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The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen School of Engineering

MSc Oil and Gas Engineering Challenges and developments in direct measurement of down hole forces affecting drilling efficiency Duncan J Junor (0210305) September 2007

Challenges and developments in direct measurement of down hole forces affecting drilling efficiency Duncan James Junor

This report is submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Oil and Gas Engineering at the Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen

Robert Gordon University


Abstract

Challenges and developments in direct measurement of down hole forces affecting drilling efficiency Duncan James Junor A thesis presented on the techniques deployed to measure forces experienced by the bottom hole assembly (BHA) during drilling operations and their effects on drilling efficiency. The primary forces under investigation include weight, torque and bending on bit which are parameters known to be important factors in determining the direction, rotation, and rate of drilling. The analysis and modeling of drilling dynamics and associated dysfunctions is presented along with the impact on drilling efficiency and methods to detect and remedy these issues to optimize drilling efficiency. Strain and derived stress relationships are reviewed, along with the application of strain gauge technology to measure the lateral, axial, and torsional strains experienced during rotary drilling operations. Further review is presented on the application of strain gauges to measurement subs within the BHA which are specifically designed to accurately measure the specified strains, and derive the associated forces through calculation. An assessment in development of down hole telemetry techniques is briefly presented, along with potential implications on improving predictive modeling accuracy through enhanced real time data availability at the surface and the possibility for future automated drilling techniques.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author wishes to express sincere appreciation to Ken McDonald, Jez Greenwood and Kevin Glass for their assistance and guidance in the preparation of this thesis. In addition, special thanks to Rick Hay and John Snyder whose familiarity with the needs and ideas of the area of study was helpful during the early research phase of this undertaking. Thanks also to my family and colleagues for their encouragement and understanding during preparation of this thesis.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract............................................................................................................................ i Acknowledgments....................................................................................................... ii Table of Contents....................................................................................................... iii List of figures............................................................................................................... iv List of Tables ................................................................................................................ v List of symbols, abbreviations, nomenclature.................................................. vi Chapter 1......................................................................................................................... 1 1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................... 1 1.1 Statement of the problem................................................................. 1 1.2 Research Approach............................................................................ 1 Chapter 2 ........................................................................................................................ 3 2.0 Drilling Efficiency and Dynamics .......................................................... 3 2.1 Overview.............................................................................................. 3 2.2 Evaluation of Drilling Dynamics and Associated Challenges ... 3 2.3 Drilling Hydraulics........................................................................... 12 2.4 Bit Cutting Efficiency...................................................................... 13 2.5 Surface measurement techniques .................................................. 24 Chapter 3 ...................................................................................................................... 26 3.0 Principles of strain/stress and measurement techniques................. 26 3.1 Definitions of Strain and Stress..................................................... 26 3.2 Mohrs Circles................................................................................... 34 3.3 Strain Gauges .................................................................................... 35 Chapter 4 ...................................................................................................................... 43 4.0 Application to Downhole measurement............................................. 43 4.1 WOB/TOB/BOB measurement devices. .................................. 43 Chapter 5 ...................................................................................................................... 54 5.0 The impact of advanced telemetry on drilling efficiency................. 54 5.1 Traditional Down-hole telemetry methods................................. 55 5.2 Intelligent/Wired Pipe .................................................................... 56 5.3 Implications on drilling dynamics, MWD and LWD................ 57 Chapter 6 ...................................................................................................................... 60 6.0 Findings and Discussion ........................................................................ 60 6.1 Description of Findings .................................................................. 60 6.2 Thesis.................................................................................................. 63 List of Equations ....................................................................................................... 65 References & Bibliography.................................................................................... 69

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2-1: Examples of twist-off failures of the drill string.................................. 4 Figure 2-2: Problems associated with wellbore stability while drilling................. 5 Figure 2-3: Triaxial shock and vibration .................................................................... 6 Figure 2-4: Forward and Backward Bit whirl............................................................ 7 Figure 2-5: Examples of PDC bit damage from backward whirl ......................... 8 Figure 2-6: Balled Bit ................................................................................................... 12 Figure 2-7: Worn Bit Examples................................................................................. 13 Figure 2-8: Example Drill-Off test data .................................................................. 18 Figure 2-9: Example of Founder point and relationship to bit performance .. 20 Figure 2-10: Example analysis of MSE and Drilling Efficiency attributes (Rock Strength and Bit work/Torque (Halliburton SPARTA output - All rights reserved).............................................................. 22 Figure 2-11: Example analysis of MSE and Drilling Efficiency attributes (Bit efficiency and Optimal WOB/RPM/ROP) (Halliburton SPARTA output All rights reserved) .............................................. 23 Figure 3-1: Basic strain ................................................................................................ 27 Figure 3-2: Poisson Strain........................................................................................... 28 Figure 3-3: Shearing Strain ......................................................................................... 28 Figure 3-4: Normal Stress........................................................................................... 29 Figure 3-5: Stress/Strain relationship and elasticity............................................... 30 Figure 3-6: Mohrs circle representation of Normal, Biaxial and Triaxial stress systems............................................................................................ 34 Figure 3-7: Metallic foil gauge.................................................................................... 35 Figure 3-8 Wheatstone bridge circuit ....................................................................... 38 Figure 3-9: Axial strain configurations ..................................................................... 41 Figure 3-10: Bending Strain configurations............................................................. 42 iv

Figure 3-11: Torsional/Shear strain configurations............................................... 42 Figure 4-1: Diagram showing layout of force measuring sleeve/loop............... 45 Figure 4-2: Layout showing load cell insert configuration of DAS patent........ 46 Figure 4-3: Example of radial pocket and strain gauge insert configuration. ... 47 Figure 4-4: Effect on gauges during pure axial compressive load (WOB Measurement)........................................................................................... 47 Figure 4-5: Effect on gauges during pure axial tension load (WOB Measurement)........................................................................................... 48 Figure 4-6: Effects on gauges of pure torsional load (TOB measurement)...... 49 Figure 4-7: Summary definition of Woloson Drilling Efficiency Sensor apparatus. .................................................................................................. 50 Figure 5-1: Example real-time data analysis application. ...................................... 54 Figure 5-2: Configuration of IntelliServ Network wired pipe......................... 56

LIST OF TABLES

Table 2-1: Summary of drilling dysfunctions, detection and mitigation actions........................................................................................................ 10 Table 3-1: Example bonding adhesives based on temperature ranges .............. 37

LIST OF SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS, NOMENCLATURE

Abbreviations BHA Bottom-Hole Assembly BOB BUR DDS DES DLS Bending On Bit Build Up Rate Drilling Dynamics Sensor Drilling Efficiency Sensor Dog Leg Severity RTD Resistive Temperature Detector SPE SPP TOB TD Society of Petroleum Engineers Standpipe Pressure Torque On Bit Total Depth (well)

WBM Water Based Mud WOB Weight On Bit WTB WOB/TOB/BOB

DOC Depth of Cut ECD Equivalent Circulating Density EM FDP Electro-Magnetic (Telemetry) Exxon Fast Drill Process

IADC International Association of Drilling Contractors KB Kelly Bushing LWD Logging While Drilling MWD Measurement While Drilling NPT PDC RC RPM ROP RSS Non Productive Time Polycrystalline Diamond Compact bit Roller Cone Bit Revolutions Per Minute Rate of Penetration Rotary Steerable System (Drilling) OBM Oil Based Mud

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Symbols

GZMB FIJV-

Mathematical Constant (3.14159) Coefficient of friction Stress Strain Poisson Ratio Shearing Strain Shear Stress Shear Modulus Section Modulus Bending Moment Force Second moment of area Polar second moment of area Voltage

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Chapter 1

1.0 INTRODUCTION The purpose of this thesis is to examine the forces exerted on the drill string BHA and methods utilized to measure Weight, Torque and Bending on bit as required to better understand and influence drilling dysfunctions which often increase non productive time (NPT) and limit efficient drilling of the well. 1.1 Statement of the problem.

The forces on the BHA components are known to be important factors in maintaining drilling efficiency and in determining the direction, rotation, and rate of drilling. Weight On Bit, (WOB) Torque On Bit, (TOB) and Bending On Bit, (BOB) are specific forces which act on the BHA. Methods of measuring these attributes range from implied calculations from surface data (for WOB/TOB) to direct real time down hole measurement with sensors located close to the bit in drill string subs. Accurate real time measurements allow monitoring of attributes and direct correlation to predictive models. Interpretation of real time results improves efficiency of the directional drilling process which is becoming prevalent in a larger percentage of wells being drilled today. Present methods rely largely on WOB and TOB measurements which are calculated from hook loads and surface measurements of torque. These measures offer an indication of what is actually happening at the drill face, but not accurately enough to consistently manage and optimize ROP and hole quality. 1.2 Research Approach

A thorough literature search was undertaken to examine current understanding associated with drilling dynamics and associated measurement techniques. Sources included services and technology company web sites, society papers (predominantly Society of Petroleum Engineers SPE), patent and patent

applications (describing variants of measurement devices), specific strain gauge vendor literature , Halliburton company prior knowledge and learning materials on the elements and technology used to combat vibration and improve drilling efficiency. A key element of measurement revolves around real-time data capture and analysis. Prior knowledge and experience in this field has developed significantly in the past 10 years and is now a de facto standard in the industry. The availability of real-time transmission of data to the surface is a pre-requisite to enabling a near bit WOB/TOB/BOB (WTB) solution. Prior methods of delivering real-time data capture techniques are discussed in terms of the current restrictions affecting the desired measurement. Significant advances have been made recently in the field of enhanced bandwidth data transmissions techniques with wired pipe offerings which have been researched in terms of the potential applicability to enhanced WTB and therefore drilling efficiency capabilities. It became evident in early research that simple metal or foil strain gauge technology and know how has proven effective to date in measuring the desired forces. Focus was therefore placed on detailed research of Wheatstone bridge configurations and latest thinking on orientation, configuration and attachment of these gauges to the drill string to optimize effective and accurate measurements. Research was undertaken around the elements of configuration, reliability, accuracy, and overall operating parameters for strain gauge technology and application to WTB measurement. Known challenges include the management and compensation for temperature and differential pressure fluctuations, gauge mounting techniques, and general methods of calibration

Chapter 2

2.0 DRILLING EFFICIENCY AND DYNAMICS

2.1

Overview

Although the primary focus of the thesis applies to WOB/TOB/BOB, wider research was required on drilling efficiency/dynamics, measurement while drilling (MWD) and real-time data capture and analysis techniques. Sources of data included service company websites, gauge and down hole equipment vendor literature, SPE and IADC published papers and published patents and patent applications. 2.2 Evaluation of Drilling Dynamics and Associated Challenges

Given the increasing cost of daily rig rates, operators, service companies and drilling contractors alike are increasingly analyzing methods to improve drilling efficiency by reducing non productive time (NPT), and maximizing the rate of penetration (ROP) through the formations being drilled. Drillstring vibration is a significant contributor to NPT. Drill string vibration reflects the basic physics of resonance at the natural frequency of the object (in this case the drill string and associated bottom-hole assembly (BHA)) along with the subsequent harmonics which cause natural vibration. Understanding the natural frequency for each element of the drill string determines which frequencies to recognize and manage during the drilling operation. Changing drilling parameters serves to change the frequency away from the natural frequency of the element which is causing undesired vibration. The drill string and BHA configuration can be designed to minimize anticipated resonance, for example through the use of stabilizers located at certain points along the BHA, these however can cause their own issues in terms of sticking and increasing down hole torque. It is often difficult to recognize what the cause of the

down hole issue is without accurate measurements of the forces on the drill string at the BHA. The term Drilling Dynamics is often used to refer to these triaxial vibration forces in motion during the drilling activity. These vibrations cause significant damage to drillstring components and reduce the efficiency of drilling in terms of hole quality and rate of penetration. The effects of vibration can be categorized in two broad areas: Damage to the drillstring components Damage to the wellbore

Damage to drillstring components incur lost drilling time associated with tripping out to repair and or replace components and include: Damage to sensitive electronic Measurement While Drilling (MWD) and Logging While Drilling (LWD) equipment Premature Bit Failure (Excessive wear, broken cutters and/or cones) Wear on tool joints, stabilizers and other down hole assemblies in the drill string Twist-offs where the drillstring breaks down hole due to fatigue or excessive torque (Refer to Figure 2-1 below) Poor control of the deviation/direction of the well due to a lack of accurate understanding of the tool face position and stresses.
Figure 2-1: Examples of twist-off failures of the drill string1

Courtesy of Halliburton Sperry Drilling Services All rights reserved

Damage to the wellbore itself, which can reduce ROP and restrict the ability to complete the drilling of the well to total depth (TD). Examples include: Breakout Washouts Fracturing Sloughing and caving Hole enlargement

Figure 2-2: Problems associated with wellbore stability while drilling.

