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Bunts na Gaeilge

Irish for Adult Learners

Barbara Hillers with Bettina Kimpton

Textbook for Celtic 132: Introduction to Modern Irish Harvard 2007

[for class use and private circulation only]


Here are a few idioms you will encounter in class: maidin mhaith Dia daoibh le chile anois ars cuir Gaeilge / Barla air le do thoil I don't quite follow... Gabh mo leithscal An dtuigeann t? An dtuigeann sibh? Tuigim N thuigim N thuigim focal Abair ars , le do thoil Cad sin i nGaeilge/as Gaeilge? Cad sin i mBarla/as Barla? Cad an Ghaeilge at ar sin? Abair i mBarla/as Barla Well done! Your teacher will lavish praise on you. Here are some of the things you may hear, or see written underneath your homework: maith th / sibh go maith go hiontach an-mhaith (ar fad) ar fheabhas thar barr well done good wonderful very good (entirely) excellent super Excuse me Do you (sg) understand? Do you (pl) understand? I understand I dont understand I dont understand a word Say that again, please What does that mean in Irish? What does that mean in English? How do you say that in Irish? Say it in English good morning hello everybody all together now again translate into Irish / English please

Bunts na Gaeilge
Cuid a hAon
I d'ige oscail do mheabhair is bailigh an fhoghlaim leat. `Open your mind while you are young and gather learning as you go.'


Ramhr / Preface.................................................................................................................... vii Ceacht a hAon .......................................................................................................................... 1 An Ceacht Gramada...................................................................................................... 4 Personal Pronouns (4); The Demonstrative Pronouns seo and sin (4); The Copula (5); Masculine Noun and Adjective (6); Greetings and Introductions (6) Teanga is Cultr .......................................................................................................... 10 Loanwords (11) Ceacht a D ............................................................................................................................ 12 An Ceacht Gramada.................................................................................................... 13 The Article (13); Feminine Noun and Adjective (15); Prepositional Pronouns: the Preposition le (16); Copula Sentences With le (17); The Preposition gan (18) Teanga is Cultr .......................................................................................................... 22


Ceacht a Tr ............................................................................................................................ 24 An Ceacht Gramada.................................................................................................... 25 Possessive Pronouns (25); The Copula: Identification Sentences (27); Prefixed Adjectives (28); Colours (29) Teanga is Cultr .......................................................................................................... 32 Sil Siar (Revision): Ceacht 1 - Ceacht 3.................................................................................. 33 Ceacht a Ceathair .................................................................................................................... 34 An Ceacht Gramada.................................................................................................... 35 The Substantive Verb and the Dependent Pronoun (35); The Preposition ar (37); The Intensifying Prefixes an-, for-, r-, and iontach (38); The Particle go (39); Conversational Idioms (39) Teanga is Cultr .......................................................................................................... 42 Ceacht a Cig.......................................................................................................................... 44 An Ceacht Gramada.................................................................................................... 45 The Preposition ag (45); The Preposition i (47); The Weather (47); The Perfect Tense (48) Teanga is Cultr .......................................................................................................... 51 Ceacht a S.............................................................................................................................. 53 An Ceacht Gramada.................................................................................................... 54 Past Tense of the Substantive Verb (54); The Dative or Prepositional Case (55); In the House (57); Idioms Using Two Prepositions (57) Teanga is Cultr .......................................................................................................... 60 Ceacht a Seacht ....................................................................................................................... 63 An Ceacht Gramada.................................................................................................... 64 The Future Tense of the Substantive Verb (64); Stative Expressions II: Occupations (65); The Preposition i `in' and the construction Minteoir at ionam (65); (Countries) (66); Cpla `a couple, a few' (66); The Week (67) Teanga is Cultr .......................................................................................................... 69 The Week (70); Samhain (Halloween) and the Celtic Year (71)



Sil Siar (Revision): Ceacht 4 - Ceacht 7.................................................................................. 74 Ceacht a hOcht........................................................................................................................ 76 An Ceacht Gramada.................................................................................................... 78 The Imperative (78); The Vocative Case (81); The Prepositions do and de (83); In and Out, Up and Down: Aspect and Direction (84) Teanga is Cultr .......................................................................................................... 86 Traditional Irish First Names (88) Ceacht a Naoi.......................................................................................................................... 90 An Ceacht Gramada.................................................................................................... 92 The Past Tense (92); The Numbers 1-10 (93); Where are You Going To? (chuig; go; go dt) (95) Teanga is Cultr .......................................................................................................... 99 Ceacht a Deich ...................................................................................................................... 101 An Ceacht Gramada.................................................................................................. 102 The Present Tense (102); The Present Habitual (106); Time (106) Teanga is Cultr ........................................................................................................ 109 Ceacht a hAon Dag.............................................................................................................. 111 An Ceacht Gramada.................................................................................................. 112 The Future Tense (112); The Prepositions and roimh (115) Teanga is Cultr ........................................................................................................ 117 Christmas and New Year (117) Sil Siar (Revision): Ceacht 8 - Ceacht 11.............................................................................. 123 Appendix 1: Crsa Canna................................................................................................... 124 Appendix 2: Phonetic Exercises (Donegal Irish) .................................................................... 131 Bibliography ......................................................................................................................... 137 Foclir Gaeilge-Barla ........................................................................................................... 139


Foclir Barla-Gaeilge ........................................................................................................... 154 A Select Verb List ................................................................................................................. 179 Index of Songs, Proverbs, and Rhymes .................................................................................. 185 Subject Index......................................................................................................................... 187 Grammar Index...................................................................................................................... 188



The Irish Language Irish is used as a community language in the west of Ireland by about 61,000 speakers, and as a minority language throughout Ireland.1 It is the first official language of the Republic of Ireland,2 and is taught in the primary and secondary school system. In the 1996 census 1.43 million people in the Republic of Ireland (43.5% of the population) were returned as Irish speakers, though only about a quarter of that number use the language on a daily basis. In Northern Ireland, Irish has enjoyed increased demographic and political backing in recent years, and official recognition of the language is expected. In the 1991 census, 142,003 people in the North were returned as having some ability to speak the language.3 Irish is the primary community language in the so-called Gaeltacht areas in the west of Ireland, located in counties Cork, Kerry, Galway, Mayo, and Donegal, where an average of 76.3% of residents are Irish speakers ( Murch 1999). There are significant numbers of native speakers living in urban areas, either migrants from Gaeltacht areas or those brought up in Irish-speaking households. Irish is a Celtic language, part of the Indo-European family of languages. It is closely related to Scottish Gaelic, spoken today mainly on the Western Isles of Scotland, and to Manx, the language of the Isle of Man that only recently ceased to be a spoken language. Its relationship to the other two surviving branches of Celtic, Welsh and Breton, and to Cornish, which is spoken as a revived language, is more distant, though all Celtic languages share certain syntactic, phonological, and grammatical features, as well as a common inherited vocabulary. Like other Celtic languages, Irish is a VSO (Verb-Subject-Object) language, possesses conjugated prepositions and boasts a complex system of initial mutations. About this Book This textbook, developed specifically for the year-long Modern Irish course at Harvard University, is intended for beginners with no previous exposure to the language. Its title, Bunts na Gaeilge `the basics of Irish', is programmatic. It aims to give complete beginners a grasp of the operative principles of grammar and syntax and provide them with the essentials of lexis and idiom to achieve basic fluency within the year. This textbook was developed to fill a recognized gap in the teaching materials for complete beginners in third-level education. Most people in the Republic of Ireland, and many in the North of Ireland, are introduced to the language during primary or secondary education, and there is a wealth of textbooks, many of them modern and attractive, for school children. The market for adult learners particularly complete beginners has not been as well provided for. The need to improve teaching materials for adult learners is increasingly recognized, reflecting a revival of interest in the language on both sides of the border, and the realization that many of
1 2

Helen and Mirtn Murch, Irish: Facing the Future / An Ghaeilge: a hAghaidh Roimpi (Dublin 1999). Article 8.1 of the Constitution of Ireland (1937) states that `the Irish language as the national language is the first official language'; 8.2 adds `the English language is recognized as a second official language'. The Irish language, as of January 2007, has been recognized as one of the working languages of the European Union. 3 That many of these were small children in the burgeoning Irish-medium primary school system is evidenced by the much lower number (79,012) returned as being able to read and write, as well as speak, Irish ( Murch 1999).



those exposed to Irish at school have not achieved fluency in the language. Replacing the virtual monopoly of the classic Bunts Cainte (1967), experienced educators have in recent years added substantially to the materials available.4 Most adult learner textbooks are designed for what we may think of as the part-time learner, typically within the setting of an evening class, and for all their laudable emphasis on colloquial, conversational Irish, they are not suitable for students in full-time third-level education.5 Bunts na Gaeilge addresses the needs of intensive language instruction in an academic environment. The target audience are university students, and the choice of milieu and subject matter, as well as the pace and style of instruction, is geared towards this audience. The Caighden and the Regional Dialects Modern Irish is closely based on the three living regional dialects - Munster, Connacht, and Ulster - which, at least in principle, enjoy equal status and support. It represents the victory, in the early years of the language revival, of the proponents of the modern vernacular (caint na ndaoine `the language of the people') over those who advocated a return to the highly standardized idiom of Classical literature practiced by the educated elite until the seventeenth century. Unchecked by any literary standard, regionalism flourished in the centuries before the establishment of an independent Irish state. With the shrinking of the Gaeltacht areas, the added problem of increasing geographical isolation of the dialects from each other arose. When Irish became a literary, high-register language once again after independence, the three main regional dialects, Munster, Connacht, and Ulster Irish, were, at least theoretically, put on an equal footing.6 Munster Irish held a preeminent position during the formative years of the language revival, even though today it is the dialect with by far the fewest native speakers. Connacht Irish, too, had considerable cachet, since it was the native dialect of the father of modern Irish literature, Pdraic Conaire, and the dialect adopted by such influential political and literary figures as Patrick Pearse. Ulster Irish, represented in the Republic of Ireland by speakers of a single county, Donegal, had for obvious reasons a lower profile in the Irish-language establishment. While the differences between the three regional dialects are relatively minor on the level of grammar and syntax, pronunciation differs markedly between them. The recommendations of An Caighden Oifigiil (1945), which form the basis of Modern Standard Irish, aim to define operative principles of grammar, and to establish a standard orthography rather than pronunciation.

See e.g. amonn Dnaill, Now You're Talking / Irish on Your Own (Dublin, 1995) and Abair Leat! (Belfast 1996); Risteard Mac Gabhann, Crsa Closamhairc Gaeilge (Belfast 1991) and Ts Maith (Belfast 2002), and Diarmuid S and Joseph Sheils, Teach Yourself Irish (London and New York, 1993). 5 A notable exception is Mchel Siadhail's Learning Irish, an excellent introduction to Connemara Irish. Its admirable allegiance to the regional dialect in terms of grammar, syntax, lexis and even orthography makes it difficult to use for teachers of any other variety of Irish. 6 The courageous if problematic guideline of An Caighden Oifigiil suggests `as far as possible to avoid any form or rule for which there isn't sound support in the living language of the Gaeltacht' and `to choose those forms whose use is most widespread in the Gaeltacht' (chomh fada agus ab fhidir sin gan glacadh le foirm n riail nach bhfuil dars maith di i mbeotheanga na Gaeltachta; rogha a dhanamh de na leaganacha is forleithne at in sid sa Ghaeltacht, quoted from Gramadach na Gaeilge agus Litri na Gaeilge: An Caighden Oifigil, 1958, viii; my translation).



For the learner, an introduction to a consistent regional dialect was thought to be desirable. Ulster Irish has never presented a more viable didactic choice than today. Its prominence on both sides of the border is on the increase and is reflected in the media and educational apparatus. There is much literature written in the dialect, most notably by the Mac Grianna brothers from Rannafast, and a wealth of folklore publications collected in Donegal.7 For the past two decade, Oideas Gael has run immersion language programs in a variety of locations in Donegal, offering learners the chance to build on their course work and increase their fluency. A number of strategies have been adopted to make the book as compatible as possible with other varieties of Irish: Wherever two words (or grammatical features) compete in Donegal Irish, the one with the greater regional spread was chosen (e.g. of the two words used to denote `girl' in Donegal, cailn and girseach, we chose cailn since it is also found in Munster and Connacht; similarly the negative particle n, which is found throughout Ireland, is adopted rather than cha which is only found in Ulster (as well as Scottish Gaelic); the use of cha is however covered in the appendix that deals with issues of dialect, Crsa Canna.) All forms not in general currency outside Ulster are clearly marked as Ulster forms by a superscript U. The dialect appendix lists the Ulster dialect features for each chapter and provides their regional (Connacht or Munster) equivalents. Bunts na Gaeilge: Structure and Content This book aims to balance the needs for conversational and grammatical competence. The textbook emphasizes students' active participation in the learning process: the aim is to generate speakers of Irish, and the pace and structure of the textbook are designed to encourage active rather than passive knowledge of the language; it is one thing to understand a grammar rule, quite another thing to be able to generate it in natural speech. Many of the drills, games and exercises are designed to improve oral competence. A crucial element in transforming language learners into language speakers is to provide a relaxed and enjoyable environment where it is safe to make mistakes, and where the learning process itself becomes fun. An element of playfulness in the classroom is hugely beneficial, and may be fostered not only by various interactive games and exercises, but also by the introduction of traditional songs and rhymes. Every Irish learner remembers such items of traditional lore from their introduction to the language. Such items not only serve to introduce students to Gaelic tradition; they are also fun, and are a proven aid to learners by implanting memorable words, idioms, and syntactic patterns in the student's mind. I have attempted to harness this resource and integrate it as closely as possible by selecting items that reflect the grammar and vocabulary introduced in the corresponding chapter. The fact that children's lore, including counting rhymes, songs and riddles, is well represented in the textbook is not coincidental; it reflects the learner's gradually expanding vocabulary, and aims to infuse a sense of playfulness conducive to the learning process. Each lesson contains: an alphabetized vocabulary list (foclir) a dialogue or situational sketch (comhr)

For a small sample of literature in, or about, Ulster Irish, see Appendix 1: Crsa Canna.



a discussion of grammar (an ceacht gramada), illustrated with model sentences exercises (ceachtanna le danamh) to practice the new vocabulary, idioms, and grammar, including both oral exercises designed for classroom use, and exercises specifically designed as homework (obair bhaile) a sample of traditional songs and sayings from Gaelic literature and folk culture (teanga is cultr). In addition, revision exercises encourage students to review the material periodically (Sil Siar: Revision). A dialect appendix (Appendix 1: Crsa Canna) lists Ulster forms and their southern equivalents, and discusses Ulster features of grammar and syntax. A second appendix (Appendix 2: Phonetic Exercises) introduces students to the phonology of Donegal Irish. The Irish-English and English-Irish glossaries (Foclir Gaeilge-Bearla and Barla-Gaeilge) contain all words used in the lessons. Finally, three separate indices, including a grammar index and a subject index, help students navigate the book. Foclir (Vocabulary) The glossary lists alphabetically all new words to be learnt in each new chapter. Ulster dialect words or idioms are marked by a superscript U. Comhr (Conversation) Our goal was to generate reasonably natural conversation incorporating the new material presented in each lesson. The imaginary characters featured in the dialogues tend to be modelled on our target audience of university students. The students' urban and academic environment is reflected in the vocabulary, hopefully enabling them to express their own concerns and activities. At the same time, we have attempted to represent the more traditional lifestyles of the Gaeltacht as well, resulting in an uneasy but realistic compromise in which the computer and the cell phone coexist with farmyard terminology. An Ceacht Gramada (Grammar) Our aim was to create a graded grammar of the language, paced fast enough to allow us to cover all the essential components of the language within the compass of the course, but slow enough to allow a gradual process of assimilation, enabling students to master one feature before being confronted with the next. The teaching of abstract grammar has become somewhat unfashionable in recent years. It is obviously not a prerequisite for successful language acquisition: the world's most successful group of language learners are infants who succeed splendidly without the crutch of abstract grammar, and indeed without any literacy skills. However, for our target audience of university students, any textbook that eschews an analysis of the underlying rules governing the language was found to be limiting and frustrating. No specialized knowledge of linguistic terminology is required, although an awareness of basic grammatical principles is assumed among the target audience, almost all of whom have studied another foreign language previously. Ceachtanna le Danamh (Practice Exercises) These include both exercises for classroom use and for written homework assignments.


Classroom exercises include drills, games, and partner work. Homework exercises always include a translation into Irish. Many of the classroom exercises are also suitable as homework assignments. Teanga is Cultr (Language and Culture) The traditional rhymes, songs and proverbs featured in Teanga is Cultr have been assembled from a wide range of sources. I am particularly indebted to two collections of children's lore, Nicholas Williams' comprehensive collection Cniogaide Cnagaide (cited as CC), and Roibeard Cathasaigh's delightful collection Rabhla Rabhla (RR), which is accompanied by a CD. Another book quoted repeatedly is Leabhar Shein U Chonaill (LSIC, ed. S. Duilearga), available in translation as Sen Conaill's Book (SOCB). Traditional songs and proverbs are not generally attributed, although some attractive collections have been listed in the bibliography; most items are ubiquitously found in the oral and the printed record. I have taken certain didactic liberties with the traditional materials, simplifying and occasionally modifying dialect forms. Unless otherwise noted, all translations are provided by the author.8 I have occasionally provided notes about Irish festivals and seasonal customs, Irish naming practices etc, to introduce American students to aspects of traditional Gaelic culture. Sil Siar (Revision) At appropriate intervals, students are invited to revise the material mastered in the previous lessons. Students will find revision exercises as well as a checklist of items they should be able to produce. Foclir Barla-Gaeilge agus Gaeilge-Barla (English-Irish and Irish-English Glossary) The glossary lists all vocabulary items learned in individual lessons. The English-Irish glossary contains much additional material. A modern text book should carry the message that Irish is a living language, able to cope with technological advances and societal changes; and a conscious attempt has been made to supply words not readily found in standard dictionaries - words such as `CD,' `internet,' `condom' and `divorce.' Gearrliosta Briathra (Select List of Verbs) This lists the more important verbs with their principal parts (stem; 1 sg pres; verbal noun). Audio Backup The book is accompanied by an audiotape; for each lesson, the student can listen to a recording of the vocabulary, of the conversational sketch, and of selected songs and poems. A separate tape accompanies the phonetic exercises (Appendix 2), designed to introduce students to some of the prominent features of the pronunciation of Donegal Irish.

Copyright permission for printed materials will be sought each time this textbook is made available to students.


I am grateful to all my colleagues and friends with whom I have discussed the joys and tribulations of teaching Irish, in particular Toms Cathasaigh, Patrick Ford, Kate Chadbourne, Donna Wong and Brian Conchubhair. I am indebted to my co-author, Bettina Kimpton, whose contribution to the conversational dialogues in particular helped to render them more colloquial. She also undertook the arduous task of assembling the glossaries, contributed exercises and drills and gave advice on dialect issues. I am deeply grateful to Matthieu Boyd for his meticulous proofreading, for numerous helpful suggestions, corrections, and additions. All remaining errors of fact or judgement are of course my sole responsibility. I am grateful to my students, who inspired this book, and whose criticism helped to improve it: Meaghan Casey, Will Craig, Nancy Dutton, Caitln Frame, Aidan Grey, Efren Gutierrez, Natalie Kirschstein, Matthew Knight, Amanda Price, Nate Rogers, Maggie Rossman, Bridget Samuels, Matthieu Boyd, John Dillon, Aled Llion Jones, Molly Hester, Brian Kennedy, Edyta Lehmann-Shriver, Sean Robinson and Brendan Shields. To them, and to my first teacher of Irish, Professor Gearid Stockman of Queen's University Belfast, this work is gratefully and affectionately dedicated.


FOCLIR 9 ach dh mr! ag agus (also is) as Baile tha Cliath [blakl'ia] beag bean (f) beannachta (pl of beannacht, f) Barla (m) bocsaU bruscair buachaill (m), pl: buachaill c / c hit cad U cailc (f) cailn (m), pl: cailn cathaoir (f) c ceart go leor cinnte clr dubh (m) cliste deas Dia duit Dia is Muire duit doras (m) , emphatic eisean ireannach, pl ireannaigh fear (m) fostaU fuinneog (f) Gaeilge (f) gasr (m) glantir (m) , emphatic ise iad, emphatic iadsan
9 U

but good luck, good byeU at, by and from Dublin small woman greetings English waste paper basket boy, lad where? what? chalk girl chair who? indeed, right enough certain, certainly blackboard clever, smart nice Hello (`God to you') Hello (responsive; `God and Mary to you') door he/him Irish (adj); Irish person man also window Irish language small boy duster she/her they/them

(f) feminine gender; (m) masculine gender; Ulster Irish dialect form (see dialect appendix for standard Irish form).


is (verb) is (conj.) leabhar (m) cipleabhar (m) mac linn (m), pl: mic linn maidin (f) maith mla (m) m, emphatic mise minteoir (m), pl: minteoir Meiricenach Meiricenaigh mr muid, emphatic muidinneU n n nua oche (f) pipar (m) piste (m) peann (m) peann luaidhe (m) rang (m) an rang Gaeilge (m) scoil (f) seo seomra (m) seomra scoile (m) sibh, emphatic sibhse sin sln suimiil tblaU (m) t, emphatic tusa

is (3 sg verb `to be') and book notebook student morning good bag I/me teacher American (noun or adjective) Americans big we/us than nor new night paper child pen pencil class the Irish class school this room schoolroom you (pl) that goodbye interesting table you (sg) COMHR

I. Sen and Mire introduce themselves. Mire: Dia duit. Sen: Dia is Muire duit. Mire: Is mise Mire. C tusa? Sen: Is mise Sen. Mire: C as t?


Sen: Is as Bal Feirste m. Agus t fin? Mire: Is as Baile tha Cliath m. II. Nra is waiting with her baby carriage at the bus stop. A young man joins her. Niall: Dia duit. Nra: Dia is Muire duit. Niall: An cailn ? Nra: N hea. Is gasr . Seo Brian. Niall: Is gasr bre . Nra: Is piste maith ceart go leor. III. Mire, the Irish teacher, comes to the classroom early, where she finds a young woman reading a book: Mire: Is leabhar maith sin, nach ea? Aisling: Sea, cinnte. Mire: An mac linn nua t? Aisling: Sea. Is mise Aisling. C tusa? An mac linn tusa? Mire: N hea. Is minteoir m. Is mise Mire. C as t, a Aisling? Aisling: Is as Bostn m. Agus t fin? An ireannach t? Mire: Sea. Is as Baile tha Cliath m.

An Seomra Scoile


AN CEACHT GRAMADA 1. Forainmneacha Pearsanta (Personal Pronouns) There are two sets of personal pronouns in Irish. One set is used only with the conjugated verb (`dependent pronouns': see Ceacht 4),; the other set is used if a pronoun, whether a subject or an object pronoun, is used independently. Independent Pronouns Regular m th/t muid sibh iad I (also: me) you (sg.) he (also: him) she (also: her) we (also: us) you (pl.) they (also: them) Emphatic mise tusa eisean ise muidinneU sibhse iadsan

1.2 The word fin `self' can also be used to emphasize a pronoun: m fin t fin fin fin muid fin sibh fin iad fin

2. The Demonstrative Pronouns seo and sin The demonstrative pronouns seo `this' and sin `that' can be combined with a noun or pronoun to form a complete sentence:10 Seo peann.U Sin leabhar.U Sin ! Cad seo? Seo peann.U This (is a) pen. That (is a) book. That's it, that's right. What is this? This is a pen.

Seo can also mean `here', and sin `there' (as reflected in the words anseo `here', and ansin `there'): Seo . Seo Sen. Here she is. Here comes Sen.


In Connacht and Munster Irish, a pronoun is needed in this construction: seo peann.


3. An Chopail (The Copula) There are two verbs of being in Irish, the copula is and the substantive verb t. The copula is used to express inalienable qualities, not unlike Spanish ser. It is used to classify and identify things. The substantive verb, which we will encounter in Ceacht 4, is used, much like Spanish estar, to describe more temporary states and qualities. The copula has only a single form in the present tense, is.11 As its name suggests (from Latin `link'), the copula serves to join the subject and predicate of a sentence together in a relationship of equivalence: Is peann . It is a pen.

The pronoun in the copula sentence generally agrees with the noun in number and gender: Cad seo? Is leabhar . Cad sin? Is fuinneog . What is this? It's a book. What's that? It's a window.

The subject can be emphasized through the use of the demonstrative pronouns seo `this' and sin `that': Is leabhar seo. This is a book.

The copula is used to classify or identify people or objects. It also serves to emphasize a word or phrase by `fronting' it. Itself unstressed, the copula thus always introduces the stressed phrase: Is as Bostn m. Is maith an bhean . I am from Boston. She is a good woman. The Forms of the Copula Affirmative: Negative: Interrogative: Neg. interrogative: is n an nach Is peann . N peann . An peann ? Nach peann ? It is a pen. It is not a pen. Is it a pen? Isn't it a pen?

3.1. `Yes' and `No' There is no word for yes or for no in Irish. Instead we respond with a form of the verb used in the question (the `responsive'). Since the copula is unstressed and cannot stand on its own, the answer to a copula question includes is / n plus something else, in the case of the copula sentences so far either sea (<is ea `it is') or n hea (`it is not'):

The copula used to have a full verbal paradigm, but all forms except the 3 sg m is fell out of use after the Old Irish period.


An minteoir ? Sea. Is she a teacher? Yes. Nach ireannach th? N hea. Arent you Irish? No, I'm not. An peann sin? N hea. Is peann luaidhe . Is that a pen? No, it's a pencil. Instead of answering in a complete clause, one may use the conjunction ach `but:' An peann sin? N hea ach peann luaidhe. Nach dochtir th? N hea ach mac linn. Is that a pen? No, it's a pencil. Aren't you a doctor? No, I'm a student.

4. Ainmfhocal agus Aidiacht (Masculine Noun and Adjective) Most adjectives in Irish follow the nouns they modify. Thus `a good book' is expressed as leabhar maith: Is leabhar seo. Is leabhar maith seo. This is a book. This is a good book.

5. Beannachta (Greetings and Introductions) 5.1. Saying hello Dia duit (daoibh if to more than one person) God to you Dia is Muire duit/daoibh God and Mary to you (in response) Maidin mhaith. Good morning. 5.2. Introducing yourself Is mise Mire. C tusa? 5.3. Asking where someone's from C as t? Is as Baile tha Cliath m. Bal Feirste Doire Tr Chonaill Gaillimh Meirice Bostn Nua Eabhrac 5.4. Saying goodbye Sln! (< go dt t sln) dh mr! Oche mhaith! I am Mary. Who are you? Where are you from? I am from Dublin. Belfast Derry County Donegal Galway America, USA Boston New York Bye-bye (literally `may you go safely') Good luck, good byeU Good night


CEACHTANNA LE DANAMH 1. Look around the classroom. Ask each other the question cad sin/seo? pointing at the objects you know, and make up an answer using sin/seo: Cad sin? Sin peann. What is that? That's a pen.

2. Read the following sentences, and identify their subjects and predicates: Is ireannach m. I am Irish. Is mac linn t. You are a student. Is minteoir . She is a teacher. Is leabhar . It is a book. Is mic linn muid. We are students. Is Meiricenaigh sibh. You (pl) are Americans. Is ireannaigh iad. They are Irish people. 3. a) Translate: 1. I am a student. 2. She is a girl. 3. He is a teacher. 4. She is an Irish person. 5. It is a bag. 6. We are students. 7. They are teachers. 8. You (pl) are girls. 9. I am an American. 10. It is a book. b) Now, convert these sentences into: Negative statements, e.g. I am not a student. Questions, e.g. Am I a student? Negative questions, e.g. Am I not a student? The first sentence has been done for you: I am a student. Is mac linn m. Negative: N mac linn m. Question: An mac linn m? Negative Question: Nach mac linn m? 4. Look around the classroom again. Pointing at objects and asking each other cad sin/seo?, now use the construction is peann etc. in the answer. Respond with another question (a very Irish strategy!) using nach, then answer first in the affirmative, then in the negative: A: Cad sin? What is that?


B: Is peann . A: Nach peann luaidhe ? B: Sea. N hea ach peann. or: N hea. Is peann .

It is a pen. Is it not a pencil? Yes (i.e. it is a pencil rather than a pen). No, it's a pen.

5. Cluiche Cainte (`Oral Game'): Postanna (`Jobs') Each student is given a card with his or her `profession', and with the profession of a person they have to search for. Students ascertain their partner as quickly as possible by asking everyone in class whether theirs is the right profession: A: An minteor t? B: N hea. Is mac linn m. Agus t fin? A: Is banaltra mise. A (trying again): An minteoir t? C (delighted): Sea. An banaltra tusa? A (delighted): Sea cinnte! Postanna (Professions) banaltra (f) ccaire (m) lachtir (m) ceoltir (m) pobaire (m) feirmeoir (m) dochtir (m) rna (m) freastala (m) file (m) nurse cook lecturer musician piper farmer doctor secretary (administrator) waiter/waitress poet

6. Add adjectives to the following sentences: 1. An peann sin? 2. An mac linn ? 3. Is fear . 4. Nach leabhar seo? 5. N minteoir m. 7. Cuir Gaeilge air (`Translate into Irish'): 1. He is a little boy. 2. Are you a good student?


3. Isnt she a good teacher? 4. This is not a big book. 5. She is a tall girl. 8. Have a short introductory conversation with one of your classmates. Introduce yourself, and ask who s/he is and where s/he is from. Then introduce your classmate to the rest of the class. Here is an example: a) Interview: C: Dia duit. Is mise Caitln. C tusa? S: Is mise Sen. C: C as t? S: Is as Nua Eabhrac m. Agus t fin? C: Is as California m. An mac linn t? S: Sea. Agus tusa? C: Mise fosta. b) Presentation: C: Seo Sen. Is mac linn . Is as Nua Eabhrac . S: Seo Caitln. Is as California . Is mac linn fosta. Obair Bhaile 1. Write a conversation in which two students meet for the first time. 2. Write ten sentences identifying objects in your picture of a classroom, using the construciton is cailc or seo/sin cailc. 3. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. It is an interesting book. 2. She is a good teacher. 3. We are from Galway. 4. Is he a good student? 5. He is a nice man, isn't he? 6. She's a smart girl. 7. This is a good class. 8. Are you (pl) students? No. 9. Arent they from Dublin? 10. This is not a new book.


TEANGA IS C ULTR Riteachas (Saying) Mise agus tusa agus ruball na muice. I and you and the pig's tail. (all and sundry) Greetings The traditional greeting Dia duit `God to you' and its responsive Dia is Muire duit `God and Mary to you' (short for Go mbeanna Dia ... duit `May God ... bless you'), has gone somewhat out of fashion in recent years, being rarely used by younger native speakers who increasingly use haile `hallo'. It is however still widely used, especially by the older generation. Instead of a formal greeting it is also very common to ask the person you meet how s/he is (see Ceacht 4) or to exchange a comment about the weather (see Ceacht 5). Loanwords Throughout its long history, Irish has borrowed freely from other languages, and loanwords provide us with a revealing cross section of Irish cultural history. The earliest stratum of major borrowing is from Latin. Christianity was introduced to Ireland in the early fifth century, and apparently received enthusiastically, or at least without the prolonged hostility it received in other parts of pagan northern Europe. Along with the new religion came literacy and a new educational system reflected in the Irish educational vocabulary: scoil < schola `school' cathaoir < cathedra `chair' cailc < calx `chalk, pebble' peann < penna `feather, quill' leabhar < liber `book' lann < legendum `learning' (as in mac linn `son of learning, student') lacht < lectio `lecture' (cf. also leachtir `lecturer' [B&I] / `professor' [US]). Between the ninth and the eleventh century, the Vikings had a significant presence in Ireland (`they came to raid and stayed to trade'). Linguistic borrowings are mainly in the areas of ship building and trading, one of the trade imports being beoir `beer' (from Old Norse bjrr). Like English, Irish borrowed the word for window from the Vikings: fuinneog < vind auga `wind eye' The Anglo-Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169 introduced not only Norman French, spoken by the nobility, but also English, spoken by many of the mercenaries and subordinates. Irish borrowed heavily from Norman French, including sophisticated architectural terms, and



terms describing luxury goods: Seomra < Fr. chambre `room' tbla < Fr. table `table' lampa < Fr. lampe `lamp' pipar < Middle Engl. `paper' The encroachment of English was not a gradual and inexorable process; in the centuries after the invasion, Irish recovered much of the ground it had lost during the invasion. No concerted effort to repress the Irish language was made before the fourteenth century, and the repressive measures introduced with greater or lesser success in the succeeding centuries had little impact on the spoken language of the common people, being primarily directed against the native aristocracy. It was not until the broad-based educational measures of the nineteenth century, such as the introduction of an English-medium national school system in 1831, that English made rapid inroads on the vernacular. The volume of borrowing from English is massive and the process is ongoing. One example will suffice: bocsa (as in bocsa bruscair) < box.


