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10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 Fatigue Load Cycle Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate Constant Amplitude Fatigue Crack Propagation Models Variable Amplitude Fatigue Crack Propagation Models 10.4.1 Wheeler Model 10.4.2 Willenborg, Eagle, and Wood Model 10.4.3 Crack closure model (Newman) Summary


10.1 Fatigue Load Cycle

Over load, So Smax Stress Sm S Smin 1 cycle Number of cycles, N Under load, Su Sa

Nomenclature S = Operating cyclic stress Sm = Mean stress (Smax+Smin)/2 Smax = Maximum stress Smin = Minimum Stress Sa = Stress amplitude R = Stress ratio (Smin/Smax) = Kmin/Kmax So = Over load stress Su = Under load stress So/Smax = Over load factor Su/Smax = Under load factor

High cycle fatigue Low cycle fatigue

10.2 Fatigue Crack Propagation Rate

Amount of crack growth per load cycle. It is represented by da/dN. a da = = f = Crack growth rate N dN
Crack length a

a = ao + fdN
N a


a f



Thickness Effect

Number of cycles

Sheet 4 thickness

3 2

Factors that affect da/dN 1. Material 2. Cyclic stresses, stress ratio (R), Over & under loads 3. Panel thickness 4. Temperature 5. Material processing parameters 4. Environment and frequency

N, Cycles

Temperature Effect
20C a 0C -75C -25C -50C

N, Cycles

10.3 Constant Amplitude Fatigue Crack Propagation Models

Typical Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Metals

Historical Development 1. Earliest work was by A. K. Head (1953)


Fracture III m

da m n = cS a ; dN

n=1 to 1.5


da dN

2. McEvily & Illg (1958): Growth rate is a function of maximum stress around the crack tip.

da = f (Kt , Sn ) dN
Kt is the Stress concentration factor Sn is the net section stress

Threshold Log(K) Kc

3. Paris, Gomez, and Anderson (1961): Growth rate depends on the stress-intensity-factor (K)

da = cK m dN
4. Paris (1964): Crack growth rate is function of K. Paris, Gomez, and Anderson proposed a simple power law equation

log (da/dN)

da = c (K ) m dN

General characteristics of data K log k

5. Modifications to Paris model were made by Broek & Schijve (1963), Erdogan (1967), and Walker (1970), which included the SIF. General form of these equations is

da n m = cK ( K ) dN
Where K = SIF range, K = ( Smax Smin ) a K is the SIF c, m, and n are the material constants.

6. Forman, Kearney, & Engle (1967): Argued that When Kmax = Kc, the crack growth rate should become infinite

Kmax SIF K Kmin

if, Kmax = K c K = (1-R) Kc

cK n da = (1 R)K c K dN

R = Kmin/Kmax Cycles, N

da cK n1 = K dN c 1 K max

c and n are different from that of Pariss equation

7. Klesnil and lukas (Accounted for threshold)

Typical Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Metals


Fracture III m

da = C(K m Kth m ) dN

da Log dN

Threshold 8. Model to Fit the Entire Curve (a) Priddle proposed the following empirical equation Kth Log(K) Kc

K K m da th = C K K dN c max
(b) McEvily: Developed an equation based simple physical model

da K = C(K Kth )2 1+ dN Kc Kmax

9. Elber's Crack Closure Model (1970)- Plasticity-Induced Closure

(Smax - So) Smax Stress S So Smin

Cycles, N

da n = cK eff dN

K eff = (Smax So ) a

- Effective SIF range

For thin aluminum panels, So is given by So = (0.5 + 0.4R) Smax for -0.1 R 0.7 So = 0.5 Smax for R = 0, Crack closure attributed to: 1. Plasticity-Induced Closure 2. Roughness-induced closure 3. Oxide-Induced Closure 4. Closure due to viscous fluid 5. Transformation-induced closure

Other Crack Closure Mechanisms

(a) Roughness Induced Closure

(b) Oxide Induced Closure

Closure due to viscous fluid

(d) Transformation-induced closure

10.4 Variable Amplitude Fatigue Crack Propagation Models

o Over load, S

Smax Stress Sm S Smin 1 cycle Number of cycles, N

u Under load, S



y ys

y Compression plastic zone +

Constant amplitude

Crack length a
Over load

Over load

r At the overload ys

r After the overload

Cycles, N

Models Wheeler Model Willenborg, Eagle, and Wood Model Crack closure Model (Newman)

10.4.1 Wheeler Retardation Model

Over load, S o

Stress S


rpo rpi

da da = = f (K) dN retarded dN linear

Where is the retardation factor, calculated from comparing the plastic zones at overload and the current stress.
ao ai

Plastic zone @ over load, So 2 S 2a Ko rpo = c1 o 2 o = c1 2 ys ys Plastic zone @ Smax Ki2 rpi = c1 2 , Ki is the SIF for ai @ Smax ys
= (ao + rpo ) - ai

Propagation of plastic zone after the overload

Retardation factor is a ratio of r pi and .

rpi m = ; when r = , then = 1 pi when rpi > , then = 1 m=1.49 for D6AC steel and 3.4 for Ti-6Al-4V

Life Prediction procedure (after the overload): 1. Calculate rpo and rpi. 2. Calculate lamda, . 3. Calculate 4. Calculate da/dN from the retarded growth equation. 5. Calculate ai, and rpi. 6. Repeat steps 2 to 5 till rpi < .


rpo = c1

2 Ko ys

Set ai = ao

= ao + rpo ai

rpi = c1

K i2 ys

Multiple Overloads:
rpo rpi

r m = pi

ai = f (K )
ai = ai + ai

new ao

new rpo


> rpi

10.5 Micromechanisms of Fatigue

Faceted Surface

Striation Mechanism

Cleavage and/or Microvoid Coalescence


da dN

II m


Sensitive to microstructure & flow properties Insensitive to microstructure & flow properties Sensitive to microstructure & flow properties