignie in parte della similitudine de colori che li sono

Any
partially

white and opaque

surface will

be
sur-

coloured by

reflections

from

per obbietto.

rounding objects.

Ash.

I.

3 a]
2

283.

QUAL PARTE DEL COLORE

RAGIONEVOLMETE DEVE ESSERE 3piu BELLA.

WHAT
OUGHT
If a IN

PORTION OF A COLOURED SURFACE REASON TO BE THE MOST INTENSE.


the light,
c,

4 Se a fia il lume b fia alluminato per linia-da esso lume, 5 c che no puo vedere esso lume vede solo la parte alluminata 6 la quale parte di,

is

in a direct line,
fall,

and b illuminated by it on which the light cannot


lighted only by reflection let us say, is red.

is

from b which,

ciamo che sia rossa-; Essendo cosl il lume ch' ella ? gittera alia

Hence

the

fc

it,

will

light reflected from be affected by the hue

parte somigliera alia sua ca8 gione e tigniera I rosso la faccia c e se c fia ancora lui rosso vedrai essere molto 9piv bello che b e se c fusse giallo vedrai 11 crearsi uno colo I0 re cagiate Jfra giallo e rosso.

of the

surface

causing

it

and

will tinge the surface c with red. if c is also red you will see

And

more intense than were yellow you would see between yellow and red.
it

much

b;

and

if

it

there a colour

Ash.

i.

26}

284.
IL

COME
3

BELLO DEL COLORE JN SU LUMI.

DEVE ESSERE

WHY

BEAUTIFUL COLOURS MUST BE IN THE


[HIGHEST] LIGHT.

Se

noi

vediamo

la qualita

de' colori
is

conoscivta mediate 3 il lume e da giudicare che dov' e piv lume quivi si vegga 4 piv la vera qualita del colore alluminato e dov' e piu tenebre il colore tignersi s nel colore d' esse tenebre, aduque tu pittore ricordati dimostrare 5 la verita de' colori I su le . parti alluminate.
essere
,
'

Since we see that the riii known L on lyj. by means


,

On the use quality of colour of dark and * T i i 'i i ot light, it -is to light colours
is

be supposed that where there

most

light

p
8
2

^g
}

the true character of a colour in light will be best seen; and where there is most shadow the colour will be affected by the tone of that. Hence, O Painter! remember to show the
true quality of colours in bright lights.

282.

i.

pro.
.

2.
.

chorpo
retoda.
2.

cheffia.

3.

partichule

piv

[spe]
. .

esspedite

chessi.

4.

pro.

5.

razi

riperchossi

los-

spechio
283. i.

6.

pro.

7.
3.

chorpo biacho e opacho


belle.
4.

cholori.
7.

cholore.
9.

deessere.
.

ilume.
.
.

6.
.

chessia.
i
.

gitera

sumigliera

ettigniera.

8. esse

c fianchora

vederai.

esse
4.

fussi gialo
.

vedra

crearsi

cholo.
cholori
.

10. re chagiate.
.

284. 2. deessere.

giudichare

vega.

6. richordati.

7.

parte.

152

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


I.

[285-287.

Ash.

9*]

285

Quell a
2

cosa che
,

co nero apparira alcun' altra e pero ricordo a te pictore che vesti le tue figure di colori pi*v chiari che puoi che se le farai di colore oscuro sieno
di

dipinta di biaco di migliore rilievo 3 che


fia
.

object represented in white and black than in any other Painter! way; hence I would remind you to dress your figures in the lightest colours
will display stronger relief

An

you can, since,

if

you

put

them

in

dark

poco

rilievo e

di

poca evidetia da

16-

tano e quest' e per 1'onbre di tutte le cose che sono scure 6 e se farai una vesta scura poco di vario fia da lumi al'obre e ne co;

colours, they will be in too slight relief and And the inconspicuous from a distance.

reason
dark.
is little

is

that the
if

And

lori

chiari vi fia

grade vario.

variety

shadows of all objects are you make a dress dark there in the lights and shadows, while

in light colours there are

many

grades.

E.

286.

PlCTURA.

OF

PAINTING.
will display

Li colori posti nelle onbre, partecipera'no tanto piu o meno della lor natural * bellezza quanto essi sarano in minore o in maggio s re
oscurita.
6

Colours seen in shadow

more

or less of their natural brilliancy in proportion as they are in fainter or deeper shadow.

Ma

se

li

luminoso, allora essi

colori sara situati in i?spatio 8 si mostrera di tanto


il

But

if

these

same colours are

situated in

maggiore bellezza quanto maggiore spledore.

luminoso

fia

9di

a well-lighted place, they will appear brighter


in

proportion as the light

is

more

brilliant.

AVERSARIO.

THE ADVERSARY.
variety of colours in shadow must be as great as that of the colours in the objects in that shadow.

"Xante sono

le varieta de' colori delle

The

obre quato sono I2 le uarieta de' colori che anno le cose aobrate.
RlSPOSTA.
'5

THE ANSWER.
Colours seen in shadow will display less variety in proportion as the shadows in which they lie are deeper. And evidence of this is to

Li colori posti nell' onbre mostrerano infra loro tanta minor varieta, quato 1' 6 l6 bre
'4

son situate fieno piu oscure, I7 e di e testimonio quelli che dalle pi l8 azze questo riguardano dentro alle porte delli te^pi
vi

che

onbrosi,
lori
22

doue

le pitture vestite di 20 vari co-

21 appariscono tutte uesti te di tenebre. Adunque in lunga distantia tutte 1'62 3bre delli vari colori appariscono d'una

be had by looking from an open space into the doorways of dark and shadowy churches, where the pictures which are painted in various colours all look of uniform darkness.

Hence

at

a considerable distance
will

all

the

*medesima
25

oscurita.

shadows of different colours the same darkness.


It
is

appear of

Delli corpi vestiti d'


il

26

luminata mostra

obra e lume la parte suo vero colore.

the light side of an object in light

and shade which shows the true colour.

W.

An. IV. 232

287.

Fa
th C ctura i?u"rs of theP' OU e

1'arco cieleste nell' ultimo libro della

Treat of the rainbow in the

last

book on

ma

^a

Pr

'

ma

il

lib 1

"

delli colori

ranbow
(287. 288).

3 acci6 che U p OSsa provare mediante essi colori de' 4 la pictori gieneratio de' colori del' arco.

nati dalla mistio nelli altri colori,

Painting, but first write the book on colours produced by the mixture of other colours, so as to

be able to prove by those painters' colours how the colours of the rainbow are produced.
. .

385.

i.

quela chossa cheffia


5.

biacho.
. .

2.

aparira.
.

3.

alchunaltra
6.

richordo atte
I

cholori.
. .

4.

chesse

cholore osschuro

pocho.
386.
2.

pocha

ecqueste
belleza
9.
. .

chose sono

scure.

esse fara

vesta

pocho
6.

gradi.

cholori possti.

4.

"iminore" o in maggi "o".


ettestimonio.

5. osschurita.

Masselli

[medesimi] cholori.
14.

7.
.

mosstrera.

8.

magiore

iluminoso.
16.

maggiore [chiarezza] spledore.


osschure.
17.

n.

cholori.

12.

cholori che a lechose.


18. dellite. 26. cholore.

cholori

nossterrano.
22.

15. infralloro.

eve son

Queli che delle.


.

20.

cholori aparisscha.

lungha

disstautta.
287.
i.

23. cholori
.

aparisschano.
2.

24. osschurita.
.

25. chorpi
3.

ellume.
4.

fallarcho

mafia.

cholori nati della

cholori.

acio chettu.

cholori delarcho.

288.]

THEORY OF COLOURS.

153

W.

L. 145;

A 6.}
COLOR: DELL'ARCO NASCONO DAL
SOLE.

288.

SE
2

LI

WHETHER THE COLOURS OF THE RAINBOW ARE


PRODUCED BY THE SUN.

Li colon dell'arco no nasco

[dal sole,

3 perche I molti modi si gienera tali colori sanza sole come accade nell'accostare al-

1'ochio il bicchiere dell'acqua, *ne[ uetro del quale sia le minute vesciche che esser sogliono nelli vetri mal
:

The colours of the rainbow are not produced by the sun, for they occur in many ways without the sunshine; as may be seen by holding a glass of water up to the eye when, in the glass where there
;

are

purSgati; le quali vesciche, ancora-

che no

si

veda
sua
e
6

il

vno

de'

lati

sole, gienera da tutti li colori

those minute bubbles always seen in coarse glass each bubble, even though the sun does not fall

dell'arco,

questo

vedrai

nel

metter tale bicchiere in?fra 1'aria 1'ochio tuo in modo che sia in cotatto con esso ochio e che tale bi8 cchiere abbia vna parte per la qual penetri
e
el

on one side it, will produce the colours of the rainbow; as you may see by placing the glass
all

on

lume

dell' aria

e dall'altra l'69bra della

between the day light and your such a way as that it is close to the eye, while on one side the glass admits the [diffused] light of the atmosphere, and
eye
in

pariete laterale di tal finestra destra o siI0 nistra, che no fa ca so qual lato si sia, e cosl voltando tal bicchiere intorno vedrai
11

on the other side the shadow of the wall on one side of the window; either left or
not which. Then, by turning the glass round you will see these colours all round the bubbles in the glass &c. And
right, it matters

"colori intorno a esse vesciche del uetro ecc., e li altri modi diremo a suo
detti

12

loco.

the rest shall be said in

its

place.

COME
x

I4 ALLA L' OCHIO NON A PARTICIPATIONS GIENERATIO DE' COLORI DELL'ARCO.

THAT THE EYE HAS NO PART

IN PRODUCING THE COLOURS OF THE RAINBOW.

sL' ochio nella sopra detta esperietia l6 pare auer participatione al li colori dell'arco esse vesciche del uetro no mostra perche da se tali ^colori se non me-

In the experiment just described, the eye

would seem

Ma

diante 1'aspetto dell' ochio se tu poni tal bicchi l8 ere


;

to have some share in the colours of the rainbow, since these bubbles in the glass do not display the colours except through the

medium of

the

eye.

But,

if

pieno
della
dall'

d'acqua
finestra

piano in modo che


lo
fe-

sul

you place the glass full of water on the window sill, in such a
is

opposita
li

par^te

rischino

vedrai
20

li

razzi solari, allora tu predetti colori gie-

position as that the outer side exposed to the sun's rays, you will see the same colours

nerarsi nella inpressio fatta

penetrati per esso bi 2I cchiere e terminati sopra il pavimeto in loco oscuro a piedi d' essa finestra, e per-

dalli razzi solari

produced in the spot of light thrown through the glass and

upon

the floor, in a dark place,

qui no s'adopera 1'ochio, ciertezza manipossia co festamete dire tali co^lori non avere parte alcuna dall' ochio.

che

22

below the window; and as the eye is not here concerned in with it, we may evidently, and
certainty

pronounce

that

the

eye has no share in producing them.

288.

i.

selli

archo nasscha.'

2.
.

cholori dellarcho

nonasscha.
nelli.
5.

3.

cholori san"za sole"


. .

chome achade
.

nell'

achostare

bichieri

acqu"a".
. .

4.

sia

vesscicha
7.

esser. sole
.

ghati

vesciche anchora
8. chieri
. . .

vndesua.
.

6.
9.

cholori dell' archo


lateral
. .

ecquesto vedera

bichieri.
.

frallaria ellochio
.

chessia in chotatto a esso.

penitri.

finesstra
locho^.

desstra ossinistre
13.
.

cha.
.

10. chosi
.

bichieri

vederai.
16.

n. cholori
cholori
. . . .

vessciche
.
.

[elli altri
. .

modi direno assue].


17. 20.

12.

chome.
lasspecto

14. cholori
. .

archo.
.

15. essperietia. 18.

archo
19.

vessciche
.

mosstra dasse.
cholorigi.

cholori senno
. .

Massettu

bichi.

eri

dacq"a"

finesstra.

ferisschino

facta

penetrata.
27. cholori.

21. chieri etterminata ..

"in locho osscuro"

.. finesstra.

22. cierteza

cho.

23.

alchuna.

24.

dalchuno.

26. quali

si.

154

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


PENE D'ALCUNO

[288.

DELLI COLORI POSTI NELLE


2

OF THE COLOURS

IN

THE FEATHERS OF CERTAIN


BIRDS.

5VCCIELLO.
li

26

Molti sono
nelle

del rnodo,
bellissimi

vccielli nelle varie regio 2 penne de' quali ?si vede

There are many birds

in various regions

movimeti,

colon gienerarsi nelli lor diuersi 28 come far si vede infra noi alle
!'

29 anitre penne delli pagoni o nelli colli del o delle colonbe ecc. 3 Ancora nelle superfitie delli antichi vetri

trovati sotto terra e in


nelli stati liigo

ne^le

radici de' rava-

tepo ne' fondi delle fonti o altre ac^que inmobili, che ciascuna di tal
radici

e circudata da

tali

archi si'^mili al

cieleste;

vedesi

nell'

utuosita sparsa sopra

34 nelli razzi solari reflessi 1'acqua, ancora dalla superfitie del diamate o berillo a^scora
;

of the world on whose feathers we see the most splendid colours produced as they move, as we see in our own country in the feathers of peacocks or on the necks of ducks or pigeons, &c. Again, on the surface of antique glass found underground and on the roots of turnips kept for some time at the bottom of wells or other stagnant waters [we see] that each root displays colours similar to those of the real rainbow. They may also be seen when oil has been placed on the top of water and in the solar rays reflected from the surface of a

diamond or beryl
facet

nell'

angolo fatto dal


37

berillo ogni

cosa oscura

la

qual termini e circhudata da


Paria e
altri

36

coll' aria

o altra cosa chiara

tale

detta cosa oscura,


li

arco interposto infra e cosl mol3 8 ti

modi

quali lascio perche questi so

again, through the angular of a beryl every dark object against a background of the atmosphere or any thing else equally pale-coloured is surrounded by these rainbow colours between the atmosphere and the dark body; and in many other circumstances which I will not mention,
;

as these suffice for

bastati a

tal discorso.

my

purpose.

28.

paghoni.
.

29. oddelle
.

cholonbe.
. .

31.

lugho

fondi delle fonto


.
.

altra.
.
.

32.

cque
.

ciasscuna

eccirchudata dattali.
36. qual [chaupcg]
.
.

33. cielesste

uduosita
.

anchora.
.

34. refressi

obberillo.
.

35.

chora

angholo
.

chosa osscura.

termini chollaria
disscorso.

chosa

ecirchudata.

37.

archo

infrallaria eddetta

osschura echosi.

38. lasscio

basstati attal

VI.

'Prospettiva de* colon

(Perspective
and

of Colour)

'Prospettiva aerea' (Aerial Perspective).


Leonardo
distinctly separates these

branches of his subject, as


to cast

may

be seen in the

beginning of No. 295.

Attempts have been made

doubts on the results which

Leonardo arrived at by experiment on the perspective of

colour, but not

with justice, as

may

be seen

from

the original text of section 294.


to

The question as

the composition of the atmosphere, which is inseparable


,

from

a discussion on Aerial Perspective forms a separate theory ivhich


siderable length.

is

treated at conescape the


subject,

Indeed the author enters into

it

so fully that

we^cannot

conviction that he must have dwelt with particular pleasure on this part of his

and

that he attached great importance

to

giving

it

a character of general

applicability.

C. 12 6}

28g.

La
in

lunga

quelle
fieno.

uarieta de' colon de' corpi no fia distantia conosciuta se no in parti che dai soli razzi percosse

The
in

variety
at

be discerned

of colour in objects cannot a great distance, excepting

General
rules

(289-291)

those parts which are directly lighted up


solar rays.

by the

C. 13*]

290.
i

Infra
tia

colori

de' corpi

no

fia

differen-

As

to

the

colours

in

lunga distantia nelle loro parti on-

distances no difference
parts in shadow.

is

of objects: at long perceptible in the

brose.

Ash.

I.

291.

BELLA EVIDETIA
2

DE' COLORI.

OF THE
at a distance is
lightest,

VISIBILITY
strikes

OF COLOURS.

Quale colore e piv evidete? quella cosa ch'e piv chiara piv appariscie 3di lontano; e la piv scura fa il cotrario.