FOCLIR ainmh (m), pl anmhaithe (3) amhrn (m) anseo arn (m) ard bainne (m) bn bia (m) b (f) bre is bre liom bunchimeach caife (m) caora (f), pl caoraigh (3) capall (m) cat (m) c acu cearc (f) ceart go leor ceol (m) chomh maith cste (m) cliste cosil le crsa, pl crsa (m) dubh an (m) eile fearr (comparative of maith) feirm (f) feoil (f) fon (m) fionn fuath (m) gach gan glasra (m pl) hata animal song here bread tall milk white food cow lovely I like/love undergraduate coffee sheep horse cat which one chicken right enough, allright music as well cake intelligent like course black bird other better farm meat wine blond hate every without vegetables hat


iarchimeach Indiach Iodileach is cuma liom is cuimhin liom l (m) lag lidir le lachtir (m) madadhU (m) mar sin marbh milsen (m), pl: milsein muc (f) n miste liom n obair (f) g ollscoil (f) prta rsta rince (m) rua rud (m) sa bhaile srid (f) suimiil tae (m) tana uachtar reoite (m) uisce (m)

postgraduate Indian (noun or adjective) Italian (noun or adjective) I don't mind / I don't care I remember day weak strong with lecturer (B&I); professor (US) dog therefore, then dead candy (sweets) pig I don't mind or work young university roast potatoes dance red-haired thing at home street interesting tea thin ice cream water COMHR

Liam and Sle are planning to have their friends Pdraign and Donncha over for dinner: Liam: An maith leat bia Iodileach? N an fearr leat feoil agus prta rsta? Sle: Is cuma liomsa, ach n maith le Pdraign bia Iodileach. Liam: Is fuath li pasta, ceart go leor. Feoil is prta mar sin, agus glasra chomh maith. C acu is fearr leat, fon bn n fon dearg? Sle: Fon dearg. An maith le Donncha uachtar reoite? Liam: N cuimhin liom, ach is maith leis cste agus milsein eile, cinnte. Agus is bre liomsa uachtar reoite. Sle: Is bre liomsa fosta .... An maith leat an ollscoil, a Liam?



Liam: Is maith. Is fearr liom an bia sa bhaile, ach is maith liom gach rud eile anseo. Is bre liom mo chrsa. AN CEACHT GRAMADA 1. An tAlt (The Article) There is no indefinite article in Irish. To say `a book', we simply say leabhar; `a good book' is leabhar maith. The definite article, feminine and masculine, is an (na in the plural): leabhar an leabhar a book the book

The definite article can affect the first letter of the noun it modifies. This phenomenon, called initial mutation, occurs in a wide variety of contexts, and is typical of all Celtic languages. The most common mutation is the simhi `lenition.' This mutation (sometimes also called `aspiration') is realized in a majority of the consonants involved as fricatization:

Simhi (Lenition) Lenition affects the voiced plosives `b' `d' `g', the unvoiced plosives `p' `t' `c', the labial `m', and the fricatives `f' and `s'. It is marked by inserting `h' after those letters: bhean dhoras ghasr pheann theach cheann mhac linn fhuinneog shrid

Lenition also affects the pronunciation of the liquids `l' `n' `r', but this is not represented in writing. Lenition does not affect vowels or the consonants / consonant clusters h, sc, sp, st, sm.

1.1. The definite article causes lenition of feminine nouns: bean a woman an bhean the woman fuinneog a window an fhuinneog the window If a feminine noun begins with a vowel, there is no change, since vowels cannot be lenited: an obair the work If a feminine noun begins with an `s' (including `sr' `sn' or `sl' but NOT `sc' `sp' `st' `sm'), the



article will prefix a `t': srid an tsrid

a street the street

1.2. The article causes no change to a masculine noun beginning with a consonant: an fear an cailn the man the girl

but it will prefix a `t-'12 to masculine nouns beginning with a vowel: an t-an an t-uisce the bird the water

2. An tAinmfhocal agus an Aidiacht (Feminine Noun and Adjective) 2.1. Adjectives following a feminine noun receive simhi, whether or not the article is present: maidin mhaith Good morning! an mhaidin mhaith the good morning srid mhr fhada a big long street an tsrid mhr fhada the big long street 2.2. Lenition is frequently prevented in a variety of grammatical and semantic contexts where a word ending in `n' (or, less commonly, in `d') precedes a word beginning in a `d,' `t' or `s' (`homorganic' or `dental rule'). For this reason, lenition of the feminine noun or adjective may be prevented: the definite article, e.g., does not lenite a feminine noun if it starts with `d' or `t'; if it starts with an `s', the feminine article prefixes a `t' instead. Similarly, if the feminine noun ends in `n', and the adjective begins with a `d' or `t' or `s', the adjective is not lenited. Dental Rule Lenition is usually prevented when homorganic consonants, i.e. consonants that are produced in the same area of the mouth, come together. Thus the dental plosives `d' and `t' and the fricative `s' are not lenited after the nasal `n' ( Siadhail 1989, 6.2.1(v)): an Dil bean deas seanteach gan dabht assembly; the Dil (Irish legislature) a nice woman an old house without a doubt


Irish orthography uses the hyphen as sparingly as possible; the hyphen is only used if prefixing a letter might otherwise give rise to ambiguity. For instance, a prefixed `h' needs no hyphen, since `h' is not a normal letter in the Irish alphabet; similarly the combination `ts' is unambiguous, since it does not occur naturally. If `t' is prefixed to a vowel, on the other hand, it needs to be hyphenated to disambiguate (an t-each `the stallion' versus an teach `the



Note that this is a descriptive rather than a prescriptive rule, and there is considerable variety of usage even within one dialect. Non-lenition is best regarded as a strong tendency; lenited and nonlenited forms co-exist in all dialects. Siadhail points out that an attributive adjective is more likely to be lenited than a noun (1989, 6.2.1(v)2). 2.2. Adjectives following a masculine noun remain unchanged: an fear maith the good man

3. Forainmneacha Ramhfhoclacha: An Ramhfhocail le (Prepositional Pronouns: the Preposition le `with') One of the characteristic features of all Celtic languages is their use of so-called `prepositional pronouns.' Prepositional pronouns are, in effect, conjugated prepositions, incorporating in one word a pronoun and a preposition: English `with me' is expressed in a single word liom. 3.1. Here is the conjugated paradigm of the preposition le `with':

liom leat leis li

with me with you (sg) with him with her

LE `with' linn libh leo

with us with you (pl) with them

Like the personal pronoun, the prepositional pronoun also has emphatic forms, with similar endings: liomsa leatsa leis-sean lise linne libhse leosan

3.2. Liom Fin If the prepositional pronoun liom (etc) is followed by the word fin `self,' it has the meaning of `by myself,' `alone': Mise liom fin I alone, by myself.

3.3. Prefixing `h' Le does not cause mutation of a following consonant, but will prefix `h' to a word beginning with a vowel:
house'), except when the noun is capitalized (an tireannach `the Irish person').



Is maith le hine fon dearg.

ine likes red wine. Prefixing `h'

Little words ending in a vowel that neither lenite nor eclipse (see Ceacht 3), prefix `h' to words beginning with a vowel: le hine a hathair go hlainn with ine her father beautiful

4. Copula Sentences With le 4.1 Ownership Le can also be used with the copula to express ownership. The emphatic paradigm of the prepositional pronoun is typically used: Is liomsa . An leatsa seo? Is cara liom . It is mine. Is this yours? She is a friend of mine.

4.2 Other Idioms with le Le is also used with adjectives in copula sentences to form a number of expressions, mostly to do with likes and dislikes: Is maith liom tae. Is fearr liom caife. Is fuath le Sen . Is bre linn . Is cuma liom. An miste leat? N miste liom. Is cuimhin liom . I like tea. I prefer coffee. Sen hates it. We love it. It is all the same to me, I don't care.13 Do you mind? I don't mind / I don't care.14 I remember him.

4.2.1. These sentences can be converted into questions or negative statements by using the interrogative and negative forms of the copula:

Normally used when one is equally agreeable to two options: `An fearr leat tae n caife?' `Is cuma liom.' `Do you prefer tea or coffee?' `I don't mind'. When followed by the preposition faoi `about' it means `I don't care for...': Is cuma liom faoi fhilcht `I don't care for poetry', and Is rchuma liom faoi Bhill Clinton `I can't stand Bill Clinton.' 14 More often than not used in the negative rather than the affirmative.



An maith leat tae? N maith li seo. Nach maith leat do dhinnar?

Do you like tea? She doesnt like this. Don't you like your dinner?

4.2.2. The answer to a question will include the copula and the adjective/predicate: An maith leat Bostn? Do you like Boston? Is maith. / N maith. I do. / I don't. 4.2.3. Note the use of the conjunctions n `or' and n `nor:' An maith leat tae n caife? Do you like tea or coffee? N maith liom tae n caife. I like neither tea nor coffee. Note also the conjunction n `than' used when comparing two things to each other: Is fearr liom tae n caife. I like tea better than coffee /I prefer tea to coffee. 5. The Preposition gan `without' The preposition gan `without' causes simhi: gan bhrg gan mhaith without a shoe useless, without benefit

However, if the noun it modifies begins with a d, t, s (or f) there is no simhi, since d/t/s resist lenition after `n' (see Ceacht 2 `Dental Rule'): gan dabht without a doubt.

In addition, personal names are not lenited, nor is a noun lenited if it is modified: gan Mchel gan cuidi ar bith without Michael without any help. CEACHTANNA LE DANAMH 1. Write out the following nouns with the article: arn, bean, cailc, doras, fuinneog, leabhar, scoil, obair, cathaoir, pipar, tbla, srid, an. 2.1a) Incorporate adjectives into the following classification sentences: is capall > is capall maith is muc is cat is peann is cailc is bean sin



b) Now turn these into questions and provide answers: is capall maith > an capall maith ? Sea / N hea 3. Cluiche: Fiche Ceist Play the game of `20 Questions' with your partner. Use words such as beag, mr, maith, deas, cliste, ciin, lidir, lag: A: An ainmh ? B: Sea. A: An ainmh mr ? B: N hea. A: An madadh ? B: N hea. A: An cat ? B: Sea! 4. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. We don't like American food. 2. Do you (pl) like music? Yes. 3. She likes tea, but she prefers coffee. 4. It is not yours, it is Brds. 5. I love strong tea. 6. Does she like the university? 7. They hate the food here, but they love the weather. 8. Dont you remember that song? 9. Is that coffee yours? 10. We remember that morning. 5. Suirbh Beag: An maith leat ...? Find out from your partner how they feel about some of the items listed below. Then represent their opinions to the class. 1. caife dubh 2. ccaireacht (`cooking') 3. Bostn 4. Starbucks 5. Madonna 6. ire 7. Daid na Nollag (`Father Christmas') 8. Peil Mheiricenach (`American Football') 9. bia Indiach 10. Leabharlann Widener (`Widener Library') 11. an aimsir i Massachusetts (`the weather in Mass.') 12. uisce fuar 13. ceol tre (`Country & Western music') 14. oinniin (`onions') 6. C acu is fearr leat? Ask your partner which of the options below they prefer:



peil / snmh (`football / swimming') ccaireacht / rince (`cooking / dancing') ire / Meirice tae / caife caife bn / caife dubh madadh / capall fon bn / fon dearg an amharclann / an phictirlann (`the theatre / the cinema') Bostn / Nua Eabhrac (`Boston / New York') cste / uachtar reoite (`cake / ice cream') bia Iodileach / bia Indiach (`Italian food / Indian food') an Ghaeilge / Barla Sampla: `C acu is fearr leat, peil n snmh?' - `Is maith liom peil ach is fearr liom snmh. / Is fearr liom peil n snmh.' Obair Bhaile 1. Label as many of the items in the farmyard picture below as you can in Irish. Make use of the definite article.



2. a) Cuir Barla air (translate into English):

Seo Niall Dnaill. Is mac linn ag Ollscoil Harvard . Is as Nua Eabhrac . Is Meiricenach , ach is as irinn a athair (`his father'). N maith leis Bostn; is fearr leis Nua Eabhrac. Is maith leis ccaireacht agus rince. N maith leis staidar ach is bre leis an Ghaeilge agus Barla. Is maith leis an minteoir Barla, ach is fearr leis an minteoir Gaeilge!

Seo Leah Mller. Is as an Ghearmin . Is lachtir ag Ollscoil Bostn. Is maith li Bostn, agus is maith li an ollscoil - is bre li leabhair. Is fuath li an Ghearmin; is fearr li Meirice. Is maith li rince agus caife lidir. b) Write blurbs about two of the following: Pierre Victoire (Frainceach / as an Fhrainc) Enrico de Gamba (Spinneach / as an Spinn) Count Dracula (Rmineach / as an Rmin) Giuseppe Verdi (Iodileach / as an Iodil) Mirn N Ghallchir (as an Ghaeltacht / ireannach / as irinn) 3. Make up an identity card about yourself. NB Only reveal things which you don't mind sharing with the class! Example: Is mise Aisling. Is mac linn bunchimeach ag Ollscoil Harvard m. Is ireannach m; is as Baile tha Cliath m. Is cailn ard tana m, agus is duine ciin m. Is maith liom bia Iodileach ach is fearr liom bia Indiach. N maith liom sport. Is bre liom Meirice ach is fuath liom George Bush. Is maith liom mo chrsa. Is bre liom an Ghaeilge. 4. Cuir Gaeilge air seo: 1. I like this new hat. 2. She likes tea, but she prefers coffee.



3. They hate American food. 4. We love the weather here. 5. That good horse is mine. 6. Do you like this university? Yes. 7. Mire doesnt like the cake, but she loves the ice cream. 8. Do you (pl) like the book? No. 9. Is this pen yours? 10. Does he remember the song?

TEANGA IS C ULTR Seanfhocail (`Proverbs') Marbh le tae, agus marbh gan . Is fearr Gaeilge bhriste n Barla cliste. Damned if you do, and damned if you don't. Broken Irish is better than clever English. Rann (`Rhyme') Is maith liom bainne Is maith liom tae Is maith liom codladh Ag deireadh an lae. (CC #333) I like milk I like tea I like sleep at the end of the day.

Amhrn: Nra Bheag (`Song: Little Nra') Is maith le Nra prta rsta Is maith le Nra im leo Is maith le Nra pis agus pnaire Is bainne na b san oche. (CC #204a) Nra likes roasted potatoes Nra likes butter with them Nra likes peas and beans And cow's milk at night.

Seanfhocail Eile (`More Proverbs') The copula is often used to emphasize. If one wants to stress a certain quality in a person or object, one moves the adjective to the front, directly following the copula; is fear maith becomes is maith an fear . This construction is very common in traditional idioms and proverbs:



Is maith an t-anlann an t-ocras. Is trom an t-ualach aineolas. Is trom cearc i bhfad. Is mr an rud gr n eagla. Is buaine cl n saol.

Hunger is a good sauce. Ignorance is a heavy burden. Even a hen is heavy when carried far. Love or fear will move mountains. Fame is more lasting than life.


FOCLIR ainm (m) athair (m) bal (m) bean chile (f) bocht bolg (m) bthar (m) brste (m) bu (m. noun and adj) cailiil cara (m) ceann (m) ceoltir (m) clann (f) cluas (f) cos (f) cro (m) dath (m), pl dathanna dearg (m. noun and adj) dearthir (m) deirfir (f) dlodir (m) dochtir (m) donn (m. noun and adj) dorcha droch- (prefix) duine (m) fear cile (m) feirmeoir (m) geansa (m) glas (m. noun and adj) glin (f) gorm (m. noun and adj) hata (m) inon (f) is trua , is trua sin lmh (f) leanbh (m) name father mouth wife poor stomach road trousers yellow famous friend head musician children ear foot heart colour red brother sister lawyer doctor brown dark bad person husband farmer jumper (B&I) / sweater (US) green (as in vegetation); also grey/blue knee blue hat daughter it's a pity, that's a pity hand child



liath (m. noun and adj) mac (m) mthair (f) post (m) saibhir scal sean, comparative/superlative sine srn (f) stbla (m) sil (f) teach (m) tuismitheoir (m), pl: tuismitheoir uaine (f. noun and adj)

grey, grey-haired son mother job wealthy story old nose stable eye house parent green (as in garments etc.) COMHR

Liam and Sle are looking at photographs from home: Sle: Seo mo thuismitheoir. Is feirmeoir iad, agus is seo r dteach. Sin m athair, agus sin mo mhthair, agus is sin mo dheirfir. Bheul, sin a lmh agus a cos! Liam: An sin do dhearthir? Sle: Is . Liam: An mac linn fosta? Sle: N hea. Is ceoltir . Liam: Agus do dheirfir? Sle: Is dochtir . Seo lena15 fear cile. Is fear deas . Agus seo a gclann: Samus agus Caitln agus Cormac. Is Samus an duine is sine, agus is Cormac an leanbh. Liam: Agus cad sin? Sle: Sin an stbla. Agus seo r n-anmhaithe: b, agus caoirigh, agus seo Tiarnn, r madadh. Liam: Is madadh lainn . C leis ? An leatsa ? Sle: Is liom. Is mo mhadadh fin . Is bre liom Tiarnn. AN CEACHT GRAMADA 1. Possessive Pronouns mo do a a my your (sg) his her r bhur a our your (pl) their

The possessive pronoun causes three distinct types of mutation to the noun it modifies:

lena < prep le `with' + 3sg f poss pron a `her'.



1.1 Simhi (Lenition) The first and second singular and the third singular masculine possessive pronouns cause simhi: mo theach my house do theach your house a theach his house 1.2 Prefixing `h' The third singular feminine possessive pronoun does not cause simhi, but will prefix h to a noun beginning with a vowel (see Ceacht 2): a teach her house a hinon her daughter 1.3 Ur (Eclipsis) The plural possessive pronouns all cause a mutation called ur `eclipsis'.

Ur (`Eclispsis') Eclipsis (ur) affects essentially the same set of letters as lenition (simhi), except that the letters `m' and `s' are not affected. The term eclipsis refers to the sound of a letter being `eclipsed' by a prefixed letter. Phonologically, eclipsis covers two mechanisms: 1) The voiced plosives `b' `d' `g', and all vowels, are nasalized to the point of being eclipsed by nasals: r mbean [m] r ngasr [ng/n] r ndochtir [n] r n-athair [n] 2) The unvoiced plosives `p' `t' `c' and the fricative `f' are voiced: r bpeann [b] r gceann [g] r dteach [d] r bhfuinneog [w/v] Some examples; mother mo mhthair do mhthair a mhthair a mthair r mthair bhur mthair a mthair

father m'athair d'athair a athair a hathair r n-athair bhur n-athair a n-athair

problem m'fhadhb d'fhadhb a fhabhb a fadhb r bhfadhb bhur bhfadhb a bhfadhb



Note that the only distinction between the third person possessive pronouns `her' `his' `their' is in their effect upon the following word: a teach her house a theach his house a dteach their house 1.4. Possessive Pronoun + fin Fin after the possessive pronoun means `own:' mo theach fin my own house 2. An Chopail (The Copula): Identification Sentences So far we have looked at copula sentences that classify nouns (`classification sentences'): Is mac linn She is a student (she belongs to the class of persons called students)

In the classification sentence, the predicate directly follows the copula, and the pronoun is in final position. The predicate in this type of sentence is always indefinite. If we want to identify a thing or person, the structure is different: the copula is followed by the pronoun, and the noun is definite (i.e. it is preceded by the article, a possessive pronoun, or it is a personal name or place name). 2.1. The Emphatic Pronoun The emphatic pronoun rather than the simple pronoun is commonly used: Is eisean an minteoir. He is the teacher. An ise an rna? N h ach an lachtir. Is she the secretary? No, the lecturer. An tusa Sen? Are you Sen?16 2.2. The Third Person Copula Sentence The treatment of the third person (he, she, they) identification sentence offers further complexity. 2.2.1. With the demonstrative pronoun sin /seo: Is sin an minteoir. An sin an minteoir? Is seo an peann. An seo an peann? Is sin mathair. An sin mathair? 2.2.2. Simple Structure: Seo an peannU In the affirmative only, the following simple structure can be used, which dispenses with the copula and pronoun:


But note if the emphasis is on the predicate rather than the subject pronoun, the simple rather than the emphatic pronoun may be used: An t Sen? `Are you Sen?'



Sin an minteoir. Seo an peann. Sin m'athair.

That is the teacher. This is the pen. That's my father.

2.2.3. In the absence of an emphatic or demonstrative pronoun, an identification sentence in the third person has an additional `echoing' pronoun: Is an minteoir . Is an lachtir . Is iad mo thuismitheoir iad. He is the teacher. She is the lecturer. They are my parents.

2.2.4. If the subject is a proper noun (e.g. a name), the syntax is different: instead of an `echoing' pronoun at the end of the sentence, we have a `proleptic' pronoun at the beginning, i.e. a pronoun that anticipates the proper noun: Is Samus an minteoir. Is Sle an lachtir. Is iad ine agus Aoife mo dheirfiracha. Samus is the teacher. Sle is the lecturer. ine and Aoife are my sisters.

2.3. The responsive always echoes the pronoun used in the question. The simple, non-emphatic pronoun is used even if the emphatic is used in the question: An tusa an rna? An mise an lachtir? An eisean an gada? An Sle an minteoir? An sibhse a tuismitheoir? An muidinne na ceoltir? An iadsan na mic linn? Is m. / N m. Is t. / N t. Is . / N h. Is . / N h. Is muid. / N muid. Is sibh. / N sibh. Is iad. / N hiad. Are you the secretary? Yes. / No. Am I the lecturer? Yes. / No. Is he the thief? Yes. / No. Is Sle the teacher? Yes. / No. Are you her parents? Yes. / No. Are we the musicians? Yes. / No. Are they the students? Yes. / No.

3. The Prefixed Adjectives sean- and drochDroch- `bad' and, when used attributively, sean `old' are prefixed to the noun they modify and lenite it: seanbhean drochmhinteoir drochscal an old woman a bad teacher bad news

Since it ends in `n', sean does not lenite `d' `t' or `s' (see Ceacht 2, 2 `Dental Rule'): seantbla an old table.



4. Na Dathanna (Colours) Colours can be used as nouns or adjectives. With the exception of uaine, all colours are masculine. If used as nouns, they often take the definite article: Is maith liom An Dearg is an Dubh le Stendhal. I like Stendhal's Le rouge et le noir.

Na Dathanna (Colours) bn bndearg bu corcra dearg donn white pink yellow purple red brown dubh flannbhu glas gorm liath uaine black orange green (natural) blue grey green (fabrics et al.)

CEACHTANNA LE DANAMH 1. Translate the following phrases, and then write out the full paradigm for each: 1. my house (your house, his house, her house, our house, your house, their house) 2. their sister 3. our father 4. his horse 5. her foot 6. his eye 7. my ear 8. their parents 9. her name 10. our dog 2. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. My head; the head. 2. My eye; the eye. 3. My window; the window. 4. My nose; the nose. 5. My bread; the bread. 3. a) Translate and simplify the following sentences, according to the model: Is sin an minteoir.`That is the teacher.' > Sin an minteoir. 1. Is seo minon. 2. Is seo r dteach nua.



3. Is seo mo lmh. 4. Is sin a minteoir. 5. Is seo a mthair. b) Now use the complex structure: Sin an dochtir. > Is sin an dochtir. 1. Seo mfhear cile. 2. Sin a hathair. 3. Sin an madadh maith cliste. 4. Seo an ceoltir cailiil. 5. Sin a theach. 4. Cluiche Cainte: C mise? Each student is given an animal identity and has to impersonate that animal by gesture or sound; the others have to guess. Mac linn A (`Student A'): C mise? An rang (`the class'): An tusa an bh? Mac linn A: Is m / N m. 5. Change the following classification sentences to identification sentences, according to the model: An leabhar sin?-> An sin an leabhar? 1. An b seo? 2. An minteoir t? 3. An mac linn nua t? 4. Is an beag sin. 5. Is cara maith . 6. Is bean . 7. Is Meiricenach . 8. Is leabhar mr suimiil . 9. An ceoltir t? 10. Nach mthair mhaith sin? 6. Cluiche Cainte: Seo mo theaghlach `This is my family' Pretend the other students are all members of your family whom you are introducing to someone. Identify them each by name and state your relationship. If you like, you can also show off their profession! 7. Cuir Gaeilge air: A bad story; an old woman; an old man; an old house; a bad house; a bad mother; grandfather (literally `old father'); grandmother (literally `old mother'. 8. Incorporate a prefixed adjective into the following sentences: is capall > is seanchapall 1. is muc



2. is cat 3. is peann 4. is cailc 5. is bean sin. 9. Add colour terms of your choice to the following sentences, and translate: 1. An peann sin? 2. Is maith liom cailc. 3. Is geansa . 4. Nach leabhar seo? 5. Is liomsa an capall. Obair Bhaile 1. Write a paragraph on your colour preferences, and your preferred choice of colours in clothes. Example: Is maith liom an dearg is an bu, agus is bre liom corcra chomh maith. N miste liom an gorm ach is fuath liom an donn agus an dubh. N maith liom dathanna dorcha. Is maith liom brste corcra agus geansa bndearg, agus is bre liom hata dearg leis! 2. Make up noun phrases (consisting of the definite article, noun, and adjective) for each of the pictures below:



3. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. He is not my brother. 2. I am your mother. 3. Her father is the professor. 4. Do you remember her name? I do. She is an old friend of mine (liom; see #2,3.1). 5. He doesnt like his new job. 6. That man is their father. 7. Do you own this old dog? Yes. He is a smart dog. 8. Cit is not my sister; shes my mother! 9. They love the new house; I prefer the old house. 10. Their son is a doctor.

TEANGA IS C ULTR Amhrn: Bean Phidn Is an trua ghar nach mise, nach mise Is an trua ghar nach mise bean Phidn. Is an trua ghar nach mise, nach mise, Is an bhean at aige bheith caillte. Go mbristear do chosa, do chosa Go mbristear do chosa, a bhean Phidn Go mbristear do chosa, do chosa Go mbristear do chosa is do chnmha. It's a great pity that I'm not, I'm not It's a great pity that I'm not Pidn's wife. It's a great pity I'm not, I'm not and that his wife isn't dead! May May May May you break your legs, your legs, you break your legs, wife of Pidn. you break your legs, your legs, you break your legs and your bones.

Seanfhocail Is fearr rith maith n drochsheasamh. Drochubh, drochan. A good run is better than a bad stand. You'll get a bad bird from a bad egg. Rann Na cait a bh ag Fionn Mac Cumhaill: Seangchat, Seanchat Ramharchat, Marbhchat Schat, Dchat, Liathchat, Fiachat Piscn bliana agus meathlir. These are the cats of Fionn Mac Cumhail: Lean Cat, Old Cat Fat Cat, Dead Cat Fairy Cat, Evil Cat Grey Cat, Wild Cat Year-Old Kitten and Coward.




Can you say the following things? If you can't, or you're not quite sure, go back to the lesson and paragraph indicated after each item: say `I / you / he / she / we / you / they' (1.1) say `this is a book' (1.2) say `it is a book' (1.3) say `it is a good book' (1.4) say that you are a student, that Liam is a teacher, and that Nra is a good poet (1.3) say who you are, know how to greet someone and ask them how they are; wish them good-bye (1.5) say `the woman / the window / the chalk / the bread' (2.1) say `the good woman / the nice woman' (2.2) say `with me / you / him / her / us / you / them' (2.3) say `I like / hate / love Irish' (2.3) say `without a pen / a doubt' (2.4) say `my / your / his / her / our / your / their house' (3.1) say `Mire is the teacher'; `It is the pen' (3.2) say `an old woman'; `an old house'; `a bad man' (3.3) say `it is a red / green / blue / yellow / pink / orange / brown sweater' (3.4) Revision Exercises You should by now be able to translate the following sentences: 1. Is he a student? No, he is the teacher. 2. Is that your sister? Yes. 3. Is she a lecturer? Yes. She is a good lecturer. 4. Is that her name? It is a beautiful name. 5. That horse belongs to Mirn. Its a very strong horse. 6. Samus is my Irish teacher. He is a famous (cailiil) poet. 7. These are our parents. They are from Gleann Fhinne. 8. Its a little old house, but its her own house, and she loves it. 9. Is this my breakfast? I dont like it. It is bad food. 10. Are you the poet? No. I am a musician.


FOCLIR a (before a person's name etc) anseo ansin ar fad ar chor ar bith thas (m) bhuel! briste brn (m) bronntanas (m) an ceann seo (m) ciin crochnaithe cta (m) dathil deacair doiligh danta deifir (f) dom (f) druidteU eagla (f) fada fearg (f) foscailteU an Fhrainc (f) fuar glasta gairid go raibh maith agat imn (f) iontach iontas (m) nire (f) nimhneach ocras (m) olc Pras vocative marker here there altogether, very at all happiness well! broken sorrow present this one quiet finished coat handsome, beautiful difficult difficult done hurry disappointment closed fear long anger open France cold dressed short thank you anxiety, worry wonderful; as intensifier: veryU surprise, wonder shame sore hunger bad Paris



posa (m) ramhar ssta sona spirbhean tana tart (m) te thall ansin tinn tinneas cinn (m) tinneas fiacaile (m) trua (f) tuirse (f) tuirseach

a piece fat content happy dream woman thin thirst hot over there sick headache toothache pity fatigue, tiredness tired COMHR

Aisling is having something to eat in the student cafeteria. Sle joins her. Sle: Cad mar at t, a Aisling? Aisling: T m go maith. Agus t fin? Sle: T m ceart go leor. Aisling: Nl cuma mhaith ort ar chor ar bith. Cad at cearr leat? Sle: T slaghdn orm, agus t m beagn tuirseach, ach nl m go dona. T tusa glasta go deas inniu. Is maith liom an geansa at ort - t s go hlainn. Aisling: Go raibh maith agat. Is bronntanas mo dheirfir . Is as Pras t s sa Fhrainc i mbliana. Sle: Oh l l, trs chic. T s an-deas ar fad. Aisling: An maith leat cste? T an ceann seo formhaith. Seo posa beag duit. Sle: Sin posa mr go raibh maith agat. T ocras mr orm. Hmm. T s iontach blasta ceart go leor. Aisling: Nach bhfuil? Sle: A Aisling, c h an buachaill thall ansin? An sin an mac linn nua? Aisling: Is . Sle: Cainm at air? Aisling: Sen at air. Is as Gaillimh . Sle: T s an-dathil, nach bhfuil? Aisling: Nl s go dona ar chor ar bith. Ach t brn orm - nl an t-dh ort. Seo a spirbhean thall ansin. ine at uirthi. Sle: Ah bhuel. Nach mr an trua sin. AN CEACHT GRAMADA 1. The Substantive Verb and the Dependent Pronoun As we have seen, the copula is used to classify (`it is a house') or to identify the subject (`it is the



house'). The substantive verb t, on the other hand, is used to describe the subject: T an teach mr The house is big.

1.1. T and the Dependent Pronoun The set of pronouns used with t and any conjugated verb (hence `dependent pronouns') differs slightly from the set we have learned so far, having s, s and siad in the third person singular and plural instead of , and iad. The second person singular t is never lenited after a conjugated verb. Note that the form of the verb is the same for all persons:17 t mU I am t t you are t s he is t s she is t muidU we are t sibh you are t siad they are

The relative form of t, which is used in many questions, is at: Cad mar at t? Cad at cearr leat? How are you? What's wrong with you?

1.2. The Dependent Forms of the Substantive Verb The substantive verb has distinct forms used with the negative and interrogative forms of the verb. These we call the dependent forms. Negative: Interrogative: Neg. interrogative: Where is: Interrogative an bhfuil m?U an bhfuil t? an bhfuil s? an bhfuil s? an bhfuil muid?U an bhfuil sibh? an bhfuil siad? nl an bhfuil? nach bhfuil? c bhfuil? am I? are you? is he? is she? are we? are you? are they? Negative nl mU nl t nl s nl s nl muidU nl sibh nl siad I am not you are not he is not she is not we are not you are not they are not


Ulster Irish uses very few synthetic verb forms, i.e. those combining pronoun and verb to form a single word. Synthetic verb forms are much more common in Connacht and particularly in Munster Irish. In these dialects, synthetic verb forms are used in the 1sg. and pl. of the present tense: tim `I am'; timid `we are'; an bhfuilim `am I'; an bhfuilimid `are we'; nlim `I am not'; nlimid `we are not.' By contrast, in Ulster, the verbal system is



Nl m tuirseach. An bhfuil an obair crochnaithe? Nach bhfuil an fhuinneog briste? C bhfuil mo leabhar?