Figure 2-2 demonstrates examples of wellbore instability along with their stress field locations within the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope2. The careful modeling and prediction of stress fields assists the drilling process by planning actions to minimize failure, unplanned vibration events therefore significantly impact the anticipated wellbore stability characteristics, for example hole enlargement associated with excessive bit and BHA whirl, or washouts and fracturing due to contact of the drillstring with the wellbore or high localized pressures.

Economides M J, et al, 'Petroleum Well Construction', John Wiley and Sons, 1998 ISBN: 0-471-96938-9

It is important therefore to review each element of vibration, their effects, methods of detection and actions to control the specific vibration when encountered. Figure 2-3 shows the three types of vibration experienced during drilling.
Figure 2-3: Triaxial shock and vibration

Axial Vibration

Lateral Vibration

Torsional Vibration

2.2.1 Axial Vibrations (Bit Bounce/Chatter) This occurs when axial vibrations cause the bit, (and therefore drill string), to vibrate or bounce on the formation. It can be due to several things including variation on the WOB, changes in mud pressure and the interaction of the bit cutting structure on the formation (i.e. interaction with stringers, ledges, hard rock formations etc.) Bit bounce is typically encountered with roller cone bits which exhibit an unstable bottom hole pattern. Bit Chatter refers to the high-frequency resonance of the bit and BHA typically caused by PDC bits due to blade and or cutter interaction with the formation. Bit Bounce frequency is between 1 and 10 Hz and Bit Chatter frequency is between 50 and 350 Hz

2.2.2 Lateral Vibrations (Bit/BHA Whirl) Lateral vibrations are experienced at right angles to the drillstring and are commonly referenced as Bit Whirl or BHA Whirl where the lateral vibration causes a bending vibration in the BHA. Whirl can manifest itself in both forward and backward directions.
Figure 2-4: Forward and Backward Bit whirl.
Forward Whirl In direction of bit rotation (Clockwise) Backward Whirl blade tips rotate opposite direction of bit rotation (Anticlockwise)

Clockwise rotation of bit (viewed from below)

Over gauge wellbore

Eccentric Rotation about a point other than the geometric center

Path of blade tip around wellbore

Path of blade on impact

Bit Whirl is described as an eccentric rotation of the bit about a point other than its geometric center and is shown in figure 2-4. Bit whirl can be further categorized as forward whirl or backward whirl. Forward whirl is where the vibration causes movement of the bit around the hole in the same direction as the rotation of the bit (i.e. clockwise). Backward whirl is more complex and results in the backward rotation of circumferential points of contact, (e.g. the back of the fixed cutter blade), which creates a rotation around the hole in the opposite direction to the rotation of the bit, (i.e. anticlockwise, whilst the drill string rotates clockwise). The right hand section of figure 2-4 shows the pattern created by the path of the blade tip as the irregular force on the back of the blade causes the blade to briefly rotate anticlockwise before the next blade engages the formation. Whirl creates an over gauge bore hole which further propagates the detrimental effects if not detected and remedied. Bit whirl, particularly backward whirl, causes

significant damage to PDC bits due to high and irregular impact loads, also it will exhibit off center wear in roller cone bits. Figure 2-5 shows examples of the cutter damage which can be attributable to backward whirl as well as other factors such as excessive torque. Damage to the rear of the blades is also a telltale sign of bit whirl.
Figure 2-5: Examples of PDC bit damage from backward whirl3

Broken Cutters

Chipped Cutter

BHA Whirl is described as an eccentric rotation of the BHA about a point other than its geometric center and is related to onset of Bit whirl or visa versa. BHA whirl can also change the tilt or orientation of the bit causing the bit to whirl. BHA whirl causes the BHA to buckle in a sinusoidal shape and has several detrimental effects including fatigue or failure of the components, additional friction forces due to borehole contact, (leading to hole enlargement, washouts and potential lost circulation) and significant shock and vibration of sensitive LWD /MWD sensors. Whirl frequency is between 10-100 Hz for the bit, and 5-20 Hz for the BHA. 2.2.3 Torsional Vibrations (Stick Slip) Stick-slip describes the situation where the drillstring stops or slows down rotation to a point where the drill string torques up and rapid releases energy once the BHA and bit free up and begin rotation again. Due to the built up torque the string rotates significantly faster than the nominal rpm during the slip phase. Stick-Slip is
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Courtesy of Halliburton Security DBS All rights reserved

caused largely by interaction with the formation and frictional forces between the drillstring, BHA and the Wellbore, environments which become increasingly common in highly deviated and deep wells. Stick-Slip frequency is less than 1 Hz 2.2.4 Coupling Coupling describes the process where the presence of one vibration mode instigates another, to the extent that all 3 modes can be exhibited in the string at the same time. This can often happen where the initial vibration mode is not detected or managed, leading to undesirable effects on the drilling process and potential for catastrophic failure of the drill string. 2.2.5 Mitigation In general the occurrence of drilling dysfunctions can be mitigated either through surface techniques or changes to down hole configurations. Surface techniques include changing WOB or RPM parameters, modifying mud rheology or utilizing top drive soft torque systems which monitor and increase RPM to reduce torque. (It should be noted that soft torque systems can also prove problematic in the management of drilling dysfunctions as the attempt to automatically manage stick/slip conditions, for example soft torque adjustment, can over/under compensate and further propagate vibration and therefore the original slick/slip condition) Down hole configuration techniques require tripping out of the hole and changing BHA configurations including bits, stabilizers, changing from RSS to mud motor configurations adding vibration subs etc, all of which are costly in terms of NPT and want to be avoided wherever possible. Table 2-1 on pages 10 and 11 show details of each of the drilling dysfunctions along with typical actions to mitigate the problem once identified.

Table 2-1: Summary of drilling dysfunctions, detection and mitigation actions.

Drilling Dysfunction
Bit Whirl
(Lateral Vibration)

Attributable Conditions
Predominantly due to Bit/BHA interaction with wellbore. Also high ROP/low WOB, misalignment,

Detection & Damage


Detected thru increased torque, high frequency lateral or torsional vibration and reduced ROP. Leads to cutter damage, over-gauge hole

Mitigation Action
Increase WOB Reduce RPM Pickup off bottom and re-start with lower RPM

(Freq. 10-100 Hz)

imbalance, changes in formation hardness/bit formation interaction

BHA Whirl
(Lateral Vibration) (Freq. 5-20 Hz)

Predominantly mass imbalance and resonance of Detected thru increased torque, increased MWD BHA at critical RPMs shocks, high frequency lateral or torsional vibration and reduced/erratic ROP Leads to twist offs, washout, tool joint wear and stabilizer damage.

Adjust RPM to reduce harmonic resonance. Pickup off bottom and re-start with lower RPM

Stick-Slip
(Torsional Vibration)

Predominantly due to Bit/BHA interaction with wellbore. Also use of aggressive PDC bit and high WOB

Detected thru reduced/erratic ROP, poor directional control, torque fluctuation/cyclicity and MWD shocks

Decrease WOB Increase RPM Increase mud lubricity

(Freq. <1 Hz)

and hard formations

Leads to over-torque or back-off of connections, twist off, washouts, cutter impact damage

Pickup off bottom to allow torsional energy to release and drill with higher RPM / Lower WOB

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Bit Bounce
(Axial Vibration)

Predominantly associated with roller cone bits exhibiting unstable tri-lobe bottom hole pattern Also hard rock environments, stringers, and

Detected thru reduced ROP, fluctuation in WOB and surface/KB vibration. Leads to twist off, washout and cutter impact damage

Reduce RPM Increase WOB Pickup off bottom and restart to re-establish preferable bottomhole pattern Utilize shock tool in drillstring

(Freq. 1 - 10 Hz)

under gauge holes

Bit Chatter
(Lateral Vibration) (Freq. 50-350Hz)

Predominantly associated with PDC bits in high compressive strength formations.

Not detectable at surface Leads to cutter damage, failure of sensitive electronics in MWD/LWD equipment and the onset of bit whirl

Adjust RPM/WOB to reduce harmonic resonance.

Coupling
(Axial, Lateral, Torsional Vibration) (Freq. 0-20 Hz)

Predominantly associated with the failure to identify and control one of the above vibration conditions to the extent that other vibrations are initiated simultaneously

Increase in torque, poor directional control, reduced or erratic ROP and mud pulse telemetry interference. Leads to M/LWD Failure, cutter damage, drillstring wear/fatigue & twist off/washouts

Pickup off bottom and restart with modified WOB/RPM Reconfigure BHA and/or stabilization methods

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2.3

Drilling Hydraulics

Other attributes which have a significant effect in drilling efficiency include mud hydraulics and rheology including ECD measurement, hole cleaning efficiency, washouts, and optimization at the bit for hydraulic horsepower or impact force. It is important in terms of WOB, TOB and ROP measurement to determine if the dysfunction is vibration related, hydraulic related or a combination thereof. In addition, the mud type and rheology can influence the onset of certain drilling dysfunctions, such as stick-slip for example. 2.3.1 Bit/Bottom Balling One of the most common issues associated with hydraulics is bit/bottom balling. Bit Balling is often a phenomenon when drilling shale formations with Water Based Mud (WBM) a reduction in ROP is experienced due to the bit being clogged with clay cuttings.
Figure 2-6: Balled Bit

Figure 2-6 shows an example of a balled PDC bit.4 Bottom hole balling can occur in conditions with high WOB and high bottom hole pressure/high mud weight where a layer of hydrated shale prevents cutting action on the formation.

Methods of identifying balling include: Application of increased WOB does not realize a change in ROP or reduces ROP Increased stand pipe pressure (SPP) without associated increase in flow Comparing actual vs predicted Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) (which is explained in more detail later in the thesis), or identifying a reduction in torque at the bit.

Bit and bottom hole balling can be mitigated through design of WBM with greater lubricity or selection of appropriately designed PDC bits optimized for hydraulic
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Courtesy of Halliburton Security DBS All rights reserved

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horsepower. Once ROP reduction is identified WOB should be reduced and the bit picked up off bottom as soon as possible. Actions should be taken to clear the bit such as increasing flow rate, or spinning the bit off bottom at a relatively high RPM to remove the caking of cuttings and formation materials. 2.4 Bit Cutting Efficiency

When the bit is actually cutting the rock formation it is important to predict and monitor the bit performance and determine when the bit has reached its useful life expectancy. The understanding of cutting performance and therefore the associated ROP depends on a number of factors. Figure 2-7 shows examples of worn PDC and RC bits.
Figure 2-7: Worn Bit Examples.5

2.4.1 Rock Strength A significant influence on drilling efficiency is obviously attributable to understanding and predicting the rock strength and associated rock stresses that the drillstring will encounter during drilling. The term GeoMechanics is used to refer to the analysis of rock data derived from various sources including down hole logs, core analysis and analog geological data. Geomechanical models are developed to accomplish this prediction/understanding by analyzing expected lithology, rock strength and shale plasticity of the expected geology and formations. The understanding of Geomechanics not only improves the drilling efficiency, but also ensures that the stability of the wellbore is maintained and that unexpected wellbore collapse events are not encountered. It is not the purpose of this thesis to describe detailed Geomechanical processes, however there are some significant elements of this understanding that allows drillers to optimize ROP by determining appropriate WOB and RPM limits. Mechanical Efficiency is a
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Courtesy of Halliburton Security DBS All rights reserved

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modeling method which is beginning to gain traction in the industry and to provide the link between Geomechanical modeling and management of the numerous drilling dynamics described above. 2.4.2 Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) MSE predominantly relates to the efficiency of the bit and is defined as: o The rock strength divided by specific energy applied to the bit (i.e. the ratio of input energy to the ROP) or o The measure of energy required to destruct a given volume of rock; To determine MSE, the specific energy must first be calculated. Specific Energy (Es) is defined as the total bit force divided by the cross sectional area of the bit, in the simplest terms: Specific Energy = Es ( psi ) = Total Bit Force (lbf) Bit cross sectional area (in 2 )

...........................................(2-1)

Given this Mechanical Efficiency or MSE is defined as: MSE ( psi ) Input Energy Output ROP