Which colour

most? An object most conspicuous, when it is


is

and the darkest

least visible.

W.

232 6}

292.

Delli termini dell'obre; alcu 2 ni so fumosi d'insesibile termine, altri 3di termini noti.

Of the edges
have misty and
distinct ones.

[outlines] of shadows.
ill

Some
others

defined

edges,

se

Nessu corpo opaco e sanza obra o lumi Snon e nella nebbia, sopra terra coperta
4

di neve, e el 6 simile fa

quado

fiocca in can-

pagnia essa

fia

sanza lume e sara circudata

dalle tenebre.

No opaque body can be devoid of light A " and shade, except it is in a mist, on ground covered with snow, or when snow is falling on the open country which has no light on it and is surrounded with darkness.

289.

i.

cholori de chorpi cholori de chorpi


della
. .

illunga

no "in" quele
llunga.

[lor] parti

che

[ffieno] dai sola razi perchosse.

290.
291.
292.

i.
i.
i.

diferentia

cholori.

2.

cholore
2.

chosa
4.

apariscie.

3.

lontano
.

[allo] ella
.

pivschura
5.

chotrario.
6.

obre
7.

[in

che alchu].
8.

niso.

nesu

chorpo oppacho

ollumi.

nelanebia.

fiocha in

chanpagniaesa.

circhudata.

ecquesto achade

neli.

158

TI1K TIIKOUV <>F

THE ART

>K

I'AIN

INC.

[293. 294.

questo accade nc' corpi sperici, perche che anno mebrificatione, le delle mebra riguardatrici 1'unadelparti 1'altra tingo M no 1'una 1'altra dePaccidete della sua superfitie.
nelli al'tri corpi, I0

because

occurs [only] in spherical bodies, which have limbs and parts, those sides of limbs which face each other reflect on each other the accidental [hue and tone] of their surface.
this

And

in other bodies

Ash.

I.

as 6}

293-

Turn
2

COLORI NELLE LONTANE OBRE SONO IGNIORATI E IND1SCERNIB1LI.


i

ALL COLOURS ARE AT A DISTANCE UNDISTINGUISHABLE AND UNDISCERNIBLE.


All colours at a distance are undistinguish-

Tutti

colori
;

in

lontano
la

fieno

nel-

n experieut>

cosa; che non e tocca dal principale 3 lume non e potete a mandare di se all' occhio per 1' aria piv luminosa la sua similitudine, perche il mtnore 4 lume e vinto dal maggiore Esenplo
1'

obre igniorati

perche

able in
is

because an object which the highest light is incapable of transmitting its image to the eye through an atmosphere more luminous than itself; since

shadow,

not

in

Noi
tutti

vediamo
s
i

essendo
i

colori
si

vna casa che quali sono nelle parieti


in

the lesser brightness must be absorbed by the greater. For instance: We, in a house, can
all the colours on the surface of the are clearly and instantly visible when the windows of the house are open; but if

see that

ueggorio chiaro e speditamete, finestre 6 di detta abitatione-' fieno aperte e se noi usciremo fori d' essa casa e riguardaremo vn poco di 7 lontano
;

delle

mvra quado le

walls

per dette finestre di


fatte su dette

rivedere le

pitture
pic-

ture

mura in iscambio d' esse 8 vedremo- vna cotinvata oscurita.

to go out of the house and look in windows from a little distance to see the paintings on those walls, instead of the paintings we should see an uniform deep and colourless shadow.
at the

we were

Ash.

i.

13*]

294.

COME
j

2 IN PRAIL PITTORE DEBE METTERE TICA LA PROSPETTIVA DE* COLORI.

HOW

A PAINTER SHOULD CARRY OUT THE PERSPECTIVE OF COLOUR IN PRACTICE.

The

practice del of the prospettiva de' 4

mettere questa- prospettiva uariarc e perdere over diminvire la


volere

propia essetia de colon piglerai di cieto ciento braccia cose poste Ifra Ma capag-

In order to put into practice this perspective of the variation and loss or diminution of the essential character of colours, observe at every hundred braccia some objects stand-

ing in the landscape,

such as

trees, houses,

nia
I

come sono
6

albori case, omini e

siti,

quato al primo albore avrai uno uetro fermo bene e cosl sia fermo 1' ochio tuo, e
I

detto 7yetro disegnerai uno albero sopra

in front of have a very steady plate of glass and keep your eye very steady, and then, on this plate of glass, draw a tree, tracing it over the form of that tree. Then move it on one

men and
first

particular places.

Then

the

tree

chorpi.
293.
i.

9.
.

mebrifichatione
.

parte.
2.

10.

riguardatricie
. .

tingha.
.

n. nolluna.
chosa
6.
.
.

cholori
.

indissciernibili.
.

choloriillontano
. .

null >bre

tocha.
.

3.

nvna
di.

chasa

chettutti.
8.

5.

icholori

uegono

esspeditamete.

esseno

ussciremo

sua [forma] similitudine. 4. essendo chasa e riguardareno 'vn poche


.

7.

ischanbio.
4.

vederemo chotinvata oschurita.


. .

294.

2.

praticha.

cholori

ciento br

chose.

5.

omini

[e

pianvj

essili.

6. arai

uetro.

7.

veiro

[colorissi

albero

p] di-

294. This chapter is one of those copied in the Manuscript of the Vatican library Urbinas 1270, and the original text is rendered here with no other
alterations, but in the orthography.

Filnftel

da

erslen

abnimmt, wenn er namlich zwaitzig


entfernt
ist (?)".

Ellen

von

trsten

commentary:
jedenfalls

"Das
,

Endt
it

der

He adds in his Nummer ist wohl


the
translation
different

H. LUDWIG,

in

verstummelt"

However
admits

his

edition
:

of this copy translates lines 14 and 15

given

above shows that

of a

thus

"IcA finJe ober als Regel, dass der zweite

nm

vier

rendering.

295-]
la

PERSPECTIVE OF COLOUR AND AERIAL PERSPECTIVE.


di quello, di poi
1'

159

8 scosta tato per albero naturale cofini quasi traverse che col tuo disegnia^to poi colorisci il tuo disegnio in modo che per colore e forma I0 l'uno dell'altro e che tutti stia a paragone e 2, chivdedo uno ochio, paino dipTti sul detto vetro d'una "medesima distatia; e questa regola medesima fa degli alberi secoI2 e de' terzi di cieto I cieto braccia di di mano I mano e questi ti serva come tua auto^ri e maestri, sepre operado nelle tua I4 bene opere doue s' appartegono, e faranno ma io trovo per regola1' opera; fuggir che'l secodo diminviscie 4 /s del primo 'Squado fusse lotano 20 braccia dal primo.

forma

side so far as that the real tree

the side of the tree

is close by you have drawn; then

colour your drawing in such a way as that in colour and form the two may be alike, and
that both,
if

you close one eye, seem

to

be

painted on the glass and at the same distance. Then, by the same method, represent a second tree, and a third, with a distance of a hundred braccia between each. And these will serve as a standard and guide whenever you work

on your own pictures, wherever they may apply, and will enable you to give due distance in those works. [14] But I have found that as a rule the second is 4 /5 of the first when it is 20 braccia beyond it.

Ash.

I.

io<zj

295-

DELLA PROSPETTIVA AEREA.


una altra prospectiva quale chiamo aerea, per la uarieta iperoche 3 dell' aria si puo conosciere le diverse distaci
2

OF AERIAL
There
I
is

PERSPECTIVE.

la

call

tie 4 di uari edifiti,

terminati ne'

lor nasci-

meti da una sola linia, come sasrebbe il uedere molti edifiti di la da uno muro, che tutti apparischino soalla stremita di detto mvro pra d'una medesima gradezza, e tu vo?lessi in pittura fare parere piv lontano 1' uno che 1' altro e da figura 8 re una aria vn poco grossa; Tu sai che I simili arie 1'ultime cose viste 91 quella, come sono le
|

to distinguish the varia- (295297)tions in distance of different buildings, which appear placed on a single line; as,

atmosphere we are able

another kind of perspective which The rules of Aerial Perspective, because by the ^/pectFvT

you
as

for instance, when we see several buildings beyond a wall, all of which, as they appear above the top of the wall, look of the same size, while wish to represent them in a picture
to

more remote one than another and

motagnie
si

per la gra quatita dell' aria che truova infra 1' ochio I0 tuo e la motagnia quella pare azzurra quasi del colore del-

give the effect of a somewhat dense atmosphere. You know that in an atmosphere of equal density the remotest objects seen through in consequence of the great it, as mountains,
quantity

1'aria

quado

il

sole

"e

per leuate;
il

Aduque

farai

sopra detto mvro


;

primo

edificio del

and them same hue

filato

I2 ilpiv lotano fa lo meno proe piv azzurro quello che tu vuo che sia piv J 3in la- altrettato -, fa lo altrettato che voi che sia cique piv azzuro quello volte I4 piv lotano fallo 5 volte piu azzuro; e questa regola fara che li edifiti J Sche

suo colore,

atmosphere between your eye appear blue and almost of the as the atmosphere itself [io] when the sun is in the East[n]. Hence you must make the nearest building above the wall of its real colour, but the more distant ones make less defined and bluer. Those you wish should look farthest away you must make proportionately bluer; thus, if one is to be five times
of
as distant, make it five times bluer. And by this rule the buildings which above a [given]

linia paiono d'una medesima l6 gradezza, -chiaramete si conosciera qual e piv distate e quale e maggiore che li

sopra

una

altri.

appear of the same size, will plainly be distinguished as to which are the more remote and which larger than the others.
line
cholore efforma.
io.

segnia
luna.

albero.

8.

chol.
.
.

9.

Colorisci tuo
12. ciento br
.

imoclo

chivdedo

ochio

di

plti

si

detto vetro

sapartegano effarano. da i muro chettutti apariscino. 6. alia 295. 2. Ecci I altra. 5. rebe 3. conosciere [la distatia di] le diuersa. 4. da i sola. chose. Tussai che Isimile 9. I quella these two words [distati] stremita gradeza echettu. 8. re i aria vn pocho cholore. 12. priffilato azurra io. ella chessi. written beyond the margin have apparently later been added by Leonardo
ii.

ecquesta

dela

ecquesti

serba

tua alto.

13.

azurro
. .

chettu voi chessia.


16.

13. fallo

azzuro

voi chessia.

14.

azuro

ecquesta.

15.

sopra

linia

paiano

gradeza

chonosciera.

ecquale.

295.

io.
is

il.

the sun
refers

in to

here

e per leuante (when Apparently the author morning light in general. H. LUD-

quado

il

sole

WIG however
tican
Osten stehf".

translates

this

the

East).

copy "wenn namlich

die

passage from the VaSvnne (dahinter) ii

i6o

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


296.

[296

299.

Tr. 75]
II

mezzo ch'e

infra

le lotane ^motaguetro rosso fa che cio dopo lui pare rosso che fanno le stelle sd'intorno ase jl lume e occupato per la tenebrosita della notte che si 6 truova infra 1'ochio e la luminatione d'essa stella.

trasmuta essa 2 cosa come 1'aria azzura fa che


vista
il

1'ochio e la cosa in nel suo colore,

nie paiono azzure; che 1'ochio 4 vede

lying between the eye and object seen, tinges that object with its colour, as the blueness of the atmosphere makes the distant mountains appear blue and
the

The medium

red glass makes objects seen beyond it, look The light shed round them by the stars red. is obscured by the darkness of the night which lies between the eye and the radiant light of
the stars.

w.

3]

297.
la
3

Fa che
si

prospettiua

de'
di

colori

non

Take care
does
not

qualu^che cosa doe che li scolori diminuischino 6 tanto della lor natu?ra quato diminuisco 8 no li
corpi in diuerse ^distantie della loro rale quatita.
Ash.
I.

discordi

dalle

grandezze

disagree

that the perspective of colour with the size of your

objects, hat is to say: that the colours diminish from their natural [vividness] in proportion

I0

natu-

as the objects at various distances diminish from their natural size.

298.

COME
3

L'ARIA

si

QUATO
On
the rela .

"PIV

DEBE PIV FARE 'CHIARA LA FAI FINIRE BASS A.

WHY

AS PALER

THE ATMOSPHERE MUST BE REPRESENTED TOWARDS THE LOWER PORTION.

tive density of the atmo-

sphere

Perche quest' aria e grossa presso alia e quato piv si leua piv 's'assottiglia; e quado _,il sole .. per leuate, e tu ,.riguarderai c ,. , s il ponete participate di mezzodl e tramoterra
.,
.
.

earth,

(298290).

vedrai quel'aria grossa 6 ricievere piv lume dal sole che la sottile, perche i razzi trovano piu resistetia; 7 e se il cielo a la vista tua terminera colla bassa pianvra, 8 quella parte vltima del cielo fia veduta per quella aria- piv grossa e piv sbianca, la quale corrompera la verita del colore che 10 si vedra pel suo mezzo, e parra 11 il cielo biaco che sopra te, che la linia visuale piv "passa per meno quatita d'aria corrotta da I2 grossi umori; e se riguarde rai inverse
t ana>

Because the atmosphere is dense near the and the higher it is the rarer it becomes. When the sun is in the East if you look towards the West and a little way to the South and North, you will see that this dense atmosphere receives more light from the sun than the rarer; because the rays meet with

And if the sky, as you greater resistance. see it, ends on a low plain, that lowest portion of the sky will be seen through a denser and whiter atmosphere, which will weaken its true
colour as seen through that medium, and there will look' whiter than it is above where the line of sight travels through you, a smaller space of air charged with heavy
the sky

leuate-, 1'aria

ti parra piv scura, quato piv T s'abbassa, perche 3in detta aria bassa i razzi luminosi meno passano.

vapour.

And

if

you turn

to the East,

the

atmosphere will appear darker as you look lower down because the luminous rays pass less freely through the lower atmosphere.

Ash.

i.

17

299.
2

DEL MODO DEL CODUCIERE


COSE LOTANE.

IN

PITTURA LE

OF THE MODE OF TREATING REMOTE


IN PAINTING.
It
is

OBJECTS

3Chiaro si uede-essere una aria grossa 4 piv che 1' altre, la quale cofina colla terra
296.
i.

which
.

lies closest to

easy to perceive that the atmosphere the level ground is denser


. .

infrallochio

chosa.
.

2.

inel
.
.

chomellaria azura
6.
ella.

chelle.

3.

parano azure
chelli.

chellochio.

4.

Hume
7.

chefiano.

5.

asse

echo chupato
persspectiua.
.
.

dela
2.

chessi.
.

297.

i.

chella

cholori

disscordi grandeze.

4.

chosa

5.

cholori diminuisschino.

diminuisca.

8.

chorpi

diversi.
.

9. disstantie. 4. ettu.
.

998. 3. ecquato
9.

sassotiglia.

5.

mazodi
. .

ettramotana
10.

vederaia.
il
.

6.
.

"dal sole" chella

razi.
.

7.

esse

cholla.

biancha
para
.
.

[il

quale] la
.
.

coronpera

chessi.

mezo

parali

chella.

n. corutta

oniori esse risghuarde.

12.

schura
i

sabassa.
.

13. razi.
.

399.

3.

esserere

aria

chellaltre

chofina.

}.

tera

ecquato

essotule.

5.

chose [che

flicuo] eleuate

datte.

6.

basseza

pocho.

300.]

