Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 331

..

.: - 2001 267.


1. .............................................................................................................7
1.1. ............................................................................................................................7
................................................................................................................ 7
...................................................................................................................... 9
- ......................................................... 10
1.2. ......................................................................................................10
1..................................................................................................12
2. .........................................................................................................................13
2.1. .............................................................................................................13
.................................................................................... 15
............................................................................................................. 15
2.2. ..............................................................................................16
...................................................................................... 16
(cutoff wavelength) .............................................................................. 20
.................................................................................................................................. 23
.................................................. 27
........................................................................................... 28
........................................................................................................... 29
....................................................................................................... 30
.................................................................................... 33
2.3. ......................................................................................35
..................................................................................... 35
.............................................................. 39
2.............................................................................................................................46
3. ...............................................................................................47
3.1. ................................................................................................................47
................................................................................................................... 47
..................................................................................................................... 49
, , .................................... 54
......................................................................................................... 55
SC............................................................................................................................................... 55
ST ............................................................................................................................................... 56
FC............................................................................................................................................... 56
I ............................................................................................................................................ 57
.................................................................................................................. 58
........................................................................................... 58
() .................................................................................................... 59
................................................................................................ 59
3.2. ........................................................................................................60
.............................................................................. 62
3.3. ..............................................................................................................64
(tree coupler) .............................................................................. 65
(star coupler) .......................................................................... 65
(tap)...................................................................................................................... 65
, ......................................................................... 66
3.4. WDM ...................................................................................69
WDM ............................................................ 70
WDM ...................................................................... 72
3.5. ..................................................................................................................73
......................................................................................... 73
........................................................................... 74
.......................................................................................................... 74

3.6. .................................................................76
............................................................................................................................ 76
.................................................................................................... 77
................................................................................... 78
3.7. .............................................79
............................................................................................................. 79
....................................................................................................................... 80
() ............................................................. 80
()............................................................................. 84
-............................................................................................... 84
............................................... 86
................................................................................................................. 87
.................................................... 88
................................................................ 90
3.............................................................................................................................91
4. ....................................................................93
4.1. .......................................................................................93
.................................................................... 93
........................................................................................................ 94
....................................................................................................................... 95
........................................................................................................... 97
....................................................................................................... 99
4.2. ...........................................................................................99
................................................ 99
...................................................................................... 101
...............................................................................104
.............................................................................................................. 108
............................................................................................. 110
4.3. .......................................................................................111
............................................................................................................. 111
............................................................................................................. 111
............................................................................ 113
........................................................................................................................114
4.4. EDFA ..............................................................................................119
........................................................................................ 120
- ............................................................................. 121
4...........................................................................................................................122
5. ....................................................................................................................124
5.1. .................................................................................................................124
FDM................................................................................ 124
................................................................... 125
() ................................... 131
........................................................................................ 133
5.2. .....................................................................................134
.............................................................................................................. 135
.............................................................................................................. 136
ISDN.................................................... 141
.25 ........................................................................................................................ 142
Frame Relay ........................................................................................ 143
Cell Relay.............................................................................................. 144
.............................. 144
5.3. OSI .................................................................................................................145
IEEE 802 .............................................................................................................. 147
5...........................................................................................................................148

6. FDDI ........................................................................................................................................149
6.1. ........................................................................................................................150
6.2. FDDI..................................................................................................152
6.3. ............................................................................................................154
FDDI........................................................................................................... 157
6.4. .......................................................................................160
OBS............................................................................................ 161
OBS ..................................................................................................................... 163
6.5. PMD............................................................................................164
MMF-PMD, SMF-PMD TP-PMD.................................................................... 165
PMD ....................................................................... 166
....................................................................................................... 167
................................................................... 169
6.6. PHY ................................................................................................................................169
............................................................................................................ 170
............................................................................... 170
.................................................... 174
................................................................................................................. 176
........................................................................................................... 177
................................................................................................................ 178
6.7. MAC ...............................................................................................................................178
................................................................................................................... 179
................................................ 180
................................................................................. 184
6.8. SMT .......................................................................................................................185
.......................................................................................... 185
RMT .................................................................................................... 186
, F ............................................................ 187
FDDI...................................................... 187
................................................................................................. 190
6...........................................................................................................................192
7. Ethernet/Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet..................................................................................194
7.1. Ethernet.................................................................................................................................195
Ethernet ........................................................................................................... 195
.......................................... 197
CSMA/CD .............................................................................................................. 200
IEEE 802.3 ....................................... 205
AUI........................................................................................................................................................206
7.2. Ethernet ............................................................................................206
AUI Ethernet................................................................................. 206
FO/M.....................................................................................................................................................208
Ethernet UTP (10Base-T/10Base-FL, 10Base2/10Base-FL) ........ 208
, ............................................................................................. 209
()................................................................................................. 210
............................................................................................................................. 213
7.3. Ethernet .........................................217
Ethernet ( 1) ....................................... 217
Ethernet ( 2) ....................................... 218
7.4. Fast Ethernet .........................................................................................................................222
Fast Ethernet.................................................................................... 222
Fast Ethernet ................................................................................. 223
Fast Ethernet................................................................................................ 226
7.5. Fast Ethernet .................................227
FX .........................................................................................................................................................228