...................................................................................................................(2-2)

In theory the MSE ratio should be constant for a given rock compressive strength and therefore the energy required to destroy the rock should also be constant assuming that the bit efficiency remains constant. The concept of MSE was originally proposed by Teale in 19656 where he defined the following equations for predicting MSE: Specific Energy = Es =

WOB 120 * * N * T + Abit Abit * ROP

......................................................................(2-3)

Teale, R.: The Concept of Specific Energy in Rock Drilling, Intl. J. Rock Mech. Mining Sci. (1965) 2, 57-73

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1 13.33N ..........................................................(2-4) Also Specific Energy Es = WOB + A Dbit * ROP bit

Where: Es = Specific Energy, psi Abit = Bit Area, Sq. Inches Dbit = Bit Diameter Inches N = RPM T= Torque, ft-lbs ROP = ft/hr = Coefficient of Friction Torque is an important measurement in the MSE calculations. Given that the WOB, RPM and ROP calculations are taken at surface, a coefficient of sliding friction () is determined for each bit. This allows the expression of torque as a function of WOB. The coefficient of sliding friction () defined as: Coefficient of Friction = = 36 And therefore:
Torque = Dbit *WOB ............................................................................................................................(2-6) 36

Torque Dbit * WOB

..............................................................................(2-5)

And Mechanical Efficiency (EFFM) is defined as:


EFFM = Es min Es

...............................................................................................................................................(2-7)

Where Esmin approximates the compressive strength () of the rock (psi). (i.e. the minimum specific energy required to overcome the rock strength) Therefore Mechanical Efficiency (0-100%) is also equal to

EFFM =

Es

* 100

........................................................................................................................................(2-8)

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And maximum efficiency occurs where

Es min 1 Es

Teales equations considered rotary drilling at atmospheric conditions, subsequent work undertaken by Pessier et al (described in SPE 245847) validated these findings when drilling under hydrostatic pressure and by Dupriest et al (described in IPTC 106078) which resulted in the following equation:
WOB 120 * * RPM * T ................................................................(2-9) MSE ( psi ) = 0.35 * + A ABIT * ROP BIT

Where 0.35 represents a practical efficiency factor for the bit in field conditions and is often referred to as the mechanical efficiency factor EFFM 2.4.3 Bit Torque/WOB relationship The calculation of MSE enables the prediction of how efficient a bit will be in a particular formation, having understood the rock strengths and associated rock mechanics. The cutting action and efficiency of the bit is a function of the actual cutting torque, a bit will be at its most efficient when new (assuming it is designed correctly) and conversely be least efficient when the bit is dull and the cutting structure is significantly worn. Obviously not all of the torque applied to the BHA and bit is directly converted to cutting action; significant amounts are dissipated as friction either as a result of insufficient WOB or insufficient cutting capacity of the bit. There are several thresholds to consider, the first is associated with sufficient WOB to overcome the initial friction as the bit engages the formation, once this threshold is overcome the cutting efficiency will increase relative to applied WOB. Once ROP is initiated, there is a second threshold where the maximum mechanical efficiency and therefore the maximum cutting action are achieved. At this point further increases in WOB will not realize corresponding increases in ROP because the bit has reached its cutting limitation, in fact increases in WOB will increase friction losses and potentially increase bit wear and reduce MSE.
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SPE 24584 - Quantifying Common Drilling Problems With Mechanical Specific Energy and a Bit-Specific Coefficient of Sliding Friction. (R.C. Pessier, Hughes Tool Co., and M.J. Fear, BP Exploration) IPTC 10607 - Maximizing ROP with Real-Time Analysis of Digital Data and MSE. F.E.Dupriest, SPE, Exxon Mobil, and J.W. Witt, SPE, and S.M. Remmert, SPE, Rasgas Co. Ltd.

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A third threshold relates to the condition where all the torque is applied to overcoming friction, and therefore none is applied to cutting, increases in WOB and therefore torque will not realize increased ROP because the bit has no capacity to cut the formation, or because other drilling dysfunctions are preventing ROP. Given the above, the behavior of each bit can be modeled to predict the percentages of torque being applied to cutting vs being lost to friction. Modeling can predict the maximum theoretical Depth Of Cut (DOC) per revolution and therefore ROP at a given WOB; this is an important factor in understanding what the bit performance should be and how to identify trends which are inconsistent with the predicted performance. (Figure 2-9 on page 20 further describes bit performance relationships) 2.4.4 Modeling Constraints As stated previously the MSE calculation is typically made with surface data for WOB, RPM and ROP as well as calculated torque values. Given drilling dynamics, friction and associated conditions down hole, the actual MSE value can change significantly from the calculated value. In addition there are a number of operational rig constraints that impact MSE including maximum available WOB/TOB, maximum ROP and minimum RPM. With these constraints considered, there is a practical WOB maximum threshold that, if exceeded, will reduce mechanical efficiency and increase friction rather than cutting torque. This practical WOB maximum is significantly less than the theoretical maximum, and as described earlier, will change as the condition of the bit changes and other drilling dysfunctions present themselves. 2.4.5 Drill-Off Test As described previously, there is an expected optimum weight on bit for each well and specific formation being drilled. The determination of this optimal WOB can be achieved through several methods, some of which are more reliable than others. The drill off test is a process that involves the application of a high WOB with the brake locked to prevent the top of the drillstring string from advancing while continuing to circulate and rotate. This procedure allows the bit to make hole and 17

stretch the string which in turn reduces the WOB. Based on Hookes law of elasticity the ROP response is calculated from the change in the rate of drill string elongation as the weight declines9. This is based on the following equation:

ROP =

W L * W = .............................................................................................. (2-10) t EAS * t

Where: W = WOB, t = time, L = length of drill pipe, E = Modulus of Elasticity of drill pipe, AS = Cross sectional area of the drill pipe
Figure 2-8: Example Drill-Off test data 10

Drill Off Test Data


45 40 35 ROP (ft/hr) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 42 44 46 48 WOB (klbs) 80 RPM 70 RPM 50

Optimal WOB (Founder Point)

52

54

60 RPM

SPE/IADC 92194 - Maximizing Drill Rates with Real-Time Surveillance of Mechanical Specific Energy. Fred E. Dupriest, SPE, ExxonMobil and William L. Koederitz, SPE, M/D Totco, a Varco Company SPE/IADC 92194 - Maximizing Drill Rates with Real-Time Surveillance of Mechanical Specific Energy. Fred E. Dupriest, SPE, ExxonMobil and William L. Koederitz, SPE, M/D Totco, a Varco Company

10

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By measuring the time it takes to drill off the weight on bit at regular intervals (e.g. 2,000lbs) and plotting ROP against WOB or WOB against time (seconds) an optimal WOB can be derived. The tests are repeated at varying RPM settings in order to assess the optimal RPM and WOB settings for the given formation. Figure 2-8 show plots of data taken at 2,000 lbs WOB intervals and indicates a linear response up to the optimal WOB point where the ROP stops responding linearly to increases in WOB. The drill off test allows a driller to test the drillability of the formation and calculate the required WOB to optimize ROP as well and predict the expected bit wear. Although this process is functional, it is time consuming and can provide varied results. 2.4.6 Founder Point The flounder or founder point refers to the point during drilling11 at which the ROP stops responding linearly with increasing WOB, i.e. where the increase in WOB does not realize equivalent increases in ROP. It is important to understand the founder point in order to minimize the bit wear and maximize the ROP. The causes of founder are predominantly inefficiencies associated with the drilling dysfunctions described above including hydraulics (hole cleaning/cuttings), balling, vibration, damaged/worn bits and rig constraints. Founder point thresholds can be predicted and when encountered, raised to allow more efficient drilling by understanding the attribute leading to the founder and adjusting accordingly. For example, by increasing pump rate and flow the associated improvement in hole cleaning will lead to a reduction in bit balling and therefore raise the founder point to realize more efficient drilling. Figure 2-9 describes the relationship of ROP and WOB, respective regions of performance (described in section 2.4.3) and founder point(s)

11

Proposed by A.Lubinski January 1958 edition of The Petroleum Engineer Proposal for future tests.

19

Figure 2-9: Example of Founder point and relationship to bit performance 12

ROP

Potential Performance: Assuming optimized efficiency Region III: Founder, due to various drilling dysfunctions

Enhanced performance achieved by altering design to raise founder point

Region II: Efficient Bit

Region I: Inadequate Depth of Cut (DOC)

WOB
2.4.7 MSE summary Over the years MSE has gathered momentum as a best practice in terms of predicting, monitoring and improving drilling efficiency, ExxonMobil, for example, places significant emphasis on understanding MSE within their Fast Drill Process (FDP) for ROP efficiency13. The advent and acceptance of real-time monitoring techniques at surface has improved the automation and control of the various rig attributes to manage WOB, TOB and RPM and therefore maximize potential ROP. The opportunity being realized today is the next wave in accuracy associated with real-time down hole measurement of actual WOB/TOB and BOB as close to the bit as possible. These measurements significantly improve the predictive model

12

SPE/IADC 92194 - Maximizing Drill Rates with Real-Time Surveillance of Mechanical Specific Energy. Fred E. Dupriest, SPE, ExxonMobil and William L. Koederitz, SPE, M/D Totco, a Varco Company SPE 102210 - Comprehensive Drill Rate Management Process to Maximize Rate of Penetration. F.E.Dupriest, Exxon Mobil Development Co.

13

20

accuracy and allow real time identification and management of drilling dysfunctions as they present themselves. Figures 2-10 and 2-11 on the following pages show example analysis of input and modeling/prediction of MSE and associated attributes from Halliburtons SPARTA integrated suite of modeling applications14. Explanation of each column is given in the notes of each track of information from derived rock strength parameters through predicted bit performance and optimal WOB, TOB, RPM and ROP parameters necessary to optimize drilling efficiency. These models predict and monitor performance based on surface derived calculations of WOB and TOB values rather than down hole measured values. As will become evident later in this thesis, accurate real-time down hole WOB/TOB measurements will deliver a stepped change efficiency gain in application of MSE prediction theory.

14

Courtesy of Halliburton Company Security DBS SPARTA analysis. All rights reserved

21

Figure 2-10: Example analysis of MSE and Drilling Efficiency attributes (Rock Strength and Bit work/Torque (Halliburton SPARTA output - All rights reserved)

Logs provide the primary data for deriving rock strength characteristics and can include NMR, Gamma Ray, density, sonic etc. logs

Lithology can be interpreted from the logs and along with the percentage of each component present at each respective depth

The porosity of the respective rock types and column is an important attribute and is typically derived from NMR, Neutron Density and sonic porosity logs

Geomechanical analysis and the understanding of the confined and unconfined rock strength is a critical element in determining the energy required at the bit to cut efficiently

The understanding of shale plasticity includes analysis of shale volume, type & water content as derived from several logs. This assists in prediction of bit balling potential

The Specific Energy and cumulative work done by the bit is shown in this track

The total Torque On Bit and cutting torque are shown in this track, and allows modeling of the torque-WOB signature as the bit wears from new to a dull state.

22

Figure 2-11: Example analysis of MSE and Drilling Efficiency attributes (Bit efficiency and Optimal WOB/RPM/ROP) (Halliburton SPARTA output All rights reserved)

Mechanical Efficiency describes the cutting torque as a % of the overall torque the remainder of the torque is lost to friction or constrained by operational parameters of the drilling rig

Operational attributes of the drilling rig introduce constraints which limit Mechanical Efficiency potential

Understanding the maximum power limit of the bit for a given rock strength will allow optimal ROP without damage to the bit. The limit may not be achievable given rig operating constraints

Prediction of the optimal WOB range recognizes all the bit performance cutting potential and operating constraints as required to maximize ROP without exceeding the founder point

Modeling the optimal RPM can be achieved based on understanding the optimal WOB potential.