AERIAL PERSPECTIVE.
e e

161.

piana,
sottile

quato piv

si

leua

alto,

piv-e

than the
is

gradi,
6

trasparete; Me cose eleuate e che fieno da te lontane -, la lor:

rarer

tions

rest, and that where it is higher up, it and more transparent. The lower porof large and lofty objects which are at

bassezza poco fia veduta perche lauedi per una- linia che passa infra ^I'aria piv grossa e cotinvata la somita di dette altezze si trova 8 essere veduta per una linia, la quale benche dal cato dell'ochio tuo 9 si cavsi in nel' aria grossa nodimeno terminado nella soma altezza I0 della cosa vista, viene a terminare in aria molto piv sottile che "no fia la sua bassezza; e per questa ragi, ,

a distance are not much seen, because you see them along a line which passes through a denser and thicker section of the atmosphere. The summits of such heights are seen along a line which, though it starts from your eye
in
at

a dense atmosphere, still, as it ends the top of those lofty objects, ceases in a much rarer atmosphere than exists at their

one questa te, di puto


sottile
I

linia
I

I2 da quato piv s'allotana punto sepre mvta qualita di

base; for this reason the farther this line extends from your eye, from point to point
the atmosphere becomes more and more rare. Hence, O Painter! when you represent mountains, see that from hill to hill the bases are paler than the summits, and in proportion

sottile

aria;

adu^que

tu pittore,

motagnie, fa che di colle I colle bassezze sie I4 no piv chiare che 1' altezze e quato vi farai piv lontana 1' una da l6 e quato 1'altrafa le basse'Szze piv chiare,

quado
sepre

fai le

le

piv

se

levera

in

alto,

piv

most^rera

la

beyond each other make the bases paler than the summits ; while, the higher they are the more you must show of their
as they recede true

verita della

forma e colore.

form and colour.

Leic.

300.

DEL COLORE
2

DELL' ARIA.

OF THE COLOUR OF THE ATMOSPHERE.


I

Dico 1'azzuro in che si mostra Parja non essere suo propio colore, ma e cavsato da vmidita caPda vaporata in minvtissimi
e insensibili attomi, la quale piglia dopo se la percussio de' razzi solari e fassi luminosa 4 sotto la oscurita delle immese tenebre della

say that the blueness

we

see

in

the o n

the co

regione del fuoco che di sopra le fa copere questo vedra, come vid' io, chi adra soSpra Moboso, giogo dell' alpi che diuidono la Francia dalla Italia, la qual montagnia a la sua basa che parturisce 6 li 4 fiumi che
chio
;

riga per 4 aspetti contrari tutta 1'Europa, e nessuna montagnia a le sue base in simile a! 7 tezza, questa si leua in tantaaltura che quasi passa tutti li nuvoli e rare volte
vi

cade neve,
li

quando
e

ma sol gradi ne d' istate nvvoli sono nella maggiore altezza,


8

atmosphere is not intrinsic colour, but is ^mospWe 37)caused by warm vapour evaporated in mi- (3 nute and insensible atoms on which the solar rays fall, rendering them luminous against the infinite darkness of the fiery sphere which lies beyond and includes it. And this may be seen, as I saw it by any one going up [5] Monboso, a peak of the Alps which divide France from Italy. The base of this mountain gives birth to the four rivers which flow in four different directions through the whole of Europe. And no mountain has its base at so great a height as this, which lifts itself almost above the clouds; and snow seldom falls there, but only hail in the summer,

.when
hail

the
lies

clouds

are

highest.

And

this

questa grandine che se no 9 fosse la reta del caderui e del montarui nvuoli, che non accade 2 volte in vna eta, egli ui sarebbe altissima quatita di

vi si

coserua

in

modo

that if it there, so [unmelted] were not for the absorption of the rising and clouds, which does not happen twice
falling in an age,

an enormous mass of

ice

would

7.

chotinvata

lassomita

alteze.

8.

chato.

9.

chavsi inel.

some

alteza.

io.

atterminare.
16.

n.

basseza.

12.

datte

,.

qualita

[daria] di sottile.

13. basseze.

14. lalteze
. .

ecquato.

15.

ze piv. chiare -f

The two

last lines,

which are headed

by

-)-,

are written on the margin.


lazuro inchessi
di
. .

17. stera
. .

dela.
. .

300.

2.

dicho
. .

cholore
le
.

chavsato

chal.

3.

attimi
. .

pigla

perchussio
franca
.

razi
. .

effassi.

4. 6.

osscuaspeti

rita
. .

fuocho "che
7.

sopra
.

alle.

teza

nvuoli

facoperchio" ecquesto. 5. gogo chade. 8. magore alteza ecquesta


[del s] 2 volte

diuitano

la

alia

patrurissce.
del

imodo chesse.
.
.

9- fussi

"la
li

reta

caderui

e del
il.

montarui nvuoli" che non achade

vna

eui sarebbe

di

diacco inalzato

"da

gradi della grandine

line 20) 300, 5. With regard to the place spoken of as M'oboso (compare No. 301 discussed under Leonardo's Topographical notes in Vol. II.
7.

its

identity will

be

reta

here has the sense of malanno.

X.~

62
inalzato
le di

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


da li gradi della gradine mezzo luglio vi trovai grossissimo

[300.

diaccio
il

1' aria sopra di me tenebrosa e' 1 che percotea la m6ta"gnia essere piv luminoso quiui assai che nelle basse pianure, perche minor grossezza d' aria s' interl2 ponea in fra la cima d'esso mote e '1 sole;

qua

I0

e vidi

sole

be piled up there by the hail, and in the middle of July I found it very considerable. There I saw above me the dark sky, and the sun as it fell on the mountain was
far brighter

here

than in the plains below,

Ancora per esenplo del colore dell' aria allegheremo il fumo nato di legne ''secche e vecchie il quale vscendo de'camini pare
infra forte azzureggiare quado si trova 1'ochio e '1 loco ^oscuro, ma quado monta in alto e s'interpone infra 1'ochio e 1'aria

alluminata, inmediate si dimostra 'sdi colore cenerognolo, e questo accade perche non a piv oscurita dopo se, ma in loco di quella aria Iu l6 minosa; e se tal fumo sara di legne verdi e giovani allora non pendera in azzurro,

perche no ^sendo trasparente e pie di superchia vmidita, esso fa vfitio di condensata nvuo lache piglia in se lumi e obre terI8 minate, come se solido corpo fusse; El simile fa 1' aria che la troppa vmidita rende biaca e la '9poca infusa col caldo la rede oscura, di color di scuro azzurro, e questo
ci

because a smaller extent of atmosphere lay between the summit of the mountain and the sun. Again as an illustration of the colour of the atmosphere I will mention the smoke of old and dry wood, which, as it comes out of a chimney, appears to turn very blue, when seen between the eye and the dark distance. But as it rises, and comes between the eye and the bright atmosphere, it at once shows of an ashy grey colour; and this happens because it no longer has darkness beyond it, but this bright and luminous space. If the smoke is from young, green wood, it will not because , not appear blue , being transparent and being full of superabundant moisture, it has the effect of condensed clouds which take distinct lights and shadows like a solid body. The same occurs with the atwhich, when overcharged with moisture appears white, and the small amount of heated moisture makes it dark, of a dark blue colour; and this will suffice us so far as concerns the colour of the atmosphere;

mosphere,

basta in quato alia di 20 finitione del colore

dell'aria;

che se
2

're

potrebbe ancora dire suo naturale coloesso azzurro transparente, seguirebbe che
si
1'

Benche

aria avesse per

though

it

might be added

that,

if this

trans-

doue

interponesse maggior quantita d' aria infra 22 1'ochio e 1'elemeto del foco, che quiui si comporrebbe il suo azzurro con
s'

maggiore oscurita, come azzurri e ne zaffiri li quali


'

si

si

vede 2 ^ nelli vetri mostra tanto piv

I'a 24 ria oscuri, quato essi son piv grossi; in questo caso adopera in retto contrario, conciosiache dove piv in quatita s'in 2 ster-

pone
quiui

infra
ci
si

1'

ochio

la

spera del

foco,

mostra piu biancheggiante; e 26 inverse 1' orizzonte; equate questo accade minor sorha d' aria s'interpone infra 1'ochio
e la
nelle

spera
ci
si

del

azzurro,

?oscuro piv mostra, ancorache noi stiamo

foco

tanto

basse pianvre; 28 quel che io di co che

Adunque segue pur


1'

aria piglia

1'

azzurro

mediante
pigliano
li

li

dell' umidita che corpuscoli razzi luminosi del sole; 2 9vedesi

ancora la differetia nelli attomi o nelli attomi del fumo ne' razzi

di

poluere

passa per li oscuri, che 1' un razzo pare essere cenerino


io.
. .

solari, che ^"spiraculi delle parieti in lochi

parent blue were the natural colour of the atmosphere, it would follow that wherever a larger mass air intervened between the eye and the element of fire, the azure colour would be more intense; as we see in blue glass and in sapphires, which are darker in proportion as they are larger. But the atmosphere in such circumstances behaves in an opposite manner, inasmuch as where a greater quantity of it lies between the eye and the sphere of fire, it is seen much whiter. This occurs towards the horizon. And the less the extent of atmosphere between the eye and the sphere of fire, the deeper is the blue colour, as may be seen even on low plains. Hence itfol lows, as I say, that the atmosphere assumes this azure hue by reason of the particles of moisture which catch the rays of the sun. Again, we may note the difference in particles of dust, or particles of smoke, in the sun beams admitted through holes into a dark chamber, when the former will look ash grey

mezo

grossimo
. .

tenenebrosa
14.

ellsole.

n. luminosi
.
.

grosseza.
. .

12. allegereno. 15.


.

13.

seche e vcchie

le

quale vsscendo
. .

azuregare
.

locho.

osscuro macquado
.

essinterpone
.
.

ellaria.
.

ecquesto
18.

achade

osscurita

il

locho.
chella

16. essettal

govane alora
azurro

azzuro.
ella.

17.
.

trassparente
.

contensata
. .

biglia.
.
.

chome

chorpo
20.

fussi
.

tropa vmidita la rende biacha


laria avessi.
21.
.

19.

pocha
focho
.

chaldo
22.

osscura

ecquesto
.
.

bassta inquido.
osscurita.

finition
. .

chessel. .

sinterponessi magor.
. .

ellemeto del focho


. .

magore
.
.

23. azurri

osscuri

Ella.
. .

24.

concosia.
.

25.
.
.

nterpone
27.

ella

mosstra
stiano.

bianchegiante

ecquesto achade.
. .

26. lorizonte
.

ecqulto
29.

soraa

ella

focho.

osscuro azzuro

28.

cho chellaria

laztirro

corpusscoil..

razi.

anchora

30i. 302.]

AERIAL PERSPECTIVE.
del

163
thin

fumo 3i so ttile pare essere azzurro; Vedesi ancora nel1'obre oscure delle motagne remote 3 2 dal1'ochio, 1'aria che si trova infra 1' ochio, e tale obra parere molto azzurra e nella parte
e
1'altro di bellissimo

and the

smoke

will

appear of a most

beautiful blue; and it may be seen again in in the dark shadows of distant mountains when the air between the eye and those

shadows
differ

will

luminosa

di

33tal

troppo dal primo colore; ma chi ne vol uedere le vltime prove tin^ga vna asse di diuersi colori fra li quali sia messo bellissimo nero e sopra tutti sia data sottile 35 e transpare"te biacca, allora si uedra la chiarezza di tal biacca non si mostrare sopra nessun ^ colore di piv bello azzurro che sopra il nero, ma
diasi sottile e

motagnie

no

uariarsi

brightest parts

much

look very blue, though the of those mountains will not from their true colour. But if

any one wishes for a final proof let him paint a board witli various colours, among them an intense black; and over all let him lay a very thin and transparent [coating of] white. He will
then see that this transparent white will nowhere show a more beautiful blue than over the black but it must be very thin and finely ground.

ben macinata.

Leic. 36 a]

301.

E
dopo
fatto

sperienza che mostra,

come

1'aria
2
;

se tenebre e pero pare azzurra

sia

Experience shows us that the air must have darkness beyond it and yet it appears
blue.
If you produce a small quantity of smoke from dry wood and the rays of the sun fall on this smoke, and if you then place behind the smoke a piece of black velvet on which the sun does not shine, you will see that all the smoke which is between the eye and the black stuff will appear of a beautiful

fumo

di legnie

secche

in

poca quantita

il quale fumo 3percota li razzi solari, dopo questo fumo poni vna pezza di uelluno nero che no sia visto dal sole, e uedrai tutto quel fumo s che s' oppone infra

sopra
e

1'

ochio e la oscurita mostrarsi in co 6 lor di


in loco del
?

bellissimo azzurro, e se

blue

ueluto

colour.

And

if

instead

of the

metti
8

poco no forma la perfezione d'e I0 sso azzurro- Ix onde la me I2 diocre 3dispo 14 sitione sdi fu l6 mo forma bello
1
T j

panno biaco, mo, inpedi^sce e'

el

fumo, cioe

el tropofu-

come 1'acqua soffiata a uso d'atazzurro; tomi in loco scuro doue passi la spera del
* 7

sole

fa esso

razzo

azzurro

l8

essendo tale acqva destillata


fa azzurro; quest' e detto

e'l

e massime fumo sottile

you place a white cloth smoke, that is too thick smoke, hinders, and too thin smoke does not produce, the perfection of this blue colour. Hence a moderate amount of smoke produces the finest blue. Water violently ejected in a fine spray and in a dark chamber where the sun beams are admitted produces these blue rays and the more vividly if it is distilled water, and thin smoke
I mention in order to blueness of the atmosphere is caused by the darkness beyond it, and these instances are given for those who cannot confirm [on] my experience on

velvet

looks

blue.

This

per mostrare che


predetti esempli a

show

that

the

M' azzurro
e sopra di
chi

dell' aria

e causato di oscurita che


li

lei,

e dannosi
20

no confermasse

la sperietiadi

Moboso.

Monboso.

F. i8a]

302.
il
1'

Quando
troua
2

infra

fumo di legne secche si ochio di chi lo vede e altro

loco oscuro
1'

aria si

esso pare azzurro; 4 adunque fa azzurra per le tenesbre che essa


3
;

a dopo se

E se tu
.

6 guardi inver so
attimi
razi.
. .

1'

orizzonte

When the smoke from dry wood is seen between the eye of the spectator and some dark space [or object], it will look blue. Thus the sky looks blue by reason of the darkness beyond it. And if you look towards the horizon of the sky, you will see the atmoche lun "razo" pare essere cenenereo
33. del.
34. fralli
. .

la diueretia attimi
. .

30. pariete illochi osscuri

ellaltro.

31.

accurro
.

nellobre osscure.
.
.

32. chessi 36.

tale
.
.

obr

molta azzurro.

essopra.

35.

ettransparete biacha

chiareza
301.
i.

biacha.
2.

chessopra
3.

ebben.
.
.

mostra.
.

seche pocha.

perchota

razi
9. el

peza.
.
.

4.

vissto.
10.

5.

chessoppone infrallochio
13. disspo.
.

ella

osscurita.
17.
.

6.

azuro

essellocho
.

meti pano biacho effumo coe.


. .

pocho
19.

de.
.

so azurro.

16.
.

azurro.
.

dattimi ilocho
.

accurro. 18. masime

desstillata

accurro.

lazurro

e chaussato

da osscurita

dassi

essenpli

confermassi.

20. essperietia.

302.

2.

di cillo

vede

locho.

3.

azzurro (ettato piu quate piu scuro].

5.

Essettu.

6.

lorizonte

non

es.

7.

ecquesto nasscie.

64

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


sphere

[303-305.

del celo, tu vedrai 1* aria non esse 7 re azzurra, e questo nascie per la sua gros 8 sezza; e cosl in ogni grado che tu 9 alzi 1'ochio sopra esso orizzonte insino al I0 celo chc ti sta di sopra, tu troverai 1'aria "farsi piu oscura,

is not blue, and this is caused by its And thus at each degree, as you density. raise your eyes above the horizon up to the

^tenebre; E se tu ti troverai sopra vn al' 4 to mote, 1'aria si fara tanto piu oscura "s sopra di te, l6 infra te e quanto essa e fatta piu sottile dette tenebre, e cosl seguitera in '7ogni l8 grado d'altezza tanto che al fine re stera

e questo e che

me soma

I2

d'aria

s'

inter-

sky over your head, you will see the atmosphere look darker [blue] and this is because a smaller density of air lies between your eye

pone

infra 1'ochio tuo e esse

and the [outer] darkness. And if you go to the top of a high mountain the sky will look proportionately darker above you as the atmosphere becomes rarer between you and the
[outer] darkness; andthis will be

more

visible

tenebrosa.

'9Quel fumo parrapiu azzurro chenasceda piu secche legne e che sara piu 2I presso a! la sua cagione, e che & veduto in piu oscu 22 ro canpo, dandovi su il lume
20
ra.

each degree of increasing height till at last we should find darkness. That smoke will look bluest which rises from [the driest wood and which is nearest to the fire and is seen against the
darkest background,

and with

the

sunlight

del sole.

upon
3<>3-

it.