/ .........................................................................................................230
7.6. Ethernet....................................................................................................................231
7.7. Gigabit Ethernet ( IEEE 802.3z 802.3ab) ........................................................232
Gigabit Ethernet .............................................................................. 233
............................................................. 236
MAC ......................................................................................................................... 239
............................................................................................................ 240
................................................................................................... 241
...................................................................................................................... 241
7.8. Ethernet ...............................................................................243
7...........................................................................................................................250
8. ..........................................................................................................253
8.1. ...........................................................................................253
8.2. ..................................................................................255
DWDM ...................................................................................................... 255
DWDM................................... 259
8.3. EDFA..............................................................................262
EDFA ........................................................................ 263
EDFA ........................................... 269
EDFA.......................................................... 270
8.4. WDM/TDM ...........................................................................................................274
........................................................................................................... 275
............................................................................................................. 276
SDH....................................................................................... 276
........................................................................................ 277
8.5. ...........................................................................................................277
- 22 ( 22) ...................................................................... 278
nn .............................................................................................. 279
................. 281
8.6. .................................................................................................................284
8.7. ..........................................................................285
SMWL ...................................................................... 287
............................................... 288
8.8. AON ......................................................................................................290
AON .................................................................................................... 290
AON ..................................................................... 293
AON ....................................................................... 293
8.9. AON ......................................................................................................298
................................................................ 299
........................................................................ 300
8.10. AON ......................................................................................................................301
8.11. AON........................................................................304
8...........................................................................................................................306
9. ............................................................................................................309
9.1. ....................................................................................310
............................................................. 311
- ............................................................................ 313
" " .......................................................................... 314
" " ......................................................................................... 314
9.2. HFC ......................................................................................................................................315
802.14....................................................... 315
....................................................................................... 316
.................................................................................... 316
................................................................................... 317

......................................... 317
9.3. Homeworx...................................................................................................319
....................................................................................................... 319
........................................................................................ 320
Homeworx ...................................... 323
....................................................................................... 325
Homeworx ............................................................... 326
9.4. DV6000......................................................327
9...........................................................................................................................330

1.
1.1.
- () - ,

, " ". - ,
- .
-
, ,
, ,
.

.
,
.

-
1014 [].
.
-
.
.

0,2-0,3 1,55
.
100 [4].
-

.
.
,
-
, (
, ..).

, .
. - ()

. , 900-
7,5 , 0,1 .
"" ,

1,5 ,
[5, ]
.
,
, -.
( ) ,
,
"" .
,
( , )
,
[7].
, ,
.
-
.
.
.
"" , ,
,
, ,
. ,
. .
- . -

,
,
.
. ,
, ,
, .
2:5.
.
.
4000 (
) 10
/ [8].
.
. ,
. ,
, ,
25 .
/ - .
.
.
. ,

,
. ,
.

, -
, -
.

- .

.
.
.

,
-, ,
.
. ,
-
. ,

.

, .
. ?
. , ,
1 (109 /2) [9]. , ,
, 125
1 . , . ,
, , ,
.
,
, (kevlar1).
,

. .
-
,
,

-
, , . 1.1.
, (),
, , , ..,
, - ()
.
,
.
.

. ,
,
.

1.2.