I am not tired. Is the work finished? Isnt the window broken? Where is my book?

1.3. The Predicative Adjective Note that there is no mutation of the adjective in this context, whether it describes a masculine or feminine noun. Here, the adjective is not part of the noun phrase, but functions as its predicate: T an fear mr. T an bhean mr. The man is tall. The woman is tall.

Compare the attributive adjective, where the adjective changes according to the gender and number of the noun it describes (Ceacht 2): an fear mr an bhean mhr the tall man the tall woman.

2. The Preposition ar 2.1. The preposition ar lenites the following noun: ar Mhire, on Mary. The preposition ar is used in many idiomatic expressions. Clothing and some other aspects of someone's appearance, including physical and even intellectual features, are conceptualized as being `on' a person: T hata ar Mhire. T cuma mhaith ar Shle. T gruaig dhubh ar Shamus. T ceann maith ar Aisling. T an t-dh ar Shen. Mire is wearing a hat. Sle is looking well. Samus has black hair. Aisling is clever. Sen is in luck. AR `on' regular orm ort air uirthi orainn oraibh orthu on me on you on him on her on us on you on them emphatic ormsa ortsa airsean uirthise orainne oraibhse orthusan

analytic, i.e. verb and pronoun are not combined.



The same construction is used to express a variety of feelings, states of being and physical conditions, particularly of the unpleasant sort, such as diseases: T ... orm: Idioms T fearg orm. T brn orm. T eagla orm. T imn orm. T nire orm. T deifir orm. T thas orm. T dom orm. T tart orm. T ocras orm. T tuirse orm. T tinneas cinn orm. T slaghdn orm. I am angry. I am sorry/sad. I am afraid. I am worried/anxious. I am ashamed. I am in a hurry. I am glad. I am disappointed. I am thirsty. I am hungry. I am tired. I have a headache. I have a cold.

If you want to say that you are very angry etc., you add mr after the noun: T fearg mhr orm. T brn mr orm. I am very angry. I am very sorry.

3. The Intensifying Prefixes an-, for-, r-, and iontach The intensifiers an `very', for `truly, really' and r `too, excessively' are prefixed to adjectives (and occasionally to nouns), leniting the word they modify (an- is always followed by a hyphen; for and r only if homorganic letters need to be separated, e.g. for-rasunta; r-olc): an-mhaith formhaith rfhuar very good truly good, really good too cold

Occasionally they are also prefixed to a noun, particularly in the case of an: T an-ocras orm. T an-obair danta ansin. I am very hungry. Great work has been done there.

In Ulster Irish, the adjective iontach `wonderful' is often used before adjectives to mean `very'.



Structurally, however, it operates differently: although it precedes the adjective, it is not prefixed to it and hence does not lenite it. It is also never prefixed to a noun: T an lachtoir iontach maith. The lecturer is very good.

4. The Particle go: T m go maith The following common adjectives are usually preceded by the particle go when used predicatively;18 note that the particle go prefixes h to words beginning with a vowel (see `Prefixing h', Ceacht 3): go hlainn (`beautiful') go haoibhinn (`pleasant') go bre (`lovely') go dona (`bad') T m go maith. T an aimsir go hlainn inniu. go maith (`good') go hiontach (`wonderful') go deas (`nice') go holc (`awful') I am well. The weather is beautiful today.

Go is never used if the adjective is qualified by another adjective, as e.g. after prefixed intensifiers: T s formhaith. She is really good.

5. Conversational Idioms 5.1. Cad mar at t? `How are you?' The question Cad mar at t? meaning `How are you?' may function as an introductory greeting instead of Dia duit, Haile etc. Some possible responses include: T m go maith. / Go maith. T m go hiontach. T m go bre. Nl m go dona. T m ceart go leor. T m go dona. I am well. I am doing great. I am fine. I'm not doing badly. I'm all right. I am not well.

The following interchange might start any conversation: Cad mar at t? Go maith. Agus t fin? T m go bre.

How are you? Well. And you? Im fine.

The use of the particle go is optional in this context in Donegal Irish; elsewhere in Ireland it is obligatory. This use of go seems an (agrammatical) extension of the normal function of go, namely to turn an adjective into an adverb: T s ag tiomint go dona `he drives badly.'



5.2. Cad at cearr leat? `What's wrong with you?' If the response to Cad mar at t? is less than cheerful, you can follow up by asking: Cad at cearr leat? Cad at ort? You might hear the following answer: T m tinn. T m tuirseach. T tuirse orm. T slaghdn orm. T tinneas cinn orm. T tinneas fiacaile orm. I am sick. I am tired. I feel fatigued / tired. I have a cold. I have a headache. I have a toothache. What's wrong with you? What's wrong with you?

You can use the same construction for other illnesses, e.g. fiabhras (`fever'), ailse (`cancer'), an fli (`the 'flu'), and tinneas goile (`stomach ache'). 5.3. Cainm at ort? `What's your name?' The normal way of asking someone to identify themselves is to ask what a person's name is (literally, what name is `on' them): Cainm at ort? or Cad an t-ainm at ort? It is less abrupt than asking C tusa? `Who are you?' In response, one can say, for example: Sen at orm. Or simply: Mise Sen. I am Sen. My name is Sen.

5.4. Cad an chuma at air? `What does he look like?' If you want someone to describe a person to you, you ask Cad an chuma at air/uirthi? What does he/she look like?

You use the same idiom if you want to say that someone is or isn't looking well: T cuma mhaith uirthi. Nl cuma rmhaith air. T cuma bhrnach orthu. She is looking well. He isn't looking too well. They look sad.



CEACHTANNA LE DANAMH 1. Practice the difference between the attributive and predicative adjective by translating the following pairs of sentences: 1. The window is big. The big window is open. 2. The woman is quiet. The quiet woman is here. 3. Is the pig smart? Is the smart pig sick? 4. Is the work difficult? Is the difficult work finished? 5. The night is long. The long night is quiet. 2. Practice the forms of the prepositional pronoun ar by expressing the sentences in the idiom box in 2.2 in all persons. Then, practice the forms of the substantive verb by converting the sentences into questions, negative statements, and negative questions. 3. Chaindrill Translate into Irish, making the necessary substitutions (the first phrases are done for you): I am happy - she - disappointed - very sorry - they - thirsty - hungry - he - very happy - tired - I very angry - have a headache. (T thas orm - t thas uirthi - t doma uirthi...) 4. Intensify the following adjectives, according to the model: Maith > an-mhaith (n iontach maith) > formhaith > rmhaith 1. fuar 2. te 3. lidir 4. ciin 5. blasta 5. Obair Bheirte: Cad mar at t? Pair up with another student. Pretend you're meeting in the street, and talk about how terribly ill you both feel. Then have another round, but this time you both feel fabulous. If you like, the weather may reflect your current mood. 6. Cluiche Cainte: C h / h? Describe one of the students in your class; your classmates must guess who it is you are describing. Tusa: T s ard tana agus t s an-chiin. T geansa gorm uirthi, agus brste dubh. T gruaig rua uirthi. T s an-chairdiil. An rang: An sin Mire? / Is Mire . Tusa: Is / N h. Obair Bhaile 1. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. Samus has a headache today; he has a cold and is very tired.



2. She looks tired; is she all right? 3. Its very cold. Is the door open? 4. Is the big window broken? 5. Their father is very sick; he has cancer. 6. Hes wearing a black coat and a red hat. 7. Isnt the brown bread very tasty? 8. That interesting work is finished. 9. Arent they ashamed? 10. Are you (pl) in a hurry? No, but were very tired. 2. Write a blurb about your spirbhean / spirfhear, the woman or man of your dreams. Strict adherence to the truth is not necessary in this exercise. TEANGA IS C ULTR Amhrn: Tir Abhaile 'Ri 1. Tir abhaile 'ri, tir abhaile 'ri Tir abhaile 'ri, a Mhary, Tir abhaile 'ri, is fan sa bhaile Mar t do mhargadh danta. Curf: Nl mo mhargadh, t do mhargadh Nl mo mhargadh danta T do mhargadh, nl mo mhargadh, T do mhargadh danta. 2. Is cuma c dhein n nach dhein Is cuma c dhein , a Mhary Is cuma c dhein n nach dhein Mar t do mhargadh danta. 3. Ps an pobaire, ps an pobaire Ps an pobaire, a Mhary Ps an pobaire i dts na hiche Agus beidh s agat ar maidin. 1. Go home, go home Go home, Mary, Go home and stay home Because your match is made. Refrain: My match is NOT made Yes it is My match is NOT made. Your match is made No it isn't Your match is made. 2. It doesn't matter who made it or who didn't It doesn'n matter who made it, Mary It doesn't matter who made it or who didn't For your match is made. 3. Marry the piper, marry the piper Marry the piper, Mary Marry the piper in the evening and he'll be with you in the morning.



Tomhas (`Riddle') Nl s amuigh ort Nl s istigh ort, T s ort Is n trom . (CC #445) It's not on your outside It's not inside you It's on you And it's no weight to you.

Dh Rann (`Two Rhymes') T capall is cairt ag Sen hAirt; T b agus lao ag Sen S; T peata uain ag Sen Cluain; Is sin an fth nach bhfuil orthu buairt. (RR 17) T an Deisceart go hlainn T an Tuaisceart go bre T an t-Oirthear go simh Is t an tIarthar thar barr. (CC #285) Sen hAirt has a horse and cart; Sen S has a cow and a calf; Sen Cluain has a pet sheep; And that's why they're so happy. The South is beautiful The North is fine The East is pleasant And the West is the best.


FOCLIR ag amharc (ar) ag amharc ar an teilifs ag caint (le) ag canadh ag ccaireacht ag cur bist ag cur sneachta ag damhsa ag danamh ag dul ag isteacht (le) ag ir ag fanacht (le) ag foghlaim ag gire ag ithe ag labhairt (le) ag lamh ag obair ag l ag rince ag rith ag scrobh ag sil ag snmh ag soilsi ag teacht anois ars bite Barla (m) Breatnais (f) Briotinis (f) buochas le Dia! codladh (m) cna (m) diseacht (f) duit looking, watching watching TV talking singing cooking raining snowing dancing doing going listening (to) rising, getting up, becoming waiting (for); staying learning laughing eating speaking reading working drinking dancing running writing walking swimming shining coming now again drowned English Welsh Breton thank God! sleep dwelling, living place waking state to you (sg)



Eilvis, an (f) fios (m) fliuch Fraincis (f) Gaeilge na hAlban (f) gealach (f) Gearminis (f) go fill grian (f) grianmhar inniu Iodilis (f) lu (m; also: ag lu) scamallach seasamh (m; also: ag seasamh) Snis (f) Spinnis (f) su (m; also: ag su) tirim tost (m)

Switzerland knowledge wet French Scots Gaelic moon German yet sun sunny today Italian lying, reclining cloudy standing Chinese Spanish sitting dry silence COMHR

Sle has a piece of gossip for Aisling about their friend Pdraign. Sle: A Aisling, t scal agam duit. T buachaill ag Pdraign! Aisling: An bhfuil anois? An bhfuil s deas? Cad an chuma at air? Sle: T s an-dathil. T s ard tana. T sile gorma aige agus t gruaig dhubh air. T s anchliste fosta. Aisling: C as ? Sle: Is as an Eilvis , agus t Fraincis agus Gearminis lofa aige. Aisling: An bhfuil Gaeilge aige go fill? Sle: Nl mrn, ach t s ag foghlaim. Aisling: Cainm at air? Sle: Henri at air. Aisling: An bhfuil a fhios agat c bhfuil s ag fanacht? Sle: T s ina chna i mBaile tha Cliath. T s ag stidar ag an ollscoil. AN CEACHT GRAMADA 1. The Preposition ag `at, by' The preposition ag `at, by' does not cause any mutation to the following noun:



ag Mire

at/by Mire.

1.1. The Present Progressive Tense The present progressive (`I am working') is formed by combining the substantive verb t with the preposition ag and the verbal noun (the verbal noun is a non-inflected form comparable to the English gerund): T Aisling ag caint. Cad at Toms ag r? Nl an madadh ag ithe. An bhfuil t ag staidar? Nach bhfuil t ag l? 1.2. The Prepositional Pronoun Aisling is talking. What is Toms saying? The dog isn't eating. Are you studying? Aren't you drinking?

AG `at, by' regular agam agat aige aici againn agaibh acu at me at you at him at her at us at you at them emphatic agamsa agatsa aigesean aicise againne agaibhse acusan

1.3. Possessions: How to Express Capitalist Notions There is no verb `to have' in Irish. Two constructions serve to express the notion of possession. One we know already: Is liomsa an peann. The pen is mine.

The more usual (`unmarked') way to express possession uses the preposition ag: T airgead agam. An bhfuil gluaisten agat? I have money. Do you have a car?

The Irish for `thank you' is really a blessing, `May there be good at you'; it is often used with a numeric hyperbole: Go raibh cad / mle maith agat! A hundred / thousand thanks!



The negative nl, combined with ach `but', expresses the notion `only': Nl ach leabhar amhin agam. I have only one book. 1.4. Possession of Knowledge / Abilities The same idiom t ... agam is also used to express possession of knowledge including knowledge of a language and ability: Nl a fhios agam c as . An bhfuil Gaeilge agat? Nl Fraincis ar bith ag Sen. An bhfuil tiomint aige? T ceol aici. I dont know where he is from. Do you speak Irish? Sen doesnt speak any French. Can he drive? She can sing.

2. The Preposition i and the Use of ann Like other prepositions, i `in' has a full conjugated paradigm (see Ceacht 7), but for now we are only concerned with the third person singular ann. Although formally masculine, it is best thought of as a neuter, impersonal `in it', which may in some contexts be translated as `there', in others not translated at all: An bhfuil mrn daoine ann? Nl duine ar bith ann. T l deas ann. Nl ann ach bisteach. Are there many people? There's no one there. It's a nice day. It's only a shower.

3. Stative Expressions I With a limited set of expressions (seven in all), the preposition i is used in combination with the possessive pronoun to express states of being. Note that the possessive pronoun mutates the following verbal noun: T s ina su. She is sitting (`She is in her sitting').

T m i mo chna anseo. T t i do shu. T s ina thost. T s ina codladh. T muid inr seasamh. T sibh in bhur ndiseacht. T siad ina lu.

I live here. You are up (sitting). He is silent. She is sleeping. We are standing. You are awake. They are in bed (lying down).

4. An Aimsir (The Weather) The weather is an inexhaustible source of conversation in Ireland; as the proverb has it, is maith



an scala an aimsir `the weather is a good conversationalist'. When meeting someone in the street, Irish speakers frequently pass a comment on the weather as well as, or indeed instead of, a formal greeting: `T l bre ann inniu.' `T cinnte, buochas le Dia.' Essential weather expressions: T l deas ann inniu T drochl ann T an aimsir ... go maith go hlainn / go bre go haoibhinn / go deas go dona / go holc T s te / fuar T s fliuch / tirim T s grianmhar / scamallach T s ag cur bist / T s ag cur T m fliuch bite T s ag cur sneachta T an ghrian ag soilsi. `Nice day today.' `It is indeed, thank God.' It's a nice day today It's a bad day The weather is ... good beautiful / fine pleasant / nice bad / ditto It is hot / cold It is wet / dry It is sunny / cloudy It is raining I am drenched It is snowing The sun is shining.

5. An Foirfe (The Perfect Tense) The perfect tense in Irish is a composite tense, made up of the substantive verb t and a past participle of the verb. The past participle is often used simply as an adjective, both predicatively (t an fhuinneog briste) and attributively (an fhuinneog bhriste). But the past participle always implies a past activity: the window is now broken because someone broke it in the past. The agent of the activity is indicated by the pronoun ag: T an obair danta agam. An bhfuil do dhinnar ite agat? T a hata caillte ag Sen. An bhfuil an litir lite agat? Nl go fill. I have finished the work. Have you eaten your dinner? Sen has lost his hat. Have you read the letter? Not yet.

The past participle is generally formed by adding -te / -the to a slender stem and -ta / -tha to a broad stem. There are rules governing which particular form of ending a verb will take, but it may be easiest just to learn the most common participles: bite briste caillte drowned, drenched broken lost



caite crochnaithe curtha danta dite druidteU glanta ite lite millte nite lta scrofa stricthe

spent, consumed, worn out finished put done, made burned closed cleaned eaten read spoilt washed drunk written torn

CEACHTANNA LE DANAMH 1. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. Samus is running. 2. The teacher is laughing. 3. Are you (pl) going home? 4. He is not eating. 5. We are not listening to you (sg). 2. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. She has a book. 2. We have a cat. 3. Do you (pl) have money? 4. They dont have a house. 5. Does he have a car? 6. Can you (sg) sing? (literally: Do you have music?) 7. I speak French. (literally: I have French.) 8. I cant drive. (literally: I dont have driving.) 9. Do you have time? 10. I dont know. 3. Cluiche Cainte: C h an gada? `An bhfuil a fhios agat c h an gada?' Everyone has 5 minutes to describe one person in class to the bleachtaire, the detective.



4. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. It's a good day. 2. There are people there. 3. It's only wine. 4. There is a book there now. 5. It's a bad day. 5. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. The little child is asleep. 2. We live in Dublin. 3. They are not awake. 4. Are you (pl) up (i.e. standing)? 5. Their father is silent. 6. She is sitting. 7. He lives in Ireland now. 8. Mirn is still in bed (i.e lying). 9. Is she still asleep? 10. We are lying down (i.e. in bed). 6. Chain Drill T m i mo sheasamh - s - muid - codladh - tusa - sibhse - tost - Sen - su - a bhean chile - m sise. 7. Cluiche: T m i mo chodladh... Students adopt stative positions; the teacher asks questions about their own, or other students' position, which students must answer truthfully. 8. Cuir Gaeilge air; 1. Have you (sg) finished the homework? Yes. 2. Has he broken the window again? 3. I havent eaten my dinner yet. 4. They have drunk the coffee. 5. She has read the book. Obair Bhaile 1. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. Do you speak Irish? Yes. 2. She speaks good German. 3. I have a sister. 4. Do you (pl) have a car? No. 5. Do they have time? No; theyre in a hurry. 6. Are you (pl) working?



7. The sun is shining. 8. They are not coming with us. 9. That red-haired woman is looking at (on) us. 2. Cad mar at an aimsir inniu? Write a paragraph about the weather today. How does it compare to the kind of weather you like?



TEANGA IS C ULTR Seanfhocail (`Proverbs') Is binn bal ina thost. Is maith an scala an aimsir. A silent mouth is sweet. The weather is a good conversationalist. Casfhocal (`Tongue Twister') T sicn ina seasamh sa sneachta l seaca. day. A chicken is sitting in the snow one frosty

Amhrn: T M i Mo Shu T m i mo shu d'irigh an ghealach arir Ag cur tine sos gan scth, is fad go gar; T bunadh an t ina lu is t mise liom fin; T na coiligh ag glaoch is an saol ina gcodladh ach m. I am up since the moon rose last night Lighting a fire and setting it ablaze The household is asleep and I am alone; The cocks are crowing and everyone's asleep but me.

Amhrn: Nl S ina L (I) N s ina l, nl, a ghr Nl s ina l, is n bheidh go maidin Nl s ina l, is n bheidh go fll Solas ard at sa ghealaigh. It's not day yet, love It's not day yet and won't be till morning It's not day yet, love The moon is shining brightly.


FOCLIR 'achanU (<gach aon) ag ceannach ag cluinstin ag dol ag fil ag feiceil ag glanadh ag r ag siopadireacht ag staidar ag tabhairt aithne (f) amharclann (f) amrach an tseachtain seo caite/a chuaigh thart anocht anuraidh arir; ar arir ar fad bialann (f) cad chuige?U caife (m) cathair (f) ceantar (m) cisir (f) crsa (pl of crsa `course') cuid mhr dubh dite duine (m) earrach (m) eolas (m) faoin tuath farraige (f) fmhar (m) geimhreadh (m) gr (m) inn le chile every buying hearing selling getting seeing cleaning saying shopping studying giving acquaintance, knowledge of person theatre tomorrow last week tonight last year last night; the night before last complete(ly), entire(ly) restaurant why? caf / coffee city area party matters, things a lot, much sick and tired person spring knowledge (of a place) in the country side sea fall winter love yesterday together



leaba (f) lacht (f) leabharlann (f) leadrnach meas (m) oifig (f) ollmhargadh (m) pacilte pictirlann (f) pldaithe samhradh (m) sasr (m) siopa (m) suimiil teach tbhairne

bed lecture library boring respect office supermarket packed cinema crowded summer season shop interesting pub COMHR

Liam and Aisling meet in front of the library. Aisling: Maidin mhaith, a Liam. Cad mar at crsa? Liam: Nl siad go dona. Cad chuige nach raibh t ag an chisir arir? Aisling: Bh m ag obair sa bhialann. An raibh cuid mhr daoine ann? Liam: Bh. Bh an it pacilte pldaithe. Bh ceol maith ann, agus bh 'achan duine ag damhsa. Aisling: An raibh Henri agus Pdraign ann? Liam: Bh! Bh siad ag damhsa le chile an oche ar fad. Aisling: Nach bre an rud an gr! Cad chuige nach raibh t sa rang inniu? Liam: Bh m rthuirseach! Agus t m dubh dite leis an chrsa sin. An tseachtain seo caite bh m i mo chodladh sa lacht bh s chomh leadrnach sin. Cad mar a bh s inniu? Aisling: N raibh s chomh dona sin. Bh s ceart go leor. AN CEACHT GRAMADA 1. The Past Tense of the Substantive Verb In the past tense, t becomes bh, nl becomes n raibh:

bh m bh t bh s bh s bh muid bh sibh bh siad

I was you were he was she was we were you were they were

n raibh m n raibh t n raibh s n raibh s n raibh muid n raibh sibh n raibh siad

I wasn't you weren't he wasn't she wasn't we weren't you weren't they weren't



The dependent form is raibh: Negative: Interrogative: Neg. interrogative: Where was? n raibh. an raibh? nach raibh? c raibh?

2. An Tuiseal Tabharthach (The Dative or Prepositional Case) 2.1. An tAinmfhocal (Nouns) In Modern Irish, the noun in the dative case generally has the same form as in the nominative. Only a handful of nouns have a separate dative form; these include the word Ireland, and the words for `hand' and `foot': ire cos lmh Ireland foot hand/arm BUT in irinn cos ar chois lmh ar limh in Ireland step by step hand in hand

Distinct dative forms are common in literature, and also survive in certain idioms, such as sa l `during the day' (from l `day') and petrified expressions. Except in such expressions as um Nollag `at Christmas time' (from am `time'), cois farraige / cois tine `by the seaside / by the fireside' (from cos `foot'), and in D Luain, D Mirt etc `on Monday, on Tuesday', nouns in the dative case are preceded by a preposition, and it is therefore also referred to as the `Prepositional Case.' 2.2 An Ramhfhocal (Prepositions) Prepositions ending in a consonant generally cause no mutation to the following noun: ag `by, at' ag bean as `out, from' as teach The preposition ar, and most prepositions ending in a vowel, cause simhi: do `to, for' do bhean de `from, off, of' d'fhar ar `on' ar theach faoi `under' faoi thbla `from' theach The prepositions i `in' and le `with' are exceptional. I causes ur and becomes in before vowels. Le does not lenite indefinite nouns, but prefixes h to words beginning with a vowel: i `in' le `with' i mBostn; in it



2.3. Preposition and the Singular Definite Article The initial consonants of nouns after a preposition plus article takes a simhi:U T Gaeilge mhaith ag an chailn sin. T tinneas cinn ar an mhinteoir. That girl has good Irish. The teacher has a headache.

Some prepositions ending in a vowel combine with the article: + an > n do + an > don de + an > den faoi + an > faoin The preposition i becomes sa (san before vowels and `fh'+ vowel) when joined to the article: i + an > sa Ta bia sa chuisneoir. Theres food in the refrigerator. The preposition le becomes leis before the article: le + an > leis an Is maith leis an bhuachaill ceol. The boy likes music. Nouns beginning with a `d' `t' or `s' are never lenited after the definite article (`Dental Rule', Ceacht 2): ag an doras at the door n teach from the house 2.4. Prepositions and the Plural Definite Article If a preposition is followed by the plural definite na, there is no mutation of the following noun: do na buachaill for the boys do + na > do na de + na > de na le + na > leis na 3. Sa Teach (In the House) teach (m), sa teach arasn (m), san arasn seomra (m), sa seomra urlr (m), ar an urlr leaba (f), sa leaba an chistin (f), sa chistin an seomra su /suite an seomra codlata /leapa ag + na > ag na ar + na > ar na i + na > sna

house flat (B&I) / apartment (US) room floor bed the kitchen the sitting room the bedroom



an seomra folctha an leithreas (m), sa leithreas an halla (m), sa halla an staighre (m), ar an staighre an gairdn (m), sa ghairdn

the bathroom the toilet the hall the stairs the garden

4. Idioms Using Two Prepositions Certain idiomatic constructions use more than one preposition: T gr aici ar an chailn sin. She is fond of that girl. Nl meas acu ar an mhinteoir. They have no respect for the teacher.

Three Kinds of Knowledge Irish distinguishes between three kinds of knowledge: knowledge of a fact (fios), of a person (aithne), and of a place (eolas). Note the use of the preposition ar with aithne and eolas but not with fios: T a fhios agam sin. T aithne agam ar Chaitln. T eolas agam ar an chathair. I know that (fact). I know Caitln. I know the city.

CEACHTANNA LE DANAMH 1. Translate the following sentences; then put them into the past tense: 1. Isnt the weather beautiful? Yes. 2. Are you hungry? No, but Im thirsty. 3. They have a big house. 4. The little boy is sick, and his mother is worried (buartha). 5. We are happy. Are you (pl) happy? 6. That tall man is not listening to us. 7. I know that woman. 8. Is Samus waiting for you (sg)? 9. That book is very interesting. 10. Are you (sg) asleep? No. 2. Obair Bheirte: C raibh t arir? Pair up with another student and ask each other where you were yesterday (last night, last weekend), and what you were doing. Here are some possible responses:



sa bhaile sa bhialann sa teach tbhairne sa leabharlann sa chaife sa phictirlann san amharclann sa leaba ar scoil ar an tr faoin tuath 3. Cuir Gaeilge air: a) 1. at a door 2. on a chair 3. from a teacher 4. to a woman 5. out of a house 6. in a house 7. out of a town 8. in a tree 9. with a man 10. under a table. b) 1. at the woman 2. on the tree 3. on the door 4. with the teacher 5. at the girl 6. at the house 7. at the window 8. at the door 9. on the chair 10. on the table. c) 1. on the teachers 2. at the girls 3. with the boys 4. to the teachers

at home in the restaurant in the pub in the library in the caf at the cinema in the theatre in bed at school on the beach in the countryside



5. from the students 4. Cluiche: C bhfuil s? One person is blindfolded; an object is `hidden' and the person has to ask questions to ascertain where it is. The others may help by saying T sin te / fuar `you're hot / cold'. 5. Cluiche Cainte: An Dnmhar (`The Murder') The detective (an bleachtaire) has to find out who committed the murder by interviewing all participants about their alibi. Students pick slips with their identity and alibi; one (the `murderer') has been given a false alibi: bleachtaire: C tusa? (`Who are you?') tusa: .... bleachtaire: C raibh t nuair a tharla an dnmhar? (`Where were you when the murder happened?') tusa: .... bleachtaire: Cad a bh t ag danamh? (`What were you doing?') 6. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. She knows him. 2. He knows her. 3. I don't know Paris. 4. Sen is fond of her. 5. She has no respect for him. 7. Read the poem `Fear an Phoist' in Teanga is Cultr and answer the following questions: 1. C at sa bhaile? 2. C bhfuil Mama? 3. C bhfuil an teilifs? 4. C bhfuil fear an phoist? 5. C bhfuil Mama agus fear an phoist ag dul anois? 6. C bhfuil a mbrga? 7. C bhfuil Dada? 8. C bhfuil Mama anois? Agus fear an phoist? Obair Bhaile 1. Draw a floorplan of your apartment, labelling the rooms. Try to furnish the apartment. 2. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. We were shopping in the city last week. 2. They were in Italy in the summer. 3. Were you at the party last night? Yes. 4. Was the teacher angry? No.



5. Why wasn't she swimming yesterday? Did she have a cold? 6. Sen was studying in the library yesterday. 7. What were you doing yesterday? 8. We are from Germany, we lived in France last year, and we live in Dublin now. 9. Do you know Sen? Yes. 10. The student had respect for the lecturer. TEANGA IS C ULTR Amhrn: Nra Bheag (II) `A Nra bheag, c raibh t arir?' Is dirt mo Mhama liomsa `I gcl an t ag tobar an uisce Ag foghlaim coiscim damhsa.' Curf: Agus iomba Nra Nra Nra Agus iomba is t mo ghr geal, Gus iomba Nra is t mo stirn T mise dnta i ngr leat. Is maith le Nra pis agus pnaire Is maith le Nra brandy Is maith le Nra prta rsta Is itheann Nra an t-im leo. `A Nra bheag, c raibh t arir?' `Bh m i gcl an gharra.' `C bh agat fin ansin?' `An pobaire beag is a mhla.' `Little Nra where were you last night?' My mother asked me. `At the back of the house, by the well Learning a new dance step.' Refrain: And iomba Nra Nra Nra And iomba you are my fair love And iomba Nra you are my darling I'm locked in love with you. Nra likes peas and beans Nra likes brandy Nra likes roast potatoes And she eats butter with them. `Little Nra where were you last night?' `I was at the back of the garden' `Who was there with you?' `The little piper and his pipes.'

Casfhocail `Tongue Twisters' Bh nire ar Mhire mar bh s ag gire ag faire i nDoire. Bh banjo ag Joe agus bh banjo ag bean Joe. B'fhearr Joe ar an bhanjo N bean Joe ar an bhanjo go deo. Mire was ashamed because she was laughing at a wake in Derry. Joe had a banjo and Joe's wife had a banjo too. Joe played far better on the banjo than Joe's wife ever did.



Fear an Phoist Tadhg Mac Dhonnagin19 T Mama sa chistin, t Mama sa chistin T Mama ag danamh an dinnir Nl Daid sa bhaile Nl Daid sa bhaile T Mama sa chistin li fein. T Mama sa seomra suite, T Mama sa seomra suite T Mama ag fachaint ar an teilifs T duine igin ag an doras Cnag cnag cnag a haon a d a tr. Anois t Mama sa halla, Anois t Mama sa halla, Osclaonn s an doras go mall T fear an phoist ag an doras Fear an phoist ag an doras `Filte' arsa Mama `tar isteach.' T Mama sa seomra leapan T Mama sa seomra leapan T fear an phoist ann chomh maith Brg brg eile a haon a d Brg brg eile a haon a d Ag titim ar an urlr. T Daid ar an staighre T fear an phoist sa chfra T Mama istigh faoin leaba Ag isteacht Beidh bisteach ann amrach Bisteach ann amrach Arsa an fear ar an teilifs Sa seomra suite. fear an phoist `the postman'; ag danamh an dinnir `making dinner' (dinnir = genitive case of dinnar); li fin `by herself'; duine igin `someone'; cnag `knock'; osclaonn s `she opens'; go mall `slowly'; filte `welcome'; arsa `says, said'; tar isteach `come in'; ag titim `falling'; cfra `hot press' (i.e. closet); beidh future tense of t; bisteach `rain shower.'

From Tadhg Mac Donnagin's CD Imonn an tAm (2004); for lyrics and translation see www.futafata.com.