C. i8a]

Quella- cosa tenebrosa parra piu azzurche infra se e 1' ochio maggior soma
d' aria
el

color

luminosa interposta fia, 2 come per del cielo dimostrar si puo.

dark object will appear bluest in proit has a greater mass of luminous atmosphere between it and the eye. As may be seen in the colour of the sky.
portion as

29

1>\

304-

di

L'aria e azzurra per le tenebre che a sopra, perche nero e biaco fa azzurro.

The atmosphere
darkness

above

it

is blue by reason of the because black and white

make
Br.

blue.

M. 1690]

305
In the morning the mist is denser above than below, because the sun draws it upwards;

1'altezza

mattina la nebbia e piv folta inverse" che nella 2 sua bassezza, perche il sole Pattrae in alto, onde li edifiti gra3di, ancora che ti sia lontana la cima quato il fondameto, essa * cima ti fia ignota E per s questo il celo si dimostra piu oscu ro inverse!' altezza e inverP orizzonte e nonazzur6 fumo e poluere. reggia, anzi e tra 7 L'aria infusa colle nebbie e interamete
;

La

hence
the

tall

same distance

buildings, even if the summit is at as the base have the sum-

mit invisible. Therefore, also, the sky looks darkest [in colour] overhead, and towards the horizon it is not blue but rather between smoke and dust colour.

The atmosphere, when

full

of mist,

is

8 pare di quel privata d' azzurro, ma solo colore de' nvgoli che biacheggiano quado 1 tepo e sereno; e quarto piv rigvardi verso 1'occidete tu la troverai I0 piv oscura e piv le verdure lucida e chiara verso 1'oriete;
'

quite devoid of bluehess, and only appears of the colour of clouds, which shine white

de 'lie capagnie in mezzana nebbia azzurreggiano alquato, ma ne 2 greggiano nella piv grossa.
1 1

the weather is fine. And the more you turn to the west the darker it will be, and And the brighter as you look to the east. the verdure of the fields is bluish in a thin mist, but grows grey in a dense one.

when

8.

sezza [Esse] e cosi


15.

chettu. 9.

[te]

alzi orizonte.
17.

10. chetti

troverai.
. .

n. osscuro escquesto.
. .

13.

Essetu

troverrai.
21. ca-

14. osscura.

eflfatta.

16. infratte.

nogni*.

dalteza.

19.

para

azurro

nassce.

20. ra di

piu seche.

gone
303. 304.
305.
i.

osscu.
. .

chosa

azuira
sapra
2.
.

in frasse

ellochio

magior

interpossta.

2.

chome

cholor

dimosstrar.

12.
i.
.

R.

2.

biacho
4.

azurro.
.
.

lalteza.

basseza.
9.

ingnota
.

osscu.

5.

lalteza

lorizonte
.

azuregia

ettra.
.
.

7.

dazurro.

8.

biachegano
gregiano.

sereno ecqua.

rissrgvndi

troverai.

10.

osscura

ciara

Elle.

n. mezana

accuregiano.

12.

3 o6.]

AERIAL PERSPECTIVE.
Li
edifizi

I6 S

inver ponete sol ci dimostra lumino I4 sa, poiche'l sole si scojs pre, e'l resto le nebbi lo occultano; Quado il sol s'inalza e caccia le nebbie e si col6 mlcia a rischiarare i colli da quel la parte
'3

la lor parte

buildings in the west will only show where the sun shines, and the mist hides the rest. When the sun rises and chases away the haze, the hills on the side where it lifts begin to grow clearer,
their illuminated side,

The

donde esse

partono, e' fansi azzurri e fule nebbi fuggieti e li edifiti mostrano lumi e obre,- e nelle nebbie I8 me folte mostra solo i lumi e nelle piv folte J niete; e questo e 9quado il moto della nebbia si parte traversalmete, e allora i
si

and look

mano inver^so

blue, and seem to smoke with the vanishing mists; and the buildings reveal their lights and shadows; through the thinner va-

pour they show only

their lights

and through

ter

20

mini

denti terra
22

coll'azzurro

d'essa nebbia saranno poco evi2I e in verso la dell' aria


1'aria

parra
e

Quanto

quasi poluere che sara piv grossa,


alberi
23

s'inalzi;
li

edifiti

the thicker air nothing at all. This is when the movement of the mist makes it part horizontally, and then the edges of the mist will be indistinct against the blue of the sky, and towards the earth it will look almost like dust blown up. In proportion as the atmo-

delle citta

li

delle
si

capagnie par-

rano piv
i

rari,

perche sol

mo

4streranno

piv emineti e grossi. 2 5Le tenebre 26 tingono o 27 gni cosa 28 del lor colore, 29 e quato piv 3 la cosa si par^te da esse tene3 2 bre piv si uede 33 del suo 35 1 moti fieno vero e natural co^lore.

sphere is dense the buildings of a city and the trees in a landscape will look fewer, because only the tallest and largest will be seen.

Darkness

affects

every thing with

its

hue,

and the more an object differs from darkness, the more we see its real and natural colour.

The mountains

dimostra quelli che anno 6 magJ giore intervalli, perche in tal ispatio la 37 mo do che fa chiagrossezza mvltiplica in rezza tale che la oscurita de' collisi diuide e 8 si 3 spedisce bene inverso la sua altezza: ne' colli piccoli e vicini non 39 se ne interpone tata e pero maco si discernono e
rari,

perche sol

si

will look few, because only those will be seen which are farthest apart; since, at such a distance, the density increases to such a degree that it causes a brightness by which the darkness of the hills becomes divided and vanishes indeed towards the top. There is less [mist] between lower and nearer
hills

and yet

me

nelle lor bassezze.

least

little is to be distinguished, and towards the bottom.

G. 53*1

306.
2

La
3

superfitie

d'ogni

corpo
5

del

color

^che Pallumina,

participa del color

the

6 dell'a ria

che infra I'oc 7 chio e esso corpo 8 9 del color del mez I0 zo s'interpone, cioe
e
is il

surface of an object partakes of colour of the light which illuminates it; and of the colour of the atmosphere which

The

lies
is

lj transpa rete

Pocchio,
qualita

ifra interposto ^Ifra li colori di

I2

la

cosa e

me I4 desima
l6

secondo sara del


l8

medesimo

del primo, e ques to nascie per la 20 del mezzo intermul^tiplicatione del color

colore
2I

17

between the eye and that object, that of the colour of the transparent medium and the eye; and lying between the object among colours of a similar character the second will be of the same tone as the first, and this is caused by the increased thickness
of the colour of the
the object

medium

lying between

and the

eye.

po

sto infra la cosa e "Pochio.

13.

sol

si

dimosstra.

14.

sisscopre,

el

ressto

nebie

ochultano.
elli
.
.

15.

sol
18.

"sinalza"
solo

caccia

rissciarare
19.

e e

colli
ter.

dacq.
20.

16.

partano effarsi
. .

azzuri effumano.
. .

17.

nebiefugieti
22. elli.

nebie.
24.

lumi

ecquesto.

saranopochi co. 35. E m5ti


diuide
essi.

chol azurro. 21. para


.

chessinalzi.
. .

23.
.

parano.

sterrannoe. 26. tingano. 33. vero "e natural" cheffa ciareza


. .

sol

s
.

dimostra quelgli
.

ma.
.

36.

ispati

grosseza.

37.

chella osscurita

vi

38. spedissce

alteza

picholi

no.

39. discernano.

On

the

margin between

lines 35

and 36:

mera
purifi

catione.

306.

2.

chorpo.
.

3.

del

color del

color.

4.

chellalumina.
14. qualita

6.

infralloc.
15.

7.

chorpo.
16.

10.

zo

[chessi]

transpa.

n.

interpossto.
20. mezo.

12. Ifralla

, ellocchio.

13. infrallj color,

ma.

sechondo.

cholore.

17. ecques.

18. nasscie.

21. ssto infralla.

166

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

[SO?-

DE
2

PICTURA.

OF Of
them blue
that

PAINTING.

Infra

colon che no sono azzurri quello-

various colours

which are

none

of

in
il

liPga distantia participera piu d' azzurro 4 quale sara piv vicino al nero e cosl de

converse si mostrera per luga distantia nel suo propio colore, il quale sara piv. dis i simile a detto nero. 8 Adunque il uerde delle campagnie si trans^mvtera piv in azzurro che no fa il :o giallo o bia co e cosl de couerso il giallo e '1 biaco maco M si transmuta che lo verde, e '1 rosso maco.
s

at a great distance will look bluest is the nearest to black; and so, conversely, the colour which is least like black
will at

which

a great distance best preserve


the green of fields will
will,

its

own

colour.

Hence

assume a

bluer hue than yellow or white

and con-

versely yellow or white will change less than

green, and red

still

less.

307.

2.

azurri

illu.
.

3.

dazurro.

5.

raontera

disstantia.

6.

cholore

di.

7.

dicto.

9.

azuro.

10.

biacho

mac

ii. chello

macho.

VII.

On

the Proportions

and on

the

Movements of

the

Human

Figure.
human figure must

Leonardo's researches on the proportions and movements of the

have been for the most part completed and written before the year 1498; for

LUCA

PACIOLO

writes, in the dedication to Ludovico il


in

Moro, of his book Divina Proportione,


.

which was published


getia al

that year:

"Leonardo da venci

hauedo gia co

tutta

dili-

degno

libro

de pictura e movimenti humani posto

fine".

The
words
p.

selection

of Leonardo's axioms contained


"e
il

in the

Vatican copy attributes these

to the

author:

recto

si

dira nella universale misura del

huomo".

(MANZI,

147; LUDWIG, No. 264).


cap.

LOMAZZO,

again,
.

in his Idea del


.

Tempio
in

della Pittura

Milano 1590,
proporzioni dei

IV),

says:

"Lionardo Vinci

dimostro anco

figura tutte le

membri

del corpo

umano".
sections

The Vatican copy includes but very few

of the "Universale misura del

huomo" and

until

now nothing has

been

made known of

the original

MSS.

on the subject
collection

which have supplied the very extensive materials for


at Windsor, belonging
to

this portion

of the work. The

her Majesty the Queen, includes by far the most important


this
subject,

part of Leonardo's investigations on

constituting about half of the whole

of the materials here published; and the large number of original drawings adds greatly
to

the interest

which the subject

itself

must command.

Luca Paciolo ivould seem


initials

to

have had these

MSS.

(which I have distinguished by the


Still,

W.

P.) in his

mind when

he wrote the passage quoted above.

certain notes

of a

later date

sue Ji as Nos. 360,

68

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

362 and 363, from

MS.

E, written in 1513

14,

sufficiently

prove that Leonardo did


of the

not consider his earlier studies on the Proportions

and Movements

Human
Or

Figure
else

final

and

complete, as

we might

suppose

from

Luca, Paciotts statement.


since his
it

he

took the subject up again at

a subsequent period,
1490 and 1500.

former researches had been


is

carried on at Milan between

Indeed
so

highly probable

that the

anatomical studies which

lie

was pursuing with

much

zeal between 1510

16 should

have led him

to reconsider the subject

of Proportion.

H.I 316]

308.

meta

Ciascuno homo nel terzo della sua altezza ultima.

ano

la
full

Every man, at three years old is half the height he will grow to at last.

IT
Preliminary

C. A. 1570; 4630:]

309.
di

Se

1'

omo

2 braccia e piccolo

quello
la uia

di quattro e troppo 2 di mezzo laudabile


si

grade essendo
;

il

mezzo

Jfra

3 di 3 aduque piglia un omo 3 braccia e quello misura colla regola ch' io ti daro; se tu mi diciessi, io mi potrei 4 Iga-

If a man 2 braccia high is too small, one of four is too tall, the medium being what is admirable. Between 2 and 4 comes 3; therefore take a man of 3 braccia in height

If

and measure him by the rule I will give you. you tell me that I may be mistaken, and

nare, givdicado vno bene proportionateche sarebbe-il cotrario, a questa sparte io rispodo che tu debi vedere molti omini di 6 3 braccia e quella maggiore qua tita che

sono coformi

di migliore gratia

ghezza- della 9 volte nell' omo e cosl la testa e dalla fotanella 8 della gola alia spalla e dalla spalla
tetta-e dal'una all'altra tetta-e ciascuna Hetta-alla fontanella.
alia

sopra uno di quelli ? la lupiglia tue misure; mano e J /3 di braccio e etra


di
:

mebra

da

judge a man to be well proportioned who does not conform to this division, I answer that you must look at many men of 3 braccia, and out of the larger number who are alike in their limbs choose one of those who are most graceful and take your measurements. The r length of the hand is /3 of a braccio [8 inches] and this is found 9 times in man. And the face [7] is the same, and from the pit of the throat to the shoulder, and from the shoulder to the nipple, and from one nipple to the other, and from each nipple to the pit of the throat.

308.

i.

homo he
.
.

nel.

2.
. .

ella

meta

alteza "ultima."

309.

i. 2

br e picholo

ettropo.

2.

mezo
8.

laldabile

il

mezo
.
.

piglia
.

omo.
. .

3. di

3 br
6.

ecquello

cioti

settu.

4.

giudii

chado
7.

sarebe
.
.

acquesta.
.

5.

irispodo chettu
ala
.
.

di 3. br
. .

ecquella
9.

settu.

chessono choformi

di

mebrisopra

di.

lugeza

*/

di br e

dala.

dala spala

ala.

teza alia.

is

309. 7. The account here given of the braccio of importance in understanding some of the

Testa face.

must here be understood

to

mean

the

The statements
on PL XI.

in this section are illustrated

succeeding chapters.
VOL.
i.

in part

I/O

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

W.

P. aa]

310.

Lo
Proportions

ld

and face
(310-318).

pricipio del uolto;

'1

spatio ch' e infra '1 taglio della bocca del naso e la settima parte

The space between


lips [the

the

parting

of the
is

mouth] and the base of the nose

one-seventh of the face.

2 lo spatio ch' e dalla bocca al di sotto del meto c d, fia laquarta parte del uolto e simile alia larghezza della bocca; 3 lo spatio ch' e dal meto al principio di sotto del naso e f, fia la terza parte del
;

uolto e simile al naso e alia fronte 4lo spatio- ch'e dal mezzo -del naso al di sotto -del meto h, fia -la meta-del
;

volto; slo spatio ch'e dal principio di sopra del naso, dove pricipiano le ciglia, i k, al di sotto del mento, fia i due terzi del uolto; 6 lo spatio ch'e infra '1 taglio della bocca e '1 pricipio del mento di sopra / m, cioe dou'esso meto finiscie terminado col labro di sotto 7 della bocca, fia la terza parte dello spatio ch' e dal taglio d' essa bocca al di sotto del meto e la dodecima parte del uolto 8 dal di sopra al di sotto del meto n fia la sesta parte del uolto, e fia la
;

cinquata quatroesima parte delFomo; sdallo ultimo sporto del meto alia gola o p fia simile allo spatio, ch'e dalla bocca al di sotto del meto e la quarta parte del uolto 10 ch'e dal di sopra della lo spatio gola al pricipio di sotto q r, fia la meta e la diciottesima parte deldel uolto P omo "dal mento al dirieto del collo s t e
; ;

The space from the mouth to the bottom of the chin c d is the fourth part of the face and equal to the width of the mouth. The space from the chin to the base of the nose ef is the third part of the face and equal to the length of the nose and to the forehead. The distance from the middle of the nose to the bottom of the chin g h, is half the length of the face. The distance from the top of the nose, where the eyebrows begin, to the bottom of the chin, i k, is two thirds of the face. The space from the parting of the lips to the top of the chin / m, that is where the chin ends and passes into the lower lip of the mouth, is the third of the distance from the parting of the lips to the bottom of the chin and is the twelfth part of the face. From the top to the bottom of the chin m n is the sixth part of the face and is the fifty fourth part of a man's height. From the farthest projection of the chin
the throat o p is equal to the space between the mouth and the bottom of the chin, and a fourth of the face. The distance from the top of the throat to the pit of the throat below q r is half the length of the face and the eighteenth part of a man's height. From the chin to the back of the neck s /, is the same distance as between the mouth and the roots of the hair, that is three quarters of the head. From the chin to the jaw bone v x is half the head and equal to the thickness of the neck in profile. The thickness of the head from the brow to the nape is once and 3/4 that of the neck.
to

quel medesimo spatio ch' e infra la bocca e '1 nascimeto de'capegli cioe 12 i tre quarti
della testa
J
;

3dal

meto

alia

testa

ed e simile

alia

ganascia v x e mezza grossezza del collo

in proffilo; 14 la grossezza del collo entra

vna volta-

V4

dal ciglio

alia nuca.

