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BBSBEC, FGS

Department of Electronics &Electrical Engineering


Question Bank- DE-3.5(Television Engg.) 8th Semester, Electronics & Communication Engineering

1. Draw the block diagram of TV transmitter and explain the function of each block. 2. Why is scanning necessary in TV transmission? Why is it carried out at a fast rate? 3. What is the basic principle of operation of TV camera tube? 4. Why are synchronizing pulses transmitted along with the picture signal? 5. What is a raster and how it is produced on the picture tube screen? 6. Why is FM preferred to AM for sound signal transmission? 7. Describe briefly the functions of various controls provided on the front panel of a TV receiver. 8. Describe the basic principle of color TV transmission and reception. 9. Describe the functions of saturation and hue controls in a NTSC color TV receiver. 10. What is the compatibility in TV transmission? 11. Why TV transmission is carried out in the UHF and VHF bands? 12. Justify the choice of a rectangular frame with width to height ratio for TV transmission and reception. 13. How the illusion of continuity is created in 625 lines TV system? 14. What is frequency interleaving? 15. Determine the number of lines get traced during each vertical retrace in 625 lines TV system. 16. What is a composite video system? 17. What do you understand by compatibility? 18. Explain how sync pulses are generated in a horizontal deflection circuit. 19. What is flicker? How it is reduced in 625 lines TV system. 20. What is high frequency compensation? Discuss various techniques for high frequency compensation. 21. What are synchronization pulses and why they are needed?

Er. Amrit Kaur

BBSBEC, FGS 22. What do you understand by interlaced scanning? 23. Why has the frame repetition rate been chosen to be 25 and not 24 as in motion pictures? 24. Draw composite video signal waveforms for the picture information. 25. How is the sync pulses transmitted along the picture signal? 26. Justify the choice of 625 lines for the TV transmission. Why is the total number of lines kept odd in all TV systems? 27. What is the significance of choosing the number of lines 625 not 623 or 627 in a TV system. 28. What is the need of interlaced scanning? 29. Establish the relationship between the picture cell and the bandwidth. 30. What is the purpose of the synchronizing circuits? 31. Describe the various steps in the evolution and construction of a composite signal. 32. How the interlaced scanning reduces flicker and conserve bandwidth. 33. What do you understand by active and blanking periods in horizontal and vertical scanning? 34. What is meant by vertical and horizontal resolution? Derive an expression for the highest modulating frequency in a TV system and show that it is nearly 5MHz in the 625-B monochrome system. 35. What do you understand by interlace error and how it affects the quality of picture? 36. What are front porch, horizontal sync pulses, back porch and active line periods in a video signal? 37. Explain how the vertical and horizontal sync pulses are separated and shaped at the receiver. 38. Sketch the complete pulse trains that follow at the end of both even and odd fields. Fully label them and explain how the half line discrepancy is removed by insertion of pre-equalizing pulses. 39. Justify the need of pre and post equalizing pulses. Why is it necessary to keep their duration equal to half-line period? 40. Justify the need of a blanking period corresponding to 20 complete lines after each active field of scanning.

Er. Amrit Kaur

BBSBEC, FGS 41. Why does the vertical retrace not begin with the incoming of the first serrated vertical sync pulse. 42. Justify the name vestigial sideband. 43. Why is it necessary to effect economy in channel bandwidth? Why SSB is not used for picture signal transmission. 44. Enumerate various advantages and disadvantages of VSB transmission. 45. Why is a portion of lower side band of AM picture signal transmitted along with the carrier and full VSB? Does it need any correction somewhere in the TV link? If so, where is it carried out? 46. Why is it necessary to modulate the picture and sound signal before transmission? 47. Show that in the 625-B system, a total channel bandwidth of 11.25MHz would be necessary if both the sidebands of the amplitude-modulated picture are fully radiated along with the frequency modulated picture signal. 48. Show that a total channel bandwidth of 7MHz is necessary for successful transmission of both picture and sound signal in 625 lines TV system. 49. Why is the sound carrier located at 5.5MHz away from the picture carrier? Sketch frequency distribution of the channel and mark the location of picture and sound signal carrier frequencies. 50. Justify the allocation of 8MHz in British TV system and 6MHz in the American system for each TV channel. What is the separation between picture and sound carriers in each of these systems? 51. What is modulation index in FM transmission and how does it affect the bandwidth required for each FM channel. 52. Explain how you would proceed to determine the channel bandwidth for transmission of sound signals by frequency modulation. 53. What do you understand by an electron multiplier? 54. What is the operating principle of a black and white camera tube? 55. Differentiate negative modulation from positive modulation. 56. Draw and explain cross-section view of Image Orthicon camera tube. 57. What is photoelectric effect in video cameras? 58. What do you understand by dark current in Vidicon?