FOCLIR ag cur ag fgil ag imeacht ag sil ag sil go mr le ag taisteal aintn (f) aisteoir (m) amrach an bhliain seo chugainn an mh seo chugainn bainisteoir (m) an tseachtain seo chugainn anocht ar ball ar dts ars banaltra (f) bandraoi (f) blth (m) buartha carraig (f) canna ccaire (m) crann (m) dochtir (m) duine fsta (m), pl daoine fsta far (m) freastla (m) gaineamh (m) gan mhoill geal gnthach go dt go luath grianmhar in aice le ina dhiadh sin putting leaving something behind leaving i.e. going away hoping looking forward to travelling aunt actor tomorrow next year next month manager next week tonight soon first again nurse witch flower worried rock same cook tree doctor adult, grown-up grass attendant, waiter sand soon bright busy to (place) early sunny near after that


litir (f) nos dana / nos moille oche Shathairn rna (m) saor scrbhneoir (m) sl bheatha sliabh (m) spir (f) tiomna (m) toigh (old dative of teach, also spelt tigh) tr (f) Oche Shamhna Oche Shamhna (f) bairn breac (m) bandraoi (f) bragada cn (m), pl cnnna cluiche (m) cluiche na bhfochupn culaith (f) picn (m) na soga; na daoine maithe/beaga/uaisle taibhse (m), pl taibhs ll (m), pl lla

letter later Saturday night secretary free writer profession mountain, hill sky driver in the house of; . French chez beach Halloween barmbrack (fruit loaf) witch fancy dress, costume nut, nuts game saucer game dress, outfit blindfold the fairies ghost apple COMHR

Liam and Aisling discuss plans for Halloween and for next summer; Liam is studying a job offer in Holland. Liam: An mbeidh sibh ag dul amach oche Shathairn? Aisling: Beidh cinnte. Beidh cisir Oche Shamhna toigh Henri. T m ag sil go mr leis. Beidh 'achan duine glasta suas. Liam: An mbeidh t ag cur bragada ort fin? Aisling: Beidh. Beidh m i mo bhandraoi. T culaith dheas agam. An mbeidh sibhse ag dul it ar bith? Liam: Beidh muid ag dul go dt an teach tbhairne ar dts. Nl m cinnte c mbeidh muid ag dul ina dhiaidh sin. Beidh m ag dul a chodladh go luath; beidh m ag obair sa bhialann ars D Domhnaigh. Aisling: Cad an litir seo, a Liam? Liam: Seo litir as an siltr. Beidh m ag obair in Amsterdam i mbliana. Aisling: Cad a bheidh t ag danamh? Liam: Beidh m i mo mhinteoir ar chrsa do dhaoine at ag foghlaim Barla.



Aisling: An mbeidh t ag taisteal? Liam: Beidh. Beidh m fin agus cpla cara ag taisteal san Eoraip ina dhiaidh sin. Aisling: C mbeidh sibh ag dul? Liam: Beidh muid ag fanacht sa Fhrainc cpla seachtain, agus beidh seachtain san Iodil againn, seachtain eile sa Spinn, agus cpla l san Eilvis ina dhiaidh sin. Cad a bheidh tusa ag danamh sa samhradh? An mbeidh t ag fanacht anseo? Aisling: N bheidh. Beidh m ag dul go Tr Chonaill. Beidh m ag fanacht ag teach m'aintn. T s ina cna cois farraige. Beidh m i mo lu ar an tr, ag lamh agus ag isteacht leis an fharraige! AN CEACHT GRAMADA 1. The Future Tense of the Substantive Verb T becomes beidh in the future tense: Beidh m ann amrach. I'll be there tomorrow.

The Substantive Verb: Future Tense beidh m beidh t beidh s beidh s I will be you will be he will be she will be beidh muid beidh sibh beidh siad we will be you will be they will be

Negative: Neg. interrogative:

n bheidh nach mbeidh?

Interrogative: Where:

an mbeidh? c mbeidh?

2. Stative Expressions II: Occupations The stative construction (t m i mo ...) also functions as a way of expressing one's current occupation: T s ina mhinteoir. He is a teacher.

In contradistinction to the copula, this stative construction is primarily used for achievable states, rather than, e.g., inalienable characteristics: T s ina mhinteoir anois. Is ceoltir maith . He is a teacher now. He is a good musician.

3. The Preposition i `in' and the construction Minteoir at ionam We have already encountered the 3rd sg prepositional pronoun of i, ann `in it'. Here is the complete paradigm:



i `in' ionam ionat ann inti in me in you in him in her ionainn ionaibh iontu in us in you in them

This prepositional paradigm is used in the context of one particular construction, which in Donegal tends to be used instead of the regular copula classification sentence: Peann at ann It's a pen.

This is also really a copula structure, combined with a paraphrastic construction using the relative of the substantive verb at (literally, `it is a pen which is in it'). The copula does not appear in the affirmative (`zero copula'), but it emerges in the negative and interrogative, where the (negative/interrogative) copula resurfaces: N peann at ann. An peann at ann? Sea. It's not a pen. Is it a pen? Yes.

This construction is used in Donegal wherever one might use the regular classification sentence; it may be used e.g. to express occupations or characteristics: Minteoir at ionam. Nach banaltra ta inti? N hea. Ceoltir maith at ann. I am a teacher. Isn't she a nurse? No. He's a good musician.

4. Tortha (Countries) Most names of countries are used with the article (compare French la France). However, the countries traditionally of greatest importance to Irish speakers, namely Ireland, England, Scotland and America, are not used with the article: Is maith liom an Fhrainc. Is fearr liomsa ire. I like France. I prefer Ireland.



Tortha (Countries) ire Albain Sasana Meirice an Fhrainc an Iodil an Ghearmin an Spinn an siltr an Eoraip an ise an Astril in irinn in Albain i Sasana i Meirice sa Fhrainc san Iodil sa Ghearmin sa Spinn san siltr san Eoraip san ise san Astril Ireland Scotland England America, USA France Italy Germany Spain Holland Europe Asia Australia

5. Cpla `a couple, a few' The word cpla `a couple, a few' is followed by the nominative singular of the noun; there is no mutation: cpla focal cpla rud cpla peann a few words a few things a few pens.

6. An tSeachtain (The Week) There are two sets of forms for the days of the week, depending on whether the day functions as a subject or an adverb. As the subject of the sentence it is in the nominative case; if used adverbally, it is preceded by the element D `day' (or Oche `night') and is in the genitive case (`on the day of Monday'). The adverbial set is used in answer to the question `when', and whenever one could use the preposition `on' in English: Inniu an Luan. N bheidh m anseo D Luain. Bh an Mhirt fliuch. Bh s iontach fliuch D Mirt. Today is Monday. I won't be there on Monday. Tuesday was wet. It was very wet on Tuesday.



An tSeachtain an Luan an Mhirt an Chadaoin an Dardaoin an Aoine an Satharn an Domhnach Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday D Luain D Mirt D Cadaoin Dardaoin D hAoine D Sathairn D Domhnaigh Oche Luain Oche Mhirt Oche Chadaoin Oche Dhardaoin Oche Aoine Oche Shathairn Oche Dhomhnaigh

Cn l at ann inniu? C huair a bheidh t ann? Cn l a bheidh t ann? ag an deireadh seachtaine maidin inni maidin amrach maidin inn maidin D Mirt trthnna D hAoine

What day is today? When will you be there? What day will you be there? on the weekend this morning tomorrow morning yesterday morning Tuesday morning Friday afternoon CEACHTANNA LE DANAMH

1. Put the translation sentences from Ceacht 6, Ceachtanna #1, into the future tense: 1. Nach mbeidh an aimsir go hlainn? Beidh. 2. Obair Bheirte Cad a bheidh t ag danamh nuair a bheidh t crochnaithe leis an ollscoil? Interview your partner, then report to the class. Here are some possible responses: Beidh m i mo mhinteoir. Beidh m i mo mhac linn iarchimeach Beidh m i mo lachtir Beidh m i mo cheoltir Beidh m i mo dhochtir etc. 3. Chain Drill Beidh Sle ina dochtir - Sen - mise - banaltra - n bheidh - Siobhn - an mbeidh - mac linn muid - minteoir - dlodir - aisteoir.



4. Cuir Gaeilge air: a) Use stative expressions. 1. She is a doctor. 2. He is not a musician. 3. Are you a teacher? Yes. 4. I am an actor. 5. His mother is a lecturer. b) Use the paraphrastic construction with ionam etc popular in Donegal. 5. Obair Bheirte: C mbeidh t D Luain? Cad a bheidh t a dhanamh an tseachtain seo chugainn? Ask your partner about his/her week and say what you'll be doing each day: D Luain, beidh m.... 6. Count Dracula & Co Remember our friends from Ceacht 2? Make up a blurb about one of the following individuals, stating where they're from, where they live now, what languages they speak. Say something about their likes and dislikes, too: Count Dracula (Rmineach / as an Rmin / Rminis): Seo Count Dracula. Is as an Rmin . T s ina chna i seanchaislen sa Rmin, in aice le Bucarest. T Rminis lofa aige. Is duine deas cairdiil , ach n maith leis uisce n bainne. Is fearr leis fuil. Niall Dnaill (Meiricenach / i Meirice / Barla) Leah Mller (Gearmineach / as an Ghearmin / Gearminis agus Barla) Pierre Victoire (Frainceach / as an Fhrainc / Fraincis) Giuseppe Verdi (Iodileach / as an Iodil / Iodilis) Mirn N Ghallchir (as an Ghaeltacht / ireannach / as irinn / Gaeilge agus Barla) Obair Bhaile 1. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. Will you be there tomorrow? Yes. 2. Im sorry, but I wont be free on Tuesday. I will have time next week. 3. We were working last night, and well be working again tonight. 4. Why dont you have a hat on? Youll have a cold tomorrow. 5. They arent hungry now, but theyll be very hungry later. 6. Theyll know next week. 7. Will Samus be there on Monday? No; hell be studying. 8. They wont be working; theyll be eating and drinking. 9. Wont he be disappointed? 10. Will she be worried?



2. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. Sunday will be wet, but I dont care. I will be in Aruba! 2. Will you (sg) be here on Sunday? 3. The shop will be too crowded on Saturday. 4. Today is Saturday, and Im not working. I love Saturday. 5. We will have a meeting on Wednesday. Will they be there? No. 6. Ill be studying on Friday. 7. Shes leaving on Monday. 8. There will be a movie on Thursday. 9. They wont be here on Tuesday. 10. Friday will be bright and sunny.

TEANGA IS C ULTR An tSeachtain (The Week) The seven-day week was introduced to Ireland by the Christian missionaries. The words for the days of the week reflect this origin; some are borrowed from the Imperial Roman calendar (with correspondences in all Romance languages), some reflect Christian practice. The calendar of Republican Rome did not recognize a seven-day week. However, like elsewhere in the ancient world, the phases of the moon were observed in Roman tradition, and each day was believed to be under the control of one of the planets. When Emperor Constantine in the year 321 introduced the Judeo-Christian week as a calendar unit as part of his effort to make Christianity the state religion, the Latin names of the week days reflected this astrological identification:

Latin dies solis or dominicus dies lunae dies Martis dies Mercurii dies Jovis dies Veneris dies Saturni

French sun moon Mars Mercury Jupiter Venus Saturday

Irish an Domhnach an Luan an Mhirt an Chadaoin an Dardaoin an Aoine an Satharn Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

dimanche lundi mardi mercredi jeudi vendredi samedi

Christians preferred using the term `the Lord's day' (dominicus) for Sunday, and Irish Domhnach is derived from dominicus just as French dimanche, Spanish domingo and Italian domenica. Wednesday through Friday, finally, reflect Christian practice of having a pattern of weekly fasting in commemoration of the events of Holy Week. Friday, the day of Christ's death,



is the main fast, Wednesday is a semi-fast: an Chadaoin an Dardaoin an Aoine `the first fast' `day between the fasts' (< dia idir aoine) `the fast'. Rann Dnall ar meisce a bhean ag l uisce is na pist ag caoineadh Luan go Luan. Dnall on the drink his wife drinks water and the children crying day in day out. Rann: An tSeachtain Inniu an Domhnach Beidh muid ag foghlaim. Inniu an Luan Beidh muid ciin. Inniu an Mhirt beidh muid i bpirt. Inniu an Chadaoin Beidh muid ag l d. Inniu an Dardaoin Beidh muid dmhaoin. Inniu an Aoine Beidh muid ag caoineadh. Inniu an Satharn beidh muid ag achrann: Cad a bheidh eadrainn? Cat agus madadh. (CC #232) Today is Sunday We'll be studying. Today is Monday We'll be quiet. Today is Tuesday We'll be friends. Today is Wednesday We'll be having a drink. Today is Thursday We'll be poor. Today is Friday We'll be weeping. Today is Saturday We'll be fighting: What will come between us? A cat and a dog.

Samhain (Halloween) and the Celtic Year Samhain, on the first of November, is one of four native Gaelic festivals. Spaced at three-month intervals, the four festivals divide the year into even quarters corresponding to the Irish seasons.



Gaelic society being fundamentally pastoralist, the year was divided into a summer half, when out-door grazing was possible, and a winter half, when cattle needed supplementary feeding. Bealtaine, on the first of May, marks the beginning of summer, Samhain marks its end (it appears to be derived from the word for summer, sam in Old Irish, cf. Modern Irish samhradh). This primary division of the year is intersected by two agricultural festivals: St Brigid's Day (February first) marks the beginning of the agricultural year, and Lnasa (August first), a harvest festival, marks its ending. It is worth noting that of the four festivals, only St Brigid's Day has been given an overt Christian name and significance; in medieval literature it is also referred to as Imbolc. All four festivals are marked by a wealth of traditional ritual practice. Kevin Danaher has pointed out that all four share certain features not present in other festivals, such as more or less unruly processions in disguise by the younger folk, and a wealth of propitiatary ritual intended to protect the community from the encroachment of the otherworld (Danaher 1977). Another division of the year into quarters under the auspices of Christianity is marked by four festivals important in the Christian calendar, St John's Eve, Michaelmas, Christmas, and St Patrick's Day. Two rhymes from the repertoire of the co. Kerry storyteller Sen Conaill from County Kerry speaks of the native divisions as `true' (frinneach), the Christian divisions as `crooked' (cam), presumably referring to the fact that the native festivals were spaced at exact intervals, while the Christian ones are approximate: Rith Frinneacha na Bliana (The True Quarters of the Year) Rithe Lnasa go Samhain Rithe Shamhain go L 'le [=Fhile] Brde Rithe L 'le Brde go Bealtaine Rithe Bhealtaine go Lnasa. A quarter from Lnasa to Samhain A quarter from Samhain to St Brigid's Day A quarter from St Brigid's Day to Bealtaine A quarter from Bealtaine to Lnasa.

Rith Cama na Bliana (The Crooked Quarters of the Year) Rithe L 'le Shan Sein go L 'le Mchl Rithe L 'le Mchl go Nollaig Rithe Nollaig go L 'le Pdraig Rithe L 'le Pdraig go L 'le Shan Sein [SOCB, 353] A quarter from St John's to Michaelmas A quarter from Michaelmas to Christmas A quarter from Christmas to St Patrick's A quarter from St Patrick's to St John's.

Oche Shamhna All fruit and produce had to be stored by Samhain; fruit left after that, even if it was still edible, was considered to be `touched' and unfit for human consumption. As we might expect with an end-of-summer festival, the special fruits associated with the festival are apples and nuts; other fruit have made an appearance in recent times, but all the traditional games involve the native fruits (Danaher 1977, 123): Children, hands tied on their backs, dunk for apples swimming in a basin of water, or try to grab the apples from the two ends of a spinning cross-piece of wood, which had burning candles attached to the other bar. Like all Irish calendar festivals, the festival begins on the eve, Oche Shamhna `the night



of Samhain'. On Oche Shamhna the walls between this world and the other world are permeable. The inhabitants of the otherworld, referred to euphemistically as `the good people', `the little people', or even `the gentry' (na daoine maithe; na daoine beaga; na daoine uaisle) were thought to roam about. The dead were thought to visit the homes they used to inhabit, and chairs were set for them by the fire ( Grianna 1976, 33). Since Samhain is the quintessential liminal festival, marking the beginning of the new, darker half of the year, and allowing access to things normally hidden, many practices of divining the future are associated with it. Young unmarried women and to some extent men would attempt to ascertain the name of their future partner. A head of cabbage was hung up over the door: the first person to enter was the one you were destined to marry ( Grianna, 33). If you had a sweetheart already, you would place two nuts near the fire and name them after your lover and yourself: if they jumped in the same direaction, all was well, if they did not, the match was not to be. Other divination games included cluiche na bhfochupn (`the game of saucers'): a blindfolded person, usually a girl, had to choose one of a number of saucers: if she chose the one containing water, it meant emigration; the ring meant marriage in the coming year; the coin meant wealth, and the earth meant early death. A ring and similar tokens of the future were also baked into the bairn breac, anglicised as `Barmbrack', a sweet loaf eaten during the festival. Given the ubiquitous presence of the unseen on Halloween, the practice of going from house to house would appear audacious, and most family traditions took place indoors. However, to unruly members of the community, especially adolescent boys and young men, this might have been a welcome opportunity to make mischief, and there is some evidence that in some areas young men did go around in disguise, playing pranks and extorting sweets or money, reciting rhymes such as this one: Rann: Anocht Oche Shamhna Ahem! Ahem! Anocht Oche Shamhna! Cuir muc in r measc! Foiligh do phnaire, a bhean an t Is na foiligh mo chuidse arin n d Finn, finn! ochtarn, uachtarn! Itheadh na caoirigh na copga Agus ithimis an grinseachn. Hurrah! Seo, a mhistres, Cuardaigh do phca Agus tabhair rud igin do na buachaill Agus scaoil chun siil iad N buail m fin idir an d shil Le posa leathchornach. (CC #257) Ahem! Ahem! Tonight is Halloween! Put a pig before us! Hide your beans, Woman of the House, But not my share of bread or drink; Fnn [Fenians], finn! Servant, master! Let the sheep eat dock leaves And let us eat frumenty. Hurrah! Now, Mistress, Search your pockets Give something to the lads And let them go Or hit me between my eyes With a half crown coin!




Can you say the following things? If you can't, or you're not quite sure, go back to the lesson and paragraph indicated after each item: say `I am (not) / I was (not) / I will (not) be' (4.1; 6.1; 7.1) say `on me, on you, on him, on her, on us, on you, on them' (4.2) say that you are very angry (4.2) say that the house is very big (two options in Donegal); really big; too big (4.3) say that ine is beautiful (4.4) say `How are you; what is your name; what does he look like?' (4.5) say `I am (not) working' (5.1) say `at me, at you, at him, at her, at us, at you, at them' (5.1) say `I have no money; I speak Irish; I can swim' (5.1) say `I am asleep; he is standing; she is asleep; they are sitting down' (5.2) say that the weather is beautiful / bad; say that it's a nice day (5.3) say that you have broken the window and have not yet written the letter (5.4) say that the book is on a chair / on the chair/ on a table / under the table / in the library / in the house (6.2) say where you were last night (6.3) say what kind of rooms there are in your house (6.4) say that you will be a teacher / postgraduate student / actor (7.2&3) say `in me, in you, in him, in her, in us, in you, in them' (7.3) say where you went on holidays last summer (7.4) say `today is Monday /Tuesday / Wednesday' etc; say that you will be in school on Monday, Tuesday etc (7.5) Revision Exercises 1. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. The man does not have a house. 2. The woman is wearing a hat. 3. The girl has a headache. 4. The student had a car. 5. The book is on the table. 6. Do they speak Spanish? No, but they speak Italian and Greek. 7. We dont have money, but we dont care. 8. She has long blonde hair and brown eyes. 9. Sle was dancing, and Nuala was reading. 10. I am not tired, I am hungry! 2. Transpose the following sentences into the past and future tense. The first sentence is done for you:



An bhfuil t ceart go leor? T. `Are you all right? Yes.' / An raibh t ceart go leor? Bh. / An mbeidh t ceart go leor? Beidh. 1. An bhfuil t ceart go leor? T. 2. Nl fearg ar a mhthair. 3. T an piste ina chodladh. 4. An mbeidh t sa bhaile? Beidh. 5. N bheidh m tuirseach. 6. Beidh muid ag lamh. 7. Bh s ag ccaireacht. 8. N raibh bia ar bith sa chuisneoir. 9. An raibh an minteoir ssta leis an obair? Bh. 10. T thas ar an chailn.


FOCLIR abair20 baltaU amach bain bain de b bris caithfidh cantalach ceannaigh cuir cuir ar cuisneoir (m) cpla cpla uair de (dom, dot, de, di, dnn, dbh, dobh) dan dan deifir do (dom, duit, d, di, dinn, daoibh, dibh) druidU ist faigh filte romhat/romhaibh! fan foghlaim foscail,U oscail glac glan goitseU go raibh maith agat/agaibh i gceann tamaill is fidir le X isteach ith le do thoil / le bhur dtoil labhair

say able out take take off (clothes) be break must grumpy buy put put on (clothes) fridge a couple, a few a few times from (from me, from you ...) do hurry up to, for close listen get welcome; you (sg/pl) are welcome wait learn open take clean come here thank you (sg/pl) in a little while X is able, X can in eat please (sg/pl) speak

All verbs are listed in the 2 sg imperative, the so-called `dictionary form.'


ligh lig do scth mar a deir siad n n b buartha n dan dearmad ar X n habair obair, f. gen. na hoibre l rith rud saoiste (m) scrobh sos sil stad suas suigh tabhair tar tigh uair

read relax as they say do not don't worry don't forget X don't mention it; you're welcome work drink run thing boss write down walk stop up sit give come go hour, time COMHR

Sle comes home exhausted from her first day of work temping as a secretary; Pdraign pampers her. Sle: Dia duit, a Phdraign. Pdraign: Dia is Muire duit! Goitse, a Shle. T mise sa chistin. An bhfuil s ag cur? Bain dot do chta - t s fliuch bite. Cad mar at t, a chro? T cuma thuirseach ort. Sle: T m rud beag tuirseach ceart go leor. Pdraign: Suigh sos anseo agus lig do scth. Seo duit cupn tae. Sle: Go raibh cad maith agat. Pdraign: N habair . An bhfuil ocras ort? Ta bia sa chuisneoir. Glac rud igin le hithe! Sle: T m ceart go leor, go raibh maith agat. Beidh m ag ithe i gceann tamaill. Pdraign: Bhuel, a chailn, cad mar at do phost nua ag dul? Sle: T s ceart go leor. T cuid mhaith oibre le danamh agam. T mo shaoiste rud beag cantalach. Dan seo! Dan sid! Foscail an fhuinneog! Faigh cupn caife dom! Fach ar an urlr: t s an-salach. Glan anois ! Agus n b ag caint ar an teileafn! Ach n bheidh m ann ach cpla uair sa tseachtain, agus t s maith go leor. Pdraign: An bhfuil an t-airgead go maith? Sle: T. T s an-rasnta. Pdraign: Ah bhuel. `Is an bia capall na hoibre,' mar a deir siad.



AN CEACHT GRAMADA 1. An Modh Ordaitheach (The Imperative) The imperative is used with close friends and family members, and when giving directions (more polite commands or requests are expressed by the conditional). The second person singular imperative has the same form as the verbal stem. This is the so-called `dictionary form', i.e. the form under which any given verb will be listed in a dictionary, because it is identical with the stem of the verb: Glan an t-urlr! Clean the floor!

For the second person plural, the ending -(a)ig is normally (see below for minor modifications) added to the stem: Cuirig na leabhair ar an tbla! Put the books on the table! Danaig an obair bhaile! Do the homework!
The second person singular and plural are the forms most commonly used, but third singular (`let him/her do') and first person plural (`let us do') are also occasionally used. Here is the full paradigm: glan `clean' glanaim glan glanadh s/si clean'glanaimis glanaig glanaids ceannaigh `buy' ceannam ceannaigh ceannaodh s/s ceannamis ceannag ceannads

`let `let `let `let `let `let

me clean' you (sg) clean' him/her us clean' you (pl) clean' them clean'

`let me buy' `let you (sg) buy' `let him/her buy' `let us buy' `let you (pl) buy' `let them buy'

The negative particle is n, which causes no mutation, but prefixes `h' to a vowel: N brisig an fhuinneog! N habair ! Dont break the window (pl)! Dont mention it (sg)!

1.1 First Conjugation Verbs There are two two conjugations of verbs in Irish; the first conjugation is comprised mostly of monosyllabic stems (i.e. the so-called dictionary form has one syllable only), but also has some verbs with a polysyllabic stem (more than one syllable). The second conjugation contains only polysyllabic verbs. The difference between the two conjugations is not very marked in the case of the imperative, but for future reference it is as well to discuss and learn the verbs according to the conjugation they belong to. 1.1A. Monosyllabic Verb Stems To form the second person plural imperative, first-conjugation verbs add -ig to stems which end



in a slender vowel (e.g. cuir), and -aig to stems which end in a broad vowel (e.g. fan). Verbs ending in a slender consonant. The verbs in the list below should be treated as vocabulary items and mastered: bain bainig ag baint take cuir cuirig ag cur put siil siilig ag sil walk rith rithig ag rith run bris brisig ag briseadh break ist istig ag isteacht listen U U U druid druidig ag druidim close21 tit titig ag titim fall U tuig tuigig ag tuigbheil understand Verbs ending in a broad consonant: seas seasaig fan fanaig l laig stad stadaig tg tgaig fach fachaig scrobh scrobhaig glan glanaig scuab scuabaig gabh gabhaig goitseU goitsig pg pgaig ps psaig iarr (ar) iarraig (ar) gearr gearraig ag seasamh ag fanacht ag l ag stad ag tgil ag fachaint ag scrobh ag glanadh ag scuabadh ag gabhil [-] ag pgadh ag psadh ag iarraidh ag gearradh stand wait, stay drink stop lift, take look write clean brush go come here22 kiss marry want; ask for cut

Monosyllabic Stems in -igh Monosyllabic verb stems ending in -igh used to add -ig just like the verbs above, but the spelling reform of the mid-twentieth century simplified the spelling -ighig [pronounced i:gi] to -g: suigh sug ag su sit luigh lug ag lu lie (down) nigh ng ag n wash As usual with spelling reforms there were some hitches. In some cases the -ighi- became reduced to simple i rather than , in order to prevent a proliferation of snte fada: ligh lig ag lamh read
21 22

In the south, the verb dn (dnaig; ag dnadh) is used instead of druid. This is not really a verb at all, but a contraction of gabh anseo. The plural form goitsig is thus historically spurious, but demonstrates the creative process at work in a living language.



1.1B. Polysyllabic Verb Stems Most slender polysyllabic first-conjugation verbs are de-palatalized (made broad) to add the plural ending: Sbhil sbhlaig ag sbhil save vtil vtlaig ag vtil vote taispein taispenaig ag taispeint show Some slender stems, however, are not de-palatalized: tiomin tiominig ag tiomint There are also a few verbal stems which are broad: teagasc teagascaig ag teagasc drive teach.

1.2. Second Conjugation Verbs 1.2A. Polysyllabic Stems in -igh By far the largest group of verbs in the second conjugation end in -(a)igh. Before the spelling reform, these used to add -ig to the stem to form the imperative plural, but, as with the firstdeclension verbs in -igh, the spelling -ighig was reduced to -g: deisigh formerly deisighig > now deisg Verbs ending in igh: irigh irg deisigh deisg imigh img bailigh bailg disigh disg Verbs ending in aigh: ceannaigh ceannag crochnaigh crochnag ag ir ag deisi ag imeacht ag baili ag diseacht ag ceannach ag crochn get up mend leave gather, collect wake up buy finish

1.2B. Syncopated Stems Disyllabic verbs ending in a consonant (rather than -igh) add the plural imperative ending to the stem, resulting in a multisyllabic verbform. There is a tendency in Irish to `syncopate' such polysyllabic forms by dropping an internal vowel or vowels: foscailU imir labhair fosclagU imrg labhrag ag foscladhU ag imirt ag labhairt open23 play speak

1.2C. Stems That Resist Syncopation


Outside Donegal, the form oscail (oscag, ag oscailt) is used.



Not all second-declension verbs are amenable to syncopation; syncope is not an option when the vowel in question is long, or in cases where the loss of a vowel would lead to unpronouncable consonant clustering. In such cases the plural imperative ending is simply added to the stem: foghlaim foghlaimg ag foghlaim learn tarraing tarraingg ag tarraingt pull 1.3. Irregular Verbs There is a small group of verbs that do not conform to either of the two conjugations in all of their forms. These eleven verbs are called `irregular.' The formation of the imperative is not irregular in all irregular verbs, but with a few of the irregular verbs, different parts of the verb, such as the singular and the plural imperative (as well as, in some cases, the verbal noun) are derived from different (`suppletive') roots. b feic cluin25 dan tigh faigh abair tabhair tar beir (ar) ith bg feicig cluing danaig tig faighig abraig tugaig tagaig / taraig beirig (ar) ithig [bheith]24 ag feiceilU ag cluinstin ag danamh ag dul ag fil ag r ag tabhairt ag teacht ag breith ag ithe be see hear do go get say give come catch eat

2. An Tuiseal Gairmeach (The Vocative Case) The vocative case is used when addressing a person, and is preceded by the vocative particle a, which causes simhi: Sle cara Donncha Sheila friend Donncha a Shle a chara a Dhonncha

Men's names and other masculine nouns ending in a broad consonant (i.e. belonging to the first declension) have this consonant palatalized in the vocative: Sen Samus amadn

John James fool

a Shein a Shamuis a amadin

NB The verbal noun of the substantive verb, bheith, is not, for obvious reasons, used in a compound tense with t, and is never preceded by ag. 25 ist/istg tends to be used instead of cluin/cluing.





a mhic

NB A couple of men's names ending in a broad consonant are NOT inflected: a Liam, a Phroinsias. 2.1. Terms of Endearment Terms of endearment are used in a wide range of contexts in Irish. Aside from their use in romantic situations, they are commonly used by adults talking to children; women of any age group use them frequently when addressing each other. Men tend to use them rather less among themselves; a mhic (`sonny, dude') is used affectionately between men. With the exception of a mhic, terms of endearment are not usually palatalized, even if, like str, rn or leanbh, they belong to the first declension: a str a rn a leanbh a chro a ghr a chuid a thaisce a chuisle a mhuirnn treasure darling (literally `desire') child heart love treasure (literally `share') treasure darling (literally `vein') darling

Note that terms of endearment are not palatalized in the vocative, even if they end in a broad consonant (str; rn; leanbh). In romantic contexts the endearments may become more elaborate: a ghr ghil mo chro bright love of my heart a mhle gr my thousand love a str mo chro treasure of my heart Imperatives are frequently accompanied by terms of endearment in the vocative case: Foscail an doras, a str! Ith do dhinnar, a thaisce! Open the door, darling! Eat your dinner, pet!

2.2. An Aidiacht (Adjectives) An adjective following a noun or personal name in the vocative singular is also lenited; an adjective following a masculine first-declension noun or personal name is both lenited and palatalized: cara dil Sle Bheag a chara dhil a Shle Bheag



Sen Mr 2.3. Writing a Letter How to Open a Letter: a dhuine uasail a chara / a chairde a chara liom a sheanchara dhil a Dhaid, a Dhaid a Mham, a Mhama a Shein dhil a Shein, a chara a Mhire dhil a Risn, a str How to Close a Letter: tabhair aire duit fin sln agus beannacht beir bua (agus beannacht) is mise le meas le gr Bhrd gr mr pg is barrg

a Shain Mhir

dear Sir (a bhean uasal, a dhaoine uaisle, a mhn uaisle) friend / friends (dear Sir / To Whom it May Concern) dear friend dear old friend Dad, Daddy Mum, Mummy dear Sen dear Sen dear Mire darling Risn take care best wishes (`good-bye and a blessing') be well / best wishes (`gain victory') I remain respectfully with love from Brd much love a kiss and a hug

3. Na Ramhfhocail `do' agus `de' agus a bhForainmneacha Ramhfhoclacha (The Prepositions do and de)

DO `to, for' dom, domh duit d di dinn daoibh dibh to me to you to him to her to us to you to them

DE `from, of' dom dot de di dnn dbh dobh from me from you from him from her from us from you from them

Note that in many areas of Donegal, the prepositional pronouns dom, duit, d etc are always used instead of dom, dot, de etc ( Baoill 1996, 95; Hughes 1994, 658). In writing, however, the



distinction between the two sets of prepositions is always maintained. The form dom is lenited in most dialects of Donegal (it is often written domh), and pronounced [du:]. 4. In and Out, Up and Down: Aspect and Direction 4.1. In and Out Irish distinguishes between going in/out (direction) and being in/out (position): gabh isteach agus fan istigh! Go in and stay inside! gabh amach agus fan amuigh! Go out and stay outside! isteach amach



4.1.1. Going home and being home Note also the distinction between `going home' and `being home:' abhaile `homewards' 4.2. Up and Down thuas suas anuas sos thos irigh suas! disigh anuas! an braon anuas t seas suas! suigh sos! suas an staighre sos an bthar suas an tsrid get up wake up he rain (`the drop from above') sit up sit down up the stairs down the road up the street anos sa bhaile `at home'



CEACHTANNA LE DANAMH 1. Cuir Gaeilge air seo: 1. dear John 2. dear Dad 3. o friend 4. o friends 5. o big fool 6. dear Mum 7. ladies and gentlemen 8. o son / hey dude 9. o noble teacher 10. dear friend 2. You are addressing the following people (by the Irish forms of their names): John, Bridget, James, Kevin, Brian, George, Christopher, Kate, Paul, Patrick. 3. Litir do do spirbhean / spirfhear You like someone a LOT. Write him/her a letter, making good use of your terms of endearments! 4. Translate the following sentences, using first the 2sg then the 2pl imperative: 1. Listen to him! 2. Call me (put a call on me) tomorrow. Ill be at home in the evening. 3. Dont leave now. Its too early. 4. Dont eat that! 5. Dont worry (dont be worried). 6. Watch them! 7. Give me the cup, please. 8. Do the homework. 9. Come with me. 10. Dont say that. 5. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. Get up, Sen, and come down. 2. Go out, Sle, and don't come back in! 3. Come in and sit down. 4. Don't go outside today. 5. The water was coming down on us. 6. I went up the stairs. 7. Is Aisling in? No, she's not home. She's outside. 8. Are you coming home? 9. Go home and stay home! 10. Are you upstairs? Come down!