310.

i.

in fral [la
fia **!
.

bocha]
cioe

taglio

bocha.

2.

bocha

meto "cd"
4.

fia
.

uolto" e simile alia largeza della bocha".


.

3.

naso
.
.

"e f*
sopra
fia
.

uolto "essimile al naso ella [testa]


. . .
.

m"
. .

uolto "effia la
fia

"q r"

ella
.

di

d 6. bocha meto "g h" fia. 5. ciglia "i k" al. meto "ella [vetunesima] dodecima parte del uolto". 8. meto "m n" cholabro. 7. bocha bocha ella. 10. sotto bocca alo gola "o p" fia cinquata, quatroesima parte, dellomo". 9. dalo infralla bocha il nassimeto del chapegli. sollcsima. n. diriecto del chollo "s t" e quel 13. alia
fronte".
. .

mezo

ganasscia "v x"

meza

testa eddissimile

chollo.

14. chollo

nucha.

310.

on
PI.

PI.

VII, No.

The drawings to this text, lines I IO are i. The two upper sketches of heads,
14,

original are placed immediately below the sketches reproduced on PL VII, No. I.

VII, No. 2, belong to lines 11

and

in the

FL.vn

UTO*J

''

oW^vf *^;]Y^

i'f

'
:

,"'

'--

'

"
I

'

V^.v- ',. -<0^"

''"-'

'

'4

Hcliog-.

Dujardin.

Imp.Eudes

'

v(

/
/ J^

-,

'*

~-' * /.
.
-

^
'
.

:.

^ J>

TO^^^

,.^

J
'

f*

&&.
1

it-^

Dujardin

313.]

THE PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN FIGURE.


3"dall'
-,

I/I

A. 626}

Tanto e
chio
all'

una appiccatura

dell' ore-

quato e dalle givnture delle al meto; 'tanto -e grade la bocca ciglia ._ ,, , , ,. _, ,, _ n d u bel uolto, quato e dalla diuisio de ,,labn
altra
, , v
.

distance from the attachment of one other is equal to that from the meeting of the eyebrows to the chin, and in a fine face the width of the mouth is equal
ear
to

The

the

al di sotto del

meto.

to the length

from the parting of the

lips to

the bottom of the chin.

A. 63 a]

312-

2 II di taglio overo spigolo del labro sotto della bocca e il mezzo Jfra 3 il di sotto del naso e '1 di sotto del meto. 5 II uiso fa I se uno quadro, cioe 6 la sua larghezza e da 1'uno al'altro ^stremo del ochio, e la sua altezza 8 e da il fine

The cut or depression below the lower lip of the mouth is half way between the. bottom of the nose and the bottom of the chin. The face forms a square in itself; that is its width is from the outer corner of one
eye to the other, and its height is from the very top of the nose to the bottom of the lower lip of the mouth; then what remains

sopra del naso ?al di sotto del labro di IT di sotto I0 della bocca, poi cio che resta I2 fa 1' altezza sopra e di sotto a esso quadro d'u simile quadro ^\a b e simile allo spaI e ch' e infra c d- ^d-n-G cosi n c tio similmete s r q-p'[ IS h> k sono infra
di
\

above and below this square amounts to the height of such another square, a b is equal to the space between c d; d n in the same way to n c, and likewise s r, q p, h k are equal
to

loro simili.H

each other.

Tato e da m-s- quato e dal di sotto del naso al meto; 7 1'orechio e apputo tato l8 tato e da x-s quato lugo, quato il naso;
16
*

It is as far between m and s as from the bottom of the nose to the chin. The ear
is

dal naso al meto;


proffilo
20

si

dirizza

taglio della bocca I all'agolo della mascella;


I9 il

from x

It is as far exactly as long as the nose. to s as from the nose to the chin.

tato deb'essere alto 1'orechio, quat'e dal 2I al di sopra del coperdi sotto del naso chio-delF ochio; 22 tanto e lo spatio-ch'e
li ochi, quato la gradezza d'un ochio; 1'orechio cade nel mezzo -del collo-in 2i tanto e da 4 a 5 quato e da proffilo

infra
23

parting of the mouth seen in profile The ear slopes to the angle of the jaw. should be as high as from the bottom of the nose to the top of the eye-lid. The space between the eyes is equal to the width of an
eye. The ear when seen in to 5 is equal
is

The

r.

profile. to that

over the middle of the neck, The distance from 4

from

s to r.

W.

P.

uga]
(a b) is equal to (c d).

(a-b) e simile a (c-d).


da
le

311. i. apichatura
313.
i.

[pi]
.
.

dele.
4.

2.

bocha

dala.

delabro.

2.

bocha

mezo.

[la large].

5.

se
17.

quadro.
.

6.

largeza.

7. alteza. 19.
. .

9.
.
.

delabro.
diriza al

10.
. .

dela bocha.
raasscella.

13. essi20. esere.

mile alo.
21.

14. essimilmehte.

16.
.

tato
.

[te]

e.

aputo
23.

lugo quato.
. .

bocha
chollo.

choperchio.

22. ellosspatio

quada

la gradelza.

chade

mezo

313. essimile.

312.

See PL VIII, No.

I,

where the

text of lines

discussed

it

fully

[note on page

12];

he has how-

13

is

also given in facsimile.

ever somewhat altered the original measurements.

313.

made here
in

See PL VII, No. 3. Reference may also be to two pen and ink drawings of heads of which with figured measurements profile
,

The complicated calculations which M. RAVAISSON The has given appear to me in no way justified. sketch, as we see it, can hardly have been intended
for
to

no description in the MS. These are given on PI. XVII, No. 2. A head, to the left, with part of the torso [W. P. 5 a], No. i on the same plate is from MS. A 2 b and in the original occurs on a page with wholly irrelevant text on matters of
there
is

ascertain relative

any thing more than an experimental attempt We do not find proportions


.

that

Leonardo made use of

circular lines

in

any

other study of the proportions of the human head. At the same time we see that the proportions of this

natural

history.

M. RAVAISSON

in

his
this

edition

of

the Paris

MS.

has

reproduced

head and

sketch are not in accordance with the rules which he usually observed (see for instance No. 310).

1/2
W.
P. 7 a]

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


314-

Dcapo a/-

&

'/6

maggiore

che

The

head

'/6

larger

than

V. IV. 16]
2

3I5-

col
fia

Dal ciglio alia cogiuntione del labro meto e la punta 3 della masciella e '1
sopra dello
4

lip

fine di

uno qua s drato-perfetto; E ciascuna faccia 6 per se e mezza testa. 8 7 si E' 1 cauo dell' osso della guancia truova I mezzo fralla punta del ^naso e '1
I0 confine della masciella , ch'e la punta di JI in nella sotto dello orecchio figurata

orecchio colla tenpia

the eyebrow to the junction of the with the chin, and the angle of the jaw and the upper angle where the ear joins the

From

temple
side

will

be a perfect square.
head.

And

each

by

itself is half the

half

The hollow of the cheek bone occurs way between the tip of the nose and
is

the top of the jaw bone, which angle of the setting on of the

the lower
in

ear,

the

stella;

"dal cantone dell' osso- dell' ochio allo' ^orecchio e tanto spatio quanto e la ^lunx ghezza dello orecchio o vuoi-il sterzo,

frame here represented. From the angle of the eye-socket to the ear is as far as the length of the ear, or the third of the face.

della testa.

W.

Pr. 12]

3 l6

Tanto dev' essere da a b cioe dal 2 nascimeto dinazi de' capelli alia 3 linia della somita del capo, quarto e da c d cioe dal 6 fine di sotsto del naso alia cogiutio de' Iab bri dinazi della bocca; 7 tanto e dal lagrimatoio 8 alia somita del capo a dell' occhio al di sotto del meto s e da quarto 10 b sono simili per spatio IX 1' uno s c
|

From a
roots

to b that is to say from the of the hair in front to the top of the

m m

head ought to be equal to c d; that is from the bottom of the nose to the meeting of the lips in the middle of the mouth. From
the inner corner of the eye to the top of the head a is as far as from down to

the chin

s.

cf b

are all at equal distances

all'altro.

from each

other.

W.

P. 5 a]

Dalla sommita del capo al di sotto del meto J /8, 2 dal nascimeto de' capelli al mento
3e
J

From
hair
to

of the chin
the roots

/9

dello spatio ch'e


4

da esso nascimeto
larghezza del uolto

head to the bottom and from the roots of the the chin is */9 of the distance from
the top of the
is
l

/s,

terra.

La maggior
<i)

greatest width

of the hair to the ground. The of the face is equal to the

314.

II i.

capo

[v

J/6
2.

magiorc.
.
.

315.

cogiunctione.

chol

ella.

3. massciella.

4.
.

cholla
.

fia !
. .

qua.

5.

perfecto Ecciasscuna.

6.

meza
13.

tessta.

7.
.

chauo.
.

8.
14.

Imezo.

9.

chonfine della ma&sciella.


15. tessta.
2.

10.

lla

disocto

orechio.

n.

issclla.

12.

chantone.

ettanto

ella.

lungeza.
deessere.

316.
317.

i. i.

nasscimeto.
2.

3.

chapo.

4. diso.

5.

dela.
3.

6.

bocha.

7.

ochio.
4.

8.

chapo.

10. simile perispatio.


. .

dalasomita del chapo.

chapelliti ella

mento.

nasscimeto atterra.

magior largeza

essimile.

5.

dala bocha al

315.

See

PI.

IX.

The
head.

text,

in

the

original

is

22'/2 centimetres

wide by 29 long, and

is

numbered

written behind the

The handwriting would

127 in the top right-hand corner.


316.

seem to indicate a date earlier than 1480. On same leaf there is a drawing in red chalk of two horsemen of which only a portion of the upper The whole leaf measures figure is here visible.
the

The drawing
PI.

tinted paper

has

been partly

in silver -point on bluish which belongs to this chapter drawn over in ink by Leonardo

himself.

t^-ar-.-

'

"x"" --.-.
'

,>

,-,

-;-^,

,-

Hclioo-.

Duja-rdin

i8320.]

THE PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN

FIGURE.

. lo spate eh e dal d del capo fia -simile a mento al .lagrirnanojo delli del sotto

lachrymatory ,

duct of the

^ ST.

dal spatio ch'e

meto

alh
i

to the

space beis

?&

318.

^./ch'elibero.

Tur.

7]

are

the moutn.

Proportions
Of
t

h e head

della grossezza

9de labn dell ochio,

>

. eye

;a

rr~a
e que

l8

Valtro;

sti

tali

spati ciascu

per se

eyes

or of the space

o ch'einfra

Mmisurado
dell'ochio
alia
28

fg, n fri del nan d e larghezza delle

-d

li ochi; dal taglio

<:

* V,

di
7
'

fon del labro

*,,

*e

eyes

m0

t'/,o

T
320.

will be equal to

/3

m
of the eyelids
th'e

from the
to the letter
ti>e
,.

width of

nosml.

T ""
infraiciatridellepopme

The

th '

,L

outer

^ers

of the eye,

'

318. 319.

See See

PI.

XL
XII.

19. la

forte.

to This singular notation seems

ma

M<vw (nineteenth).

PI.

174

THE -THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

[3

2I.

322.

cio6 dove M' ochio termina colla cassa del1'osso


8

che

lo ricieve,

le

code

di fori,

fia

that is where the eye ends in the eye socket which contains it, thus the outer corners, is

v mezzo volto.

half the face.

La maggiore
la
linia

larghezza, che abbia


ochi,
fia
10

9 il

uolto
dall'

quat'e per degli appiccatura dinazi de'ca^pegli al taglio della bocca.

greatest width of the face at the of the eyes is equal to the distance from the roots of the hair in front to the parting of the lips.
line

The

w.

p. 3;

ii]

321.

II naso fara 2 quadrati cio& la larghezza del naso nelle narici entra 2 volte dalla punta del naso al principio delle
,

The nose
that
is

will

make a double square;

goes

the width of then-ose at the nostrils twice into the length from the tip of

ciglia,

strema
colla
il

profile tato fia dalla parte della narice, doue si cogivgnie


I
,
,

e similmete

guacia alia puta d'esso naso quato naso largo in fascia da 1' una al' altra
4
;

narice
tutta

se

diuiderai -in

parti
:

equali

lunghezza del naso, cioe dallasua puta all' appiccatura delle ciglia tu troverai sche una delle parti etra dal di sopra delle narici al di sotto della puta del naso
la

e la superiore parte etra dal lagrimatojo ochio all' a6 ppiccatura delle ciglia e le 2 parti di mezzo fieno tato gradi quato e F ochio dal lagrimatojo alia coda d' esso
dell'
:

ochio.

the nose to the eyebrows. And, in the same way, in profile the distance from the extreme side of the nostril where it joins the cheek to the tip of the nose is equal to the width of the nose in front from one nostril to the other. If you divide the whole length of the nose that is from the tip to the insertion of the eyebrows, into 4 equal parts, you will find that one of these parts extends from the tip of the nostrils to the base o/ the nose, and the upper division lies between the inner corner of the eye and the insertion of the eyebrows; and the two middle parts [together] are equal to the length of the eye from the inner to the outer corner.

W.

P. it]

322.

II dito grosso del pie e la sesta parte d'esso pie, tolgliendo la misura in profile di detro dode esso dito na2 dalla polpa del petto del pie insino alia sua stremita a b; ed simile allo spatio ch'd dalla bocca al di sotto del meto; ^se fai il in profilo di fora fa pie nasciere il piccolo dito ai tre quarti della lunghezza d'esso pie, e troverai lo spatio ch' e dal principio d' esso dito insino all' ultimo sporto del dito grosso.

The
foot,

great toe is the sixth part of the taking the measure in profile, on the inside of the foot, from where
this toe springs

scie

from the

ball
its

of the sole of the foot to


tip

and it is equal to the distance from the mouth to the bottom of the chin. If you draw the foot in profile from the
a
b;
ters

outside, make the little toe begin at three quarof the length of the foot, and you will find

the

as to the farthest

same distance from the insertion of this toe prominence of the great toe.

de cha.
quatrati
3.
.

n. bocha.
.

331.

i.

lungheza

nelle anarise
4.
.

entera
.

dala puta.
parte
. . .

2.

essimilmete
.
.

"I proffilo" tanto


5.

narisa
.

chogivgnie.
clla

cholla.
toro.
333. i. clla

dalluna allaltra anarisa.


. .

dinisterai
.

6.
. .

pichatura
dito
[si

elle

mezo
2.

lagrimatoro
3. scffai
.

alia
.

lungeza choda.
.

apichatura.

che

dele

anarise

lagrima-

po] nascic.

bocha.

nasscicre

il

picholo

lungeza.

4. allultimo

[spado] sporto

gro.

320.

There

are,

with this section, two sketches

No. 4

face

the

six

lines

of this

section.

With

of eyes, not reproduced here. The two bottom sketches 321.

on

PI.

VII,

regard to the proportions of the head in profile see No. 312.

123- 324-]

W.

P. 8a]'

323-

Tato e
2

v medesimo
che e
c

homo
3
.

lo

spatio

ifra

a b quato

d.

J ^U
J

For each man respec.

tively the distance


is

between

(c
}

.a b

equal to c d.

W.