Er. Amrit Kaur

BBSBEC, FGS 59. Explain how the Image Orthicon develops video signal when light from any scene is focused on its faceplate. 60. What precautions must be observed while handling the picture tube? Why is it necessary to provide spark gap protection between the various electrodes? 61. What do you understand by degaussing? 62. Discuss the merits of negative modulation. 63. Which material is preferred to be used as camera lens? 64. Compare the salient features of Orthicon, Vidicon and Plumbicon camera. 65. Sketch the sectional view of a picture tube that employs electrostatic focusing and electromagnetic deflection and label all the electrodes. 66. Explain briefly, how the electron beam is focused on the tube screen. What do crossover points in the electron gun mean? 67. Which material is preferred to be used as a camera lens? 68. What is the function of Aquadag coating on the inner side of the tube well? Why is a grounded coating provided on the outer surface of the picture tube? 69. Why is aluminized coating provided on the phosphor screen? How are any stray ions prevented from hitting the screen? 70. Discuss the merits of electromagnetic deflection over electrostatic deflection in TV picture tubes. Why is cosine winding used for deflection coils? 71. Show with a circuit diagram how DC potentials are supplied to the various electrodes of the picture tube. 72. What are the functions of brightness and contrast controls? 73. What do you understand by image multiplication and signal multiplication in an Image Orthicon camera tube? 74. In an Image Orthicon, what is the function of wire mesh screen and why is it located very close to the target plate? 75. Explain with the help of sketches, how video signal is developed in a Vidicon camera tube. 76. How is Vidicon different from the Image Orthicon and what are its special applications. 77. What are the existing TV standards?

Er. Amrit Kaur

BBSBEC, FGS 78. What is the need of trap circuits? 79. How does low frequency compensation take place in TV receiver? 80. Explain the functional significance if the blocks of a TV receiver. 81. Discuss the constructional features of the various types of tuners. 82. What are the various components of a TV studio? 83. Explain the vertical deflection circuits and the process of alignment of TV receivers. 84. Write a note on the various coupling methods used in the receivers. 85. Draw a block diagram of an RF tuner and explain how incoming signals from different stations are translated to common picture IF and sound IF frequencies. 86. What are the advantages of AGC in TV receivers and what do you understand by delayed AGC. 87. Why is the design of horizontal output stage very much different than that of vertical stage, while their functions are very similar to each other? What are the special features which make the operation of line output stage efficient? 88. Write short notes on: EHT and TV studio. 89. What is the function of RF tuner in TV receiver? 90. Discuss the various techniques for high frequency compensation. 91. Differentiate between high frequency and low frequency compensation. 92. Draw the block diagram of monochrome TV receiver and explain each section. 93. What do you understand by direct coupled video amplifier? Also discuss its main features. 94. Discuss the basic principle of AGC and show how it is applied to the tube and transistor amplifiers. 95. Explain with circuit diagram how the high voltage pulse induced in the output transformer windings, are used to generate EHT supply. 96. Write short notes on: TV studio, VHF tuner. 97. What do you understand by image rejection ratio? Explain how by providing an RF amplifier, image signal rejection is greatly minimized. 98. What are the merits of using an RF amplifier before the frequency converter? 99. What are the essential functions which are assigned to IF section of the receiver.

Er. Amrit Kaur

BBSBEC, FGS 100. What do you understand by inter carrier sound system. Where and how is the inter carrier sound signal separated from the video signal? 101. Draw a block diagram of sound channel in a TV receiver. Explain briefly how the inter carrier sound signal as obtained at the video detector, is processed to produce sound output. 102. Describe briefly how EHT and boosted supply voltages are developed from the horizontal output circuit of the sweep amplifier.. 103. Discuss the significance of a chromaticity diagram 104. How the mixing of colors takes place. 105. Describe the constructional features of the color TV transmission and reception. 106. Write a note on color fundamentals in TV systems. 107. Explain the difference between primary colors and complimentary colors. 108. Explain how the Y and color difference signals are developed from the camera outputs. Why is the Y signal set =0.3R +0.59G -0.11B. 109. Write a short note on PAL and NTSC systems. 110. Explain the terms chrominance and luminance. 111. What are the characteristics by which colored visual information can be represented? 112. What are the limitations of NTSC system? 113. Discuss the merits and demerits of SECAM system. 114. Explain how by frequency interleaving the color information is accommodated with in the same channel bandwidth of 7MHz. 115. Draw block diagram of color TV receiver. 116. Explain with the block diagram how both (B-Y) and (R-Y) signals are combined around the same sub carrier frequency by Quadrature modulation. Why is the color signal bandwidth requirement much less than those of Y signal? 117. Discuss the factors which influence the choice of sub carrier frequency in a color TV system. 118. Justify the choice of 3.579545MHz as the sub carrier frequency in the NTSC system. How does it affect the line and field frequencies?

Er. Amrit Kaur

BBSBEC, FGS 119. Explain with a suitable diagram the coding process in PAL color system. Why the color is burst signal transmitted after each scanning line. 120. Explain the delay line method of separating U and V signals in a PAL receiver. What is the function of a color killer circuit in the path of chrominance signal in the receiver? 121. Describe the manner in which the APC circuit functions to keep the reference sub carrier frequency constant in the PAL system. 122. What is the basic difference between the SECAM and other color TV systems? Describe briefly the encoding and decoding processes of the SECAM system. 123. Discuss the relative merits and demerits of the three TV systems. Explain the factors which influence the choice of any one of three systems.

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Er. Amrit Kaur