TEANGA IS C ULTR Rainn do Phist Buail ar an doras Is fach isteach Ardaigh an laiste Agus siil isteach Suigh ar an stl Agus b ag l Cad mar at t ar maidin? (CC #1) Inis scal, Cum brag N b amuigh! (CC #338) Dh inn bheaga thuas ar an chrann, Sin Peadar, sin Pl. Imigh uaim a Pheadair Imigh uaim a Phil. Tar ar ais a Pheadair Tar ar ais a Phil! (CC #6b) Aon, d, tr, Fathach mr bu. Rith isteach, rith amach, Rith anonn is rith anall N rith isteach i bpoll T an fathach ar do th: Amach leat, amach leat! (RR 27; cluiche folach bog) Knock on the door And look inside Lift the latch And walk inside Sit on the stool And have a drink: How are you doing this morning? Tell a story, Make up a lie, Or you're out! Two little birds up on the tree That is Peadar, that is Pl. Go away, Peadar Go away, Pl Come again Peadar Come again Pl. One, two, three A big ugly giant. Run inside, run outside Run over there and back again Or run into a hole The giant's going to get you: Out with you! Out with you! (game of hide and seek)



Amhrn do Leanbh Caithimid suas is suas Caithimid suas an piste Caithimid suas is suas Is tiocfaidh s anuas amrach. Rann I d'ige, oscail do mheabhair, Is bailigh an fhoghlaim leat. In your youth open your mind and gather learning as you go. Seanfhocail Ceart dom, ceart duit! N dan ns is n bris ns! Is an bia capall na hoibre. Nl uasal n hseal ach suas seal is sos seal. What's right for the gander is right for the goose. Don't make a law and don't break a law. Food is a good workhorse. There is no such thing as high and low, only up for a while, and down for a while. Amhrn: irigh Suas a Stirn irigh suas, a stirn, mura bhfuil t i do shu Fosgail an doras, agus lig mise chun t. T buidal i m'aice a bharfas deoch do mhnaoi an t Is t sil agam nach ndiltonn t m f d'inon. Get up my darling if you're not still up. Open the door and let me into the house. I have a bottle for the housewife to pour her a drink: And I hope you won't refuse me your daughter in marriage. Let's throw him up and up Let's throw the child up Let's throw him up and up And he'll come down tomorrow.



Traditional Irish First Names Some Irish names have become very popular in the entire English-speaking world: Brendan (Breandn), Kevin (Caoimhn), Bridget (Brd), Kathleen (Caitln), Moira (Mire), Maureen (Mirn), Nra, and, more recently, Liam and Sen. In the case of names such as Brian, Neal (US)/Neil (B&I), Kevin, and Sheila, most people may not even be aware that the name is originally Irish. Many traditional names are attested already in the earliest written records (from the seventh century onwards) and appear to be native. These include, for women: ine, Ailbhe, Brd, Eithne, Grinne, Sle, Sorcha, na; and for men: Conn, Fearghal, Fearghus, Oscar, Art, Cormac, amonn, Eoghan, Tadhg, Dnall, Rnn, Oisn, Ruair and Caoimhn. Irish naming practices did not change significantly during the first centuries of Christianization, though Latinate names and Irish names reflecting religious practice make an appearance in the written sources, especially for churchmen: Colmcille `the dove of the church'; Mel Muire `devotee (tonsured one) of St Mary.' The name of the Virgin Mary, Muire, was borrowed early, but there is no indication that it was used as a girl's name. As elsewhere in Europe, naming practices changed drastically with the church reforms of the twelfth century. The custom of naming children after popular Christian saints brought about the spread of a more or less uniform set of names throughout Europe. Many of the most common Irish names were introduced to Ireland at this juncture. Some of the most common saints' names for women are: Cit Kate (a Chit) Citln Kathleen (a Chaitln) ils Elizabeth (a ils) Bairbre Barbara (a Bhairbre) Mire Mary (a Mhire) Nra Honora (a Nra) Some common Christian names for men are: Peadar Peter (a Pheadair) Pl Paul (a Phil) Mchel Michael (a Mhcheil)26 Labhrs Laurence (a Labhrais) Liam William (a Liam) Proinsias Francis (a Phroinsias) Crostir Christopher (a Chrostir) Pdraig Patrick (a Phdraig) Seoirse George (a Sheoirse) Muiris Maurice (a Mhuiris) Since the Celtic Revival around the turn of the nineteenth century, the names of Irish heroes and heroines from the medieval sagas started to become fashionable among English speakers. Names such as Maeve (Mabh), Connor (Conchobhor), Emer, Niamh and Fergus from the Ulster cycle

In Munster, the vocative of Mchel is a Mhchl.



of tales, Fionn, Oisn, Dermot (Diarmuid) and Grinne from the Fenian cycle, and Cormac from the historical cycle, which had become rare after the medieval period, became popular again. The name Emer is a case in point: It is usually pronounced [i:mer] today, whereas in Old Irish it was pronounced [ver]. Another modernism is the name Aisling; the word, meaning `dream,' only became popular as a name for a woman in the twentieth century. 27 Girls' names based on Irish place names, such as Erin (Ireland), Shannon (the river), and Tara (the seat of the Irish high kings in Irish myth), may first have gained currency among Irish Americans as a symbol of identification with their ethnic homeland; of these, only Tara is occasionally used in Ireland.


In the earliest literature an aisling refers to a dream vision of a beautiful woman; in seventeenth-century political aisling poetry, the woman in the vision was typically a personification of Ireland. These personifications (Dark Rosaleen, Kathleen Ni Hoolihan etc) had a great appeal to the cultural nationalist imagination.


FOCLIR ag bualadh le X ag moladh ag riteach le chile ag troid aintn (f) an L Altaithe (m) anuas; le cpla bliain anuas aon, amhin arasn (m) ar dts ar dighU athair mr, seanathair (m) bean chile (f) beirt (f) an bheirt acu bus (m) bain sult as! barraochtU (f) blasta c hit a ndeachaigh t? cad a tharla? ceathair, ceithre chuig clann (f) cig carr (m) col ceathrair (m) colscartha colscaradh (m) cuir glao ar X dall dan dearmad dea-scal (m) drochscal (m) droch-chuideachta (f)

meeting X praising getting on with each other fighting aunt Thanksgiving Day upwards, for; for a couple of years one apartment at first, in the beginning great, excellent grandfather wife two people the two of them bus enjoy! too much tasty where did you go? what happened? four to children, offspring five car cousin divorced divorce call X (on the phone) blind forget good news28 bad news bad company

The forms dea-scala and drochscala are also used; scala functions as a collective noun with the meaning `news, tidings, message.'


deich d, dh eitlen (m) fear cile galnta glasra go bhfire Dia ar X iarsmalann, (f); pl iarsmalanna i maonar (i d'aonar, ina aonar etc) is digh liom (go) is dcha (go) mar sin mar de ghnth mthair mhr, seanmhthair milseog (f) muintir neacht (f) nia (m) naoi nuair a ocht stn (m) pig puimcn psta rbhruite s seacht scartha singil sona ssta teaghlach toirtn ll traein (f) tr turca (m) uimhir (f) uiligU uncail (m)

ten two plane husband nice, fine vegetables may God have mercy on X museum by myself (by yourself, by himself etc) I think (that) it is probable (that) so, thus as usual grandmother dessert family niece nephew nine when eight hotel pumpkin pie married overcooked six seven separated single very happy household, family apple tart train three turkey number all uncle COMHR

Sara and Sen, who are studying Irish in Boston, are discussing their respective Thanksgiving experiences. Sara: Dia duit a Shein. Cad mar at t?



Sen: T m go bre, go raibh maith agat. C raibh t ag an deireadh seachtaine? Chuir m glao ort cpla uair. Sara: Chuaigh m abhaile go Nua Eabhrac don L Altaithe. Sen: Cad mar a bh s? Sara: Bh s go hiontach. Bh s an-deas gach aon duine a fheiceil. Sen: C a bh ann? Sara: Bh mo mhuintir uilig ann: m'athair agus mo mhthair, mo dhearthir agus a bhean chile, agus a gclann: t beirt nia agam agus neacht. Sen: An raibh do dheirfir Mire ann chomh maith? Sara: Bh. Bh Mire ann lena fear cile. Sen: An bhfuil s psta? N raibh a fhios agam sin. Sara: T, le cpla bliain anuas, go bhfire Dia uirthi! Sen: Cad chuige? Cad at cearr? Sara: Nl siad ag riteach rmhaith le chile. Bh siad ag troid an oche ar fad, agus mise i mo shu ag an tbla idir an bheirt. Bh s uafsach. - Agus t fin? An ndeachaigh t abhaile? Sen: Chuaigh. Thinig m ar ais dreach inniu. Sara: Ar bhain t sult as? Sen: Bhain; bh s ar digh. Bh gach aon duine toigh mo sheanmhthar mar de ghnth. Ach nl m cinnte go mbeidh muid ag dul ann ars. Sara: Cad chuige? Sen: T mo sheanmhthair ag ir sean, agus t s rud beag dall. Is ccaire rasnta , ach n raibh an bia rdheas an t-am seo. An bhean bhocht! Bh an turca dite go dona, bh na glasra rbhruite, agus n raibh na prta rsta go leor. Bh gach aon duine ag r go raibh an bia go galnta ar ndigh! Bh milseog dheas againn, buochas le Dia; rinne mo mhthair toirtn ll a bh iontach blasta, agus cheannaigh mo dhearthir uachtar reoite. Sara: Fuair tusa an drochbhia agus mise an droch-chuideachta mar sin. Sen: Fuair. Nl m cinnte c acu is fearr. AN CEACHT GRAMADA 1. An Aimsir Chaite (The Past Tense) 1.1. Regular Verbs The past tense of regular verbs, both first- and second-conjugation, is formed by leniting the initial consonant of the stem: Bhris s a chuid spacla. Chrochnaigh m an obair. He broke his glasses. I finished the work.

Stems beginning with a vowel (or a lenited `f') are prefixed by d: D'ith m mo bhricfeasta ar a naoi a chlog. D'fhan m leis. D'fhreagair s m. I ate breakfast at nine oclock. I waited for him. He answered me.



Negative: Interrog.: Neg. int.:

nor ar nr

Nor ith m go fill. Ar dhruid t an doras? Nr bhain t sult as an l?

I did not eat yet. Did you close the door? Didnt you enjoy the day?

1.2. Irregular Verbs Affirmative bh chonaic rinne chuaigh fuair dirt chuala thug thinig rug (ar) dith Negative n raibh n fhaca n dhearna n dheachaigh n bhfuair n dirt nor chuala nor thug nor thinig nior rug (ar) nor ith ar ith Interrogative an raibh an bhfaca an ndearna an ndeachaigh went an bhfuair an dirt ar chuala ar thug gave ar thinig ar rug (ar) ate

was saw did got said heard came caught

Comhr Breise Pdraign: C raibh t, a Aisling? Aisling: Bh m ar laethanta saoire. Padraign: C hit a ndeachaigh t? Aisling: Chuaigh m go dt an Fhrainc. Bh m i bPras ar feadh cpla seachtain. Bh s go hiontach. Pdraign: An ndeachaigh t i daonar? Aisling: N dheachaigh. Thinig mo chara ine liom. Pdraign: Cad a rinne sibh i bPras? Aisling: N dhearna muid mrn. Chuaigh muid go dt an Louvre agus iarsmalanna eile ar ndigh, agus dith muid bia galanta. Pdraign: An bhfaca sibh an Tr Eiffel? Aisling: Chonaic cinnte. Pdraign: An bhfuair sibh stn rasnta? Nach raibh s daor? Aisling: N raibh. N bhfuair muid stn ar bith. D'fhan muid in arasn mo dheirfar at ag staidar i bPras. Bh an-am againn. 2. Na hUimhreacha 1-10 (The Numbers 1-10) 2.1. Numbers Standing Alone a haon one a d two a tr three



a ceathair four a cig five a s six a seacht seven a hocht eight a naoi nine a deich ten neamhn / nid zero These numbers are used for: 2.1.1 Basic arithmetic: a cig pinte a tr (5.3) a haon is a haon sin a d (1 + 1 = 2) a ceathair lide a d sin a d (4 - 2 = 2) 2.1.2. Giving your telephone number: a ceathair a naoi a cig a haon a d neamhn a hocht (495-1208) 2.1.3. Playing cards: an d spireata an t-aon hart an ceathair triuf an seacht muileata the two of spades the one of hearts the four of clubs the seven of diamonds

2.1.4. Telling time (vide next chapter): t s a haon a chlog it's one o'clock 2.1.5. And all other contexts where numbers stand on their own: a haon a d a tr a-one, a-two, a-three bus a d bus number two seomra a cig room number five ils a D Elizabeth II 2.2. Numbers Followed by Nouns (Counting Objects) Generally, the singular rather than plural form of the noun is used with numerals (but note the important exceptions below). When counting objects, a different form of the numerals `one,' `two' and `four' is used. Amhin, `one' follows the noun: madadh amhin one dog29

All other numbers precede the noun. The numbers 2-6 cause simhi:

Amhin means `only'; it was initially presumably added for emphasis. The form aon is found in the construction aon mhadadh amhin `one dog only' but madadh amhin has become the unmarked form.



dh mhadadh tr chat ceithre bhlth cig bhlth s bhuidal The numbers 7-10 cause ur: seacht mbuidal ocht n-an naoi gcapall deich bpeann

two dogs three cats four flowers five flowers six bottles

seven bottles eight birds nine horses ten pens Counting Objects

capall amhin dh chapall tr chapall ceithre chapall cig chapall s chapall seacht gcapall ocht gcapall naoi gcapall deich gcapall capall ar bith

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0

ll amhin dh ll tr ll ceithre ll cig ll s ll seacht n-ll ocht n-ll naoi n-ll deich n-ll ll ar bith

3. C hit a ndeachaigh t? `Where did you go?' (chuig; go; go dt) 3.1. chuig Used when you're talking about going to an event or to see a person. Chuig causes no mutation; when followed by the article an it causes seimhi: Chuaigh Nra chuig drma. Chuaigh Laim chuig an cheolchoirm. Chuaigh s chuig an dochtir. Chuaigh s chuig a deirfir. Nra went to a play. Liam went to the concert. She went to the doctor. She went to her sister.



CHUIG `to' chugam chugat chuige chuici to me to you to him to her chugainn chugaibh chucu to us to you to them

3.2. go Used before placenames which are NOT preceded by the definite article (cities; certain countries, incl. Ireland; US states). Go prefixes `h' to words beginning with a vowel: Chuaigh m go Baile tha Cliath. Chuaigh muid go hArd Mhacha. T Sen ag dul go hirinn. T m ag dul go Michigan. I went to Dublin. We went to Armagh. Sen is going to Ireland. I am goint to Michigan.

3.3. go dt Used before placenames and any other nouns that are preceded by the article; does not affect them in any way:30 Chuaigh s go dt an Fhrainc. Thinig s go dt an siopa. He went to France. He came to the shop. CEACHTANNA LE DANAMH 1. Form affirmative statements in the past tense from the following verbal stems, and then convert these statements into questions and negative responses. Translate the verb stem. Example: fan: `stay;' dfhan; ar fhan? nor fhan. 1. fg 2. ist 3. scrobh 4. ceannaigh 5. cuir 6. irigh 7. suigh

Go dt is not a preposition though it acts like one; it is originally a verbal phrase in the subjunctive `until you come (to).'



8. crochnaigh 9. freagair 10. foghlaim 2. Translate the following sentences. Turn them into questions and answer them: D'l s an bainne. `She drank the milk.' - Ar l s an bainne? D'l. 1. Ghlan s an t-urlr. 2. Bhris an piste an fhuinneog. 3. Dfhan s liom. 4. Dfhoscail muid an doras. 5. Cheannaigh m buidal uisce. 6. Chuaigh s abhaile. 7. Thinig Mire linn. 8. Thug m leabhar d. 9. Chuala s ceol. 10. Rinne m an obair. 3. Convert the following affirmative sentences into questions and negative responses, according to the model: Chonaic m. > An bhfaca m? N fhaca. 1. Chonaic s . 2. Chuala s . 3. Rinne siad . 4. Chuaigh muid ann. 5. Thug s leis . 6. Dirt t sin. 7. Thinig sibh anseo. 8. Fuair t . 9. Dith sibh. 10. Rug m air. 4. Translate the following questions into English and answer them, first in the affirmative, then in the negative: 1. Ar thug t bia don chat? 2. An raibh do dheirfir sa bhaile? 3. An ndeachaigh t go dt an scannn? 4. Ar chuala t an scal sin? 5. Ar ith t do dhinnar? 6. An bhfaca t mo mhadadh? 7. An ndarna t d'obair bhaile? 8. An dirt s an fhrinne? 9. An bhfuair t bronntanas? 10. Ar rug an cat ar an luch?



11. Ar thinig Liam abhaile go fill? 5. Cuir Gaeilge air seo: 1. Did you see that movie? Yes. It was great! 2. Did you hear the good news? No. 3. Did they go home last week? Yes. 4. Did he give you the book? No. 5. Did he do the homework already? Yes. 6. Did she get the job? No. 7. Did the dog catch the cat? No. 8. Did your sister come home on Thanksgiving Day? Yes. 6. Cuir Gaeilge air: 1. five books 2. eight apples 3. two bottles 4. nine nights 5. six cats 6. seven oranges 7. three glasses 8. four cars 9. ten windows 10. one class 7. Cluiche: T Mla Mr Agam You are going off to Hawai (or any place of your choice), and you need to pack a few things into your travel bag. Start with the formula T m ag dul go Hawai amrach. T mla mr agam agus tr bhuidal fon ann. The person next to you repeats that formula, but has to add an item of his/her own: ... tr bhuidal fon agus seacht leabhar Gaeilge ann. NB The suitcase can accommodate practically anything! 8. Cluiche: S Gh Each student says a number from one to ten plus a noun (whoever repeats a noun must pay a forfeit). However, s (6) is always followed by g `goose'. 9. Obair Ranga: Rang Mataimaitic as Gaeilge Each student writes out a couple of simple equations on a piece of paper (in numbers not words!). Students then take turns at the blackboard, writing out the equations dictated to them by their peers. One student is nominated teacher and has to verify that both arithmetic and orthography is correct! 10. Scrobh amach na huimhreacha seo a leanas (`Write out the following numbers') as Gaeilge: 1. 617-495-1000



2. 724-694-5353 3. 4+5=9 4. 6+4=10 5. 5.63 6. 7-5=2 11. Obair Bheirte: Laethanta Saoire: C raibh t anuraidh? Pair up with another student and ask each other where you were on holidays last year. Ask each other whether you ever were in a certain country, which countries you like etc. 12. Write about either a) your trip home for Thanksgiving OR b) the Thanksgiving from hell. Describe the people who were there, say what you did and talked about, and what you ate and drank.



TEANGA IS C ULTR Rann Comhairimh `Counting Rhyme' A haon, a d caora is b. A tr is a ceathair, brga leathair. A cig is a s cupn tae. A seacht is a hocht seanbhean bhocht A naoi is a deich gabh i leith Suigh sos is lig do scth. (CC #220) One, two, a sheep and a cow three and four leather shoes Five and six a cup of tea. seven and eight a poor old woman Nine and ten come here sit down and take it easy. Rann do Phist Chuaigh an mhuicn seo ar an aonach; D'fhan an mhuicn seo ag baile; Fuair an mhuicn seo arn is im; N bhfuair an mhuicn seo dada; `Bhoc, bhoc, bhoc,' arsa an bainbhn, `T ocras ormsa.' (RR 8) This little pig went to market; This little pig stayed home; This little pig got bread and butter; This little pig got nothing; `Oink, oink, oink,' said the piglet, `I'm hungry.'

Rann: Nuair a Bh M g Nuair a bh m g agus m gan chill, Cheannaigh m fidil ar scilling is ral. Seo an port a bh ar casadh: `Os cionn an chnoic is i bhfad bhaile' (CC #300) When I was young and foolish I bought myself a fiddle for a shilling and a sixpense The tune it was playing was `Over the hills and far from home.'



Amhrn: T mo Chleamhnas Danta d'irigh m ar maidin dh uair roimh an l Agus fuair mise litir mo mhle gr; Chuala m an smlach is an lon dubh a r Gur alaigh mo ghr thar sile. Since I got up this morning two hours before daybreak And I got a letter from my own love I have heard the lark and the blackbird sing That my love has gone across the ocean.

Amhrn: Nl S ina L (II) 1. Chuaigh m isteach i dteach arir Is d'iarr m crt ar bhean an leanna; Is dirt s liom: N bhfaighidh t deor, Buail an bthar is gabh 'na bhaile. Curf: Nl s ina l, nil a ghr Nl s ina l, is ni bheidh go maidin Nl s ina l, is n bheidh go fill Solas ard at sa ghealaigh. 2. Chuir m fin mo lmh i mo phca Is d'iarr m briseadh corin uirthi, Is dirt s liom: `Buail an bord Is b ag l anseo go maidin.' 3. irigh i do shu, a fhir an t Cuir ort do bhrste is do hata Go gcoinn t ceol leis an duine cir A bheas ag l anseo go maidin. 4. Nach mise fin an fear gan chill A d'fhg mo chos i mo scornaigh D'fhg m lan orm fin Is d'fhg m san ar dhaoine eile. 1. I went into a (ale)house last night and asked the bar woman for credit This is what she said: `You won't get a drop Hit the road and go home.' Refrain It's not day yet, it isn't, love, It's not day yet, and it won't be till morning It's not day yet, and it won't be for a while The moon is very bright. 2. I put my hand in my pocket and asked for change for a crown This is what she said: `Sit at the table and drink here until morning.' 3. `Get up, Man of the House Put on your trousers and your hat Keep this good man company Who will be drinking here until morning.' 4. Am I not a fool I left my rent in my throat I left sorrow for myself and I left prosperity to others.


FOCLIR an t-am ar fad bomaiteU (m) braithim uaim th/sibh bricfeasta (m) ceathr (f), ceathr uair a'chloig ceirtlis (f) ceol clasaiceach ceol traidisinta ceolchoirm (f) a chlog cluiche (m) de ghnth deireadh seachtaine dinnar (m) drma (m) dul ag iascaireacht foireann (f) gach l go dt go hannamh go minic i gcna i ndiaidh idir imirt lacht (f) leadg (f) leann (f) leann dubh leath leathuair ln (m) luath, go luath am go ham peil (f) pinteil popa (m) popcheol (m) all the time minute I miss you breakfast quarter, quarter of an hour cider (alcoholic) classical music traditional music concert oclock game usually weekend dinner drama go fishing team, crew every day to, upto, until seldom often always after between play (a sport) lecture tennis beer, ale stout, porter half half hour lunch early from time to time soccer painting pipe pop music



rac-cheol (m) scannn (m) snagcheol (m) tim a chodladh / a leaba tobac (m) toitn (m), pl toitn uair (f), pl uaireanta uair sa tseachtain uaireanta uisce beatha (m)

rockmusic movie jazz I go to sleep / to bed tobacco cigarette hour, time once a week sometimes whiskey LITIR ABHAILE

A Mhama, Go raibh maith agat as do litir. D'iarr t orm insint duit faoi chrsa an lae anseo. Seo anois iad. Tim chuig ranganna gach maidin ar a naoi n ar a deich, agus crochnam ar a cig. Danaim staidar idir a hocht agus men oche. Uair sa tseachtain imrm leadg leis an fhoireann; oibrm sa leabharlann ar an deireadh seachtaine. Anois is ars, tim amach le mo chairde san oche, ach de ghnth, bm rthuirseach agus fanaim sa bhaile. Tim a chodladh ag men oche. An bhfuil gach duine go maith sa bhaile? Cad mar at Daid? An bhfuil a chos nimhneach go fill? N bhfuair m litir Mhire le tamall. An mbonn s ag troid le Sen mar is gnth? Cad mar at Tiarnn? Chonaic m madadh a bh beagn cosil leis inn, agus bh m crite. Braithim uaim sibh go lir, agus t m ag sil go mr leis na laethanta saoire. Le gr, Sle AN CEACHT GRAMADA 1. An Aimsir Lithreach (The Present Tense) In Irish, as in English, the present continuous (t m ag dul / I am going) has expanded at the expense of the present tense (tim / I go), with the result that the use of the present tense has become relatively restricted. It is used mainly in the following three contexts: a) With verbs of sensation and perception, and verbs of opinion: feicim cluinim braithim motham tuigim slim ceapaim I see I hear I perceive, feel I feel, sense I understand I think I think



aontam deirim

I agree I say I get up early every day. I go home at five. A heavy purse makes for a light heart. The work praises its maker.

b) For habitual activities: irm go luath gach l. tim abhaile ar a cig. c) For gnomic statements: Danann sparn trom cro adrom. Molann an obair an fear.

There are two conjugations of regular verbs in Irish. 1.1. An Chad Rimni / First Conjugation We can divide the first conjugation into verbs with monosyllabic stems (1A) and those with polysyllabic stems (1B/1C). 1A bris `break' / glan `clean' 1B sbhil `save' 1C tiomin `drive.' 1.1A. Monosyllabic Stems

bris `break' brisim briseann t briseann s/s briseann muidU/ brisimid briseann sibh briseann siad

glan `clean' glanaim glanann t glanann s/s glanann muidU/ glanaimid glanann sibh glanann siad

Monosyllabic verbs ending in -igh have basically the same endings but show some fluctuation in spelling and are best learned individually: stem digh bigh brigh ligh luigh suigh nigh 1sg dim bim brim lim lum sum nm 3sg dnn s bnn s brnn s lann s luonn s suonn s nonn s 1pl dimid bimid brimid limid lumid sumid nmid vn ag d ag b ag br ag lamh ag lu ag su ag n

burn (tr) drown (tr) press read lie sit wash (tr)



1.1B. Polysyllabic Stems Most polysyllabic verbs take the second conjugation, as we shall see, but some disyllabic verbs take the first conjugation, including all verbs ending in -il (bcil `bake'; cniotil `knit'; liostil `list'; marcil `mark'; priontil `print'; sbhil `save'; spril `save up, spare'; robil `rob'; vtil, `vote'). First conjugation polysyllables are never syncopated; thus a disyllabic stem will have a trisyllabic inflected form. Some of these polysyllabic stems are depalatalized and treated like a broad stem.

Stems in -il: sbhil sbhlaim

sbhlann s

ag sbhil ag taispeint ag gearn ag ciliradh

save show complain celebrate drive teach

Other depalatalized stems: taispein taispenaim taispenann s gearin gearnaim gearnann s ciliir ciliraim cilirann s

Stems that preserve the stem's palatal inflection: tiomin tiominim tiomineann s ag tiomint Broad stems: teagasc teagascaim teagascann s ag teagasc

1.2. An Dara Rimni / The Second Conjugation 1.2A. Stems in -(a)igh The second conjugation contains polysyllabic verbs 31 only. The first and by far the largest group of verbs end in -(a)igh (2A). In the inflected forms, the final consonant is lost so that the inflected verb has the same number of syllables as the stem. irigh `get up' irm ironn t ironn s/s ironn muidU/ irmid ironn sibh ironn siad

ceannaigh `buy' ceannam ceannaonn t ceannaonn s/s ceannaonn muidU/ ceannamid ceannaonn sibh ceannaonn siad

Usually disyllabic, but there are a handful of trisyllabic verbal stems, e.g. comhairligh `counsel' and dnmharaigh `murder.'



1.2B. Syncopated Stems Verbal stems ending in -in, -il, -ir and -is are in some (but not all) contexts syncopated, so that the inflected form has the same number of syllables as the stem:

aithin codail foscail freagair imir inis labhair mscail

aithnm codlam fosclam freagram imrm insm labhram msclam

aithnonn s codlaonn s fosclaonn s freagraonn s imronn s insonn s labhraonn s msclaonn s

ag aithint ag codladh ag foscladh ag foscladh ag imirt ag insint / inseU ag labhairt ag mscil

recognize sleep openU opening play tell speak wake

1.2C. Stems That Resist Syncopation The remaining - very small - group of second conjugation verbs resist syncopation, so that a disyllabic verbal stem will produce a trisyllabic inflected form:

foghlaim tarraing taistil freastail

foghlaimm tarraingm taistealam freastalam

foghlaimonn s tarraingonn s taistealaonn s freastalaonn s

ag foghlaim ag tarraingt ag taisteal ag freastal

learn pull travel attend

1.3 The Irregular Verbs

Affirmative feicim danaim tim faighim deirim cluinim tugaim tagaim beirim ar ithim

Negative n fheicim n dhanaim n thim n fhaighim n deirim n chluinim n thugaim n thagaim n bheirim ar n ithim

Interrogative an bhfeiceann t? an ndanann t? an dtann t? an bhfaigheann t? an deir t / an deireann t? an gcluineann t? an dtugann t? an dtagann t? an mbeireann t ar? an itheann t?

see do go get say hear give come catch eat



1.4. Negative and Interrogative negative: N cheannam milsein. interrog.: An gceannaonn t milsein? neg. int.: Nach gceannaonn s milsein? N irm go luath. An ironn t32 go luath? Nach n-ironn t go luath?

I do not buy sweets. Do you buy sweets? Doesnt he buy sweets? I don't get up early. Do you get up early? Don't you get up early?

Responses to questions are constructed by repeating the verb: An dtuigeann t an lacht? Do you understand the lecture? Tuigim. / N thuigim. Yes. / No. 2. An Aimsir Ghnthlithreach (The Present Habitual) The substantive verb has a special form used to express habitual action in the present:

bm bonn t bonn s/s bonn muidU/ bmid bonn sibh bonn siad negative: interrogative: neg. interrogative: where: Bonn s tinn go minic. 3. An t-Am (Time) a haon a d a tr a ceathair a cig a s

I am habitually you are habitually he/she is habitually we are habitually you are habitually they are habitually n bhonn t an mbonn t? nach mbonn t? c mbonn t? He is sick often.

a seacht a hocht a naoi a deich a haon dag a d dhag What time is it?

Cad an t-am / Cn t-am at s?


Note that the interrogative particle an does not prefix an `n' to a verb beginning with a vowel.



T s a haon a chlog. T s a d a chlog. T s leath i ndiadhU a tr. T s ceathr go dtU a hocht. leathuair, leathuair a chloig ceathr, ceathr uair a chloig bomaiteU go dt i ndiaidh san oche ar maidin sa trthnna ag men lae ag men oche Talking about Daily Activities Cn t-am a ironn t ar maidin? C huair a ironn t ar maidin? Eirm de ghnth ar a hocht. Ithim mo bhricfeasta ar a naoi.