P.

a]

pie e tanto piv lungo che lae la grossezza del bracio alia mano doe givntura della dou' eli e piv sottile, 2 stando in faccia
11

mano

The

foot

is

as

much

longer than the hand

Relative

quanto

as the thickness of the

arm

at the wrist .

where

3 Ancora troverai il pie essere tanto maggiore della mano quanto e dall' appiccatura di dentro del

it is thinnest seen facing. Again, you will find that the foot is as much longer than the hand as the space between the inner angle of the little toe to the last projection of

rSTS and
foot
-

piccolo

dito del pie


la

all'

tamento del dito grosso


misura-per
s

ultimo ^sportogliendola
,

La palma
le

lunga dirittura del pie;


della

mano
due

sanza
6

dita

entra

the big toe, if you measure along the length of the foot. The palm of the hand without the fingers goes twice into the length of the foot without the toes.
If

volte-nelpie-sanzalesuedita;

you

hold

your hand

Se

tu terrai-la
diti- diritti
-,

manoe stretti

coi

quella essere larga quato la maggior larghezza del piede cioe doue
7

sua insieme

trouerai

with the fingers straight out and close together you will find it to be of the same width as the widest part of the
foot, that
is

where

it

is

joined

si

cogiugnie coi sua8

E se

diti;

onto the toes.

tu

della
alia

nocca del pie puta del dito

misuri dalla puta di detro

grosso
;

trouerai questa misura essere grade 9 quato e tutta la mano 10 Dalla givntura del pie di

And if you measure from the prominence of the inner ancle to the end of the great toe you will find this measure to be as long as the whole hand.
From
is

the top
to to

angle of the

sopra
diti

appiccatura de' sua di sopra e tanto quato


all'

foot to the insertion of the toes

equal
joint

the the

hand
tip

from
of the

dal' appiccatura

della

mano
;

puta "del suo dito grosso La minore larghezza della mano e simile alia minore larghezza del pie infra la sua
alia
12

X
The
is
it

wrist

thumb.

The
hand
is

smallest

width of the equal to the smallest

appiccatura colla gaba e '1 pncipio de' diti sua. larghezza del calcagnio nel suo disotto e simile alia grossezza dello bracio, dove si givgnie colla mano di dentro,

width of the foot between its joint into the leg and the insertion of
width
the toes. of the
to

part equal joins the hand;

that

heel at of the
also

the
to

lower
leg

arm where
the

and

324.

i.
. .

ettanto piv
esstretti
.
.

ella grosseza. chella apichatura lung 3. magiore puta magiore largeza del piedi. 7. cho sua. 8. essettu
.
.

picholo.
.

4.

tollendo.

6.

settutterrai
10.

choi

[del pie]
.

della noce.

9. ettutta.

apichatura

apichatura.
. .

chalchagnio

infralla sua apichatura cholla. essimile 12. largeza [del pie] "della mano" 13. largeza del largeza grosseza essimile givgnie chol suo bracio di dentro Essimile. 14. facia. 16. me/o . . gradeza . . bocha
. .
.

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

simile

I4

dove

la

ganba

in

faccia

6 piv

where
front.

it

is

thinnest

when

viewed

in

sottile;

*sLo spatio che a il piv lungo dito del pi& infra '1 principio della sua diuisione dal dito grosso alia sua stremita 6 la l6 quarta parte del pie, cio,e dal
polo punta, Ed c simile alia gradezza della bocca: 'E lo infra la bocca e '1 spatio ch'
alia

length of the longest toe, from its division from the great toe to its tip is the fourth of the foot from the centre of the
first

The

mezzo

del suo

di detro

sua

ancle bone to the tip, and it is equal to the width of the mouth. The distance between the mouth and the chin is equal to that of the knuckles and of the three

I8 e simile ture d'esse, stando la ma distesa, allo nodo del dito grosso della mano al pricipio della sua vnghia, stado disteso, ed la quarta parte 19 della mano e del uolto; infra li stremi *9Lo spatio ch' de' poli dentro e fori de' piedi, detti talloni ouero nocche - o burelle del pie ch'e a b fia simile alto "spatio infra la bocca e '1 lagrimatojo del.

mento; 17 simile- allo spatio ch'& infra le nocche e delle 3 dita di mezzo e le prime givn-

middle fingers and to the length of their first joints if the hand
is spread, and equal to the distance from the joint of the thumb to the outset of the nails, that is the fourth part of the hand and of the face.

between the extreme and outside the foot poles called the ancle or ancle bone a b is equal to the space between the mouth and the inner corner of the
inside
eye.
*.

The space

1'

ochio.

w.

p.

D
Relative proportions of the foot and of the

pie

dal

suo

nascimeto
alia

The

foot,

from

where

it

il

colla

ganba

insino

stremita

attached to the leg, to the tip of


the

d ei

dito

grosso

simile allo spadi

grea^toe

is

as

long

as

the

sopra

space between the upper part of


the chin

del meto, al nascimeto de' capegli

and the roots of the hair


to
five sixths

a d

e simile a cinque

sesti

del

b;

and equal

of

uolto.

the face.

W.

P. 7 a]

326.

a d e vna testa, 2 c b e vna testa, *i quatro minori diti son dal di sopra del' unghie al di sotto grossi a v modo e sono / I3 del
l

is

a head's length,

is

a head's

four smaller toes are all equally length. thick from the nail at the top to the bottom,

The
'i

pie.

and are

the foot.

w.

p. 3 .

nj
il

327.

entra dal gomito alia givntura della mano e dal gomito all' appiccatura di detro del braccio diuerso la poppa,
pi&

Tutto

The whole length of the foot will lie between the elbow and the wrist and between the elbow and the inner angle of the arm
clle

Ello
.

infralla
.
.

bocha.

17.
[di]
.

Essimile

noche

dimezo della
21. la

lama.

18. essimile alia

nocha

vnglia.

20. infralli

effori

ouero noci
.

o bu

relic

de pie "a b".


2.

boga

el

lagrimatorio.
6. esimia.

315.

i.

nasscimeto

cholla

essimile alia allosspatio.


. .

nasscimcto de chapeglia.

326. 3. 397.
i.

minor

son grossi dal


. .

ungie.
2.

apichatura

bracio diuer la popa.

ettanto

chapo magiore alteza

chapo

effigiirato

il

pie entra 3 volte.

Hert

Ott ttxt breakt off.

326.

See PL XIV, No.

I,

drawing of a foot with the

text in three lines

below

it

PL.X.

HeKogp D-ujardin.

PL. XI

-"yy
;.,A:,:
'
'

'

.-^

:^*:.T&$
. --

-'..

'
.

'"

8
>.' '**".
.
. i

:;

"

"''"'''

*f<

?&*

^ii^M *; ~^ E|
-,:.-:-:
>;
':

'

r.
'

mt--

W&$$
'"

-^
'
.

^^O^rp^^jC^-'-

%
-

-v

v\ -:v".

v^u-

W.
1

"

'.W
5?

J^^P^S:;^!^^

^.5J*J'>.'

''"

BjpH^^af^M
-"> J'-i'-

BK^TO^^^*-!*^ %
1

<

<\iv

^-

7 ^

.$-;

,>

;<1

C
:
.

.~\m ^'''^
? .- !
;

-"

'

.i^-^-i.

'.-

-.s.

-'

-*'.'>.".'

,'.'/
''
i

.'

.M
'

*.*.
'

'/"'"? >.--'

iv.'v*^' rv^^/'^i^A/^-' .'.--''%'


*

\TV

. ::

'

"
"

'?"

y ''^
:

v^/

: '"''

-' V:.;

-"

;
.

''

V;

"r^Vf^i.

''
....
;

''"J^^KSJ

Heliog^

Dujardin

'iS'

v#.v

g.

$r&

--*&

'-

Imp. Ku.de

Heliogp Uujardin.

'

"1

<

?
fi
,

y^..
I

/
1

'

i*i

*<

Heliog- Dujardu

328.]

THE PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN FIGURE.


;

177
is

2 II pie e quado il braccio sta piegato tanto grade quato tutto il capo dell' omo, cioe dal di sotto del meto alia maggiore altezza del capo nel modo che qui e figurato.

towards the breast when the arm

folded.

The
man,

foot
that

is
is

as long as the whole head of a from under the chin to the topmost

part of the head [2] in the

way here

figured.

W.

P. ya]

328.

grossezza della polpa della a b 2 ed e piv larga la uetesima parte che la maggiore larghezza del pie. $a c e mezza testa, ed e simile a d b

La maggior

The
leg
is
is

gaba e

nel terzo della sua altezza

at

greatest thickness of the calf of the Proportions a third of its height a b, and (338 jjif

e all' appiccatura de' 4 cinque diti-ef, 6 d k h diminviscie il sesto in nella gaba x 8 n crescie il sesto Tg li e /3 della testa; di a e ed e ?/ I2 della testa; ^o -p e minore 10 6 a si e il YIO di d- k ed e /I7 della testa, r si e mezzo infra b q ed e x /4 dell' omo, mezzo infra s-b; I2 il cauo del ginochio di fori r e piv alto che '1 cavo di detro a, J 3la meta della grossezza della gaba da pie, 14 ^ si trova in mezzo infra il gobbo s e il l6 piano b; **v e in mezzo infra ^-^- la faccia e simile alia grossezza della coscia I maggiore ^larghezza della faccia del uiso cioe 2 /3 dello spatio ch'e I8 dal meto alia somita del capo; *?z r e s/6 di 7 v. 20 n e simile a 7 v ed e r /4 di r b, 2I x y entra 3 in r-b-Q in r- s;

a twentieth part thicker than the greatest thickness of the foot. a c is half of the head, and equal to d b

and

d k

g
is

the insertion of the five toes e f. diminishes one sixth in the leg g h, h is Ya of the head; m n increases one
to

sixth

from a

a
is

Yio less than is at half the


x

/4

and
side r

and is ?/ I2 of the head, o.p d k and is 6/ I? of the head. distance between b q, and f the man. r is half way between s [n]. The concavity of the knee oute

is higher than that inside a. The half of the whole height of the leg from the foot r,

is

half

way between
b.

the prominence s

and

v is half way between / and b, The thickness of the thigh seen in front is equal to the greatest width of the face, that is of the length from the chin to the top of the head; z r is 5 /s of 7 to v; m n is J r b, x y goes equal to 7 v and is /4 3 times into r b, and into r s.
the

ground

22

a- b entra

in c -f6, e
/

in c

n ed e simile

a
in

g
d

k,

23

m
n,

entra 4 in
24

d -f,
r
s
-

in

n,

ed e
n
|

3/7

del pie,
2
2(5

/
T

q
T

d'f
e
IO

e 3 in b
q,

$x y e
si

/s

di

xf
nf,

entra 3 ed e
27

simile a
si

3 7
]

/9 di

di

c/a.nd six times equal to g h; i k I m goes 4 times into d f, and 4 times into d n and is 3/ of the foot; p q r s goes 3 times into 7 d f, and 3 times into b n; [25].* y is x /s of x and is equal to n q. 3 7 is x/9 of n f; 4 5 is YIO of /[2;].
\22~\a b

goes

six times into

into c n

and

is

328.

i.

magior grosseza
9. della

alteza.

2.

parte

[del]
1/4.
.
.

chella magiore largeza.

3.

meza

T
. . .

ed esimile ha
.

apichatura.
14.

8. cresscie.

T.

10. infra

b ede

10.

mezo.

n. mezo.
e simile

12. difori

"r" e

chelchavo.
18.

13. grosseza.

5. ghi. mezo
.

gobo.
ha.

15.

imezo.

16.
.

grosseza cosscia
in.

facia essimile magiore. in c


.

17. largezza

facia.

somita del chapo.

20. essimile
34. cazo.

22. entra [6]. 3

"6 e 6

n" ed

ha

g.

25.

ha.

28. [II].

31. cinarsi.

33. chosi.

327. 2. nel modo che qui efigurato. See PI. VII, No. 4, the upper figure. The text breaks off at the end of line 2 and the text given under No. 321 follows below. It may be here remarked that the second sketch on

il. b is

here and later on measured on the right

side of the foot as seen

by the

22

35.

The sketch
2.

illustrating these

spectator. lines

is

on

PL XIII, No.
22. a

W.
No.

P. 3 II

328.

The drawing
to the in

has in the original no explanatory text. of a leg seen in front PL XIII,


text

b entra

in

c f

6 e 6 in c

n.

Accurate mea-

i belongs measurements

from

lines

21.

The

surement however obliges us to read 7 fo r 6. 25. y is not to be found on the diagram and x
occurs twice; this makes the passage very obscure. 22 27. Compare with this lines 18 24 of No. 331,

this

section

with the text No. 331, lines i of a leg seen in front on PL XV. VOL. i.

should be compared 13, and the sketch

and the sketch of a leg

in profile

PL XV.

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


sapere quato vno 3crescie leuadosi in puta 3'di pie, e ncl chinarsi quato ~*p-g diminviscie e quato n q 33cresca e cosl la
2

[32933I.

9Vo

want to know how much a man increases

height by standing on tip-toe and how much / g diminishes by stooping; and how much it increases at n q likewise in bending
in
.

piega del pie;

the

foot.
[3 tfe

3*^/4
35

dal

cazzo

al

di

sotto del pie

/is

four times in the distance be-

3 7 e

6 da

3 a 2

ed e simile a g- h- et

tween the genitals and the sole of the foot; [35J3 7 i g si* times from 3 to 2 and is
equal to

i-k.

g h and

k.

B. 3)

329-

n
etra

pi& 2

dalla
2

punta
dal
1'

al

calcagnio
al

The

length

of the

foot

from the
goes twice

volte

calcagnio

gi-

end of the toes


into that
is

to the heel

nochio, cioe dove


si

osso della ^ganba


della

from the heel to the knee, that


[fibula] joins the

cogivgnie

con quello

co-

where the leg bone

scia.

thigh

bone [femur].

w.

P.

7,5]

33 b son
2

a
fia

11

simili,

son

simili

2 pie; *n

fia

2 pie.

makes two

a n b are equal; feet; n d makes

end

are equal;
2
feet.

n c

w.

p. s

331'

m
3

n o sono

simili

2
;

la

della

gaba

faccia etra

minore grossezza *8 volte dal di

s a lla givntura del ginochio, e a similitudine col braccio 7 I faccia sul' 8 mano e colla maggiore appiccatura della

sotto del pie

m n o are equal. The narrowest width of the leg seen in front goes 8 times from the s-ole of the foot to the joint of the knee, and is the same width as the arm, seen
front at the wrist, and as the longest measure of the ear, and as the three chief divisions into which we divide the face; and this measurement goes 4 times from the wrist joint of the hand to the point of the elbow. [14] The foot is as long as the space from the knee between a and b; and the patella of the knee is as long as the leg between r and s.
in
[ 1

I lughezza sdell'orechio e-coi-3 spati, che e diuiso il uolto, e que"sta grossezza


I2 4 volte da la giutara della mano al del go^mito; ^tato e largo il pie, x quato e slo spatio del ginochio ifra-a-^; l6 tato e la padella del ginochio, ' 7 quato e la gaba Ifra r-s.

IO

etra

fine

18

La minore

grossezza della gaba

I9 I

8]

proffilo etra

6 volte dal

di sotto 20 del pie

profile

The least thickness of the leg in goes 6 times from the sole of the foot

35. simile

he

g.
3.

3g.
330.
331.

i.

dala chalcagnio.

chogivgnie chon.
chol br.
18.

2.

som

simili.
5. ala. 6. 7.

2.

grosseza.

apichatura.
19.

8.

chola

rragiore lugeza.
.
.

9.

e co

3.

10.

Iche diuiso.

n.

grosseza.
I.

14. largho.

16. padela.

grosseza.

socto.

21. chollo

infralla.

22.

choda.

23. cholla

magiore grosseza del br

4 dal cazo. By reading i for e the sense 34. t of this passage is made clear. 35. 2 is not to be found in the sketch which
renders the passage obscure.

the left of the front view


refers.

of the leg, to which

it

The two

last

lines

27 are in the middle column and refer to the leg seen in profile and turned to the left, on the right hand side of the writing. Lines 20 30 are
Lines 18

are plainly legible in the facsimile. * 330. See the lower sketch, PI. XIV, No. I. 331. See PI. XV. The text of lines 2 17

above, to the

Some
is

to

leg will

and apply to the sketch below them. remarks on the proportion of the be found in No. 336, lines 6, 7.
left

farther

Im Eu.de s

'

'

-V7PS3F--

^^K^'i?"*,. IZ*^^^-^**-?*.^ "^TT^"^

?
:

7'
f

"v

-";:

_-_.^_.