The combination and optimization of MSE attributes can model and predict an optimum ROP for a given rock strength and rig operational constraints

Bit wear can also be modeled based on understanding all attributes. Iterative MSE analysis can predict WOB/TOB/RPM settings based on understanding of amount of bit wear and remaining efficiency

23

2.5

Surface measurement techniques

2.5.1 WOB/TOB measurement WOB can be measured at surface by comparing off-bottom and drilling hook load weights; measurement of torque applied to the bit is measured at the surface in terms of the rotary torque provided by the top drive or rotary table motor, typically through measurement of the current draw on the motor, or in the case of hydraulic driven systems measurement of pressure changes. Dynamic measuring subs15, (containing torque meters, accelerometers and in certain cases strain gauges with wireless connectivity) and similar devices have been developed and utilized in certain configurations, usually located below the power swivel or just above the Kelly Bushing, however the complexity and calibration challenges of these devices have prevented them from seeing common use in the industry. Surface measurements are not always reliable, particularly in conditions such as deviated or extended reach wells where borehole friction losses prevent the transmission of the surface WOB to the BHA and bit at the formation being drilled. Torque and Drag analysis is carried out on the wellbore design in order to predict the axial forces and expected torque and friction forces along the drill string. This analysis is utilized to determine the feasibility of the well in terms of potential dog leg severity (DLS) issues, what additional WOB is required to overcome anticipated forces and at which point in the drilling process. The drilling of deviated wells introduces additional challenges in predicting torque and drag dependent on the actual vs. planned tortuosity and the propensity of the well to spiral as it is drilled, further complicating friction losses and associated issues. The objective of the driller is to maintain the optimal WOB and TOB as planned but also to recognize events which may require a deviation from plan to maintain efficient drilling. Originally this was achieved by manually controlling the draw works brake to maintain the weight on the weight indicator at the drill floor.

15 lADC/SPE 23888 - Surface Detection of Vibrations and Drilling Optimization : Field Experience by Henry HENNEUSE

24

Advances in electromagnetic and mechanical sensing devices coupled with computer control and real-time monitoring techniques, have seen significant acceptance from the industry with continuous display and alerts directly available to the driller, reducing the complexity of data analysis and the associated decision making process. 2.5.2 BOB Measurement Bending at bit and BHA bending is important to determine the side forces/stresses being encountered by the BHA and bit. As with MSE, torque and drag and other important attributes, these forces are predicted and modeled to ensure that potential issues with BHA reliability and dog leg severity (DLS) are minimized during drilling. Understanding bending strain and associated stresses on the bit can assist in optimizing the design of the BHA in deviated wells, where the design of the gauge length and depth of the bit and associated BHA configuration can be a limitation in the build up rate (BUR) potential of the string. Unlike WOB and TOB, bending forces can not be measured from the surface and can only be measured down hole, preferably as close to the bit/BHA as possible. The availability of BOB information also provides higher resolution wellbore curvature data than traditional degree per 100ft survey techniques. For example BOB measurement can detect high local doglegs where changes in formation types are encountered which would not show up on a typical survey. The measurement of the direction of bending stress in relation to the low side of the hole is an important attribute to determining the direction of the drilling.

25

Chapter 3

3.0 PRINCIPLES OF STRAIN/STRESS AND MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES Developments in MWD/LWD have progressed significantly in the past decade as the requirement for directional wells and accurate well placement with geosteering techniques has matured. These increasingly complex wells exacerbated the drilling dysfunctions issues described in chapter II and as a result necessitated technology developments in down hole tools which measure the respective drilling dysfunctions, including triaxial vibration, (with accelerometers), direction (with magnetometers), ECD with (pressure sensors) and temperature (with temperature sensors) These measurement systems are typically contained within a single sub which is located as part of the BHA. Data is captured and relayed back to the surface in real-time through Mud Pulse or appropriate EM telemetry methods (described in a later chapter) Progress in developing and delivering real-time WTB measurement down hole has only been made in the past 5 years, however the technology used to measure each attribute has been proven for decades and is relatively simple, its application in harsh down hole environments is more challenging. There are in excess of 80 patent applications describing WT or WTB tools, all of them utilize the same fundamental strain gauge techniques with Wheatstone bridge circuits. 3.1 Definitions of Strain and Stress.

The following section describes the basic physics of strain and is incorporated in this thesis as a backgrounder to explain the fundamentals associated with measurement of strain. The ability to measure strain allows derivation of stress and therefore the forces experienced by an object. This section is important to the overall understanding of how down hole force measurement is derived. 26

3.1.1 Strain Strain force. Strain can either be tensile (positive) or compressive (negative) and can be defined as the ratio of the change in length over the original length (for a simple object) Therefore: Strain =

is defined as deformation per unit length of a material in reaction to a

= LL

............................................................................................................. (3-1)

in terms of micro-strain (i.e. x10-6 or )


Figure 3-1: Basic strain

is typically dimensionless or with units of inch/inch or mm/mm, and expressed

Force
D

Force

= LL
3.1.2 Poisson Strain Poisson Strain refers to the response of an object to uniaxial forces resulting in stretching of the object to the extent that the object elongates in the direction of the forces and flattens in the direction transverse to the force. The Poisson ratio is defined as the negative ratio of the strain in the transverse direction to the strain in the longitudinal or axial section. i.e. Poisson Ratio = Poisson Ratio = =

trans Transverse direction strain D / D = = axial Longitudinal direction strain L / L

.......(3-2)

27

Every material has a given Poisson ratio which ranges from 0.0 to 0.5, with 0.5 representing a material that is perfectly incompressible. For example steel has a Poisson ratio of between 0.27 and 0.3, copper 0.33 and magnesium 0.35.
Figure 3-2: Poisson Strain

Force
D

D-D

Force

L L+L

3.1.3 Shearing strain Shearing strain refers to the measure of angular distortion on an object when a force is applied and the deformation is perpendicular to original plane. Shear strain is defined as the tangent of the angle created by the deformation from the normal state. Shearing Strain = =

Deformation = Tan original length

.........................................................................(3-3)

Where is the angle created by the deformation. Stress is measured in units of force per unit area.
Figure 3-3: Shearing Strain

Force

28

3.1.4 Normal stress Normal stress is defined as stress which is perpendicular or vertical to the plane of the object as shown in figure: 3-4. Normal Stress = =
Figure 3-4: Normal Stress

Perpendicular Force Fn or A Area

....................................................................(3-4)

Force

Plane Area Internal resisting Forces


3.1.5 Shear stress Shear stress is defined as the stress state where the stress is parallel to the plane: Shear Stress = =

Parallel Force F or A Area

..........................................................................................(3-5)

Where both stresses are present, e.g. in a diagonal shear of an object, then both the normal () and shear () components need to be calculated to reflect the overall stress. (refer to Mohrs circle biaxial/triaxial stress systems below) 3.1.6 Youngs Modulus Youngs Modulus (modulus of elasticity) is a measure of the stiffness of a material and is defined as the relationship of stress and strain or E. The normal stress-strain relationship is defined as Hookes law where:

29

Hookes Law: = E *

or

E=

......................................................................................................(3-6)

And G = the relationship of shear stress and shear strain, and is referred to as the modulus of rigidity or shear modulus: Shear Modulus = G =

Shear Stress = Shear Strain

.........................................................................................(3-7)

The shear modulus can also be expressed as:

Shear Modulus = G =

E 2(1 + )

..............................................................................................................(3-8)

(E=Modulus of Elasticity and = Poisson' s ratio )


Figure 3-5: Stress/Strain relationship and elasticity

When the stress and strain


Proportional Limit Ultimate Strength Rupture Point

measurements of a material are plotted against each other a graph is plotted as depicted in

Stress ()

Yield Point

Figure 3-5, the straight line represents the modulus of elasticity for the material (up to the proportional limit), beyond
Strain ()

Modulus of Elasticity (Straight Line)

the yield point the materials elasticity is exceeded and the

material will be permanently deformed (plastic deformation) until the ultimate strength is reached after which the breaking point or rupture/failure point is achieved. It should be noted that a materials modulus of elasticity may vary with temperature, with each material varying to different amounts, this is important in the selection of materials for given down hole temperature applications. Given the basics of stress and strain, relationships can be made and equations derived for bending strain, axial strain, torsional strain and shear strain, or conversely if we can measure the strain we can calculate the force being applied to the material at the point of measurement. 30

3.1.7 Bending forces Bending strain (Moment Strain): Bending Strain = B =

Bending Stress = B Modulus of Elasticity E

............................................................(3-9)

where

B is the moment stress and is equal to the bending moment (force x

length) divided by the sectional modulus (Z). The sectional modulus is a modulus of a cross section of the object: Sectional Modulus = Z =

Geometrical Moment of Inertia (I) 3 (in ) ..........................(3-10) Distance of Center of Gravity (e)

For a drill string section for example:

2* I (OD 4 String ID 4 String ) 3 Drill String section: Z = (in ) ........................................(3-11) = OD 32 * ODString


Given that: Bending Stress = B =

Bending Moment M B = Z Sectional modulus

..............................................................(3-12)

Bending Moment = M B = F * l therefore by substitution : Bending Stress = B =

..........................................................................................................(3-13)

F *l ..................................................................................................................(3-14) Z

Rearranging this equation bending Force: Bending Forces = F = E * B *

Z l

....................................................................................................(3-15)

where l is the length of the test object. 3.1.8 Axial forces Similarly Axial strain: 31

Axial Strain = A = And:

Axial Stress = A Modulus of Elasticity E

................................................................(3-16)

Axial Stress = A =

F Axial Force = A A Cross Sectional Area

.................................................................(3-17)

This can be rearranged to show that: Axial Force = FAxial = E * A * A ........................................................................................................(3-18) 3.1.9 Shear Strain Shear Strain = = Where: Shear Modulus= G =

Shear Stress = ...............................................................(3-19) Modulus of Shear Stress G

Shear Stress F/A FL = = = Shear Strain L / L LA

................................................(3-20)

and is typically measured in GPa or ksi (thousands of psi) The second moment of area (I) is defined as the capacity of a cross section to resist bending for example for a drill pipe cross section: Second Moment of Area= I = 3.1.10 Torsional Strain Torsional Strain = Where: Torsional Stress= = And:
4 4 * (d od did )

64

(in4) ..............................................................(3-21)

Torsional Stress = Torsional modulus of elasticity G

.........................................(3-22)

M t * (d / 2) .....................................................................................................(3-23) J

32

Shear Modulus= G =

Shear Stress = (Described above) ..........................................(3-20) Shear Strain


..................................................................(3-24)

For accurate shear measurement = 2 * @ 45

That is reading of the strain with gauges at 45 to center of rotation and in line with the principal axis. Mt = torque and J= Polar second moment of area is the measure of an objects ability to resist torsion which for a drill pipe cross sectional area16 Polar second moment of area for a drill pipe cross sectional area 4 4 * (d od did ) 4 =J = (in ) ......................................................................................................................... (3-25) 32 From these equations, and with correct positioning of the strain gauges, it is possible to calculate the torsional moments.

2 2 Torsional Moment = M t = * ( J ) * = * G * ( J ) * .......................................(3-26) d d


Where d is the OD of the pipe. (i.e. d/2 = distance from center of cross section to outer fiber) 3.1.11 Principal Axis The principal axis describes the axes or planes of maximum and minimum stress/strain and will always be at right angles to each other. A distinguishing feature of principal planes is that no shearing stresses or strains act on them. In a uniaxially loaded bar the normal stress planes fall in the x and y axis where the x axis is the plane of most stress and the y axis the plane of least stress. In a biaxial stress environment, for example where a drill string is in or compression and experiencing torsional stress it is also experiencing a tri-axial strain state with torsion strain and Poissons strain (with compressive forces
16

William F.Riley, loren W.Zachary. Introduction to Mechanics of Materials, John Wiley and Sons, 1989 ISBN: 0-471-84933-2

33

reducing length and increasing diameter of the string). In this circumstance the principal axis are aligned to the principal strain/stress axis which are not in the x and y axis, rather alternate axis in the direction of the torsional forces. Understanding the orientation of the principal axis and the magnitude of the maximum and minimum stresses significantly simplify the calculation of the normal and shear stresses at any point on the object and in any orientation. 3.2 Mohrs Circles

As stated previously it is important to understand that for all types of loads a shearing stress at any point on a plane is accompanied by a shearing stress of the same amount on a perpendicular plane through the same point. Stress transformation equations are used to determine the normal stress and shearing stress for different planes through a point in a stressed body. The simplest way of expressing these multiple principal stresses is to use the Mohrs circle diagram, which was developed by Otto Mohr in the late 1800s and early 1900s and allows a pictorial representation of the stress system.
Figure 3-6: Mohrs circle representation of Normal, Biaxial and Triaxial stress systems. Mohr circle for simple tension Mohr circle for Biaxial Stress Mohr circle for Triaxial Stress