Its one oclock. Its two oclock. Its half past three. Its a quarter to eight. half an hour quarter of an hour minute to, until after at night in the morning, a.m. in the afternoon, p.m. at midday at midnight What time do you get up in the morning? What time do you get up in the morning? I usually get up at eight. I eat breakfast at nine. CEACHTANNA LE DANAMH

1. Freagair na ceisteanna seo: 1. An ironn t go luath ar maidin? 2. An itheann t bricfeasta mr ar maidin? 3. An lann t tae n caife? 4. An nglacann t bainne n an lann t tae/caife dubh? 5. An isteann t leis an raidi ar maidin? 6. An silann t n an dtann t ar an bhus? 7. An lann t san oche? 8. An ndanann t do dhinnar fin? 9. An dtann t amach san oche? 10. An lann t fon n uisce beatha? 2. Obair Ranga: Agallamh le Raltg T agallamh agat le raltg chailiil. Conduct an interview with your partner (the famous star) along the lines of: Bia An itheann t: feoil glasra bia mara (`seafood')?



bia Francach / Iodileach / Spinneach / Indiach / Sneach? Deoch An lann t: Tobac An gcaitheann t: Ceol An isteann t le: uisce leann dubh tobac fon tae toitn uisce beatha caife? popa? ceol clasaiceach? popcheol ceirtlis?

ceol traidisinta snagcheol


San Oche An dtann t go dt: an teach tbhairne

an amharclann an phictirlann?

3. Put the following sentences into the present tense, then turn them into questions, and give a negative response: 1. Ghlan s an t-urlr. 2. Bhris an piste an fhuinneog. 3. Dfhan s liom. 4. Dfhoscail muid an litir. 5. Cheannaigh m uisce. 6. Chuaigh s abhaile. 7. Thinig Mire linn. 8. Thug m leabhar d. 9. Chuala s ceol. 10. Rinne m dearmad. Obair Bhaile 1. Cuir Gaeilge air seo: 1. I go to sleep at nine oclock every night. 2. She eats breakfast at five thirty every morning. 3. Do you take milk? No. 4. Do you understand his book? Yes. 5. He doesnt come here too often. 6. They buy vegetables here every day. 7. She runs two miles every day. 8. He studies all the time. 9. Do you play soccer? Yes. 10. Do you eat meat? No. 2. What do you do every day? Every weekend? Write a schedule of your activities. 3. Imagine youre an anthropologist doing field work on Mars. What are regular activities of the locals?



TEANGA IS C ULTR Seanfhocail Danann neart ceart. Danann sparn trom cro adrom. Molann an obair an fear. Aithnonn ciarg ciarg eile. Giorraonn beirt bthar. Tarraingonn scal scal eile. Bonn an fhrinne searbh. Bonn gach tosach lag. Bonn silach scalach. Nuair a bhonn an braon istigh, bonn an chiall amuigh. Might is right. A full purse makes for a light heart. The work praises its maker. It takes one beetle to recognize another. Company shortens the road. One story draws out another. Truth is bitter. Every beginning is weak. A traveller is full of tales. When a drop has been taken, sense goes out the door. Tomhas Cad a thann suas nuair a thagann an fhearthainn anuas? What goes up when the rain comes down? Rann do Phist Gugala-gug, mo chircn dubh, Suonn s sos is beireann s ubh: Ubh inn is ubh inniu, Gugala-gug mo chircn dubh. (RR 4) Gugala-gug, my little black hen, Sits down and lays an egg: One egg yesterday and one egg today, Gugala-gug, my little black hen.



Rann: An t-Am `Telling Time' Tic, toc an gcloiseann t m? Is mise an clog, is seanchlog m. Buailim a haon is buailim a d N chloiseann t m chomh luath sa l. Buailim a tr, a ceathair is a cig; Muintir an t go fill i suan. Buailim a s is buailim a seacht; irigh a Ris, is ritigh an teach. Buailim a hocht; t an bricfeasta ridh. Sug sos is laga bhur gcuid tae. Buailim a naoi go hard is go binn; Bg ag triall ar scoil le bhur linn. Buailim a deich is a haon dag a chlog; Gach duine ag obair ag saothr a chuid. Buailim a d dhag ag men lae Filte an Aingil is abraig . (CC #227) Tick, tock, do you hear me? I'm the clock I'm an old clock. I strike one and I strike two You don't hear me so early in the day. I strike three, four and five The household is still asleep. I strike six and I strike seven; Get up, Rose, and get the house in order. I strike eight; breakfast is ready. Sit down and drink your tea. I strike nine, loud and melodious Set out for school at this time. I strike ten and I strike eleven Everyone working earning a living. I strike twelve at noon for you to recite the Angelus.


FOCLIR an samhradh seo chugainn an tseachtain seo chugainn an mh seo chugainn ar ais bailigh, ag baili cad at ann?U a choche crann Nollag cuidigh le, ag cuidi le daor de dhth (ar dhuine)U fiafraigh de, ag fiafra de freagair, ag freagairt dan gar dom gan mhoill glaoch (m) go raibh mle maith agat go raibh cad maith agatU iarr, ag iarraidh iarr (ar dhuine) i gceann tamaill i mbliana in am inis, ag insint inteachtU laethanta saoire le danamh nos dana n dh Nollaig (f) (uaim, uait, uaidh, uaithi, uainn, uaibh, uathu) roimh (romham, romhat, roimh, roimpi, romhainn, romhaibh, rompu) sula saoire (f) tuillte rscal (m) next summer next week next month back collect what is it? ever, never (future events) Christmas tree help expensive needed (by someone) ask answer do me a favor soon call thank you very much thank you very much request, want ask (someone) in a while, later this year in time tell some vacation to do later or two Christmas from (from me, from you, etc) before (before me, before you, etc) before (used with verb) holiday, vacation earned novel



COMHR I ndiaidh an ranga... ine: Fan bomaite, a Mhirn, t rud inteacht agam duit. Nollaig shona duit! Mirn: Go raibh mle maith agat. ine: T filte romhat. N foscail do bhronntanas roimh an Nollaig! Mirn: Ceart go leor, n fhosclidh! Agus seo bronntanas beag duitse. ine: O, go raibh cad maith agat! (ag breith air) Hmm. Cad at ann? Mirn: N darfaidh m leat sin! Caithfidh t fanacht! ine: Ceart go leor, fanfaidh m! Go raibh maith agat ars. Mirn: T filte romhat. Cad a dhanfaidh t ar na laethanta saoire? ine: N dhanfaidh m rud ar bith. Rachaidh m abhaile agus fanfaidh m sa bhaile. Cuideoidh m le mo thuismitheoir; beidh go leor le danamh againn sa teach gheobhaidh muid crann Nollag agus danfaidh muid ccaireacht. Ach beidh saoire dheas agam osfaidh m bia maith, turca, cca milis, lifidh m rscal n dh. N dhanfaidh me obair ar bith. Bainfidh m sult as sin. Mirn: Bainfidh, cinnte. T saoire tuillte agat. ine: O, an ndanfaidh t gar domh, a Mhirn? Mirn: Danfaidh. Cad at de dhith ort? ine: An bhfeicfidh t Pdraign sula n-imonn s? Mirn: Feicfidh. ine: An fidir leat a bronntanas a thabhairt di? Mirn: Is fidir. Tabharfaidh m di anocht . AN CEACHT GRAMADA 1. An Aimsir Fhistineach (The Future Tense) The difference between the two conjugations is more marked in the future tense than in the present. 1.1. First Conjugation Verbs The future tense of first conjugation verbs is formed by adding the ending -f(a)idh to the stem: cuir cuirfidh m I will put cuirfidh t you will put cuirfidh s/s he/she will put cuirfidh muidU/cuirfimid we will put cuirfidh sibh you will put cuirfidh siad they will put glac glacfaidh m I will take glacfaidh t you will take glacfaidh s/s he/she will take glacfaidh muidU/glacfaimid we will take glacfaidh sibh you will take glacfaidh siad they will take

The `f' of the future tense stem is pronounced as an `h' in Ulster Irish ( Baoill 1996, 22), except



for the future of ch `see,' as in the frequently heard parting words: Chfidh m t/th! I'll be seeing you!

Monosyllabic verbs in -igh lose their stem ending before adding the future ending:

-faidh digh `burn' bigh `drown' brigh `press' buaigh `win'

dfaidh bfaidh brfaidh buafaidh

-fidh ligh `read' nigh `wash' luigh `lie' suigh `sit'

lifidh nfidh lufidh sufidh

1.1B. Polysyllabic Stems Polysyllabic stems tend to be de-palatalized and take a broad -faidh, but there are exceptions:

-faidh taispein `show' ceiliir `celebrate' sbhil `save' vtil `vote'

taispenfaidh ceilirfaidh sbhlfaidh vtlfaidh

-fidh tiomin `drive' tiominfidh

1.2. Second Conjugation Verbs The future tense of second-conjugation verbs is formed by adding the ending -idh / -eoidh to broad / slender stems respectively. 1.2A. Most second-conjugation verbs end in -(a)igh, an ending which is lost in the future tense:

ceannaigh ceannidh m ceannidh t ceannidh s/s ceannimid ceannidh sibh ceannidh siad

I will buy you will buy he/she will buy we will buy you will buy they will buy

imigh imeoidh m imeoidh t imeoidh s/s imeoimid imeoidh sibh imeoidh siad

I will leave you will leave he/she will leave we will leave you will leave they will leave



1.2B. Syncopated Stems Other second-conjugation verbs add the future ending to the stem. Often the stem is syncopated in the process, so that the inflected form has the same number of syllables as the stem: -idh codail `sleep' foscailU `open' freagair `answer' labhair `talk' mscail `wake' -eoidh imir `play' inis `tell'

codlidh fosclidh freagridh labhridh msclidh

imreoidh inseoidh

1.2C. Stems that Resist Syncopation Some few second-conjugation verbs resist syncopation, so that a disyllabic stem will produce a trisyllabic inflected form:

-idh freastail `attend' taistil `travel'

freastalidh taistealidh

-eoidh foghlaim `learn' tarraing `pull'

foghlaimeoidh tarraingeoidh

In Ulster Irish, the second conjugation future ending is disyllabic (see Baoill 1996, 24). It is pronounced as if it were written: ceannchaidh m, t, s, s, muid, sibh, siad [k'aohi] imeochaidh m, t, s, s, muid, sibh, siad [im'ohi] Negative: Interrogative: Neg. int.: Before: n (causes simhi) an (causes ur) nach (causes ur) sula (causes ur) n chuirfidh m an lfaidh t33 nach nglacfaidh t sula n-imeoidh m I will put the cup there. He will answer soon. He will not build a house in this town. He won't sleep here. Will he clean the house? Will you get up at seven tomorrow? Won't you buy a present for him?

Sampla Cuirfidh m an cupn ansin. Freagridh s gan mhoill. N thgfaidh s teach sa bhaile seo. N chodlidh s anseo. An nglanfaidh s an teach? An ireoidh t ag a seacht amrach? Nach gceannidh t bronntanas d?

As in the present tense, the interrogative particle does not prefix `n' to verbs beginning with a vowel.



1.3. The Irregular Verbs The irregular verbs have the following future tense forms:

Affirmative beidh feicfidh cluinfidh danfaidh tabharfaidh tiocfaidh barfaidh gheobhaidh osfaidh darfaidh rachaidh

Negative n bheidh n fheicfidh n chluinfidh n dhanfaidh n thabharfaidh n thiocfaidh n bharfaidh n bhfaighidh n osfaidh n darfaidh n rachaidh

Interrogative an mbeidh an bhfeicfidh an gcluinfidh an ndanfaidh an dtabharfaidh an dtiocfaidh an mbarfaidh an bhfaighidh an osfaidh an ndarfaidh an rachaidh

be see hear do give come catch, hold get, find eat say go

2. The Prepositions and roimh and their Prepositional Pronouns

`from' uaim uait uaidh uaithi uainn uaibh uathu from me from you from him from her from us from you from them

ROIMH `before' romham romhat roimh roimpi romhainn romhaibh rompu before me before you before him before her before us before you before them

CEACHTANNA LE DANAMH 1. Future Tense, First Conjugation Cuir Gaeilge air seo: 1. I will write a letter. 2. She will close the door. 3. You will take a drink, won't you? 4. Will you put the milk here?



5. He won't wait for her. 6. She will sweep the floor. 7. I will enjoy the night. 8. Won't they drink milk? 9. We will listen to him. 10. I shall run to the shop. 2. Future Tense, Second Conjugation Cuir Gaeilge air seo: 1. She will finish her homework now. 2. We will sleep well tonight. 3. I will open the window. 4. Will he answer my question? 5. Shall we tell him the good news? 6. He will not leave his daughter. 7. He will collect stories. (scalta) 8. The children will not play together. 9. Will you buy a coat there? 10. I will help the woman of the house. (bean an t) 3. Cuir Gaeilge air seo: 1. I will go home later. 2. Will they eat meat? I don't know. 3. I'll see you tomorrow! 4. They won't see you. 5. Will you finish it in time? No. 6. She'll get a great job. 7. I'll get up at five o'clock tomorrow morning, but I won't do anything until nine. 8. Won't they come back tomorrow? No, they'll never come back. 9. Will he listen to me? Yes. 10. I won't buy anything there. It's too expensive. 11. He won't get a call from me today! 4. Plan your winter holidays. What will you do? What presents will you give to your friends and family? Where will you travel? When will you return? 5. You are planning a three-day fieldtrip. Write out a detailed plan for the participants, listing speakers and their transportation, speaking times, accommodation, meals, and entertainment. Write out your plans using the future tense.



TEANGA IS C ULTR Casfhocal `Tongue Twister' N thuigfidh mise fear as Toraigh is n thuigfidh fear as Toraigh m. I won't understand a man from Tory (Island), and a man from Tory won't understand me. Seanfhocail Mol an ige agus tiocfaidh s. Barfaidh b igin lao igin l igin. Cuidigh fin leat is cuideoidh Dia leat! Praise the young and they will get there. Some cow will have some calf some day. Help yourself and God will help you!

Nollaig agus an Bhliain r (Christmas and New Year) Modern western Christmas customs are observed in Ireland today, including Christmas tree, Christmas cards and presents, and British-style Christmas dinner, with its obligatory turkey, brussel sprouts and Christmas crackers. Introduced from Britain, these customs are, however, of relatively recent vintage in Ireland. The older layer of native custom described below, which it has to some extent at least replaced, is more likely to reflect common medieval European tradition. The Holy Family, Mary, Joseph, and Jesus, were believed to walk about on earth on Christmas Eve, and a candle was lit in every window, often by the youngest child, to show the wanderers that they were welcome there: Bonn soilse ar lasadh in gach aon fhuinneog in gach tigh Oche Nollag, Oche Lae Nollag, Oche Choille, Oche Lae Choille, Oche Nollag Beag, agus Oche Lae Nollag Beag, ar fud na bparisteacha timpeall. Le honir d'r Slnaitheoir at gach inne dhanamh. Bonn suipar maith agus dinnar maith L Nollag mar onir d leis. (LSC, 354f) Lights burn in every window in every house on Christmas Eve, the night of Christmas Day, New Year's Eve, the night of New Year's Day, Little Christmas Eve, the night of Little Christmas Day in all the parishes round about. It is in honour of Our Saviour that everyone does it. It is in honour of him too that there is a good supper and a good dinner on Christmas Day and Christmas Eve. (SOCB, 319) This folk belief is also reflected in literature, as in Mirtn Direin's poem Cuireadh do Mhuire `Invitation to Mary,' and in Mire Mhac an tSaoi's Oche Nollag:



Fgaidh an doras ar leathadh ina coinne, An Mhaighdean a thiocfaidh is a naoi ar a hucht [...] Lufidh Mac D ins an tigh34 seo anocht. Leave the door ajar for them Our Lady who will come with her baby in her arms [...] The Son of God will sleep in this house tonight. In a shortstory by Pdraig Pearse, St Mary is offerred hospitality by a childless couple and in return grants her hostess's request for a child. Animals, too, were thought to feel the divine presence: at midnight on Christmas Eve the animals have the power of human speech, and ox and ass are said to go down on their knees in reverence. On the Eve of Epiphany (6th of January; in some areas called `little Christmas,' Nollaig Bheag), water was said to turn to wine, rushes to silk, and gravel to gold, in memory not only of the three Magi, but also of the Wedding at Cana, which was thought to have taken place on that day (SOCB, 318). Decorating the house with holly is also traditional, whether it is native or a reflection of English custom. Christmas mumming in Ireland is demonstrably of English origin. It is found in those areas in which English influence goes back longest, in the area around Dublin referred to as `the Pale', in Wexford, and in the Northeastern counties. Although it is well-established in those areas, and the English cast of characters has received some Irish additions (in some areas St Patrick beats his rival St George), it never was part of Irish-language tradition. Gaelic tradition did, however, have its own version of Christmas disguise and procession: On St Stephen's Day (December 26th), the wrenboys (lucht an dreoiln) went from house to house, dressed up and carrying a live or dead wren, and reciting poetry and collecting gifts: mhaidean go trthnna bonn lucht a dreiln ag imeacht thig go tig, a's a dreiln marabh acu ar bharra cleithe, agus craobh ghlas agus ribn tmpal air. A' baili airigid a bhonn lucht a' dreoiln. A' dul isteach sa tig dibh, abaraid siad rcn an dreiln, agus nuair a bhonn s rit' aca, agus bhar facht35 aca, bailonn siad le ansan.36 (LSC 355) From morning to evening the wrenboys go from house to house, with a dead wren on top of a staff, which has a green branch and ribbons around it. Collecting money is what the wrenboys do. When they enter the house they say the rime of the wren, and when they have said it, and got something, they go off again. (SOCB, 319)

34 35

= teach. The oblique case form tigh (= the dative form) has taken the place of the nominative in Munster Irish. = faighte, `gotten'. 36 Duilearga's spelling attempts to represent Munster dialect closely; the passage contains many divergences from modern standard orthography.



Here is a typical wrenboy rhyme: Dreoiln, dreoiln, r na n-an L Fhile Stiofin a ceapadh m. irigh suas, a bhean an t Caith an donacht as do chro Agus tabhair cpla pingin don dreoiln. (CC #262a) Wren, wren, king of the birds On St Stephen's Day I was trapped Get up, Woman of the House Banish evil from your heart And give a couple of pence to the wren. As at Halloween and St Brigid's Day, the ritual and disguise accommodated and sanctioned noisy and unruly behaviour, especially if the procession included a hobby-horse, the lir bhn. The one-sided drum now ubiquitously associated with the traditional music seisin, the bodhrn, was originally only associated with the wrenboy procession (Danaher 1977, 127). Some of the wren rhymes are quite aggressive: Dreoiln, dreoiln, cois chla an chloch Chaith me mo mhaide leis, bhris m a chos. irigh i do shu, a bhean an t, Agus tabhair dinn deoch N sfaidh m an dreoiln siar i do chorp! (LSC 355) The wren, the wren, at the foot of the stone wall I threw my stick at him, I broke his leg. Get up, woman of the house, And give us a drink, Or I will stuff the wren down your throat! (SOCB, 319) New Year's, called L Coille (from Latin `Calends Day') or L Cinn Bhliana `Day of the Year's End' was a comparatively minor holiday. The custom of persuading one's neighbours to have a drink, though much less widespread than in Gaelic Scotland, is also attested in Ireland (SOCB, 318). The formula Go mbeirimid beo ar an am seo ars `May we be alive this time next year' was said on New Year's Eve. As on Christmas Day itself, everyone, even the poorest members of the community, were supposed to get a good meal: Tugtar Oche na Coda Mire ar Oche Choille. Siud an focal a bhonn ar sil ag na daoine an oche sin: `Corcn mr go mbuailimid sos Go n-ithimid r ndthain



Agus is cuma c dholfaidh!' An t n hosfadh a dhthain an oche sin, n osfadh s go ceann bliana eile . (LSC, 353) Oche Choille is called `the Night of the Big Meal.' This is the saying the people have about that night: `A big pot let us put down That we may eat our fill No matter who pays for it!' Whoever did not eat his fill that night, would not eat it for another year. (SOCB, 318) Dn: Cuireadh do Mhuire `Invitation to Mary' le Mirtn Dreain (as Dnta Aniar, 1943) Nollaig 1942 An eol duit, a Mhuire, C rachair i mbliana Ag iarradh foscaidh Do do Leanbh Naofa Trth a bhfuil gach doras Dnta ina adan Ag fuath is uabhar An chine dhaonna? Deonaigh glacadh Le cuireadh uaimse Go hoilen mara San Iarthar cianda: Beidh coinnle geala I ngach fuinneog lasta Is tine mhna Ar theallach adhainte. Do you know, Mary, Where you will go this year Looking for shelter For your holy child When every door Is closed in His face By the hate and the pride Of the human race? Deign to accept My invitation To an island in the sea In the remote West: Bright candles Will shine in every window And a turf fire On the hearth.



Amhrin Nollag Oche Chiin `Silent Night' Oche chiin, oche mhic D Cch ina suan, ds araon, Ds is dlse ag faire le spis Naon beag gnaoigheal ceananntais caomh Crost ina chodladh go simh Crost ina chodladh go simh. Oche chiin, oche mhic D Aoir ar dts chuala an scal Allelia aingeal ag glaoch Cantain suairc i ngar is i gcin Crost an slnaitheoir fin Crost an slnaitheoir fin. Silent Night, night of God's son Everyone's asleep, except for one couple The most faithful couple watching with affection Over a small beautiful dear fair child: Christ, calmly asleep Christ, calmly asleep. Silent night, night of God's son. Shepherds first heard the tale The angels' calling `Halleluya' Lovely chanting near and far. Christ the saviour himself Christ the saviour himself.

Carl na Nollag `A Christmas Carol' Dia do bheatha a Na anocht A rugadh insa stbla bocht Go ciin gan chaoi i do luascadh a lu T do mhithrn le do thaobhsa. Anseo ina lu sa mhainsirn I gcr chng an asailn Gean is gr Bheithiln Ag cur sochin i gcro gach inne. Na haingle insna Flaithis thuas Na haoir ag triall shliabh anuas Ag neosadh dinn gur rugadh Crost Ag tabhairt firn uainn go lir dhuit. Dia do bheatha a Na anocht A rugadh insa stbla bocht Go ciin gan chaoi i do luascadh a lu T do mhithrn le do thaobhsa. God be with you tonight, little one Who was born in the poor stable Your mother's by your side, rocking you quietly to sleep without tears. Lying here in the little manger In the donkey's narrow shed Affection and love from Bethlehem Is putting peace in everyone's heart. The angels in heaven above The shepherds coming down the hill Telling us that Christ is born And gringing gifts from us all. God be with you tonight, little one Who was born in the poor stable Your mother's by your side, rocking you quietly to sleep without tears.



Beannachta na Nollag Christmas Greetings Nollaig shona duit Nollaig mhaith chugat Nollaig faoi shan is faoi shonas duit Beannachta na Nollag / na hAthbhliana Athbhliain faoi mhaise duit Merry Christmas Merry Christmas A prosperous and happy Christmas to you Christmas / New Year's Greetings Happy New Year

Foclirn Beag na Nollag crann Nollag coinneal, pl coinnle lampa draochta crta Nollag siopadireacht na Nollag bronntanas Aifreann na Nollag ag dul chuig an aifreann minsar pleascga Nollag hata pipir Dada na Nollag / San Niocls Dinnar L Nollag cilis bachlga Bhruisile tornapa turca toirtn ll traidhfil cste Nollag, marg Nollag uisce beatha Christmas tree candle tree lights (`magic lamps') Christmas cards Christmas shopping present Christmas mass, midnight mass going to mass crche (belen) Christmas crackers paper hats Father Christmas / Santa Claus Christmas Dinner cauliflower Brussels sprouts turnip turkey apple pie trifle British style Christmas pudding whisky




Can you say the following things? If you can't, or you're not quite sure, go back to the lesson and paragraph indicated after each item: tell first one person, then two, to listen, to clean the house, to get up, to leave, to buy coffee, to open the door, to speak Irish, to sit down, to be quiet, to come here, and to go there (8.1). now tell them NOT to do any of the above-mentioned (8.1). address the following people: Cit, Donncha, Pdraign, Sen, Samus, Mire (8.2). know at least six different terms of endearment to address your true love (8.2.1). say `give me a kiss, NN [insert personal name], love of my heart' (8.2.1). address a letter to NN conveying similar sentiments, and closing with appropriate greetings (8.2.3). say `to me, to you, to him, to her, to us, to you, to them' (8.3). say `from me, from you, from him, from her, from us, from you, from them' (8.3). say `give me the book'; `take off your hat'; `put on your coat'; `buy me an ice cream'; `tell me' to first one person, then two (8.1/8.3) tell first one person, then two, to come in; go out; go downstairs; come upstairs; sit down and get up again (8.4). say `I got up, I washed myself, I put on my trousers, I ate my breakfast, I ran outside, I got the bus, I went to university, I came into the classroom, I sat down, I listened to the teacher, I fell asleep (9.1). now say that you didn't do any of the above (9.1). now ask Sle whether she did any of the above yesterday (9.1). say the numbers from 1-10 (9.2). say `1 + 1 = 2; 8 - 2 = 6' (9.1.1). say your telephone number (9.1.2). count Fionn Mac Cumhaill's 10 cats (one cat, two cats, three cats etc; 9.2.2) say that you went to a concert; to the doctor; to your sister's; to Dublin; to Alaska; to France; to the library (9.3). say what you do every day (10.1). ask Sen whether he does any of these things; as it turns out, he doesn't: report what he doesn't do (10.1.3). say `I am (habitually), you are (habitually), he is (habitually), etc (10.2). say what time it is (10.3). describe what you will do tomorrow. say `I will clean; I will drink; I will buy; I will leave; I will sleep' (11.1). say that you will not, in fact, do the above (11.1). say `from me, from you, from him, from her, from us, from you, from them' (11.2).



U LSTER IRISH M UNSTER AND/ OR CONNACHT IRISH bocsa bosca box cad (also spelt caid, goid) cad what fosta freisin also muidinne sinne we/us (emphatic form) ruball eireaball tail tbla bord table The Copula In some dialects of Ulster Irish, the distinctive negative form cha/chan is used rather than n, not only in the context of the copula, but as the negative particle with any verb. Cha/chan is the regular negative form in Scottish Gaelic, and its occurence in Ulster Irish has sparked a scholarly controversy; should we regard the use of cha in Ulster Irish as a relatively recent import from Scotland, as T. F. O'Rahilly claimed in Irish Dialects Past and Present, or as a native development from Old Irish nicon, parallel to its development in Scottish Gaelic?37 Examples of cha/chan as negative copula: Chan geal at s ach liath. Cha m(h)aith liom . It is not white but gray. I dont like it.



I am grateful to Bettina Kimpton for her research on the issue of cha versus n. See T.F. O Rahilly, Irish Dialects Past and Present (Dublin 1932); Heinrich Wagner, Linguistic Atlas and Survey of Irish Dialects (Dublin, 1958-69) and Iarfhocal ar N agus Cha sa Ghaeilge, Filscrbhinn Thomis de Bhaldraithe, ed. S. Watson (Dublin 1986), 1-10; Breandn Buachalla, Nota ar Ghaeilge an Tuaiscirt, igse 16 (1976), 285-315, and N and Cha in Ulster Irish, riu 28 (1977), 92-141; Cathair Dochartaigh, Cha and N in the Irish of Ulster, igse 16 (1976), 317-36; A.J. Hughes, Gaeilge Uladh, in Stair na Gaeilge, ed. K. McCone et al (1994), 614-18, and Ulster Irish Char as a reflex of Old Irish Nicon Ro rather than a Scottish Import, in Miscellanea Celtica in Memoriam Heinrich Wagner, ed. S. Mac Mathna and A. Corrin (Uppsala 1997).


The Prepositional Pronoun of le A number of the prepositional pronouns have slightly different forms in Donegal Irish; the 3 sg f and 3 plu in particular tend to have a different form: 3 sg f lithe = li with her 3 plu leo and leofa = leo with them

Identification Copula In the context of the copula, the phenomenon of the proleptic (i.e. anticipatory) or the echoing pronoun is a relatively innovative feature in Irish, and there is some dialect variation in its use. In Donegal Irish, the pronoun tends to be used more sparingly than elsewhere; e.g. it is not used with the demonstrative pronouns sin and seo: U LSTER IRISH M UNSTER AND/ OR CONNACHT IRISH Seo an peann. Seo an peann. Sin an fear. Sin an fear.

There is much variation between dialects in their use of interrogative pronouns, as illustrated e.g. by the interrogatives `what' and `how': U LSTER IRISH M UNSTER AND/ OR CONNACHT IRISH cad / caid cad cad mar cn chaoi / conas what how

Dialectal variation is therefore particularly noticeable in interrogative idioms. Thus `how are you?' is expressed as cad mar at t? in Donegal Irish, cn chaoi bhfuil t? in Connemara, and conas at t? in Kerry. If you ask for someone's name you say cainm at ort? / Cad an t-ainm at ort? in Donegal; elsewhere, you will hear cad is ainm duit? In some cases, semantic dialect variation is more a question of preference rather than exclusive use. Thus, in Donegal Irish, gairid is the preferred word for `short', rather than gearr, and doiligh rather than deacair is used for `difficult.' The Substantive Verb In some Ulster dialects, nl can be expressed as chan fhuil: An bhfuil t tinn? - Chan fhuil. Are you sick? - No.


CRSA CANNA: N OTES ON DIALECT VARIATION In some areas in which cha is less commonly used, eg. SW Donegal, chan fhuil can express an emphatic negative response: Nl t tinn, an bhfuil? - O, chan fhuil. You aren't sick, are you? - No, I'm not.

The Particle go In Donegal Irish, the particle go is used much less often in this context, in Connacht and Munster it is obligatory: T s deas. It is nice. T s go deas. It is nice.

U LSTER IRISH M UNSTER AND/ OR CONNACHT IRISH druidte dnta foscailte oscailte ag cluinstin ag cloisteil /ag cluinstin closed open hearing

Cluinstin (which is also found elsewhere in Irieland) is used in Ulster rather than cloisteil. Note that amharc is pronounced [ank] in some parts of western Donegal; elsewhere it is pronounced [ork].

U LSTER IRISH M UNSTER AND/ OR CONNACHT IRISH cad chuige cn fth 'achan (gach aon) chuile (gach uile) why every

The Substantive Verb In areas where the negative particle cha is used rather than n, the negative of the past tense of the substantive verb is cha raibh: An raibh t ann arir? - Cha raibh. Where you there last night? - No.

Initial Mutations of the Noun in the Dative Case In Ulster Irish, all prepositions followed by the definite article cause lenition of the noun in the dative. This represents a drastic simplification of a historically complex situation, and the southern dialects preserve some of this historical complexity. In Connacht Irish, prepositions followed by the article cause eclipsis, except do and de, which cause lenition. The situation in


CRSA CANNA: N OTES ON DIALECT VARIATION Munster Irish is similar, with most prepositions causing eclipsis, and the prepositions do, de, and sa causing lenition.

The Zero Copula and the Prepositional Pronoun i Note that the alternative copula construction fear deas at ann (rather than is fear deas ) has become the preferred way of expressing a classification sentence and is extremely common: L deas at ann. Minteoir at ionam. Nice day today. I'm a teacher.