^7

V2^^- '^": Utf^-^e:


:

C>>;

.v

^-^.i

T^s

1-5 J

L ^ < "*Z~=t~
(l

*i

^<

~&

<

^-

>

fe;
tf^
6

>

^ X*^!T*'L<t ^ \x^<^\\ W
I
-^

i4|
*"

V
;

~^^

~"^--^.,-'

M.

C~~~~

<

eoL&z

5^ ^' v. ^ /^ P *

."'

*'<**',

llrhcg- Duja.rdin.

Imp Eude
.

332334-]

THE PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN FIGURE.


to the

179

alia givntura del ginochio, 2I e a similitudine collo spatio, ch'e ifra la 22 coda del'ochio 23 al buso dell' orechio, e colla maggior grossezza del braccio I profile, 2 ^e col lagri-

the

knee joint and is the same width as space between the outer corner of the eye and the opening of the ear, and as the
thickest part of the arm seen in profile and between the inner corner of the eye and the
insertion of the hair.

matojo
pelli.
2s

del'ochio
c

al'

appiccatura
loro

de'

ca-

a b
:

sono

ghezza

equali per luz6 etra 2 volte dal di sotto del


ifra
2

pie al */2 del ginochio e quel dal ginochio al fiaco.


28
2

7medesimo

a b c \d\ are all relatively of equal length, c d goes twice from the sole of the foot to the centre of the knee and the same
to the hip. [28] a b c are equal; a to b is 2 feet that is to say measuring from the heel to the
tip

from the knee

a- 6-C'Sono equali,
dal

a-b

9cioe

calcagnio

alia

e 2 piedi, puta del dito


\

3grosso.

of the great toe.

W.

P. 6; la]

332.

s' inginochia, quello stremera la parte di sua altezza; 3 Stando 1' omo ginochioni colle mani al 4 petto il bellico fia il mezzo di sua altezza e simil 5 mente le punte de' gomiti; 6 II mezzo dell'omo che sede, cioe dal sedere alia 7 sommita del capo, fia il braccio 8 e '1 di sotto della di sotto della poppa essa parte sedete, 9 cioe dal sedere spalla; I0 al di sopra del capo, fia tanto piv che mezzo 1'omo, quanto e la IJ grossezza e
2

Se vno

quarta

In kneeling down a man will lose the On th e cen., tral point of r c , i i fourth part of his height. the whole When a man kneels down with his hands body
. '

folded on his breast the navel will mark half and likewise the points of the elbows. Half the height of a man who sits that is from the seat to the top of the head
his height

be where the arms fold below the breast, and below the shoulders. The seated portion that is from the seat to the top of the head will be more than half the man's [whole
will

lunghezza de

testiculi.

height]

by the length of

the scrotum.

W.

P. 6; 16}

333-

Ilcubito-e la quarta parte dell' altezza dell'omo ed e simile -alia maggior larghezza J11_ __11~. > _: j_ii_ 2 J_l> delle
spalle;
dal'
fia
4

spalle all' alt ra fia dalla somita del

una due
al

delle givntura teste 3 e '1 simile

dalla detta- somita

petto all' ombelico nascimeto del mebro


;

one fourth of the height of ^pl^ons equal to the greatest width of of theoftorso the ii_ _ _i j TT> _ _.!- _^-__ _t ij_- and the shoulders. From the joint of one shoulder whole figure. to the other is two faces and is equal to the distance from the top of the breast to the
cubit
.

The

is

man and
i

is

j.i-

navel.

[9]

From

this point to the genitals is

vna

testa.

a face's length.

W.

P. 6; lla]

334the roots of the hair to the top is the sixth part of the height of the head an e of a man and this measure is equal. toreo!

Dalle radici de' capegli-alla somita del petto- a b fia la sesta- parte dell' altezzadell'omo 2 e questa misura fia simile.
apichatura de "ca pelli".

From

the breast a b

24.

colagrimator

25.

[d]

lugeza.

26.

disocto

equl.

27. fiacho.

29.

puda.

30.

grossoe chosi.
3.
. .

332. 2. alteza.
10.

cholle.
ella.

mezo

mezo alteza 4. belicho n. ellungeza de testichuli.


. .

essimil.

6.

mezo

chessede.

7.

chapo

fia

il

br di

popa.

9.

chapo.

333.
334.

i. i.

chupido
chapegli

ella
. .

alteza

magior largeza.
3.

2.

dalluna
.

spalli.

3.
.

pecto

onbellicho.
.

4.

nasscimeto
6. II

vna T.
.

petto

"a b"

fia.

[e]

tanto

..

spalli.

4. bellicho

ecquesta

nasscimeto.

br dove sispicha

332.
333.

See

PI. VIII,

No.

2.

4.

dalla detta somitct.

It

would seem more accurate

Compare with this the sketches on the other page of the same leaf. PL VIII, No. 2.

to read here dal detto ombilico.

334.

The

three

sketches PL XIV,

No

2 belong

to this text.

i8o
3

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


Tanto e daP ultima parte delle spalle quanto e dalla somita dell petto

[335338-

all'altra,

4 al bellico e questa parte entra quattro volte -dal di sotto del pie al nascimeto sdi sotto del naso. 6 II braccio, dove si spicca dalla spalla dinazi, entra -6 uolte-in nello spatio ch'e infra 1'uno e 1'altro ?stremo delle spalle -e 3 volte nella testa dell'omo, e quattro nella

the outside part of one shoulder other is the same distance as from the top of the breast to the navel and this measure goes four times from the sole of the foot to the lower end of the nose.
to

From

the

lunghezza del e fori.

pie,

e tre nella

mano

dentro

springs 6 times into the space between the two outside edges of the shoulders and 3 times into the face, and four times into the length of the foot and three into the hand, inside or outside.

The

[thickness of] the

arm where

it

from the

shoulder

in

front

goes

W.

P. 6;

335-

simili allo spaappiccatura del braccio col proportions ,11-1 i 2 del mebro e lo.spatio of the torso petto e 1 appiccatura the and dalla puta de' diti della mano al fopello ch'e ,J (335- 336)del braccio, e al mezzo del petto, e sappi ^ che c b e la terza parte che a la lunghezza dell'omo dalla spalla a terra; *de /- son simili infra loro e son simili alia

a b c sono equali e son


ch' e
dall'
.

The

relative

tio

..

maggior larghezza delle

spalle.

a b c are equal to each other and to the space from the armpit of the shoulder to the genitals and to the distance from the tip of the fingers of the hand to the joint of the arm, and to the half of the breast; and you must know that cb is the third part of the height of a man from the shoulders to the ground; d e are equal to each other and equal to the greatest width of the shoulders.

W.

P. 5

336.
2

Foppel del meto

fianco

al nasci-

meto

4fin del pescie di del grosso dito sfi n del rilevo del fuso detro della coscia

Top of the chin hip the insertion of the middle finger. The end of the calf of the leg on the inside of the thigh. The end
of the swelling of the shin bone of the leg. [6] The smallest thickness of the leg goes 3 times into the thigh seen in front.

minore grossezza della gaba entra 73 nella sua coscia stando in faccia.
della gaba;
la

w.

P. 2 a]

337-

busto a b fia nella piu sottile parte e da- a- b- fia- 2 pie, che fia- 2o "^-uno-pie: 2 of the torso quadrati al cavallo la piv sottile sua the foot. parte entra 3 volte nella lughezza che fa

^h e

a b in its thinnest part meaand from a to b is 2 feet, which makes two squares to the seat its
torso sures

The

foot;

quadrati.

thinnest part goes 3 times into the length, thus making 3 squares.

W.

P. 7 a]

338.
2

L'omo a
The
proporthe
tions of

giaciere

arriva a

/9

di

sua
'/9

A man

when he

lies

down

is

reduced to

^altezza.

of his height.

whole figure (3J8-340nello


335. .

ellaltro.

7. spalli
.

lungeza.
.

dalla
.

pichatura
4.
2.

chol
.

e lla |b] pichatura.


.
.

a.

ello

a fobello

mezo

essapi.

3. clla

alia

largcza dcllomo

atterra.

infralloro
3.
.

largeza

spali.
fin de.
.

336
337.

fopel.
fi

fiancho.
.

nasimeto.
fia.

5.

6.
.

grosscza

entrc.

"a"

nel pi

che

2.

chavallo

lugeza.

33.

diacere.

2. ariva.

3. alteza.

335.
3.

See See

PI.

lunghezza, in
PI.

XVI, No. i. MS. larghezza.


XVII, No. 2, middle sketch. No. 2, the lower sketch.

I.

// biuto

in
in

the

sketch

uno p&. This is less plainly shown which accompanies the text than

336.
337.

See

PI, VII,

No. 5. (W. 104). da a b fia 2 pit. For 2 read J perhaps 2 / 2 ; but the whole passage is obscure.

PL. XVI.
:

J''
=

'V

r-

; ; *.v

''-~vt;

. "*''

''

~"~

^-

'

V^*?'^ '*-'''
v

7. -'.v-.*

-,rr^r

-<-,

^HS^^S'w'-^P
>

<l ^.

'

>
'.''.

'^"
i

'

-r)r''

'i'"

\_

>

.V'^'^^V

- T
-,

: '<_ r

-..

:-;
,
.

'-.
;.
i
'
'.

>

. '

-**!

Y~
:-'vT-'-:,

If^' ,.-^^^^^Z^:
;'
'

''*

^^:; ;?^: |iv^


;

'

L^J;<..
(

IS
-^-'
-

1 'L-^t v JK*-i;;-> ^--i/>t <J. /, 5i__^'Mt>---F >


1

, -

fi!^?S '^f r J \^ -/ S^^fe "' t, W' Mii^-^Pi v^lll ^ *-" Stri u ^'f U x-'WI
:

>

<

'

'

-*..-..
'

>..,
'
-

-^-^

7.-

^-

"i-

'

'

"',-?
;

f-- ;

>

- r

'

^
-s
-''

'

'^

'"

v^S

- L'-'-<.

'?<

ileliog-.Bujard

Iinp.

Eudes.

PL. XVII.

r
,:

*$&
"f I

^.

t**?

'

'

T-L:
,-.

*.,

-'.*-.

:.f~

>viT
l

^:..v-

^:^;23

...

ii6u-i..

Imp Eudes

339-342.]

THE PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN FIGURE.

181

W.

P. 7 6]

339-

Ilbucodell' orechio, lanascitadellaspalla, quella del fiaco e del pie son perpediculare 3 a n linia e simile a-m- o.
2
;

The opening of the ear, the joint of the shoulder, that of the hip and the ancle are in
perpendicular lines; a n
is

equal to

o.

C. A. 35011; 1089 a]

340the chin to the roots of the hair of the whole figure. From the joint of the palm of the hand to the tip of the
*/io

insino al nascimeto de' ca2 della givntura della palma della mano Jsino alia sommita del dito lungo I / lo parte, 3 dal meto alia sommita del capo Vs parte, 4 e dalla forpelli si e

Dal mento

From

VIO

parte dalla figura;

is

x petto si e /e parte, s e dalla forciella del petto jnsino alia sommita del capo J /4 parte, 6 e dal meto alle nari del naso J/3 parte del uolto, ?e quel medesimo dalle nari al ciglio e dal ciglio al nascimeto de' capegli, 8 e '1 pie e J /6 parte, 9e'l

ciella alia sofhita del

the part of the face, the same from the nostrils to the brow and from the brow to the roots of the hair, and the foot is
.

longest finger is Vio- From the chin to I top of the head /s; and from the pit of stomach to the top of the breast is J /6> from the pit below the breast bone to J From the chin to top of the head /4
J

the
the

and
the

nostrils

/3

gomito V4 parte,
parte.

10

larghezza di spalle

/4

/6,

the
T

elbow

/4J

the width

of the shoul-

ders

/4-

W.

P. 5 a]

341di spalle

Larghezza
taglio

*/4

del tutto,

dalla
3

The width of
whole.
the
to

the shoulders

is

/4

f the

snodatura della spalla


del labro di
spalla

alia

mano

/3 ,

dal

From

sotto alPomero 4 della uno pie. s La maggiore grossezza delPomo dal 6 petto alia schiena entra 8 volte nell'omo ed e simile allo ?spatio ch'e dal meto alia
sofhita del capo.
8

hand is */3> below the shoulder-blade

the joint of the shoulder to from the parting of the lips


is

one
8
th

foot.

The
the

greatest thickness of a breast to the spine is one


is

man from
of his

height and

La maggior

larghezza e nelle spalle, e

equal to the space between the bottom of the chin and the top of the head. The greatest width is at the shoulders

entra 4.

and goes

4.

w.

P.

-jb\

342.
i

Tanto e I'omo sotto


spatio de' fiachi.
2

bracci quato lo

The width of
,1

man under
i

the

arms

is

The

torso

the

same

as at the hips.

^1

fron t

from the and


back.

Tanto e

dal

somo

largo ne' fiachi quat' e d'essi fiachi 3 a l di sotto delle


1'
i

omo

natiche,

stado I'omo di pari peso sopra

man's width across the hips is equal to the distance from the top of the hip to the bottom of the buttock, when a man stands

339.

i.

[lane]

il

puso
10.

la

nasc
.

spala.
2.

2.
.

hacho
.

perpedichulare.
4.

3.

ha

m.
6. allianari.
7.

340.

i.

nassimeto de chapelli

dela.

dala

dela

lungho.

dala forciella dellalla.

dalanari

nasimeto.

9.

egomito.
il

largeza dispale.

341.

i.

trezo:

written,
8.

on the margin
. .

largeza.
spalli.
di.

4.

spalla

pie.

5.

magiore grosseza

sciena.

6.

[essimile].

7.

somita

del chapo.
342.
i.
i

largeza [delle] e
2.

br quato.

sumo.

4.

somita

5. spalli.

6.

mezo

infralla.

339.

See

PI.

XVI, No.

2, PI.

the upper sketch.

342.

The lower sketch

XVI, No.

2, is

drawn by the side of

line

I.

182
2 sua
fia

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.


'pie,

L343-

*e

'1

medesimo
de'
6

spatioalia

equally balanced on both feet; and


there
is

da essa somitk
s

fiachi
la

the the

same distance from the


hip
to

givntura

delle

spalle;

cintura
fia

top

of

the

armpit.

The
in

overo

il

di

sopra dc fiachi
7

waist,

or narrower part above

the

hips

will
pits

mezzo
e
'1

infra la

givntura delle spalle

the

arm

be half way between and the bottom of

di sotto delle natiche.

the buttock.

Yen. (121)

343Vitruvius, the architect, says in his work that the measurements of the

Vetruuio architecto mette nella sua-d' architecture che le misure dell'omo sche^Tof opera dalla natura 2 distribute in questo proportions, sono modo cio che 4 diti fa uno palmo e 4
,

on architecture

human body
follows: that

6 palmi fa un cubito uno uomo -64- cubiti fa uno passo e 24 palmi fa uno uomo e queste misure son ne' sua edifiti; *Se tu a P ri t^to le gabe che tu cali da capo '/, 4 di tua alpalmi fa uno pie
-Jcubiti
,

fa

by Nature as 4 fingers make i palm, and 4 palms make i foot, 6 palms make And i cubit; 4 cubits make a man's height. 4 cubits make one pace and 24 palms make a man; and these measures he used in his
are distributed
that
is

tezza e apri e alzi tanto le braccia che colle

lunghe dita tu tochi del capo, sappi che


delle aperte

la
'1

linia della

ssomita

buildings. If you open your legs so much J as to decrease your height /, 4 and spread and raise your arms till your -middle fingers

mebra

cietro delle stremita 6 e lo spatio fia il bellico


le

che

si

truova infra

gabe,

fia

triagolo

touch the level of the top of your head you that the centre of the outspread limbs will be in the navel and the space be-

must know

equilatero.
7

tween the legs


1'

will

be an equilateral

triangle.

Tanto apre

omo

nelle braccia

quato

e la sua altezza.