1 2

1 3 2
1 2
2

max =

1
2

1 3
2

2 3
2

2 = 3 = 0


3 = 0

2 3

1 3
2

The Mohrs circle is constructed by plotting the normal stress on the x axis versus the shear stress on the y axis and plotting the maximum and minimum normal principal stresses on the x axis. (Positive tensile stresses are plotted to the right of the origin and negative compressive stresses to the left). Shearing stresses are plotted on the y axis with stresses tending to produce a clockwise rotation of 34

the stress element plotted above the x Axis and those with counterclockwise plotted below the x axis. The diameter of the circle represents the difference between the stresses (e.g. 1 and 3). The circle represents the normal and shearing stresses on one plane through the stress point. The angular position of the radius to the point gives the orientation of the plane. Examples are shown in figure 3-6 above. 3.3 Strain Gauges

As noted in the previous section stress is a derived quantity and must be computed from other attributes. Stress can be computed from measurement of strains and their distribution. Strain gauges are the primary method of measuring the appropriate strains for a given object. The strain gauge is a device which measures the deformation of a surface. There are a number of types of strain gauges including metal wire/foil, carbon resistive, semiconductor/piezoresistive, and optical gauges. Each type has benefits and drawbacks dependent on the desired service environment and accuracy requirement. Carbon resistance gauges exhibit changes in the carbon resistance with changes in length of the gauge. Although it demonstrates high strain sensitivity it is significantly affected by temperature and humidity.
Figure 3-7: Metallic foil gauge17

When a semiconductor (e.g. silicon or germanium) gauge is deformed it exhibits a piezoresistive effect such that a voltage difference can be measured which is proportional to the strain. The benefit of this type of gauge is the typically increased sensitivity over wire or foil type gauges, however the drawbacks include potential errors associated with temperature sensitivity and non linear resistance response. These errors can prove problematic in bridge configurations, but can be overcome with accurate computer modeling. The most common form of strain gauge can be found in the metallic foil gauge (figure 3-7) which is bonded to the surface of the object being measured. As the
17

www.omega.com

35

surface deforms the gauge stretches or shrinks in a specified plane of movement and as a result the resistance of the foil also changes, the greater the stretching of the foil, the higher the resistance and conversely the greater the compression the lower the resistance becomes. Gauges are attached to the object in a specific orientation to allow the strain sensitive pattern to monitor strain in one plane only and be insensitive to strain in the opposite plane. (i.e. a gauge configured to measure axial strain would be insensitive to lateral strain, to measure lateral strain, the gauge would need to be reoriented by rotating 90) 3.3.1 Gauge Factor When the gauge is placed in an electrical circuit, the variation of strain can be directly related to the change in resistance and therefore current flow across the gauge. In order to measure the strain, it is important to consider the gauges sensitivity to strain. This sensitivity to strain is expressed as a calculated Gauge Factor.
GF = Fractional Electrical Resistance R / R R / R = or Fractional change in length (strain) L / L

..............................(3-27)

The Gauge Factor reflects the overall sensitivity of the foil/wire, carrier matrix and associated connections, the greater the GF the more sensitive the gauge. A typical GF value for the most common devices is 2. Every gauge has a measured GF which is provided by the manufacturer and used in the calculation of measured strain. As described earlier semiconductor gauges demonstrate higher sensitivity which results in greater GF values. 3.3.2 Bonding The manner in which the gauge is bonded to the object ensures that the strain being measured is accurately transferred from the object to the strain gauge foil/wire. The gauges are manufactured in as small a cross-sectional area as possible whilst maximizing sensitivity and surface area. The wire or foil gauges are attached to a very thin (0.001 inch) carrier/backing material, typically a plastic such as polyimide or epoxy, which acts as an electrical insulator and allows installation of the gauge through cementation to the object being measured. 36

The selection of carrier material and cementation/bonding method is dependent on the classification of service and includes attributes such as temperature, pressure and moisture conditions. Table 3-1 provides an indicative list of cement types and temperature limitations.
Table 3-1: Example bonding adhesives based on temperature ranges

<100C (212F)
Cynocrolate/ Cynoacrelate adhesives Two part solid epoxy Two part epoxy phenolic adhesive

<250C (480F)

<350C (662F)

<800C (662F)

Two part solids epoxy (high resistance) Two part epoxy phenolic adhesive Polyimide based adhesive Ceramic Cement

3.3.3 Temperature Due to the concept of thermal coefficient of expansion, every gauge will be affected by changes in temperature, over and above the effects of strain. The GF will change as a function of the difference between the thermal coefficient of expansion for the gauge and the thermal coefficient of expansion for the material being monitored. Understanding this concept is important to ensure accuracy of measurement and selection of appropriate gauge alloys to match the coefficients of thermal expansion as closely as possible. Temperature compensation can also be addressed in the configuration of the Wheatstone bridge circuit described later in this document. In recognition of the temperature effects, manufacturers provide a plot of the GF variation in relation to temperature, which enables a look up of the GF dependent on the actual measured temperature. The actual GF can be defined as: Temperature adjusted Gauge Factor = GFA = GF

(1 + %GF) ..................................(3-28) 100

37

3.3.4 The Wheatstone bridge The Wheatstone bridge circuit is a universally accepted method of accurately measuring the resistance change associated by applicable resistive strain gauges. The gauges themselves generate extremely small values in micro strain terms ( x 10 ) and therefore the associated resistance change is also extremely small. To compensate for this the gauges are organized in a Wheatstone bridge configuration which consists of 4 (four) resistive arms (one or multiple of which would contain the strain gauge(s)) with an input of excitation voltage applied across the bridge.
Figure 3-8 Wheatstone bridge circuit

-6

Figure 3-8 depicts a basic Wheatstone bridge configuration). The output voltage of the bridge indicates the resistance change and therefore the measured strain and can be defined by the following equation:

R3 R2 Bridge output voltage = Vo = VEX * R +R R1 + R2 3 g

(3-29)

Where Rg is a single strain gauge and R1 , R2 and R3 are known values. In order to accurately measure the strain value the bridge must be balanced in the unstrained state, i.e. when the value of R1 / R2 = R3 / Rg the output voltage must equal zero, thereafter any change in resistance in the strain gauge will reflect a change in the output voltage. In its simplest configuration the bridge would be balanced by adjusting the value of R2 in the unstrained state. Changes in Rg in the strained state would create a voltage measurement, adjusting the value of R2 to balance the bridge in the strained state would indicate the change of resistance in gauges as Rg. Alternately, when ignoring non linearity errors, the strain can be calculated by rearranging the equation GF =

Rg / Rg

to determine the change in resistance as:

Bridge resistance change = R = R g * GF *

...........................................................................(3-30)

38

and therefore the strain as: Measured Strain = =

Rg R g * GF

.........................................................................................................(3-31)

A simplified method of measuring the strain is to calibrate a meter to measure Vo as a function of the strain (in micro strain units). 3.3.5 Unbalanced bridges The increasing utilization of computer modeling techniques remove the need to balance the bridge and allows considerable flexibility in the configuration of bridges with multiple gauges in one or ultimately all of the resistive arms and measure strain in an unbalanced bridge configuration. By rewriting the fundamental bridge equation, the relationship of the excitation voltage to the output voltage can be determined:

Voltage Ratio =

Vo R3 R2 .............................................................................(3-32) = VEX R3 + Rg R1 + R2

This ratio is consistent for both the strained and unstrained state, therefore the difference in strained versus unstrained voltage ratio can be written as
V Voltage Ratio = VR = o VEX Vo strained VEX unstrained ...............................................(3-33)

Also, given that in the strained condition the resistance of the gauge is R g + Rg and that GF =

Rg / Rg

, the following equation can be derived to reflect the

actual strain measurement in a bridge configuration: Bridge Strain = =

4VR GF (1 + 2VR )

.........................(3-34) (Ignoring

lead wire resistance)

Given the above equation, and the relationship of VR, equations can be derived for half and full bridge configurations.

39

Half bridge configuration Half bridges are configured to have active strain gauges in two resistive arms of the Wheatstone bridge. This can serve to double the output sensitivity in certain configurations by recognizing that the strains are opposite but equal, and as such creates a combined voltage difference. An example would be measurement of both compressive and tensile strain on a beam where one gauge is in tension ( R g + Rg ) and the other compression ( R g Rg ). Axial or bending strain calculations for half bridges are :( ignoring errors) For axial strain: bridge axial strain = = where is Poissons ratio. For bending strain: bridge bending strain = = Full bridge configuration Full bridges are configured with active gauges in each of the resistive arms; the sensitivity of the circuit would differ based on the configuration and orientation of the gauges. Axial or bending strain calculations for full bridges are :( ignoring errors) For axial strain: Full bridge axial strain = = where is Poissons ratio. For bending strain:

4VR ...........................................................(3-35) GF [(1 + ) 2VR ( 1)]

2VR GF

............................................................................................(3-36)

2VR ...........................................................(3-37) GF [( + 1) VR ( 1)]

40

Full bridge bending strain = =

VR GF

...........................................................................................(3-38)

For bending strain, (with the Poisson arrangement for the temperature compensated dummy gauge on the same tensile surface): Full bridge bending strain (Poisson) =

2VR GF * ( + 1)

........................................................(3-39)

Given the basic understanding of bridge configurations it can be seen that there are numerous configurations of , and full bridges that can be utilized to measure axial, bending and torsional/shear strain. Figures 3-9, 3-10 & 3-11 show the orientation of each gauge, associated circuit diagram and the attributes of each of the , , and full bridge configurations covering all three strain states.
Figure 3-9: Axial strain configurations

Axial Strain Gauge and associated bridge configurations


FA R4

Comments:
FA

Basic bridge configuration Simple strain measurement No temperature compensation Sensitive to bending strain Lowest relative sensitivity (0.5 mV/V @ 1000)

FA

R4 R3

Comments: bridge configuration Amplified strain measurement Temperature compensation with dummy gauge positioned transverse to applied strain Sensitive to bending strain Improved relative sensitivity (0.65 mV/V @ 1000) Comments: bridge configuration Further amplified strain measurement with 2 identical gauges on opposite sides. No temperature compensation as both subject to the same temperature error. Compensates for bending strain Improved relative sensitivity (1.0 mV/V @ 1000)

FA FA

R4

R3

FA R4 R1

FA

Comments: Full bridge configuration Further amplified strain measurement with 4 gauges (2 measurement, 2 dummy) Temperature compensation with dummy gauges positioned transverse to applied strain Compensates for bending strain Improved relative sensitivity (1.3 mV/V @ 1000)

R3 R2 FA

41

Figure 3-10: Bending Strain configurations

Bending Strain Gauge and associated bridge configurations


R4 FV

Comments: Basic bridge configuration Simple strain measurement No temperature compensation Sensitive to axial strain Lowest relative sensitivity (0.5 mV/V @ 1000)

R4 FV

Comments: bridge configuration Amplified strain measurement Temperature compensation with dummy gauge positioned in same plane but opposite side (in compression compressive Compensates for axial strain Improved relative sensitivity (1.0 mV/V @ 1000)

R3

R4 R2 FV

Comments: Full bridge configuration Further amplified strain measurement with 4 identical gauges on (2 on opposite sides). Temperature compensation Compensates for axial strain Improved relative sensitivity (2.0 mV/V @ 1000)

R1

R3

Figure 3-11: Torsional/Shear strain configurations.

Torsional Strain Gauge and associated bridge configurations


MT MT

Comments: Basic bridge configuration, gauges positioned at 45 from centerline to measure principal strains Simple strain measurement Temperature compensation Compensates for Axial and bending strain as both are equal Lowest relative sensitivity (1.0 mV/V @ 1000)

R4

R3

R2 MT

R1

MT

Comments: Full bridge configuration, gauges positioned at 45 from centerline to measure principal strains Amplified strain measurement Temperature Compensation Compensates for Axial and bending strain as both are equal Improved relative sensitivity (2.0 mV/V @ 1000)

R4

R3

42

Chapter 4

4.0 APPLICATION TO DOWNHOLE MEASUREMENT

4.1

WOB/TOB/BOB measurement devices.