U LSTER IRISH M UNSTER AND/ OR CONNACHT IRISH balta in ann druid, ag drud dn, ag dnadh foscail, ag foscladh oscail, ag oscailt ag tuigbheil ag tuiscint goitse (gabh anseo) tar anseo able close open understand come here

The Prepositional Pronouns of de and do In Connacht and Munster Irish, the distinction between the pronominal forms of the prepositions do and de is strictly maintained. In some dialects of Donegal Irish, particularly South Donegal (Teelin) it is also maintained; Hughes gives the following forms for de (1994, 658): M UNSTER AND/ OR CONNACHT IRISH Sg 1 dom dom 2 dod dot 3m de de 3f dthe di Pl 1 dnn dnn 2 d(h)bh dbh 3 dofa dobh Note the following Donegal forms of do (Hughes 1994, 658; Baoill 1996, 95): Sg 1 domh and dom dom to me 3f daoithe di to her Pl 3 daofa, dfa dibh to them



CRSA CANNA: N OTES ON DIALECT VARIATION ar digh barraocht ar fheabhas an iomarca great, excellent too much

Cha and the Past Tense Verb In the past tense, the negative particle cha becomes char: char chrochnaigh m I didnt finish char sheinn s He didnt play (a musical instrument) char ith m I didnt eat The Past Tense: Irregular Verbs The following variant forms of the irregular verbs are found in Ulster Irish: an/ar n/nor cha(r) dan `do': an dtearn n thearn cha dtearn tabhair `give': an dtug n thug cha dtug tar `come': an dtinig n thinig cha dtinig tigh `go': an dteachaigh n theachaigh cha dteachaigh abair `say' ar dhirt nor dhirt char dhirt feic `see': an bhfaca n fhaca chan fhaca cluin `hear': ar chuala nor chuala char chuala faigh `get': an bhfuair n bhfuair chan fhuair The Prepositional Pronoun of chuig The preposition chuig `to' is pronounced [uig] or [eig]; in the pronominal forms, the initial `ch' is reduced to a [h], and the medial `g' is often elided in the 1 and 2 sg (Hughes 1994, 658): Sg Pl 1 hogem / hu:m hogiN 2 hogad / hu:d hogif 3 heg'e hoku he'ki

Telling the Time U LSTER IRISH M UNSTER AND/ OR CONNACHT IRISH bomaite nimad i ndiaidh tar is t s tr bhomaite i ndiaidh a d t s tr nimad tar is a d go dt chun t s tr bhomaite go dt a d t s tr nimad chun a d Cha and the Present Tense Verb cha bhonn s He isnt (habitually) chan fheicim I dont see minute after it's 2.03 to it's 1.57


CRSA CANNA: N OTES ON DIALECT VARIATION cha chluineann s He doesnt hear

chfidh m th [t'ifi] inteacht t s de dhth orm feicfidh m th igin t s uaim see you later some, a certain I need it

The Future Tense In Ulster Irish, the `f' in the future tense ending -f(a)idh is regularly pronounced [h], except in Teelin (On the development -f- -> [h] see O'Rahilly Irish Dialects Past and Present (1932, 222), Buachalla `The f-future in Modern Irish: a re-assessment,' Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 85 C (1985, 1-36), Dochartaigh Dialects of Ulster Irish (1987, 166-8) and Hughes `Gaeilge Uladh' (1994, 644). A notable exception is the idiom chfidh m t(h), where it is generally pronounced [f] (Hughes 1994, 644 and Baoill 1996, 47). The situation in other dialects is more complex; the `f' is generally pronounced [f] in Munster Irish; it is sometimes pronounced [f] in Connacht. In dialects of Ulster Irish where cha is used, the negative future is expressed by cha plus the present tense: chan fheicim I will not see. cha dtid s He will not go. The Prepositional Pronouns of and roimh The 3 plu of the preposition has the -fa ending we are familiar with from leofa and daofa: uafa uathu from them In the 3 sg f and 3 plu of the preposition roimh, the `m' is dropped in Donegal Irish: 3 sg f roipi (also rithe) roimpi before her 3 plu ropu rompu before them

Further Reading on Ulster Irish Hughes, Art. 1994. Gaeilge Uladh, in Stair na Gaeilge, ed. Kim McCone et al, 611-660. Mac Congil, Nollaig. 1983. Scrbhneoir Thr Chonaill. Mac Maolin, Sen. 1992. Cora Cainte as Tr Chonaill. Baile tha Cliath. Baoill, Dnall. 1996. An Teanga Bheo: Gaeilge Uladh (Institiid Teangeolaochta ireann).


CRSA CANNA: N OTES ON DIALECT VARIATION Corrin, A. 1989. A Concordance of Idiomatic Expressions in the Writings of Seamus Grianna. Belfast. Dochartaigh, Cathair. 1987. Dialects of Ulster Irish. Belfast. Grianna, Samus [`Mire']. 1976. Caislein ir. Baile tha Cliath. [available on tape, read by ine Nic Giolla Bhrde, Raidi na Gaeltachta, as part of the Focal ar Fhocal series; a study guide by Pl de Bhl, Caislein ir (Nta) helps with the idioms.] Searcaigh, Cathal. 1993. An Bealach 'na Bhaile / Homecoming. Cl Iar-Chonnachta [a selection from the work can be found on a cassette of the same title, issued by Cl Iar-Chonnachta in 1991].



Vowels a teach fear aisteach a: Sen nos fearr ama madadh tamall mac : t barr tharla

house man strange John better time (Gen.)

dog while son is top happened

eile seic meigeall : Samus brag far i sin fios cistin

other check goatee James lie grass that knowledge kitchen

e D beir te e: ire s maighdean i: mn naoi Sle

day catch hot Ireland he maiden smooth nine Sheila



o doras ocht ocras o: srn comhr leabhar bthar [: r go deo ag l

door eight hunger

nose conversation book road gold forever drinking

] muc thug cur u guth briseadh gasr u: c dar scrd Diphthongs ia Dia siad liath ua suas

pig gave putting voice breaking boy hound author exam

God they grey




trua fuar au Eabhrais cadhla cabhsa path Consonants p Pdraig pg stop cupa b bire bos gob i bpirc m Mire am i mbrg

pity cold Hebrew coil, rope

Patrick kiss stop, stay cup

p' posa corp cipn

piece body matches

match, contest palm of hand beak, mouth in a field

b' bic scream bris break ribe hair of strand i bpian in pain

Mary time in a shoe

t t alt cat

is article cat

f fan wait! phs married scrofa written

w a Mhire bhuail an bhfuil?

o Mary hit is there?



m' mire imirt im i mbrste f' fear feoil feic caife

merriment playing butter in trousers

man meat see! coffee

v' bh an bhfeiceann t? bhris seilbh t' te caint ite d do ard fada an dtugann n nta nire canna rann

was do you see? broke property

hot talk eaten to, for high long do (you) take? d' deas in airde sid an dtann? n' mo nire ceannach bean anuraidh h thuas mhothaigh shsaigh nice up high blow do (you) go?

note shame can poem

my shame buying woman last year

neamart neglect inn yesterday roinn department an ndanfaidh?will (you) do?

up above sensed satisfied





dh mo dhorn dhruid sa ghluaisten k carr mac acu ' sin gloine nigh m

two my fist closed in the car

x chuala mo chta amach a chara ng' rince in greim i ngleann inghreimim x' chor chlis cluiche an cheist

heard my coat out o friend dancing in the grip in a glen I persecute

car son at them

that glass I washed

combed jumped, started game the question

y gheall mo dheirfir faoi gheasa rghlic k' ceol ciin minic cic ng rang i ngluaisten i ngan fhios an ngoideann

promised my sister under a spell too smart

music quiet often kick class in a car in ignorance do (you) steal?



s sonas su suas gasr l l urlr calln geall L (l') caill cailleach

happiness sitting up boy

mla geal

bag bright

lenited L (l') ligh m I read ball member cailn girl r' Mire obair uimhir Doire g' g aige lig i gceann

day floor noise, clamour promise

Mary work number Derry

lose old woman goose at him let in a head

r rud carr seomra rith g gasta snag ar gcara s' sn leis briseadh

thing car room run

quick a catch, halt our friend stretch out! with him breaking

lenited l mo l labhair m

my day I talked


An Gm. 1994. Foclir Scoile. Baile tha Cliath. The Christian Brothers. 1980. New Irish Grammar. Dublin. Comhar na Minteoir Gaeilge. 1999. Teanga Bheo. Baile tha Cliath. Collection of poetry accompanied by audio cassettes [Teanga Bheo]. Cussen, Cliodna. 1987. Inniu an Luan: Rainn Bheaga n mBaloideas. Coiscim. Danaher, Kevin. 1977. `Calendar Customs and Festival Practices in Ireland', Literature and Folk Culture: Ireland and Newfoundland, ed. A. Feder and B. Schrank. St John's, Newfoundland, 111-128. de Bhaldraithe, Toms. 1959. English - Irish Dictionary. Dublin. Hughes, Art. 1994. Gaeilge Uladh, in Stair na Gaeilge, ed. Kim McCone et al, 611-660. Mac Dhonnagin, Tadhg. 2004. Imonn an tAm: Rogha Amhrn (CD). An Spidal. Mac Gabhann, Risteard. 1991. Crsa Closamhairc Gaeilge. Belfast. [Crsa Closamhairc] N Uallachin, Pdraign, and Garry Briain. 1994. A Str is a Stirn. Bile Atha Cliath [booklet and tape set]. Baoill, Dnall. 1996. An Teanga Bheo: Gaeilge Uladh. Institiid Teangeolaochta ireann. Cathasaigh, Roibeard, et al. 1998. Rabhla Rabhla: Rogha Rannta Traidisinta don Aos g (book and CD). Baile tha Cliath. [RR] Dochartaigh, Cathair. 1987. Dialects of Ulster Irish. Belfast. Dnaill, Niall, ed. 1977. Foclir Gaeilge - Barla. Dublin. Duilearga, Samas. 1977. Leabhar Shein U Chonaill. Dublin (=Sen Conaill's Book, tr. Mire MacNeill, Dublin 1981). [LSIC] Murch, Helen and Mirtn. 1999. Irish: Facing the Future / An Ghaeilge: a haghaidh roimpi. published by European Bureau for Lesser Used Languages. Dublin. O'Rahilly, Thomas F. 1972. Irish Dialects Past and Present. Dublin. Siadhail, Mchel. 1989. Modern Irish: Grammatical Structure and Dialectal Variation.


Cambridge. Tuama, Sen and Thomas Kinsella. 1981. An Duanaire 1600-1800: Poems of the Dispossessed. Mountrath, Portlaoise. [Duanaire] Oifig an tSolthair. Gramadach na Gaeilge agus Litri na Gaeilge: An Caighden Oifigiil. 1958. Baile tha Cliath. Wagner, Heinrich. 1958-69. Linguistic Atlas and Survey of Irish Dialects. 4. vols. Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies. Williams, Nicholas, ed. 1988. Cniogaide Cnagaide: Rainn Traidisinta do Phist. Baile tha Cliath. [CC]


A a (before a person's name etc) a (before a noun) a (before a verbal noun) abair baltaU bhar (m) ach 'achanU (<gach aon) dh (m) dh mr!U an Afraic (f) ag aghaidh (f) agus ainm (m) ainmh (m) aintn (f) aisteach aisteoir (m) aithne (f) a ln amach amrach amharc (ar), ag amharc (ar) amharclann (f) amhrn (m) anocht anois anseo ansin anuraidh aois (f) aon ar (+ lenition) ar ball ar bith ar buile ar chor ar bithU

vocative marker 3rd person poss. pronoun to say able subject but; (with negative) only every luck good luck, good bye Africa at, by face and name animal aunt strange actor acquaintance a lot out tomorrow looking, watching theatre song tonight now here there last year age one on, about soon at all angry at all

(n) noun; (gen) genitive case; (pl) plural; (vb) verb; (adj) adjective; (f) feminine and (m) masculine gender; U C/M superscript Ulster dialect forms (ditto for Connacht/Munster).


ar chl ar fad arn (m) rasn (m) ard arir ars ar arir as athair (m) athair (m) mr thas (m) B Baile tha Cliath baile (m) baile (m) mr, sa bhaile mhr abhaile, 'na bhaileU (< chun an bhaile) as baile sa bhaile bain sult as, ag baint suilt as bainisteoir (m) bainne (m) bairn breac (m) bn banaltra (f) barr (m) barraochtU beag bal (m) bean (f) bean (f) chile beannacht (f) beannachta (pl) Barla (m) beirt b'fhidir bheith bhuel b bia (m) bialann (f) blasta blth (m)

in the back complete(ly), entire(ly) bread apartment tall last night again night before last from father grandfather happiness Dublin village town, in town home, homewards out of town at home enjoy manager milk barmbrack (fruit loaf) white nurse top too much small mouth woman wife blessing, greeting greetings English two people maybe being (substantive verb) well be food restaurant delicious flower


bliain (f) an bhliain seo chugainn b (f) bocht bocsaU bruscair bolg (m) bomaite (m) bthar (m) bre an Bhreatain Bheag (f) an Bhreatain Mhr (f) Breatnach (n and adj) Breatnais (f) bricfeasta (m) briosca (m), briosca (pl) Briotanach (n and adj) an Bhriotin (f) Briotnach (n and adj) Briotinis (f) bris, ag briseadh bris isteach briste brste (m), pl: brst brg (f) brn (m) bronntanas (m) br (m) buachaill (m), buachaill (pl) buail, ag bualadh buail le, ag bualadh le buartha bu buochas (m) buochas le Dia! bun (m) bunchimeach bus (m) C c cad chuige cad U / caidU caife (m) cailc (f)

year next year cow poor waste paper basket stomach minute road lovely Wales Britain Welsh person or thing Welsh language breakfast cookie Briton, British Brittany Breton Breton language break break into broken pants shoe sorrow present hostel boy, lad strike, hit meet worried yellow thanks thank God! bottom, basis undergraduate bus where? why? what? coffee, caf chalk


cailn (m), cailn (pl) caint (f) ag caint faoi caith, ag caitheamh caithfidh cantalach caora (f) capall (m) cara (m) carr (m) carraig (f) cas ar a chile cat (m) cathair (f) cathaoir (f) c ceann (m) an ceann seo (m) canna ceannaigh, ag ceannach ceantar (m) ceap, ag ceapadh ceapaire (m) cearc (f) ceart ceart go leor ceathair ceathr ceol (m) ceol (m) clasaiceach ceol (m) traidisinta ceolchoirm (f) ceoltir (m) a chlog chomh le chomh maith chuig cileagram cinel (m) cinelta cinnte cionn is go cste (m) cistin (f)

girl talk (n) talking about spend, consume, throw must grumpy sheep horse friend car rock meet each other cat city chair who? head this one same buy area think, invent sandwich chicken right, proper right enough, allright four quarter music classical music traditional music concert musician o'clock asas (in comparison) as well to kilogram, kind, sort kind (adj) certain because cake kitchen


ciin clann (f) clr dubh (m) cliste cluas (f) cluiche (m) cluiche na bhfochupn cluin, ag cluinstin cn (m), pl cnnna ccaire (m) ag ccaireacht codladh (m) cipleabhar (m) cisir (f) col ceathrair (m), pl col ceathracha cna (m) cos (f) cosil, is cosil cta (m) crann (m) crochnaigh, ag crochn crochnaithe cro (m) cuid (f) cuid (f) mhr cig is cuimhin le cuir, ag cur cuisneoir (m) is cuma liom cpla ag cur bist ag cur sneachta crsa, pl crsa (m) D d ag damhsa daoine beaga/maithe dath (m), pl dathanna dathil de de ghnth deacair

quiet children blackboard intelligent, clever ear game saucer game hear nut, nuts cook cooking sleep notebook party cousin home foot likely, it is likely coat tree finish finished heart, darling portion a lot five remember put fridge I don't mind, I don't care a couple raining snowing course if (in conditional sentence) dancing the fairies colour handsome, pretty from usually difficult


dan, ag danamh dan deifir dan dearmad (ar rud) ag danamh staidir ar danta dearg dearthir (m) deas dea-scala deich deifir (f) deireadh (m) seachtaine deirfir (f) deoch (f) dh, an d dia (m) Dia duit Dia is Muire duit (response) dinnar (m) ag dol dom (f) dlodir (m) do (+ lenition) d dochtir (m) dite donn doras (m) dorcha drma (m) droch- (prefix) drochscal (m) druid, ag druidimU druidteU dubh dubh dite duine (m) diseacht (f) duit ag dul dul ag iascaireacht E , eisean

do hurry up forget (something) studying done red brother nice good news ten hurry weekend sister drink two (adj) god Hello (`God to you') Hello (`God and Mary to you') dinner selling disappointment lawyer to, for two (number) doctor burned brown door dark drama bad bad news close closed black sick and tired person, man waking state to you (sg) going go fishing he


eagla (f) an (m) earrach (m) eile Eilvis, an (f) ire (f) ireannach irigh, ag ir ironn le (impersonal) ist, ag isteacht (le) eitlen (m) eolas (m) F fada fadhb (f) faigh, ag fil filte romhat! t filte romhat falsa fan, ag fanacht (le) faoi (+ lenition) faoin tuath farraige (f) fear (m) fear (m) cile far (m) fearg (f) fearr (comparative of maith) feic, ag feiceil is fidir liom feirm (f) feirmeoir (m) feith, ag feitheamh feoil (f) fidil (f) fon (m) fionn fios (m) fliuch foghlaim, ag foghlaim fmhar (m) foscailU foscailteU

fear bird spring other Switzerland Ireland Irish person or thing rise, get up, become succeed in listen (to) plane knowledge long problem get welcome! you're welcome lazy wait (for) about, under in the country side sea man husband grass anger better see I am able, I can farm farmer wait, expect meat fiddle wine blond knowledge wet learning fall open open


fostaU an Fhrainc (f) Fraincis (f) freastla (m) fuar fuath (m) fuinneog (f) G gach an Ghaeilge (f) Gaeilge na hAlban (f) gaineamh (m) ag gire gairid gan gan mhoill gaoth (f) gasr (m) geal gealach (f) geansa (m) gearn (m) an Ghearmin (f) Gearmineach (n and adj) Gearminis (f) geimhreadh (m) glac, ag glacadh glantir (m) glan glan, ag glanadh glao (m); cuir glao ar X glas glasra glasta gloine (f) glin (f) gluaisten (m) gn (m) gnthach, gnitheachU go (prep.; prefixes `h' to vowel) go (before adj) go hannamh go fill

also France French attendant, waiter cold hate window every Irish language Scots Gaelic sand laughing short without soon wind small boy bright moon pullover (sweater) complaint Germany German German winter take duster clean (adj) clean (vb) call; call X (on the phone) green (as in vegetation vegetables dressed glass knee, generation car business busy to adverbial marker seldom yet


go minic go raibh maith agat go raibh cad/mle maith agat go dt gorm goid, ag goid gr (m) grian (f) grianmhar gna (m) H hata (m) I i (+ eclipsis) , ise i m'aonar i mbun i gceann i gceann tamaill i gcna i ndiaidh iad, iadsan iarchimeach iarsmalann (f) idir imigh, ag imeacht imir, ag imirt imn (f) in aice Indiach inon (f) inn inniu Iodileach Iodilis (f) iontach iontas (m) is (conj.) is (verb)is is igean do isteach ith, ag ithe

often thank you thank you very much to, up to, until blue steal love sun sunny dress hat in she by myself in charge of within in a little while always after they postgraduate museum between leave play (a sport) anxiety, worry near Indian (noun or adjective) daughter yesterday today Italian (noun or adjective) Italian wonderful; as adv.: very surprise, wonder and is (copula verb) must in eat


L l (m) labhair, ag labhairt lag lidir lmh (f) le (prefixes `h' to vowel) le anuas le chile le do thoil leaba (f) leabhar (m) leabharlann (f) lacht (f) lachtir (m) ag lamh leanbh (m) lann (m) Ceilteach leath leathuair ligh, ag lamh line (f) liath (m. noun and adj) lig do scth litir (f) ln (m) luch (f) lu (m) M m mac (m) mac linn (m), mic linn (pl) madadhU (m) maidin (f) maith mla (m) mar mar at mar mar gheall ar mar sin marbh

day speak weak strong hand with, by for (duration of time past) together please bed book library lecture lecturer reading child Celtic Studies half half hour read shirt grey, grey-haired relax letter lunch mouse lying, reclining if son student dog morning good bag as, like as it is because because of therefore, then dead


mthair (f) mthair (f) mhr m, mise meas (m) Meirice Meiricenach m (f) an mh seo chugainn milsen (m), milsein (pl) n miste liom mol, ag moladh mr mr millteachU muid, muidinne minteoir (m), minteoir (pl) N n n n b buartha 'na bhaile (=chun an bhaile) n dan dearmad ar n habair nire (f) naoi nia (m) nimhneach nos dana n nua Nua Eabhrac nuair O (+ lenition) am go ham shin obair (f) ocht ocras (m) g oche (f) Oche Shamhna (f) oifig (f)

mother grandmother I, me respect America, USA American (n or adj) month next month candy (sweets) I don't mind praise big great big, huge we teacher than; or do not don't worry (to) home don't forget don't mention it shame nine nephew sore later or new New York when from from time to time ago, since then work eight hunger young night Halloween office


l, ag l olc ollscoil (f) ollmhargadh (m) stn (m) P pacilte pipar (m) piste (m) Pras (m) peann (m) peann luaidhe (m) peil (f) pinteil pionta (m) posa (m) pldaithe plr (m) popcheol (m) post (m) psta prta rsta picn (m) R ag r ramhar rang (m) an rang (m) Gaeilge ritigh, ag riteach ag rince rith, ag rith rua rud (m) rna (m) S sa (<i + an) saibhir samhradh (m) saoiste (m) saor Sasana (m)

drinking bad university supermarket hotel packed paper child Paris pen pencil soccer painting pint a piece crowded flour pop music job married roast potatoes blindfold saying fat class the Irish class arrange, settle, get along with dancing run red-haired thing administrator in the rich summer boss free England


Sasanach (n and adj) ssta scamallach scannn (m) scartha scal (m) sciorta (m) scoil (f) scrobh, ag scrobh scrbhneoir (m) s seacht seachtain (f) an tseachtain seo chugainn sean seasamh (m) sasr (m) seinn, ag seinm seo seomra (m) seomra scoile (m) sibh, sibhse sin sine (< sean) singil an tSn (f) Snis (f) siopa (m) siopadir (m) ag siopadireacht sos na soga siil, ag sil slaghdn (m) sln sln! sln go fill! sl bheatha sliabh (m) snagcheol (m) ag snmh ag soilsi sona sona ssta

English person or thing content cloudy movie separated story skirt school writing writer six seven week next week old standing season play (music) this room schoolroom you (pl) that elder, eldest single China Chinese shop shopkeeper shopping down the fairies walk cold (n) healthy goodbye! goodbye! see you later! profession hill jazz swimming shining happy very happy


an Spinn (f) Spinneach (n and adj) Spinnis (f) spir (f) spirbhean speisialta go speisialta srid (f) srn (f) stbla (m) stad, ag stad ag staidar suas suigh, ag su sil (f) t sil agam ag sil le ag sil go mr le suim (f) t suim agam i suimiil T t tbhachtach tabhair, ag tabhairt tblaU (m) tae (m) taibhse (m), taibhs (pl) taisteal (m) taitnonn le tana tar, ag teacht te teach (m) teach listn teach tbhairne ag teacht teaghlach (m) teilifs (f) tigh, ag dul thall ansin thig le chfidh m th

Spain Spaniard, Spanish Spanish language sky dream woman special especially street nose stable stop studying up sit eye, expectation, hope I hope expecting looking forward to interest (n) I am interested in interesting am, is, etc (substantive vb) important give table tea ghost, ghosts travel pleases thin come hot house lodging house pub coming household television go over there is able I'll see you!


tinn tinneas (m) cinn tinneas (m) fiacaile tiomin, ag tiomint tiomna (m) tirim tost (m) tr (f) traein (f) traidisinta tr trir troid, ag troid trua (f) is trua , is trua sin t, tusa tuig, ag tuigbheilU, ag tuiscint tuirse (f) tuirseach tuismitheoir (m), tuismitheoir (pl) ts (m) U uachtar (m) reoite uaine (f. noun and adj) uair (f), uaireanta (pl) uaireanta uimhir (f) uisce (m) ll (m), pl lla uncail (m)

sick headache toothache drive driver dry silence beach train traditional three three people fight pity it's a pity you (sg) understand fatigue, tiredness tired parent beginning ice cream green (as in garments etc.) hour sometimes number water apple, apples uncle


FOCLIR BARLA-GAEILGE A able about above acquaintance, knowledge of person actor accent (n) he has an American accent administrator (US) address adolescent adult (adj) adult (n.) Africa after afternoon again against age ago agree with a lot allow, let almost alright also always America, USA American (n and adj) among and anger anger animal announcement, notice annoy, bother answer (vb) answer (n) answering machine anxiety, worry apartment (US) baltaU fU, faoi os cionn (+ gen.) aithne (f) aisteoir (m) blas (m) t blas Meiricenach air rna (m) seoladh (m) dagir (m) do dhaoine fsta duine fsta an Afraic (f) i ndiaidhU / tar is (+ gen) trthnna (m) ars in aghaidh (+ gen.) aois (f) shin aontaigh le, ag aont le cuid mhrU, a ln lig chir a bheithU, beagnach ceart go leor fostaU, freisin i gcna Meirice (m) Meiricenach (m) i measc (+ gen) agus, is fearg (f) ar buile ainmh (m) fgra (m) cuir as do freagair, ag freagairt freagra (m) glas (m) freagartha imn (f) rasn (m)


apple apple pie approximately architect area around around the area arrogant art artist as, like as ... as as well, in addition Asia ask at, by at all attendant, waiter aunt autumn B baby back (n) back (adv) bad bad news bag bank barmbrack be be able beach beautiful bed beer before beginning believe better between big bird

ll (m) toirtn (m) ll thart fU ailtire (m) ceantar (m) thart fU thart fn itU sotalach ealan (f) ealaontir (m) mar chomh ... le chomh maith an ise (f) fiafraigh de ag ar bith, ar chor ar bithU freastla (m) aintn (f) fmhar (m) leanbh (m), naonn (m) droim (m) ar ais olc, drochdrochscala mla (m) banc (m) bairn breac (m) b, bheith thig le, bheith balta tr (f) lainn leaba (f) beoir (f) roimh, sula (with verb) ts (m) creid, ag creidbheilU ag creidiint nos fearr idir (+ lenition) mr an (m)



biscuit(s), cookie(s) black blackboard blonde blue bone book boring boss bother, annoy Boston bottle bottom boy branch bread break breakfast Breton (n and adj) Breton language bright Britain British broken brother brown brush (n) hairbrush brush, sweep bus busy but butcher butter buy, buying by, next to by (authorship) C caf cake call camcorder

briosca (m), briosca dubh clr dubh (m) fionn gorm cnmh (f) leabhar (m) leadrnach saoiste (m) cuir as do Bostn (m) buidal (m) bun (m) buachaill (m), gasr (m) craobh (f) arn (m) bris, ag briseadh bricfeasta (m) Briotnach (m) Briotinis (f) geal An Bhreatain Mhr Briotanach briste dearthir (m) donn scuab (f) scuab gruaige (f) scuab, ag scuabadh bus (m) gnthach ach bistir (m) im (m) ceannaigh, ag ceannach cois (+ gen) le (prefixes `h' to vowel) caife cste (m) cuir glaoch ar, cuir scairt ar ceamthaifeadn (m)



camera car cat CD see compact disc cell phone Celtic Studies certainly chair chalk cheese change (n) change (vb) character cheers! chemistry chicken child children China Chinese language Christmas Christmas tree church cider (alcoholic) cider, apple juice cigarette cinema city city centre class classical music clean (adj) clean (vb) clever clock o'clock close closed clothes cloudy coat

ceamara (m) carr (m), gluaisten (m) cat (m) fn pca, fn siil an Lann Ceilteach (m) cinnte cathaoir (f) cailc (f) cis (f) briseadh athraigh, ag athr carachtar (m) Slinte! Slinte mhaith! ceimic (f) cearc (f) leanbh (m), piste (m) clann (f) an tSn (f) Snis (f) Nollaig (f) crann (m) Nollag teach (m) an phobail (Cath.) eaglais (f) (Cath./Prot.) ceirtlis (f) s ll (m) toitn (m) pictirlann (f) cathair (f) lr (m) na cathrach rang (m) ceol clasaiceach (m) glan glan, ag glanadh cliste clog (m) a chlog druid, ag druidimU; dn, ag dnadh druidteU, dnta cuid (f) adaigh scamallach cta (m)



coffee cold (adj) cold (n.) collect college color come come here compact disc compact disc player complaint completely, entirely computer, personal ~ computer game computer software concert condom contemporary content contraceptives cook cookie(s) cooking copy (n) copy (vb) country countryside, in the country country-western couple, a few couple (n) course cousin cousins cow credit card crosswords crowded culture current affairs D dancing dangerous

caife (m) fuar slaghdn (m) bailigh coliste (m) dath (m) tar, ag teacht goitseU; tar anseo dlthdhiosca (m) seinnteoir (m) dlthdhiosca gearn (an) ar fad romhaire (m); ~ pearsanta cluiche (m) romhaire bogearra romhaire ceolchoirm (f) coiscn (m) comhaimseartha ssta frithghininaigh ccaire (m) briosca() (m) ag ccaireacht cip (f) dan cip de tr (f) faoin tuath ceol (m) tuaithe cpla lnin (f) crsa (m) col ceathrair (m) col ceathracha b (f) crta (m) creidmheasa crosfhocail pldaithe cultr (m) crsa reatha ag damhsa, ag rince contirteach



dark (adj) daughter day dead degree (academic) undergraduate degree graduate/postgraduate degree department depressed dessert detective detective story delicious, tasty describe description desert detective difficult dinner disappointment dishes dissertation divorce divorced do doctor dog doll dollar done door down dozen drama, play drama, dramatic art dress (n) dress (vb) dressed drink (n) drink (vb) drive driver

dorcha inon (f) l (m) marbh cim (m) bunchim (m) ardchim (m) roinn (f) in sle (f) br milseog (f) bleachtaire (m) scal (m) bleachtaireachta blasta cuir sos (ar) cur sos fsach bleachtaire deacair, crua dinnar (m) dom soith trchtas (m) colscaradh (m) colscartha dan, ag danamh dochtir (m) madadhU/C (m); madraM (m) babg (f) dollar (m) danta doras (m) sos (direction), thos (location) dosaen (an) drma (m) drmaocht (f) gna (m) cuir ada ort glasta deoch (f) l, ag l tiomin, ag tiomint tiomna (m)



drug(s) drug abuse Dublin duster E ear earned eat economics egg (n) eight electric e-mail emergency exit empty end (n) in the end engaged (to be married) English enjoy entrance environment euro even ever every exactly exactly! exam excuse me exit (n) expensive extremely eye (n) F face (n) factory fair-haired fairies

druga() m-sid (f) druga Baile (m) tha Cliath glantir (m) clas (f) tuillte ith, ag ithe eacnamaocht (f) ubh (f) ocht leictreach romhphost (m) doras (m) alaithe folamh deireadh (m) sa deireadh geallta Barla (m) bain sult as, ag baint suilt as bealach (m) isteach an comhshaol (m) euro fi riamh (in past) choche (in future) gach, gach aon ('achanU) dreach go dreach scrd (m) gabh mo leithscal bealach (m) amach daor thar a bheith sil (f) aghaidh (f) monarcha (f) fionn, bn na soga, na daoine beaga, na daoine maithe



fail (vb) I failed the test fall, autumn falling in love farm (n) farmer fat father fatigue favour fear feel fence (n) fiction fiddle fight (vb) field (of grass) field (tilled) find (vb) finish (vb) finished fire (n) fish (n) fishing fitting, proper five flower flour fluent food foot for for (completed duration of time) for (ongoing duration of time) foreign (language etc.) foreigner forget fortnight found, establish four France free French person or thing

theip ar theip orm sa teist fmhar (m) ag titim i ngr feirm (f) feirmeoir (m) ramhar athair (m) tuirse (f) gar (m) eagla (f) braith; mothaigh cla (m) ficsean (m) fidil (f) troid, ag troid pirc (f) gort (m), cuibhreann (m) aimsigh; faigh crochnaigh, ag crochn crochnaithe tine (f) iasc (m) iascaireacht (f), ag ~ cir cig blth (m) plr (m) lofa bia (b) cos (f) do (+ lenition) ar feadh (+ gen) le iasachta coimhthoch dan dearmad (ar) coics (f) cuir ar bun ceathair an Fhrainc (f) saor Francach (m)



French language friend friendly from (a place) from, made of fruits full funny G game generally German (n and adj) German language Germany get, find get along with, agree with, s.o. get up ghost girl give glass glove go go on! good good luck! good luck, goodbye! good news goodbye government grandfather grandmother grass grey-haired greeting(s) group grumpy guidebook guitar gust

Fraincis (f) cara (m) cairdiil as; (+ lenition) de (+ lenition) tortha ln greannmhar

cluiche (m) go ginearlta Gearmineach (m) Gearminis (f) an Ghearmin (f) faigh, ag fil ag riteach le duine irigh, ag ir taibhse (m) cailn (m) tabhair, ag tabhairt gloine (f) lmhainn (f) tigh, ag dul lean ort, lean ar aghaidh maith go n-ir leat dh mr dea-scala sln rialtas (m) athair mr, seanathair (m) mthair mhr, seanmhthair far (m) liath beannacht (f), beannachta green glas (natural), uaine (other) dream (m) cantalach treoirleabhar (m) giotar (m) sobn (m)