Dal nascimento de' capegli al fine sotto del mento e il decimo dell' altezza -del uomo; dal di sotto -del mento alia somi 9 ta del capo e 1'octauo del1' altezza dal di sopra del petto dell' omo alia sorhita del capo il fia sexto delI0 1'omo; dal di so pra del petto al nascimeto de' capegli fia la settima parte di tutto 1' omo dalle tette al di sopra del
di
:

capo fia "la quarta parte dell'omo: la maggiore larghezza delle spalle contiene in se la quarta parte dell'omo dal go I2 mito
,

The length of a man's outspread arms equal to his height. From the roots of the hair to the bottom of the chin is the length of a man's height; from the bottom of the chin to the top of his head is one eighth of his height; from the top of the breast to the top of his head From the top of will be one sixth of a man. the breast to the roots of the hair will be From the seventh part of the whole man. the nipples to the top of the head will be the fourth part of a man. The greatest width
is

alia

punta
dell'

della
:

mano
fia

fia

la

quinta
al
'*

parte

omo

da esso gomito
la

ter-

mine
d'esso

della

omo:

spalla tutta la

octaua
fia la

parte

mano

decima

of the shoulders contains in itself the fourth of the man. From the elbow to the fifth part of a tip of the hand will be the man; and from the elbow to the angle of the armpit will be the eighth part of the man. The whole hand will be the tenth part of
part

343.

i.

mecte
!

chelle.
.
.

2.
i

disstribuite

inquessto
4.

fa
.
.

palmo
ella.
. .

fa

pie
.

fa

un chubito.
. .

3.

fa !

homo
5.

he.
.

4.
.

chubidi
bcllicho.
.

fa

passo he
.
.

fa
. .

homo

ecqueste.
. .

Settu
7.

chettti chali
.
.

da chapo
8.

alza

cholle lunge.
.

chapo
9.

6. ello

chcssi

infralle alteza
10.

disocto.
.
.

nele

nasscimento

de chapegli
.

somi.
.

pccto
spalli

somita del chapo.


. .

sectima

tucto pecto
12.

nasscimeto de chapegli
tucta
. .

sectima
14.

chapo.
. .

he chapo n. largcza
socto
.

chonticno

se

[la oct]

la quarta.

isspalla.

ij.

nasscie

mezo.

sectima

socto.

343.

See

PI.

metres wide and 33'/2 Jong.


scale

XVIII. The original leaf is 21 centiAt the ends of the

from Vitruvius
drawing
is

is

Book

III,

Cap.

I,

and Leonardo's

given in

the

editions

below the figure arc written the words diti The passage quoted (fingers) and palmi (palms).

FRA GIOCONDO (Venezia 1511, fol., and by CESARIANO (Como 1521).

of Vitruvius by Firenze 1513, 8vo.)

PL. XVIII.

>'

rH
*\
I

V*

rf'T

-f

* jrjf^ft

tut

"*

fT^ffi

mwv-4>r*r

vww ".

"

Sfe^fe^4T^-^^

w.iJr

ib$i4fe^i^^

^^XF?- e^fi/f^Jf""*?" ^
~~\~

n'j/VI/^-'.

on^Jli---/'J'-*'""v'

wrN'

'c'

*^*!^ "Z

:^^a^RC^^t^|
Jrf
,

M^rr-

f3^SS3KftfeJS> n =3P# is, rt J,-^,^. j^*^-*r-V*^ #i-^-W


i
:

i rj'>j'r i-Air.ftJtit JiiTk

v rfm
,;j^*.
i

"*7l2S. .fir

..
,

RB
Imp. Eudes.

Jtfc.

Heliog'. Dujardin.

344347-]
parte
nel
dell'

THE PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN FIGURE.

183

mezzo

parte

il menbro virile nascie omo; il '4 pie fia la settima dell' omo; dal di sotto del pie al
:

omo

the

dell'

the

man; the beginning of the genitals marks middle of the man. The foot is the seventh part of the man. From the sole of
the foot fourth
to below the knee will be the From below the part of the man. to the beginning of the genitals will

di sotto del ginochio fia la quarta parte del? omo; "sdal di sotto del ginochio al

nascimeto del
dell'
16

membro

fia

omo

le

parti che

il meto e '1 naso e '1 pegli e quel de' cigli ciascuno spatio se e simile all'orechio ed e '1 terzo uolto.

quarta parte truovano infra nascimeto de' casi

la

per
del

knee be the fourth part of the man. The distance from the bottom of the chin to the nose and from the roots of the hair to the eyebrows is, in each case the same, and like
the ear, a third of the face.

Ash. I; 12 a]

344e una testa e cosl da c a,


jl
2

Da
recto.

b a

questo accade quado

gomito

fa

angulo

b to a is one head, as well as from The arm and a and this happens when the elbow forms a right angle.

From

to

W.

P.

8rt]

345the tip of the longest finger of the Proportions to the shoulder joint is four hands or, [^ll$. if you will, four faces.

alla givtura della spalla e 4 teste.


*

Dalla puta del piv lugo dito della mano 4 mani 3 O vuoi

From

hand

a b

sono equali e ciascuno


teste.

inter-

a b
heads.

are

equal and each interval

is

vallo

-62-

B.

346.

Tsino doue del braccio etra 4 volte dalla puta del piv 3lungo dito isino alia giv-

La mano
2

si

cogivgnie

col

The hand from

osso

the longest finger to the wrist joint goes 4 times from the tip of the lon-

gest finger to the shoulder


joint.

tura della spalla.

w.

P. 4 a]

347c

a
pie

b
e

sono
spatio
2

equali

lo

mamolino,
P omo

d-e

fia

e son simili al dalla tetta al -la terza parte di tutto

a b
foot

c are

equal to each other and to the

ch'e

the

to the space between the nipple and navel de will be the third part of the
is

and

whole man.

f-g
mile a

e la quarta- parte dell' omo ed e h e simile al cubito.

si-

fg

the fourth part of a

man and

is

equal to

g h and

measures a

cubit.

15. socto
.

chessi.

16.

nasscimeto de chapegli ciasscuno

345.

i.
*

dala
chol<

dela.

2.

dela spala.

4.

ciaschuno.

5. intervalo.

essimile allorecheel.
e
i

34 6

344.

i.

cio.

2.

ecquesto achade.

347-

i.

esson.

3.

ella essimile

ha

essimile al chupido.

344.
345.

See PL XLI, No.


Lines

I.

13

are

given on

PI.

XV

below the

front

view of the leg; lines 4 and


text.

are

below

again, on the left side.


347.
i.

The
I.

lettering refers to the bent

arm near the

See

PI.

XIX, No.

mamolino

(= bambino,

little

child)

may mean

here the navel.

84

THE THEORY OF THE ART OF PAINTING.

[348.

W.

P. 5*)

348.

a b entra 4 volte in a c e 9 in a-m; 1 la maggiore grossezza del braccio intfra '1 H * ed e gomito e la mano entra 6 in a simile a-r-/-; Ma maggiore grossezza del 6 braccio infra la spalla e '1 go mito entra 4 dac-M-ed e simile -h-n-g; ?la minore

grossezza del braccio sopra '1 gomito x-ynon e ra 8 dice quadrata, ma e simile al mezzo dello spatio // 3 9 che si trova infra la givntura del braccio detro I0 e la givntura della

a b goes 4 times into a c and 9 into a m. greatest thickness of the arm between the elbow and the hand goes 6 times into a m and is equal to r f. The greatest thickness of the arm between the shoulder and the elbow goes 4 times into c m, and is equal to h n g. The smallest thickness of the arm above the elbow x y is not the base of a square, but is equal to half the space // 3 which is found between the inner joint

The

mano;
grossezza del braccio sulla mano 12 volte in tutto il braccio, "3 cioe dalla punta de' diti insino I4 alla givntura della spalla, cioe ^3 nella mano e 9 nel
11

of the

arm and

the wrist joint.

La

[n]The
into

width of the wrist goes 12 times

"entra

the

whole

arm;
to

that

is

from .the

tip

of the fingers
is

braccio;

braccio piegato e 4 teste; braccio dalla spalla al gomito l8 nel pieI9 di sua lunghezza cioe la lungarsi crescie
'711
20 dalla spalla -al gomito, eesso ac 2I crescimeto e simile alia gro 22 ssezza del braccio 2 sulla giuntura della ma, 3quado sta in proffilo,

l6

shoulder joint; that 3 times into the hand and 9 into the arm. The arm when bent is 4 heads. The arm from the shoulder to the elbow
the

ghezza

e simile

24

allo spatio ch'e dal di sotto del

meto

al ta 2S glio della bocca, e la grossezza delle 2 * 6 dita della di mezzo, e la gradezza

ma

della bocca, e lo spatio ch'e dalla appicca 28 tura de' capelli alia fronte, e la sofhita
27

del

9capo;

mili infra loro


3 2 I1

Queste cose nominate so 3sima no simili al 3 1 sopra detto


dal gomito alia

bending increases in length, that is in the length from the shoulder to the elbow, and this increase is equal to the thickness of the arm at the wrist when seen in profile. And the space between the bottom of the chin and the parting of the lips, is equal to the thickness .of the 2 middle fingers, and to the width of the mouth and to the space between the roots of the hair on the forehead and the top of the head [29]. All these distances are equal to each other, but they are not equal to the above-mentioned increase in
in

accrescimeto del braccio.


braccio

the arm.

mano mai
givntura

33

crescie per piegare o dirizarsi; 34 II braccio dalla spalla alia


di detro
36

35

quad'e disteso;
il braccio e disteso p n e a n a; E quando si piega 38 di sua lughezza e '1 39 S i m il e fa

The arm between the elbow and wrist never increases by being bent or extended. The arm, from the shoulder to the inner joint when extended.
extended, / n is equal bent n a diminishes x n does the same. /e of its length and p The outer elbow joint increases 1 /7 when bent; and thus by being bent it increases to the length of 2 heads. And on the inner
is
it

Quando
J

simi37le a

to

When the arm a. And when

is

/;
349.
2.

sciema
crescie
J

/6

gomito di 4fori nel piegarsi e questo nel 4'suo piegarsi cre'1 scie e ariva alia lughezza di 2 * 2 teste,
'1

/7>

magiore grore grosseza

in

I.

3. ella.

4.

essimile
.

ha

r.

5.
.

magore
.

grosseza del br infralla


. .

ego.

7.

grosseza

br

sopral gomito
. .

"x
il

y"
14.

non.
ala
.
.

8.

mezo

"h

3".
16.

9. chessi

infral [br di dentro] la


18.
il

del

br.
19.

10. ella.

n. grosseza
.

br

12

br.

coe.

15.

nel br.
22.
.

4 T.

17.

brcio.

nel
25.

cresscie.

lungeza
26.

lungheza.
ella

20.

de dalla

essoa.
ello
.

21.
.
.

cresscimeto essimile.
apicha. 28. chapelli
37. le
.

seza del br sula.


29.

23. essimile.

bocha

ella grosseza.
il

mezo

gran34. II

deza. 27.
br.
36.

bocha
bre
. .

ella somita.

nominate. 31. acresimedo del br. 32.


39. Ell e
|

br.

33. cresscie.

il
.

essimi.
42.

ha

a Ecquondo.

38. lugeza.

"questo".
45.

40. cresscie.

41. piegarsi
46.
*/i

"cres-

scie" e

lugeza.

dentro ne nel.

43. esso br era dal na.

44. chollater.i al.

tesste e

mezo.

e.

47. col-

IO and II 15 348. Compare PI. XVII. Lines I are written in two columns below the Extended arm,

29.

Queste

cose.

This passage seems to have been

written

of the fingers we find the words: fine (TunghU (ends of the nails). Part of the text * s visible lines 221025 by the side of the sketches

and

at

the

tips

The

rectify the foregoing lines. explained by the accompanying sketch of the bones of the arm.

on purpose to
is

error

on

PI.

XXXV,

No.

I.

PL. XIX.

^M

fV

g&

?:**

Heliog..

Dujardin

3480

THE PROPORTIONS OF THE HUMAN FIGURE.


side,

I8 5

dentro nel suo pie^garsi fa che dove esso braccio era dal nas 44 cimento suo collaterale al suo fine 4 s colla mano, 2 teste e mezzo, piegax 46 to sciema quella /a Testa e torna due, 47 vna dalla givtura al suo fi colla8 l'altra infmo alia ma. terale,
-

by bending,

it

is

found that whereas

arm from where it joins the side to the wrist, was 2 heads and a half, in bending it loses the half head and measures only two:
the

one from the [shoulder] joint to the end [by the elbow], and the other to
the hand.

braccio piegato avra 2 teste dal di sopra s della spalla al gomito e 2 da esso gos^ito al nascimeto
de'

49 II

quatro

diti

S2sulla

mano; lo spatio, 53ch'e meto de' 4 diti al gomito, 54mai


alcuna mutatione
56
55

palma da esso

della nascisi

muta per

del braccio!

folded will measure up to the shoulder from the elbow and 2 from the elbow to the insertion of the four fingers on the palm of the hand. The length from the base of the fingers to the elbow never alters in any position of the arm.
2 faces

The arm when

braccio si dirizzera, elli ca3 dello 57 S patio ch'e infra b-n, e se sia diritto e pie s8 gherassi, cresciera la meta
lera
il

Se questo

If the

arm

is

extended

it

decreases by

the length between b and n; and if extended it is bent, it will increase being

V3 of

S9tanto e dalla spalla al gomito, dal pricipio dentro del grosso quanto 6l a b c. dito a esso gomito 62 La minore grossezza del braccio in 6^ dal nodello della proffilo z c entra 6 del gomito disteso 64 e 14 in mano al foppello
di

o c;

the

6o e

tutto
6

sla

filo

il braccio e e 42 in tutto 1' omo suo maggiore grossezza del braccio in profe simile 66 alla maggiore grossezza del
;

half of o c. [5 9] The length from the shoulder to the elbow is the same as from -the base of the thumb, inside, to the elbow a b c. [62] The smallest thickness of the arm in profile z c goes 6 times between the knuckles of the hand and the dimple of the elbow when extended and 14 times in the whole

arm and 42

in

the

whole

man [64],

The

6 braccio in facia; ma 1'una ?e posta nel terzo del braccio dalla givntura alia meta, 68 della nel terzo P altro givntura alia

greatest thickness of the arm in profile is equal to the greatest thickness of the arm in front; but the first is placed at a third of the arm from the shoulder joint to the elbow and the other
at a third

mano.

from the elbow towards the hand.

lare.

49. br
.
.

ara 2

dal.

50. eso.

52. sula.

53.

nassimeto.

54.

alchuna.
6).

56. dirizera e chalera.


.

58. gerassi cressciera.

60.

dento
.

dito neso.
66.
\\\\\\

62. grosseza del br (in proffil


in.

entra

63.

nodel

fopilo.

64. bree.
\\\\\\\

65.

magiore grosseza magiore

in

essimile.

magiore grosseza del br

67.

de br dala.

69. la

minore grosseza del br

70. 2 nella

del br grosse

5961.
62
64.
I.

The

however drawn
VOL.

figure sketched in the to different proportions.

margin

is

MS.
PI.

is

XX

on identically the same as that given below which may therefore be referred to in this
In line 62

The arm sketch on

the

margin of the

place.

we read

therefore z c for

n.

AA

ART OF PAINT1M-. THE THEORY OF THE


349
W.
P. 7*1
.

[349-351-

Tanto e

dalla somita

della spalla

^
?e
.

.?. son
'/.

simili

a una mezza testa


:

^.g
a"d
,

entia4da--*-f<fc-*^ sta e
testa;
*

'/3

t?

'

I0

eitt-^-tfJ

rt^-sciemaV7

f,

u .'fVla'polpa

-''"
350-

del braccio

ed e vna
eS
t
f

',

,U be

/.

of r<.

Br.

Mut. 44"!

delle giunture di Nelle piegature vltime

""
e piv

*J^^*g&^
mistakes
are^

^^^tSTto
the

Their

own

iti che
lati.

dinazi,

--, dmeto

che ne

IISBSi=
*

back than

at the sides.

351
w.
197!

Quando

il

braccio

si

nel piega in agolo

When

the

arm

tt

"
^
. musscoli aposlU

350.

i.

gunture.

2.

s,

,
ui

mvsscou>

3>

asso

349.
351.

See See

PI.

XX

PI.

where the XIX, No. 2.

text is also seen

from lines 5-23-

PL. XX

p
-

''.',
-

-{-'' '
'

i\

-.

AA