As mentioned previously, significant progress has been made over the years in measurement of down hole vibration, direction control and pressure through direct application of sensors within MWD subs in the BHA. The deployment of down hole tools which directly measure WOB/TOB and BOB has been a relatively recent occurrence. Some tools only measure WOB/TOB whilst others also measure BOB. Reliability at the temperatures and pressures experienced in todays wells add complexity and require careful engineering to ensure that the measurements are within a relatively reasonable margin of error necessary to add value to the drilling process. Research reveals that the techniques required to deliver down hole WOB/TOB/BOB measurement have been well known for decades in the industry, all based on the theories described within chapters 2 and 3 of this thesis. For clarity, within the collar where the strain gauges are installed:

WOB is the measurement of axial compressive and tension load applied to the collar TOB is the measurement of torsional strain applied to the collar BOB is the measurement of bending strain applied to the collar

There are numerous patents and SPE/IADC papers and patents written on the specific application of strain gauges and associated Wheatstone bridge configurations, many of which are more than 20 years old. Three specific patents were studied in detail in the preparation of this thesis and are summarized below in order to demonstrate the common application methods. The specific patents are referenced by the last name of the first author within the thesis, and include:

43

Anderson18: US Patent # 3,827,294 - Aug 6, 1974; Wellbore force measuring apparatus; Ronald A Anderson, Houston Tx Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation, New York, N.Y.

Das19: US Patent # 5,386,724 - Feb 7, 1995; Load Cells for Sensing Weight and Torque on a Drill Bit While Drilling a Well Bore; Pralay K. Das; Haoshi Song, Sugarland Tx Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corp, Houston TX.

Woloson20: US Patent # 6,216,533 - Apr 17, 2001; Apparatus For Measuring Down hole Drilling Efficiency Parameters; Scott E. Woloson, Dale A Jones, Houston, TX - Assignee: Dresser Industries Inc, Dallas TX

All of the patents describe various methods of configuring strain gauges within a down hole drilling sub and coupling through Wheatstone bridge circuits to generate a measurable voltage. The output of the circuits is processed, captured and relayed though electrical connection to the MWD sub and thereafter to the surface through the existing MWD mud pulse telemetry system. It is not the intent of this thesis to analyze these patents in detail, however the key elements of their application are described to demonstrate the contrast in approach and further describe the application of the associated measurement and error correction methods. 4.1.1 Anderson (patent No. 3,827,294) The Anderson patent is the oldest of the three and is interesting to reference as an early application of gauges to the drilling sub. The application includes a pair of force-measuring sleeves or loops which are attached to the collar with specifically placed strain gauges to allow the sleeves to be exposed to the same torsional and axial (longitudinal) forces as the sub. The

18

US Patent # 3,827,294 - Aug 6, 1974; Wellbore force measuring apparatus; Ronald A Anderson, Houston Tx Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation, New York, N.Y. US Patent # 5,386,724 - Feb 7, 1995; Load Cells for Sensing Weight and Torque on a Drill Bit While Drilling a Well Bore; Pralay K. Das; Haoshi Song, Sugarland Tx Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corp, Houston TX. US Patent # 6,216,533 - Apr 17, 2001; Apparatus For Measuring Down hole Drilling Efficiency Parameters; Scott E. Woloson, Dale A Jones, Houston, TX - Assignee: Dresser Industries Inc, Dallas TX

19

20

44

loop has two donut like rings located 180 opposite to each other, which are connected with strips or bars of metal between them to form the loop. Gauges are placed on the strips between the donuts on the sides of the loop bars which allows measurement of tension and compression of the loop when the sub is exposed to torsional strain, and therefore the TOB. Gauges are also placed in the inner wall of the donut rings at 4 locations starting at 12 oclock and then positioned equidistantly at 3 oclock, 6 oclock and 9 0clock positions. These gauges measure the axial strain on the loop and sub, and therefore the WOB.
Figure 4-1: Diagram showing layout of force measuring sleeve/loop. Loop encapsulated in Pressure sealed chamber (Not Shown)

Loop mounted within Sub wall

WOB Strain Gauges (Inside donut rings)

Device under strain (On bars and donut rings)

TOB Strain Gauges (On bars between donut rings)

The strain gauges are connected into two separate Wheatstone bridge circuits one for TOB measurement and the other for WOB. The TOB bridges are configured with two gauges in each arm each measuring the same either compressive or tensile strain. The theory described in chapter 3 is applied here to provide an amplification of the strain signal by coupling multiple gauges within all four arms of the bridge to maximize sensitivity. Differential pressure errors are in part offset through a relatively elaborate pressure equalized chamber configuration which encapsulates the deformable loop and 45

maintains the environment at a relatively constant pressure. This mechanism also serves to isolate the measurement mechanism from the drilling fluid. As with all the patents described here, the gauges are connected via wired connections channeled within the walls of the sub to the MWD sub for subsequent transmission to the surface through the available telemetry system. 4.1.2 Das (patent No. 5,386,724) The Das patent introduces the use of two radial pockets positioned 180 opposite each other around the drill collar and sealed from the drilling fluid with caps. These radial pockets allow measurement of the necessary strains through placement of the gauges within a ring configuration load cell.
Figure 4-2: Layout showing load cell insert configuration of DAS patent.
0
TOB 4 WOB 1

315

45
TOB 1

Insert with load cell attached

Pocket in sub wall

WOB 4

270

90
WOB 2

TOB 3

Side view showing insert positioned inside pocket with gauges on face of ring 225
TOB 2 WOB 3

135

180 Plan view showing orientation of gauges

The load cells comprise of radial inserts, (similar to an automotive brake disk with a central hub and gauges positioned on the face of the disc), onto which the gauges (numbered W1 to W4 and T1 to T4) are attached around the circumference starting at 0 (W1 @12 oclock) then 90(W2), 180(W3) and 270(W4) for the WOB gauges and 45(T1), 135(T2), 225(T3) and 315(T4) for the TOB gauges.

46

This approach allows for independent measurement of the separate WOB and TOB strains i.e. minimizing interference from the other strain type.
Figure 4-3: Example of radial pocket and strain gauge insert configuration.

Section of drilling sub/pipe.

Typical pocket/radial insert in side wall, 2 or more located at opposite sides of sub or at regular intervals around circumference of sub. Example of separate insert with strain gauges attached and configured as load cell (e.g. Das patent)

During the stressed condition the ring load cells within the radial pockets change shape from round to oval, the extent of this change places compressive and tensile strains on differing gauges.
Figure 4-4: Effect on gauges during pure axial compressive load (WOB Measurement)

TOB 4 No effect

WOB 1 - Tension TOB 1 No effect

WOB 4 - Compression

WOB 2 - compression

TOB 2 No effect TOB 3 No effect WOB 3 - Tension

For example in the pure axial compression state (figure 4-4) the radial pocket is compressed causing the load cell to narrow between the 0 and 180 gauges and 47

widen between the 90 and 270 positions which places the gauges in the 0 and 180 positions (W1 & W3) in tension and the other two gauges in compression. Correspondingly the pure axial strain has no effect on the TOB gauges in the 45, 135, 215 and 315 positions.
Figure 4-5: Effect on gauges during pure axial tension load (WOB Measurement)

WOB 1 - Compression TOB 4 No effect TOB 1 No effect WOB 4 - Tension

WOB 2 - Tension

TOB 2 No effect TOB 3 No effect WOB 3 - Compression

Figure 4-5 shows the similar effects on pure axial tension load on the cell where the tension and compression loads are reversed in comparison with the pure axial compression state described in figure 4-4. In the pure torsion state (figure 4-6), the oval shape is slanted, placing compressive strain on the TOB gauges at 45 and 215 positions and tension on the TOB gauges at the 135 and 315 positions, but with no effect on the WOB gauges at 0, 90, 180 and 270 positions. This is achieved by offsetting the corresponding tensile and compressive strains within the full bridge circuits through placement in opposite arms of the bridge as described in chapter 4.

48

Figure 4-6: Effects on gauges of pure torsional load (TOB measurement)

WOB 1 No effect TOB 4 Tension TOB 1 Compression

WOB 4 No Effect

WOB 2 No effect

TOB 2 Tension TOB 3 Compression WOB 3 No effect

Errors associated with the temperature gradients experienced by the load cells are considered and also compensated through placement of respective strain gauges within the full bridge configuration. It achieves this by balancing the measured strains through formation of a full Wheatstone bridge circuit which couples 2 the gauges reading tension strain from one load cell (e.g. 0 and 180 positions) to the gauges reading compressive strain (e.g. 90 and 270 positions) of the other load cell on the opposite side of the collar, and similarly for the TOB bridge configuration. It should be noted that in this application the gauges are attached to the load cell, not directly to the collar and therefore the material selection mentioned above applies only to the load cell insert. Fluctuations in pressure differentials are compensated by placing an additional gauge adjacent to the WOB gauges in each of the positions 0 (P1) then 90(P2), 180(P3) and 270(P4) and orienting them in a manner that measures the differential pressure only. The output of the pressure measuring bridge is coupled with the WOB output to cancel the effect of differential pressure. One benefit of this design is the relative simplicity of maintenance through the load cell configuration and ease of replacement. 49

4.1.3 Woloson (patent No. 6,216,533 B1) The Woloson patent is the most recent reviewed here and describes a more complete Drilling Efficiency Sensor sub which measures WOB/TOB/BOB, differential pressure/temperature and triaxial vibration.
Figure 4-7: Summary definition of Woloson Drilling Efficiency Sensor apparatus.

Woloson Patent Summary


Triaxial vibration sensors/ DDS (Drilling Dynamics Sensor) and magnetometer array measure acceleration forces and allow identification and tracking of low side of hole while rotating. Applied forces to the drill collar cause the load cell rings to deform from a circular geometry into an oval geometry causing the WOB, TOB & BOB measurements to change proportionally

Bending moment is determined regardless of rotation through application of 4 Wheatstone bridges located 90 apart around the drill collar.

Independent load cells located in each of 4 radial chambers 90 apart.(10a-10d)

12 Drill String 60 74 72
Borehole fluid 66

10a

8 Drill Collar

64 Side wall readout 68

62
Quartz pressure transducers ported through two independent fluid communication ports 60 and 62 to the annulus and internal bore fluid respectively which enables pressure differential measurement

10c
Three temperature detectors (RTDs) located in line with each load cell & positioned at drill collar inner & outer diameters and at load cells to measure temp. gradient across drill collar wall. Load cells thermally insulated from borehole fluid

Figure 4-7 describes the key elements of the apparatus which utilizes ring configuration load cells within four sealed atmospheric chambers positioned at 90 intervals around the drill collar (10a-10d) rather than two. The configuration of the gauge rings also provides a method for adjusting the sensitivity by increasing or decreasing the wall thickness of the ring which the gauges are bonded to. The configuration with four independent bridges allows for the determination of bending moment of the drill string and therefore BOB regardless of the state of rotation (rotating or stationary), in addition to corrected TOB and WOB measurements. The combined Drilling Dynamics Sensors (DDS), with accelerometers and magnetometer array, enables determination of the direction of the BOB in relation to the low side of the hole 50

Pressure differential is directly measured by measuring the internal and annulus pressures and applied correction of the respective bridge outputs. Temperature is measured with Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) located at 3 specific points within the load cell chamber to determine the temperature gradient across the collar wall and therefore provide more accurate correction for temperature. In general the Woloson apparatus provides a more complete and accurate method of measuring WOB/TOB/BOB than the other two methods described here and is a progression of understanding and application within the industry. 4.1.4 Temperature and pressure compensation Recognition is given to the issues associated with differential pressure and temperatures on the drilling sub and therefore strain gauges. The differentials are associated with the difference between the fluid temperature and pressure within the inner bore of the drill collar and the annulus between the collar and wellbore as the drilling mud exits the string and flows back up through the annulus. The pressure differential will typically be further extenuated by the mud pulse telemetry pressure fluctuations. Differential pressure, for example, causes elongation and circumferential expansion of drill collar which introduces errors in the measurement of axial strain and therefore the WOB measurement. Where the fluctuations in pressure are relatively minor, the WOB bridges can be re balanced to a datum by lifting off bottom and resetting to zero. In todays more complex drilling environments this is not typically an option with significant and constant variations in differential pressure. Temperature fluctuations effect the strain gauge sensitivity as described in chapter 3 and can be typically offset through appropriate placement of the gauges within the bridge circuit. The material selection for the drilling sub or inserts is also chosen carefully to ensure a relatively low youngs modulus of elasticity to increase sensitivity, and relatively high coefficient of thermal expansion/conductivity as to diminish temperature transients more rapidly. The material selection, typically a high strength alloy such as beryllium copper, or nickel chromium alloys, serves to 51

minimize residual stress and thermal transients and therefore measurement drift associated with these attributes. 4.1.5 Calibration and Accuracy parameters The previous chapters and the specific application of the technology to a down hole environment in this chapter, have discussed a lot of potential errors which can be introduced into the WOB/TOB/BOB measurement including those associated with pressure and temperature fluctuations/differentials. In general these errors continue to be recognized and addressed with specific correction methods as the technology matures. The challenge becomes one of accuracy and the associated calibration tolerances required to make the tool useful without incurring too high a cost for relative differences in real-time WOB/TOB/BOB measurements during drilling is the important aspect being addressed here, and as such the accuracy of the measurements needs to strike a balance with practical implementation. The accuracy of the measurements required by the industry varies from 2-3% in early implementations to up to 20% in less sensitive designs. The challenge to understand is one of practicality. If the tool is designed to be too accurate, it is likely that it will require regular maintenance and calibration, which typically required transport of the tool to a repair and calibration center remote from the well site. Calibration methods utilized compare the actual performance and measurements made in simulated environments and determine the expected output from the gauges and bridges at given WOB/TOB/BOB loads and at anticipated temperature and pressure environments. The following devices are example of what can be used to perform calibration but are often dependent on the specific design of the device:

Oldham Coupling Adapter and breakout unit for torque Modified jar tester for WOB Bending Stand for BOB Oven to test temperature effects 52

Precision pressure testers to test pressure gauge accuracy

Information derived from the calibration tests are recorded and downloaded into the memory of the tool to allow the actual measurement to be compared with the calibration or offset values and stored for transmission to the surface or memory storage if required. The output of the respective bridges is processed on the WTB sub directly against the software algorithms, with only the desired output measurements being transmitted to the surface. This approach is driven by a number of factors but primarily due to the need to minimize the amount of data transmitted to the surface.