H hair half and a half half hour half pint Halloween hand handsome, beautiful happiness hard harm (n) harp hat hate (n) he head (n) headache headphones health hear, hearing heart Hello! Hello! (response) here hip-hop hitchhiking home (n) at home home, homewards homework horrible horror movie horse hospital hostel hot hotel hour, one hour house household housework

gruaig (f), cuid (f) gruaige leath (f) go leith leathuair (f) leathphionta (m) Oche Shamhna (f) lmh (f) dathil thas (m), lchir (m) crua urchid (f) clirseach (f) hata (m) fuath , eisean, s ceann (m) tinneas (m) cinn cluasin slinte (f) cluin, ag cluinstin cro (m) Dia duit! Dia is Muire duit! anseo ceol hip hap dul ar ordg cna, teach sa bhaile abhaile, 'na bhaileU obair bhaile uafsach scannn (m) uafis capall (m) otharlann (f), ospidal (m) br (m) te stn (m) uair (f), uair an chloig teach (m) teaghlach (m) obair t (f)



how? how long? how much/many? hunger hurry (n) hurry up husband I I ice cream idea good idea ideology if in in a while in back of in front of information intelligent intend interest interesting internet international intersection interview into Ireland Irish Irish language is island Italian (n and adj) Italian language Italy J

cad marU conasM c chaoiC c fhad c mhad ocras (m) deifir (f) dan deifir fear (m) cile m, mise reoiteog (f), uachtar reoite (m) baril (f), smaoineamh (m) smaoineamh maith d-eolaocht d (with conditional verb), m (otherwise) i (+ eclipsis) i gceann tamaill ar chl (+ gen) os comhair (+ gen) eolas (m) cliste bheith ar intinn ag duine suim (f) suimiil idirlon (m) idirnaisinta crosbhthar (m) agallamh (m) isteach ire (f) ireannach (m) an Ghaeilge (f) is (copula), t (substantive verb) oilen (m) Iodileach (m) Iodilis (f) an Iodil (f)



jazz job journey K key keyboard kidding, teasing kind (n) kind (adj) kitchen knee knowledge (of place or expertise) knowledge of fact knowledge of person, acquaintance L last, endure, live last (adj) last month last night last week last year later laughing laughter lawyer leaf learn leave (intrans.), go away leave behind (trans.), lecture lecturer letter library life lift, ride like (prep) I like listen (to) literature local local people

snagcheol (m) post (m) aistear (m) eochair (f), pl eochracha marchlr (m) ag magadh cinel (m), srt (m) cinelta cistin (f) glin (f) eolas (m) fios (m) aithne (f) mair, ag maireachtil deireannach an mh seo caite arir an tseachtain seo caite anuraidh nos dana, nos moille ag gire gire (m) dlodir (m) duilleog (f) foghlaim, ag foghlaim imigh, ag imeacht fg, ag fgil lacht (f) lachtir (m) litir (f) leabharlann (f) saol (m) sob (f) cosil le is maith liom; t dil agam i ist (le), ag isteacht (le) litrocht (f) itiil muintir (f) na hite



look, watch looking forward to lose a lot love (n) I love, like I love (romantically) lovely London long luck lunch lying down M magazine make-up man manager map married marry maybe meat medicine meet meet with meeting melancholy mention mermaid mess microwave (n) middle milk mind (n) I don't mind/care minister (religious) minister (government) minute mistake mobile phone month

amharc (ar), ag amharc (ar) ag sil (go mr) le rud caill, ag cailleadh a ln, cuid mhr gr is bre liom t m i ngr le go bre Londain (f) fada dh ln (m) ag lu iris (f) smideadh (m) fear (m) bainisteoir (m) larscil (f) psta ps, ag psadh b'fhidir feoil (f) leigheas (m) cas ar, ag casadh ar buail le, ag bualadh le cruinni (m) lionn dubh (m), gruaim (f) trcht ar maighdean mhara (f) praiseach (m) micrethonnn (m) lr (m) bainne (m) intinn (f) is cuma liom ministir (m) aire bomaiteU (m) meancg (f) fn siil (m), fn pca (m) m (f)



moon morning mother mountain mouse mouth movie, film moving museum music music program musicals musician must N name (n) near need, lack (n) I need neighbor Nepal nephew new New York next to next month next summer next thing next week next year nice niece night night before last nine nose novel (n) now number nurse (n) nut

gealach (f) maidin (f) mthair (m) sliabh (m) luchg (f) bal (m) scannn (m) ag bogadh iarsmalann (f) ceol (m) clr (m) ceoil ceolra ceoltir (m) caithfidh ainm (m) cngarach do, in aice le dth (f) t ... de dhth ormU comharsa (f) Neipel (f) nia (m) nua Nua Eabhrac (m) in aice (le) an mh seo chugainn an samhradh seo chugainn an chad rud eile an tseachtain seo chugainn an bhliain seo chugainn deas neacht (f) oche (f) ar arir naoi srn (f) rscal (m) anois uimhir (f) banaltra (f) cn (m)



O o'clock office often old old-fashioned on once once or twice one (number) one (adj) this one only only one open (vb) open (adj) opera opinion what's your opinion? in my opinion or orange (n and adj) other out (going ~) outside (being ~) outside of over, across, past overseas P packed painter painting pants, trousers paper parent Paris party (social) party (political) pass, succeed I passed the test pc see personal computer pen

a chlog oifig (f) go minic sean sean-aimseartha ar (+ lenition) uair (f) uair n dh aon amhin an ceann seo ach (with negative) aon ... amhin foscailU, oscail foscailteU, oscailte ceoldrma (m) baril (f) cad do bharil?U dar liom (go) n oriste (m) eile amach (as) amuigh taobh amuigh de thar thar lear, thar sile pacilte pintir (m) ag pinteil brste (m) pipar (m) tuismitheoir (m) Pras (m) cisir (f) pirt (m) ironn le d'irigh liom sa teist peann (m)



pencil penny people (collective) people (sg) people (pl) perhaps person personal (adj) personal computer personally pet PhD, doctorate phone (n) cell phone phone number photo (n) photocopy (n) photography physics piano piece pig pint pity plan (n) plane plant play, drama (n) playing (an instrument) playing (a game or sport) please! plot (n) pocket (n) poem poet poetry politics poor pop music portion positive, certain post office

peann (m) luaidhe pingin (f) muintir (f) pobal (m) daoine (m pl) b'fhidir duine (m) pearsanta romhaire pearsanta go pearsanta peata (m) dochtireacht (f) fn (m) fn pca uimhir (f) fin grianghraf (m) ftachip (f) grianghrafadireacht (f) fisic (f) pian (m) posa (m) muc (f) pionta (m) trua (f) plean (m) eitlen (m) planda (m) drma (m) ag seinm ag imirt le do thoil! plota (m) pca (m) dn (m) file (m) filocht (f) polaitocht (f), crsa polatochta bocht popcheol (m) cuid (f) dearfach oifig (f) an phoist



postgraduate (adj) postgraduate student potato(es) pound praising pregnant present, gift priest print (in print, out of print) prize probably problem profession professor (B&I), full professor (US) professor (US) program proud (of) psychology pub, bar pullover purse put Q quarter quarter of an hour quiet R radio rain (n) raining raise, take read ready, finished reasonable reasonably recognize red red-haired refrigerator relax remedy (n)

iarchimeach mac linn iarchimeach (m) prta() (m) punt (m) ag moladh torrach bronntanas (m) sagart (m) cl (m) (i gcl, as cl) duais (f) is cosil, is dcha fadhb (f) sl (f) bheatha ollamh (m) lachtir (m) clr (m) brdil (as) sceolaocht (f) teach (m) tbhairne geansa (m) sparn (m) cuir, ag cur ceathr (f) ceathr (f) uair an chloig ciin raidi (m) bisteach (f); fearthainne (f) ag cur bist tg, ag tgil ligh, ag lamh ridh rasnta rasnta, measartha aithin, ag aithint dearg rua cuisneoir (m) lig do scth leigheas (m)



remember request (vb) research respect (n) restaurant retire retired rice right, proper right enough rise, get up road rock rock-music romance (novel) romantic affairs room rose run S sailor salt same sand sandwich say, tell school primary school secondary school, high school science Scot Scotland Scottish Scottish Gaelic sea season (n) secretary see seldom selling sensible separated

is cuimhin le iarr (ar), ag iarraidh (ar) taighde (m) meas (m) bialann (f) irigh as, ag ir as irithe as rs (f) ceart ceart go leor irigh, ag ir bthar (m) carraig (f) roc-cheol (m) scal (m) gr crsa gr seomra (m) rs (m) rith, ag rith mairnalach (m) salann (m) canna gaineamh (m) ceapaire (m) abair (le); inis (do) scoil (f) bunscoil (f) menscoil (f) eolaocht (f) Albanach (m) Albain (f) Albanach Gaeilge na hAlban (f) farraige (f) sasr (m) rna (m) feic, ag feiceil annamh ag dol ciallmhar scartha



seven shame (n) she sheep shining shirt shoe shop shopkeeper shopping shopping centre short shy sick silence (n) silence! sing (a song) singing single sister sitting six skirt sky sleep sleet small smart, clever smile smoking no smoking! snow snowing soap opera soccer sociology some sometimes son, boy song soon sore sorrow

seacht nire (f) , ise, s caora (f) ag soilsi line (f) brg (f) siopa (m) siopadir (m) ag siopadireacht ionad (m) siopadireachta gairid faiteach tinn tost (m) cinas! (m) abair amhrn, gabh amhrn ag canadh singil deirfir (f) ag su s sciorta (m) spar codladh (m) fliuchshneachta (m) beag cliste meangadh (m) ag caitheamh (tobaic) cosc ar thobac sneachta (m) ag cur sneachta sobalchlr (m) peil (f) socheolaocht (f) igin, inteachtU uaireanta, corruair mac (m) amhrn (m) ar ball, gan mhoill nimhneach brn (m)



sound Spain Spaniard Spanish (adj) Spanish language speak speech spices spoil sport sports program sports centre spring stable (n) standing star movie star, starlet stay stay there staying steal stereo, record player stomach (n) stop (vb) storm story straight strange street strong student studying stupid suburb succeed (in) I passed the exam sugar summer sun sunny supermarket swim

fuaim (f) an Spinn (f) Spinneach Spinneach Spinnis (f) labhair, ag labhairt rid (f) sposra mill, ag milleadh sprt (m) clr (m) spirt ionad (m) spirt earrach (m) stbla (m) ag seasamh ralta (f) ralta scannn, realtg fan, ag fanacht fan ansin ag stopadh, ag fanacht goid, ag goid seinnteoir (m) bolg (m) stad, ag stad stoirm (f) scal (m) dreach aisteach srid (f) lidir mac (m) linn ag staidar bmnta bruachbhaile (m) ironn le (i) d'irigh liom sa srd sicra (m) samhradh (m) grian (f) grianmhar ollmhargadh (m) snmh, ag snmh



sweep sweets Swiss Switzerland T table take talk (n) talking talk show tall tape tapedeck, tape recorder taste (n) tasty tea tea pot teacher tear (vb) telephone (n) television tell (a story) tell (someone something) ten tennis terrorist than thanks many thanks thank God thank you (sg/pl) thank you (sg) very much that that book that's it that's all theatre theology therapy there they

scuab, ag scuabadh milsein Eilviseach an Eilvis (f) tblaU (m), bord (m) glac, ag glacadh; tg, ag tgil caint (f) ag caint clr (m) cainte ard tip (m) tipthaifeadn (m) blas (m) blasta tae (m) pota (m) tae minteoir (m) stric, ag striceadh teileafn (m); guthn (m) teilifs (f) inis (sceal), ag insint (scil) inis (do); abair (le) deich leadg (f) sceimhlitheoir (m) n buochas (m) mle buochas buochas le Dia go raibh maith agat/agaibh go raibh cad/mle maith agat an ... sin an leabhar sin sin sin a bhfuil amharclann (f) diagacht (f) teiripe (f) ansin siad, siadsan, iad, iadsan



thick thief thin thing think (about) thirst (n) thirsty, dry I got thirsty this this one this year thought, idea three three people thriller (novel, film) throughout Tibet tidy, put in order tights tired I'm tired of it tiredness, fatigue to (a place) to (event) to, for to, in order to together tomorrow today tonight too (also) too (excessive) too much (n) tooth toothache toothbrush toothpaste top tourist translate translation tree

tiubh gada (m) tana rud (m) smaoinigh (ar), ag smaoineamh tart (m) tirim bhuail tart m an ... seo an ceann seo i mbliana smaoineamh (m) tr trir scinsir (m) ar fud an Tibid (f) ritigh, ag riteach riteoga tuirseach t m tuirseach de tuirse (f) go (prefixes `h' to vowel) chuig do (+ lenition) le (prefixes `h' to vowel) chun (+ gen) le chile, in ineacht le amrach inniu anocht fostaU; freisin rbarraochtU fiacal (m), fiacla (pl) tinneas fiacaile (m) scuab fiacla (f) taos fiacla barr (m) turasir (m) aistrigh, ag aistri aistrichn (m) crann (m)



tradition traditional music train train station travel trouble trousers truth turkey two (number) two (adj) two people U uncle under undergraduate undergraduate degree understand unemployed university until, up to up (direction) up (location) use (n) he used to... usually V vacation vegetables vegetarian very videocamera videotape video recorder visit vitamins voice W wait (for) wait a minute

traidisin (m) ceol traidisinta (m) traein (f) stisin traenach (m) taisteal (m) trioblid (f) brste (m) frinne (f) turca (m) d dh (+ lenition) beirt (f) (+ lenition) uncail (m) faoi (+ lenition) bunchimeach bunchim (m) tuig, ag tuigbheilU / ag tuiscint dfhostaithe ollscoil (f) go dt suas thuas sid (f) ba ghnch dU... de ghnth laethanta saoire glasra feoilsantir (m) an-, iontachU fscheamara (m) fstip (f) fsthaifeadn (m) cairt (f) vitimn guth (m) fan (le), ag fanacht fan bomaiteU/nimad (m)



waiter wake waking state Wales walk walkman wash waste basket watch (n) watch (vb) watching tv water we weak wealthy the web website wedding week weekend welcome, you're welcome well! well, healthy Welsh (person or thing) Welsh language wet Western (movie) what? when? when where? whiskey white who? why? widow, widower wife wind window wine; white / red wine winter with

freastala (m) disigh, ag diseacht diseacht an Bhreatain Bheag (f) siil, ag sil seinnteoir (m); dlthdhiosca pearsanta nigh, ag n bocsaU/bosca bruscair (m) uaireadir (m) amharcU/ fachM/ breathnaighC ag amharc ar an teilifs uisce (m) muid, muidinne lag saibhir an greasn (m) suomh grasin (m) bainis (f) seachtain (f) deireadh seachtaine (m) filte (f), filte romhat bhuel go maith Breatnach Breatnais (f) fliuch scannn (m) buachaill b cad ?U, caid?U c huair?U, cathain? nuair c, c hit? uisce (m) beatha bn c? cad chuige? baintreach (f) bean chile (f) gaoth (f) fuinneog (f) fon (m); fon bn / dearg geimhreadh (m) le (prefixes `h' to vowel)



without woman wonder, surprise wonderful work (n) work (vb) worker world worried write writer writing wrong Y year yellow yesterday yet yonder you (pl) you (sg) young

gan ((+ lenition) bean (f) iontas (m) iontach obair, cuid (f) oibre ag obair oibr (m) domhan (m) buartha scrobh, ag scrobh scrbhneoir (m) scrbhneoireacht (f) contrilte, mcheart bliain (f) bu inn go fill daU, d sibh, sibhse t, th, tusa g




The three forms listed for each verb are, in that order, the second singular imperative (`go!') which in Irish is the same as the verbal stem, the first person singular present tense (I go'), and the verbal noun (`going'), which is either masculine (m) or feminine (f). Irregular verbs are printed in bold. Superscript U (for Ulster) denotes an Ulster dialect variant. Regular verbs follow one of two conjugations. All monosyllabic stems take the first conjugation; all polysyllabic stems in -igh take the second conjugation. In the case of polysyllabic verbs which have a different ending, their conjugation has been indicated by a bold 1 or 2, followed by a letter A, B, or C to refer to subdivisions (based on Mac Congil 2004, 117f). Thus polysyllabic second-conjugation stems that syncopate (e.g. freagair) are marked 2B, and second-conjugation polysyllables that do not syncopate (e.g. foghlaim) are marked 2C.

adhlaic! adhlacaim; ag adhlacadh (m) 1C admhaigh! adhmam, ag adhmil (f) aistrigh! aistrm; ag aistri (m) aithin! aithnm; ag aithint (f) 2B aontaigh! aontam; ag aont (m) athraigh! athram; ag athr (m) athscrobh! athscrobhaim; ag athscrobh (m) 1C bury admit translate recognize agree change rewrite, copy, transcribe

bigh! bim; ag b (m) / ag bthadh (m)U 1A bcil! bclaim; ag bcil (f) 1B bagair! bagram; ag bagairt (f) 2B bailigh! bailm; ag baili (m) bain! bainim; ag baint (f) beannaigh! beannam; ag beann (m) beartaigh! beartam; ag beart (m) bic! bicim; ag biceadh (m) beir! beirim; ag breith (f) b! tim /t mU; a bheith blais! blaisim; ag blaiseadh (m) bog! bogaim; ag bogadh (m) breathnaigh! breathnam; ag breathn (m) bris! brisim; ag briseadh (m) brostaigh! brostam; ag brost (m) brigh! brim; ag br (m) 1A buail! buailim; ag bualadh (m) buaigh! buaim; ag buachan (f) 1A

drown (tr.) bake threaten collect, gather pick, extract bless, greet plan yell bear; take be taste soften; move observe, look break hurry; urge press hit win



cabhraigh! cabhram; ag cabhr (m) caill! caillim; ag cailleadh (m) cin! cinim; ag cineadh (m) caith! caithim; ag caitheamh (m) can! canaim; ag canadh (m) caoin! caoinim; ag caoineadh (m) cas! casaim; ag casadh (m) ceadaigh! ceadam; ag cead (m) ceangail! ceanglam; ag ceangal (m) 2B ceannaigh! ceannam; ag ceannach (m) ceap! ceapaim; ag ceapadh (m) ceartaigh! ceartam, ag ceart (m) ceil! ceilim; ag ceilt (f) ceiliir! ceiliraim, ag ceiliradh (m) 1C ceistigh! ceistm; ag ceisti (m) ciallaigh! ciallam; ag ciall (m) cor! coraim; ag coradh (m) cleachtaigh! cleachtaim; ag cleachtadh (m) clis! clisim; ag cliseadh (m) clbhuail! clbhuailim; ag clbhualadh (m) 1C clois! cloisim; ag cloisteil (f) clscrobh! clscrobhaim; ag clscrobh (m) cldaigh! cldam; ag cldach (m) cluin! cluinim; ag cluinstin (f) cnag! cnagaim; ag cnagadh (m) cniotil! cniotlaim; ag cniotil (f) 1B cnuasaigh! cnuasam; ag cnuasach (m) cirigh! cirm; ag ciri (m) comhlon! comhlonaim; ag comhlonadh (m) 1C cnaigh! cnam; ag cna (m) corraigh! corram; ag corra (m) cosnaigh! cosnam; ag cosaint (f) crigh! crim; ag cr (m) creid! creidim; ag creidiint (f)/creidbheil (f)U crochnaigh! crochnam; ag crochn (m) crith! crithim; ag crith (m) croch! crochaim; ag crochadh (m) crom! cromaim; ag cromadh (m) cruaigh! cruaim; ag cruachan (f) crigh! crim; ag cr (m) 1A cruinnigh! cruinnm; ag cruinni (m) cruthaigh! crutham; ag cruth (m) cuidigh! cuidm; ag cuidi (m)

help lose condemn; fine throw, spend, smoke, wear sing weep turn, twist allow tie, connect buy think, invent correct hide celebrate question mean; explain comb practise jump, start; fail print hear type(write) cover hear knock knit gather arrange, dress fulfil live, dwell move, stir defend; cost annoy, torment believe, think finish shake, tremble hang bend, stoop harden (tr. & intr.) milk gather, collect (tr. & intr.) form, shape, prove help



cuimhnigh! cuimhnm; ag cuimhneamh (m) cuir! cuirim; ag cur (m) cum! cumaim; ag cumadh (m)

remember put compose, shape

dealaigh! dealam; ag deal (m) dan! danaim; ag danamh (m) dearbhaigh! dearbham; ag dearbh (m) deimhnigh! deimhnm; ag deibhniu (m) abair! deirim; ag r (m) deisigh! deism; ag deisi (m) dol! dolaim; ag dol (m) drigh! drm; ag dri (m) diltaigh! diltam; ag dilt (m) digh! dim; ag d (m) 1A druid! druidim; ag druidim (f) / ag drudU disigh! dism; ag diseacht (f) dn! dnaim; ag dnadh (m) separate; subtract do, make swear, declare affirm; certify say fix sell; pay U straighten refuse, deny burn approach, close in on / closeU wake (tr. & intr.) close

eagraigh! eagram; ag eagr (m) alaigh! alam; al (m) irigh! irm; ag ir (m) ist! istm; ag isteacht (f) eitil! eitlm; ag eitilt (f) 2B arrange, organize escape, elope get up, rise listen fly, fllutter

fg! fgaim; ag fgil (f) faigh! faighim; ag fil (f) fan! fanaim; fanacht (m) fs! fsaim; ag fs (m) fach! fachaim; fachaint (f) / ag fachil (f)U feic! feicim; ag feiceil (f) fiafraigh! fiafram; ag fiafra (m) fill! fillim; ag filleadh (m) / pill! pillim; ag pilleadhU foghlaim! foghlaimm; ag foghlaim (f) 2C fgair! fgram; ag fgairt (f) 2B foilsigh! foilsm; ag foilsi (m) foscail!U see oscail! freagair! freagram; ag freagairt (f) 2B freastail! freastalam; ag freastal (m) 2C fulaing! fulaingm; ag fulaingt (f) 2C leave s.th. get, find wait, stay grow look; try see ask, enquire return learn announce publish open respond attend, serve suffer



geall! geallaim; ag gealladh (m) / ag geallstanU gearr! gearraim; ag gearradh (m) gill! gillim; gilleadh glac! glacaim; ag glacadh (m) glan! glanaim; ag glanadh (m) glaoigh! glaoim; ag glaoch (m) 1A goid! goidim; ag goid (f) goin! goinim; ag goin (f) gortaigh! gortam, ag gort (m) guigh! gum; ag gu (f) 1A

promise cut yield take clean call steal wound hurt, injure pray

iarr! iarraim; ag iarraidh (f) imigh! imm; ag imeacht (m) imir! imrm; ag imirt (f) 2B inis! insm; ag insint (f) / ag inseU 2B oc! ocaim; ag oc (m) iompair! iompram; ag iompar (m) 2B sligh! slm; ag sli (m) ith! ithim; ag ithe (f) ask for, want leave (intrans.) play tell pay carry lower eat

labhair! labhram; ag labhairt (f) 2B las! lasaim; ag lasadh (m) leag! leagaim; ag leagan (m) lean! leanaim; ag leanint (f) ligh! lim; ag lamh (m) 1A lim! limim; ag lim (f) lirigh! lirm; ag liri (m) lig! ligim; ag ligean (m) lon! lonaim; ag lonadh (m) litrigh! litrm; ag litri (m) luaigh! luaim; ag lua (m) 1A luigh! lum; ag lu (m) 1A speak light, burn knock down follow read jump explain, produce allow fill spell mention, cite lie, lie down


maraigh! maram; ag mar (m) / ag marbhadh (m)U39


In Ulster, maraigh takes an f-future / conditional, and in those tenses, the stem is pronounced as if it were written muir-: muirfidh s m; mhuirfeadh s m ( Baoill 1996, 144).



meall! meallaim; ag mealladh (m) meas! measaim; ag meas (m) measc! meascaim; ag meascadh (m) mill! millim; ag milleadh (m) mnigh! mnm; ag mni (m) mol! molaim; ag moladh (m) mothaigh! motham; ag moth (m) / ag mothachtilU mch! mchaim; ag mchadh (m) min! minim; ag mineadh [mu:nuU] (m) mn! mnaim; ag mnadh (m) muscail! musclam; ag muscailt (f) 2B

woo, entice think, estimate mix spoil explain praise hear; perceive, feel extinguish teach urinate wake, awake

nigh! nm; ag nigh (f) 1A wash

l! laim; ag l (m) oscail! osclam; ag oscailt (f) / foscail! fosclam; ag foscladhU 2B drink open

pacil! paclaim; ag pacil (f) 1B pioc! piocaim; ag piocadh (m) pligh! plim; ag pl (m) 1A pg! pgaim; ag pgadh (m) ps! psaim; ag psadh (m) pack pick dispute kiss marry

rab! rabaim; ag rabadh (m) ritigh! ritm; ag riteach (m) rith! rithim; ag rith (m) roinn! roinnim; ag roinnt (f) tear apart, rend solve, clear run divide

sbhil! sbhlaim; ag sbhilt (f) 1B samhlaigh! samhlam; ag samhl (m) scaoil! scaoilim; ag scaoileadh (m) scairt! scairtim; ag scairteadh (m) / ag scairtighU scrach! scrachaim; ag scrachach (f) scread! screadaim; ag screadach (f) / ag screadaighU scrobh! scrobhaim; ag scrobh (m) scrios! scriosaim; ag scriosadh (m) save imagine release call, shout screach scream write destroy



scrdaigh! scrdam; ag scrd (m) scuab! scuabaim; ag scuabadh (m) seas! seasaim; ag seasamh (m) sl! slim; ag sleadh (m) / ag silstin (f)U sn! snim; ag sneadh (m) snigh! snm; ag sni (m) siil! silaim; ag sil (m) smaoinigh! smaoinm; ag smaoineadh (m) / ag smaoiteamh (m)U socraigh! socram; ag socr (m) spreag! spreagaim; ag spreagadh (m) sroich! sroichim; ag sroicheadh (m) stad! stadaim; ag stad (m) stop! stopaim; ag stopadh (m) suigh! sum; ag su (m) 1A

examine brush stand think stretch sign walk think settle, arrange urge, inspire reach, arrive at stop stop, stay sit

tabhair! tugaim; ag tabhairt (f) taispein! taispenaim; ag taispeint (f) 1C taistil! taistealam; ag taisteal (m) 2C tar! tagaim; ag teacht (m) tarlaigh! tarlam; ag tarl (m) tarraing! tarraingm; ag tarraingt (f) 2C tigh! tim; ag dul (m) teip! teipim; ag teip (f) tiomin! tiominim; tiomint (f) 1C tit! titim; ag titim (f) tg! tgaim; ag tgaint (f) togh! toghaim; ag toghadh (m) tosaigh! tosam; ag tos (m) / toisigh! toism; ag toiseachtU troid! troidim; ag troid (f) tuig! tuigim; ag tuiscint (f) / ag tuigbheilU give show travel come happen pull go fail drive fall take, raise choose, elect begin fight understand

ullmhaigh! ullmham; ag ullmh (m) sid! sidim; ag sid (f) 1C prepare use

vtil! vtilm; ag vtil 1B vote




(Numbers refer to lessons in which material is covered) A haon is a d, caora agus b... (rann) #9 Ahem ahem! Anocht Oche Shamhna! (rann) #7 Aithnonn ciarg ... (seanfhocal) #10 A Nra Bheag (amhrn) #6 Aon, d, tr, fathach mr bu... (rann) #8 Bean Phidn (amhrn) #3 Bh nire ar Mhire (casfhocal) #6 Bonn an fhrinne searbh (seanfhocal) #10 Bonn sil le muir ach n bhonn sil le tr (seanfhocal) #10 Bonn gach tosach lag (seanfhocal) #10 Bonn silach scalach (seanfhocal) #10 Buail ar an doras... (rann) #8 Cad a thann suas... (tomhas) #10 Caithimid suas is suas... (amhrn) #8 C mhad pingin? (tomhas) #9 Carl na Nollag (amhrn) #10 Ceart dom, ceart duit (seanfhocal) #8 C h sin amuigh... (amhrn) #1 Cuireadh do Mhuire (dn le Mirtn Direin) #10 Danann neart ceart (seanfhocal) #10 Danann sparn trom cro adrom (seanfhocal) #10 Dh inn bheaga... (rann) #8 Dia do bheatha a Na anocht (Carl na Nollag) #10 Dnall ar meisce... (rann) #7 Dreoiln, dreoiln... (rann) #10 Drochubh, drochan (seanfhocal) #3 amonn an Chnoic (amhrn) #1 irigh suas a stirn (amhrn) #8 Fear an Phoist (dn le Tadhg Mac Dhonnchadha) #6 Giorraonn beirt bthar (seanfhocal) #10 I d'ige oscail do mheabhair... (rann) #8 Inis scal... (rann) #8 Inniu an Domhnach ... (rann) #7 Is binn bal ina thost (seanfhocal) #5 Is buaine cl n saol (seanfhocal) #2 Is fearr Gaeilge bhriste... (seanfhocal) #2 Is fearr rith maith... (seanfhocal) #3 Is leor don dreoiln... (seanfhocal) #10 Is maith an sceala an aimsir (seanfhocal) #5 Is maith liom bainne... (rann) #2



Is maith le Nra... (amhrn) #2 Is maith an t-anlann... (seanfhocal) #2 Is mr an rud gr... (seanfhocal) #2 Is trom an t-ualach... (seanfhocal) #2 Is an trua ghar nach mise... (amhrn) #3 Mair a chapail (seanfhocal) #? Mise agus tusa... (casfhocal) #1 Marbh le tae... (seanfhocal) #2 Molann an obair an fear (seanfhocal) #10 Na cait a bh ag Fionn Mac Cumhail (rann) #3 N dan ns... (seanfhocal) #8 Nl uasal n hseal... (seanfhocal) #8 Nl s amuigh ort... (tomhas) #4 Nl s ina l (amhrn) #5, #9 Nuair a bh m g... (rann) #9 Nuair a bhonn an braon istigh... (seanfhocal) #10 Nl ann ach mn an dreoiln (seanfhocal) #10 Oche chiin, oche Mhic D (amhrn) #10 Lnasa go Samhain... (rann) #7 L 'le Shan Sein go L 'le Mchl... (rann) #7 Pingin, pingin, dh phingin (tomhas) #9 Rtha Frinneacha na Bliana (rann) #7 Rtha Cama na Bliana (rann) #7 T an Deisceart go hlainn... (rann) #4 T m i mo shu d'irigh an ghealach (amhrn) #5 T mo chleamhnas danta (amhrn) #9 T sicn ina seasamh... (casfhocal) #5 Tarraingonn scal scal eile (seanfhocal) #10 Tir abhaile 'ri (amhrn) #4 Tic, toc an gcluineann t m? (rann) #10



(Numbers refer to lessons in which material is covered) activities #5, #8 appearance #4 body parts #3 Christmas #11 classroom #1 colours #3 countries & languages #5, #7 daily routine #10 directions #8; going somewhere (chuig; go; go dt) #9 illnesses #4 days of the week #7 family #3, #9 farmyard animals #2 feelings #4 food #2, #9 greetings #1; in a letter #8; Christmas ~ #11 Halloween #7 house #6 introductions #1 knowledge (factual; personal; expertise) #5 languages & countries #5, #7 letter writing #8 likes and dislikes #2 loanwords #1 names (first ~) #8 numbers 1-10 #9, #10 professions #3, #7 terms of endearment #8 Thanksgiving #9 time of day #10 vacation #11 weather #5



(Numbers refer to lessons in which material is covered) adjective: predicative use #4-#5 attributive use, with masculine/feminine noun #2 prefixed adjectives #2 adverb go maith #4 article, definite #2 aspect & direction #8 copula: classification #1 identification #3 dative case #6 days of the week #7 dental rule (prevention of lenition when d/t/s is preceded by `n') #2 directions #8 eclipsis (ur) #3 emphatic pronouns and particles #1 imperative #8 lenition #2 noun: feminine & masculine #2 vocative case #8 dative case #6 numbers #9, #10 past participles #5 prefixed adjectives: droch-, sean- #2 prefixed intensifyers: an-, for-, r-, iontach #4 prefixing `h' #2 prepositional pronouns: le #2; ar #4; ag, i #5; do, de #8; chuig #9; , roimh #11 present progressive #5 pronouns: independent ~ #1 emphatic ~ #1 possessive ~ #3; t m i mo shu #5; t m i mo mhac linn #7 prepositional ~ #2 (le), #4 (ar), #5 (ag, i), #8 (do, de), #9 (chuig), #11 (, roimh) simhi (lenition) #2 substantive verb: present tense #4 past tense #6 future tense #7



present habitual #10 time of day #10 ur (eclipsis) #3 verb: present tense #10 past tense #9 present habitual #10 present progressive #5 future tense, #11 perfect tense with past participle #5