53

Chapter 5

5.0

THE IMPACT OF ADVANCED TELEMETRY ON DRILLING EFFICIENCY

All down hole MWD/LWD and certain activated tools require a mechanism to transfer the data to and from the down hole equipment. Sensor data traveling to the surface is displayed and analyzed appropriately to assess trends, identify problems and optimize intervention tasks appropriately. To date significant progress has been made in real-time data capture devices, the constraint however continues to be around the limited bandwidth available to transmit the data efficiently to the surface. Figure 5.1 demonstrates an example of the real-time monitoring and analysis capability provided today. In this case a mud motor configuration is being monitored with the drilling dynamics attributes (predicted limits and actual), formation lithology data, RPM, ROP, measured vibration, critical speeds, WOB, and motor output torque etc. This display indicates traditional data in the absence of a down hole WTB sub.
Figure 5-1: Example real-time data analysis application.21

21

Courtesy of Halliburton Sperry Drilling Services All rights reserved

54

5.1

Traditional Down-hole telemetry methods

5.1.1 Mud Pulse Telemetry Mud Pulse Telemetry is the most common method for transmitting data used in drilling today and operates by sending pressure pulses in the drilling mud to and from the rig floor. The actual pulses can be sent as positive pulses, negative pulses or continuous sinusoidal waves and can be received and interpreted as a binary sequence of data. This method is generally reliable but slow with only 10-12 bits/sec transmission rate in ideal conditions and can only function in the presence of drilling mud, which is almost always the case during traditional drilling operations, but not in certain under balanced conditions where gases or foam fluids are utilized. 5.1.2 Acoustic Telemetry Acoustic telemetry systems utilize acoustic energy to transmit signals through the wall of the drill pipe to the surface. Acoustic systems have typically been utilized within non-drilling activities such as drill stem testing, cementing services etc. where transmission rates of 40-50 bits per second can be achieved in a relatively noiseless environment. Limited progress has been made to utilize acoustic telemetry in rotating conditions, due to the relatively high acoustic noise environment during drilling operations, the achievable data rates are typically around 20 bits per second which has not as yet proven commercial viability. 5.1.3 Electromagnetic Telemetry Electromagnetic telemetry transmits data through low-frequency electromagnetic waves which propagate through the subsurface formations from the drill string and are received by surface antennas. The successful implementation of electromagnetic telemetry requires understanding of the formation types and associated resistivities along with a robust antenna location at the surface. These attributes lead to limitations dependent on the well depth and formation types. EM technology can deliver rates of between 50 and 100 bits per second in land applications where there are relatively shallow resistive formations which allow the surface antenna to more easily detect the signal. In an offshore environment this becomes a lot more complex with typically deeper wells, less 55

resistive formations and the requirement to transmit the signal through sea water from the antenna located on the sea floor. The combination of these factors degrades the performance and prevents EM from delivering data rates much above mud pulse rates. EM telemetry is however an important attribute of successful under balanced drilling applications where traditional mud circulation systems are not applicable. EM telemetry also has merits in a Short-Hop configuration where the signal is transmitted short distances between subs in the BHA where the signal quality can be maintained more easily. 5.2 Intelligent/Wired Pipe

Wired pipe has recently emerged as a viable technology within the industry and allows a stepped change performance in the available bandwidth down hole with achievable data transmission rates up to 2 megabits/second which reflects up to 100,000 to 200,000 times the bandwidth currently available, without any dependencies on mud circulation or formation types. The system is effectively a down hole wired network which is equivalent to a traditional Ethernet Local Area Network and allows any compliant devices to use the network to transmit data to and from the surface. The system was originally conceived by a company called Novatek Engineering which received partial funding from the US Department of Energy. Novatek formed a joint venture with Grant Prideco in 2000 in order to leverage the collective experience of drilling collar manufacture and intellipipe technology to deliver the IntelliServ Network commercial system.
Figure 5-2: Configuration of IntelliServ Network wired pipe22
Double Shouldered Tool Joint High-Speed Data Cable

Non- Contact Line Couplers

High-Speed Data Cable

Non- Contact Line Coupler

22

Grant Prideco IntelliServ - www.intellipipe.com

56

The fundamental element of the system is the wired pipe which is comprised of traditional drill pipe in standard sizes that has a high-speed data cable embedded in the inner wall of the pipe and connected to inductive coupling rings at each end, as shown in figure 5-2. The non-contact couplings at each end of the pipe provide the method of data transmission without the need for a direct connection. This significantly simplifies the implementation of the system at the rigsite with the crew making up the pipe in the traditional manner, with minimal training to ensure proper handling, torque and make up procedures. Three other key elements of the system are necessary to complete the IntelliServ Network and include the: 1. Interface Sub to allow connectivity to the MWD sub and subsequent measurement/down hole devices in the BHA, 2. Booster subs which are inserted in the string every 2000ft or so to boost or amplify the signal and are configured to allow additional monitoring sensors along the drill string, 3. Top Drive Swivel This is specifically designed to allow connectivity to and from the control and analysis computers on the rig site.

The system provides connectivity to any compliant down hole tool or device which provides continuity of the high-speed link from the surface to the interface sub. 5.3 Implications on drilling dynamics, MWD and LWD

The obvious primary benefit of this system relates to the vast increase in bandwidth available to the driller to send and transmit data. Traditional MWD and LWD systems have to significantly compress or periodically sample the captured data to minimize data transmission rates and capture the higher resolution data in memory devices for recovery and analysis when brought to surface. These existing systems therefore provide an indicative sense of what is actually going on down hole at lower resolution or at intervals of sampling. The wired drill pipe network

57

allows transmission of a real-time data signal which transmits the full resolution of the data being captured by the sensors almost instantaneously. There are many significant advantages to this increase in bandwidth including:

High resolution (almost wireline quality) logs in real-time allowing accurate formation evaluation, correlation and geosteering as appropriate. More accurate management of the drilling envelope and associated pore pressure and ECD values. This is not only at the BHA but also in the annulus at intervals along the pipe where the booster subs allow additional sensor monitoring.

Ability to manage under balanced or managed pressure drilling where mud pulse telemetry is not functional or not reliable due to lack of or fluctuation of mud weights.

Improved identification of well control issues and associated management with real-time data availability which is not typically available or accurate with traditional methods

Increased control of down hole devices such as steerable systems and reamers. Delivery of stepped change monitoring of the drilling dynamics and forces affecting the BHA which enable rapid and accurate mitigating action to optimize drilling processes.

Figure 5-3: Example of Drilling Dynamics monitoring and analysis in wired pipe configuration

58

Figure 5-3 shows an example23of improved drilling dynamics analysis using IntelliServ Network data where high drill string friction caused cocking and firing of the drilling jar. Real-time analysis of this data quickly identified the problem and the associated increase of WOB followed by the fluctuation after the jar fired on picking up the bit, which would be the standard procedure where WOB increase without ROP increase was experienced. The rapid identification of the cause to the unplanned event minimized the time taken to pinpoint other possible causes or to make other unnecessary changes drilling parameters to further investigate the causes.

The commercial viability of the IntelliServ Network is still in its early days, with only a handful of live rig implementations to date. The real key to success will lay in the reliability of the connections, in particular the coupling sensitivity to damage due to incorrect pipe handling or attention to make-up torque ratings. Given that the drill string is typically an attribute of the drilling rig configuration and provided by the rig contractor, reliability will be a high priority in selection of the system, since the rig contractor will typically not carry a duplicate traditional string as a backup.

23

Grant Prideco IntelliServ - www.intellipipe.com/intelliservDocs/

59

Chapter 6

6.0 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

6.1

Description of Findings

As has discussed in this thesis, the industry will continue to face increasingly complex drilling environments such as extended reach and highly deviated wells, higher pressure/temperature and deep water environments, and continuously challenging precise well placement/collision avoidance in mature producing fields. Coupled with this will be the issue of lack of availability of qualified and proficient personnel able to support these environments. This will further increase dependency on real-time technologies, rapid data analysis, engineering remote from the rig-site and automation of the drilling and production processes in order to economically access and develop more reserves. Todays estimated non-productive time (NPT) associated with drilling environment exceeds $20 billion per annum24, the issue of drilling efficiency and identification/management of the associated drilling dysfunctions will continue to be a high priority to operators and service companies in order to contain and reduce these significant costs going forward. In particular the industry recognizes the significant challenges presented to drillers in monitoring BHA performance in these increasingly complex environments. 6.1.1 The benefits This thesis demonstrates how it is possible to measure down hole WOB/TOB/BOB forces on the BHA more accurately than current surface measurement techniques and in so doing significantly improve the overall efficiency of the drilling process. The benefits to this approach include the ability to:

24

Lehman Brothers survey 2006.

60

Provide the driller the tools and information to more readily identify and mitigate the conditions associated with the various drilling dysfunctions (i.e. more readily identify and manage the dysfunctions identified in chapter 2, table 2-1 in section 2.2.5 )

Enable the driller to more readily recognize when the founder point is reached during drilling and what parameters can be adjusted while drilling to extend performance (described in chapter 2 section 2.4.6 )

Optimize drilling ROP and associated equipment performance by understanding when performance limits are reached for a given operating environment (e.g. through application of real time down hole WTB data and rig constraints within the MSE and related drilling efficiency models described within chapter 2)

Provide improved understanding of the drill-string and BHA performance in the drilling of highly deviated and extended reach horizontal wells. (e.g. the use of BOB measurement to monitor/identify local doglegs not readily identified by traditional measurement techniques)

Provide data to improve the design of BHA configurations and associated down hole components including stabilizers, reamers, bits etc. (e.g. the enhancement of torque/WOB models through better correlation of bit and reamer cutting performance within the predicted rock strength described in Chapter 2 Section 2.4.3 )

Improve the accuracy of current simulators and models to allow enhanced prediction of the drilling activities. (e.g. the modeled attributes within chapter 2, figures 2-10 and 2-11)

6.1.2 The physics The basic physics of stress and strain theory demonstrate how simple strain gauges can deliver the required force measurements. Metal foil strain gauges and Wheatstone bridge configurations demonstrate that robust and relatively cheap technology is available today to effectively deliver down hole WOB/TOB/BOB measurement. Advances in the methods since the early WTB patents have primarily been made in the areas of differential pressure and temperature compensation either through the placement and configuration of the gauges themselves, or direct measurement of 61

the pressures and temperatures necessary to calculate and compensate for the differentials. 6.1.3 The remaining challenges One challenge still left to overcome, is related to the relative cost to not only manufacture but maintain and calibrate these measurement subs. Efforts to deliver tools with accuracy at 5% or below require considerable field calibration with tools which are not currently common place. Initially operators are comfortable with tools with +/- 10 to 20% accuracy because the relative changes in measured force are more accurate than the surface measurements currently being taken. Going forward developments of down hole measurement tools must enhance accuracy and maintain tighter tolerances to enable improvements in data accuracy and latterly efforts in automation. A second challenge revolves around the constraints of traditional mud pulse or EM telemetry systems which limit availability of bandwidth for the transmission of new data sources such as that generated by the down hole WTB measurements. The advent of wired pipe configurations, such as the IntelliServ Network will deliver a stepped change in the drilling world due to enhanced visibility of the formations and identification of drilling dynamics issues in true real-time. 6.1.4 The future potential As down hole WTB measurement becomes common place and improvements in accuracy continuously evolve, drilling simulations models such as the MSE model, torque and drag models and others, will refine the predicted versus actual drilling performance and as such allow for further development of rules based, signature analysis or neural network techniques. This in turn will lead to advances in rig floor and down hole automation which will reduce errors and NPT and free up resources to develop more reserves. The potential to deliver game changing drilling performance is not lost on the industry, developments will continue to provide competitive advantage to operators and service companies alike who can harness the potential and maintain a profitable commercial return. Without a sufficient commercial return, technologies such as these will continue to be seen as a nice to have or impossible 62

reality. For the industry to benefit investments and incentives need to be offered and realized and commercial viability secured. 6.2 Thesis

As wired pipe begins to break down todays paradigm of available raw real-time data to the surface, the industry will need to grasp the challenging issue of deciding whether to drive the technology to surface analysis and interaction due to high bandwidth data availability, or increasing down hole tool automation with more and more complex down hole systems providing the intelligence to automatically drill and adapt based on high quality sensor data. 6.2.1 Closed Loop Automation In the authors opinion, the next generation will be one where true drilling automation will be achieved through closed loop down hole data processing, analysis and action will be taken within the BHA electronics and computers directly, without intervention from the surface. The system will be preprogrammed, based on accurate subsurface and drilling simulation models, along with the drilling plan, and will automatically adjust drilling parameters (initially by adjusting surface drilling functions from down hole instructions) and trajectories based on real time geological interpretation updates and comparisons to predicted models. The development of wired pipe coupled with methods of down hole power generation will provide the requirements to allow increased down hole processing and interpretation. Complexity and reliability will be issues that must be overcome to maximize the mean time between failure (MTBF) of these sensitive BHA components, and in the ideal world allow drilling of complete hole sections, (i.e. casing point to casing point sections), with one optimized BHA. 6.2.2 Importance of WOB/TOB/BOB Down hole WTB measurement is a key missing element in realizing this vision, because the data trends and associated modeling techniques are not currently robust enough to base an automated system on. As the down hole drilling sensor 63

sub technology develops to encompass WTB in conjunction with other critical vibration, temperature and pressure measurements, the industry will begin to refine predictions and deliver common place automation techniques to minimize the onset of drilling dysfunctions. Early real-time detection of the predicted trends associated with each dysfunction will enable the driller to take early corrective action to minimize escalation of the issue and therefore minimize the potential to induce coupling and catastrophic drill string integrity failures. 6.2.3 Modeling accuracy The statement often made is that a computer or model can only realize the value that has already been experienced or learned by the initial human interaction. To date this statement is largely true, hence the requirement to drive increased down hole measurement and data transmission techniques to enable accurate modeling to evolve. The onset of Artificial Intelligence and Neural Network techniques may well accelerate the opportunity to develop automated down hole drilling systems, these however also require some element of trended data to base their learning on. Once sufficient modeling exists, and automated systems evolve, there will be a reduction in the need for bandwidth to the surface and an increased focus of sensor accuracy, robust electronics and reliability of down hole systems to allow rapid and efficient drilling to depths of 30-50,000 ft or more, in extreme temperatures and pressures. 6.2.4 Overcoming paradigms Some of the potential barriers to realizing this vision will also relate to the costs to develop the technology and sustained market demand to justify multi-year R&D projects. In addition, paradigms will need to be broken in terms of traditional human intervention from the driller, with a period of time where the driller will transition from hands-on intervention, to hands-off monitoring whilst trust is developed in the automation process. All these capabilities are achievable in the future, the opportunity exists today to embed direct down hole WTB measurement to enable the next breakthrough towards that vision and build confidence and accuracy of the evolving modeling and analysis techniques. 64

LIST OF EQUATIONS

Specific Energy = Es ( psi) =

Total Bit Force (lbf) Bit cross sectional area (in 2 )

(2-1) ............... 14

MSE ( psi)

Input Energy Output ROP

(2-2) ....................................................................... 14

Specific Energy = Es =

WOB 120 * * N * T + Abit Abit * ROP

(2-3) .................................... 14

1 13.33N + Also Specific Energy Es = WOB A bit Dbit * ROP

(2-4) .......................... 15

Coefficient of Friction = = 36
Dbit *WOB 36

Torque Dbit * WOB

(2-5) .......................................... 15

Torque = EFFM =

(2-6) .............................................................................. 15

Es min Es

(2-7)........................................................................................... 15 (2-8)........................................................................................ 15

EFFM =

Es

* 100

WOB 120 * * RPM * T + MSE ( psi ) = 0.35 * A ABIT * ROP BIT

(2-9)................................ 16

ROP =

L * W W = t EAS * t L L

(2-10)............................................................................ 18

Strain = =

(3-1)........................................................................................... 27

Poisson Ratio = =

Transverse direction strain D / D trans = = axial Longitudinal direction strain L / L

(3-2)

27

Shearing Strain = = Normal Stress = =

Deformation = Tan original length Perpendicular Force Fn or A Area

(3-3) ...................................... 28

(3-4)................................... 29

65

Shear Stress = =

Parallel Force F or A Area

(3-5) .................................................... 29

Hookes Law: = E * or E = Shear Modulus = G = Shear Modulus = G =

(3-6)............................................................ 30 (3-7)................................................... 30

Shear Stress = Shear Strain E 2(1 + )

(3-8).................................................................... 30

Bending Strain = B =

Bending Stress = B Modulus of Elasticity E

(3-9) ............................ 31

Sectional Modulus = Z =

Geometrical Moment of Inertia (I) 3 (in ) (3-10). 31 Distance of Center of Gravity (e) 2* I (OD 4 String ID 4 String ) 3 (in ) (3-11)............ 31 = OD 32 * ODString
(3-12) ............................. 31

Drill String section: Z =

Bending Stress = B =

Bending Moment M B = Z Sectional modulus

Bending Moment = M B = F * l Bending Stress = B =

(3-13) ................................................................ 31 (3-14)...................................................................... 31

F *l Z

Bending Forces = F = E * B * Axial Strain = A = Axial Stress = A =

Z l

(3-15) ........................................................... 31 (3-16)............................... 32

Axial Stress = A Modulus of Elasticity E


F Axial Force = A A Cross Sectional Area

(3-17) ................................ 32

Axial Force = FAxial = E * A * A Shear Strain = =

(3-18)............................................................... 32 (3-19).............................. 32 (3-20)................... 32

Shear Stress = Modulus of Shear Stress G

Shear Modulus= G =

Shear Stress F/A FL = = = Shear Strain L / L LA


4 4 * (d od did )

Second Moment of Area= I =

64

(in4)

(3-21)............................. 32 66

Torsional Strain =

Torsional Stress = Torsional modulus of elasticity G


M t * (d / 2) J

(3-22)............. 32

Torsional Stress= =

(3-23)............................................................ 32 (3-24)................................. 33

For accurate shear measurement = 2 * @ 45

Polar second moment of area for a drill pipe cross sectional area 4 4 * (d od did ) 4 =J = (in ) 32

(3-25).... 33

2 2 Torsional Moment = M t = * ( J ) * = * G * ( J ) * d d
GF =

(3-26)........... 33

Fractional Electrical Resistance R / R R / R or = Fractional change in length (strain) L / L

(3-27) .... 36

Temperature adjusted Gauge Factor = GFA = GF

(1 + %GF) 100

(3-28)....... 37

R3 R2 Bridge output voltage = Vo = VEX * R +R R1 + R2 g 3


Bridge resistance change = R = R g * GF * Measured Strain = =

(3-29)................... 38

(3-30)........................................ 38

Rg R g * GF

(3-31)............................................................... 39

Voltage Ratio =

Vo R3 R2 = VEX R3 + Rg R1 + R2

(3-32)......................................... 39

V V Voltage Ratio = VR = o strained o unstrained VEX VEX

(3-33).................. 39

Bridge Strain = =

4VR GF (1 + 2VR )

(3-34) (Ignoring lead wire resistance) 39

bridge axial strain = =

4VR GF [(1 + ) 2VR ( 1)] 2VR GF

(3-35)........................... 40

bridge bending strain = = Full bridge axial strain = =

(3-36) ..................................................... 40 (3-37)........................... 40 67

2VR GF [( + 1) VR ( 1)]

Full bridge bending strain = =

VR GF

(3-38) .................................................... 41

Full bridge bending strain (Poisson) =

2VR GF * ( + 1)

(3-39)......................... 41

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REFERENCES & BIBLIOGRAPHY

Specific references are identified within the body of the text and are identified below along with additional references:

Perry C.C , Lissner, H.R , The Strain Gauge Primer second edition, McGraw-Hill Book Company 1962 ISBN: 07-049461-4 Economides M J, et al, 'Petroleum Well Construction', John Wiley and Sons, 1998 ISBN: 0-471-96938-9 William F.Riley, loren W.Zachary. Introduction to Mechanics of Materials, John Wiley and Sons, 1989 ISBN: 0-471-84933-2 OMEGA Engineering, Inc. The Pressure Strain and Force Handbook. Volume 29, 1995 Teale, R.: The Concept of Specific Energy in Rock Drilling, Intl. J. Rock Mech. Mining Sci. (1965) 2, 57-73 SPE 49206 - Down hole Diagnosis of Drilling Dynamics Data Provides New Level Drilling Process Control to Driller. G. Heisig, SPE Baker Hughes INTEQ, J Sancho, Elf Exploration Production and J.D.Macpherson, SPE, Baker Hughes INTEQ SPE 24584 - Quantifying Common Drilling Problems With Mechanical Specific Energy and a Bit-Specific Coefficient of Sliding Friction. R.C. Pessier, Hughes Tool Co., and M.J. Fear, BP Exploration IPTC 10607 - Maximizing ROP with Real-Time Analysis of Digital Data and MSE. F.E.Dupriest, SPE, Exxon Mobil, and J.W. Witt, SPE, and S.M. Remmert, SPE, Rasgas Co. Ltd. AADE-05-NTCE-66 - A Real-Time Implementation of MSE. William L. Koederitz, M/D Totco, a Varco Company, Jeff Weis, Orion Drilling Company IADC/SPE 74520 - Real-Time Specific Energy Monitoring Reveals Drilling Inefficiency and Enhances the Understanding of When to Pull Worn PDC Bits. Robert J. Waughman, SPE Woodside Energy Ltd., John V. Kenner, SPE, Hughes Christensen/Baker Hughes and Ross A. Moore, SPE, Hughes Christensen/Baker Hughes SPE/IADC 92194 - Maximizing Drill Rates with Real-Time Surveillance of Mechanical Specific Energy Fred E. Dupriest, SPE, ExxonMobil and William L. Koederitz, SPE, M/D Totco, a Varco Company SPE 102210 - Comprehensive Drill Rate Management Process to Maximize Rate of Penetration. F.E.Dupriest, Exxon Mobil Development Co.

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SPE/IADC 98931 - Gage Design - Effects of Gage Pad Length, Geometry and Active (Side Cutting) on PDC Bit Stability, Steerability, and Borehole Quality in Rotary Steerable Drilling Applications. G.Mensa-Wilmot, SPE, and B. James, Smith Bits; L.Aggarwal and H.Van Luu, Schlumberger; and F.Rueda, BP Drill off test - Proposed by A.Lubinski January 1958 edition of The Petroleum Engineer Proposal for future tests. Robert Gordon University course notes PgDip/MS Oil & Gas Engineering US Patent # 3,827,294 - Aug 6, 1974; Wellbore force measuring apparatus; Ronald A Anderson, Houston Tx Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corporation, New York, N.Y. US Patent # 5,386,724 - Feb 7, 1995; Load Cells for Sensing Weight and Torque on a Drill Bit While Drilling a Well Bore; Pralay K. Das; Haoshi Song, Sugarland Tx Assignee: Schlumberger Technology Corp, Houston TX. US Patent # 6,216,533 - Apr 17, 2001; Apparatus For Measuring Down hole Drilling Efficiency Parameters; Scott E. Woloson, Dale A Jones, Houston, TX - Assignee: Dresser Industries Inc, Dallas TX Grant Prideco IntelliServ - http://www.intellipipe.com/intelliservDocs/ Halliburton Drilling Optimization http://www.halliburton.com

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