( )
( ) .
"" ""
.
LED
ILD.
.

.
.

.
p-i-n
, c.

, ,

,

.
.
,
.
, ,
.
,
.

, ,
.
. ,
.
,
.

- .
- .
,
.
,
, .

, . ,
,
, .
, ,
. , ,
.
1. , ,
, ,
.
- .

.
2. ,

.

( 4-8). ,

- .
- ().
( ,
)
2-10 . ()

.
( , ) .

.

1
1. . . Green. "Optical Networking Update", IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in
Communications, vol. 14, no. 5, June 1996, pp. 764-779
A. W. Pollack. "Speed Record: One Trillion Bits a Second", D2 The New York Times,
March, 1-st, 1996
2. - : / .. , .
, . . - .: , 1994. - 160 .
3. . Mariani. - . 2000- , 76-80
- . 1-2, .: "",
1994 - 112 .
4. . . . : /
. - .: "", 1996. - 84 .
5. -
: / . . . . - .: , 1996. 200 ,
6. J. Hecht. Understanding Fiber Optics, Sams Publishing, 1993. - 477 p.
7. X. Li. "Soliton-Based Optic Fiber Systems", WPI EE535 Telecommunications and
Transmission Technologies Course Homepage, April, 1996, http://bugs.wpi.
edu:8080/EE535/hwk96/hwk5cd96/li/li.html
8. W. Hioki. Telecommunications, 2nd ed.,Prentice Hall, 1995. - 501 p.

2.
2.1.
,
,
.
: MMF | (multi mode fiber)
SMF (single mode fiber).
(step index multi
mode fiber) (graded index multi mode fiber).

(step index single mode fiber) SF (standard fiber),
DSF (dispersion-shifted single mode fiber),
NZDSF (non-zero dispersion-shifted
single mode fiber)
. 2.1.
. ,
,
.
.
,
.
.

.
(. 2.1 , ),
,
, . 5 ,
, ,
.

, , -
, .
.

(. 2.1):
50/125 (. 2.1 );
62,5/125 (.-2.1 );
SF (
) 8-10/125 (. 2.1 );
DSF 8-10/125 (. 2.1 );

NZDSF (

).
2.1.

MMF 62,5/125
MMF 50/125


DSF
SF (NDSF)

NZDSF


(Ethernet,
C
(Ethernet,
,
,

(Ethernet,
Fast/Gigabit
Fast/Gigabit

FDDI, Fast/Gigabit
Ethernet,
FDDI, Ethernet,
SDH,ATM),
Ethernet,
FDDI, (SDH,ATM)
ATM)
ATM)

ATM),

SDH)


800 1600

: 850, 1310 1550 , . 2.8 [1].



.

(50/125 62,5/125)
50 62,5 ,
.
- - .
850 1310
.

(SF)
8-10 .
>CF (>CF - )
( ).
1310 1550 .

.
1310 ,
.
. 0,3-0,4 /,
0,2-0,25 / 1550 .
(DSF) ,
, -
0 - 1550 .
, . 2.1 .
,
, .

100 . ,
1550 .
NZDSF
DSF ,
( )
" " , -
.

,

(EDFA). EDFA

1530-1560 .
NZDSF, DSF,
,
.

,
: SF - 1310 , DSF 1550 , NZDSF -
1530-1560 . , , 15301560
SF.
SF , NZDSF,

.
-w
(, ), -
(, , ,
).
2.2.
,
, , :
; ; .

.
.
, , . 2.2.
n1 n2 ,
. , ,
- :
(2-1)
=(n21-n22)/2n21

,
.
n1 n1eff.

,
:
n1sin1 = n2sin2,
(2-2)
n1 - 1, 1- , n2 -
2, 2 - .


( ),
(n2 =const).
. 2.2 .
(n1 > n2),
C - ,
(2 = 90).
:
(2-3)
C =arcsin(n2/n1).

( 2),
, .
( 1),

.
,
, .
, .

. , ,
NA. A
,
,
:
NA = sin A
(2-3)
- 9

.
,
:
NA = n12 n22 = n1 2
( 2 5)

NA( r ) = n12 n22 = n1 2 ,
0 .

, (2-10),
,
NAEFF = n12 (0) n22 / 2
( 2 6)
n1(0) - .
. ,
,
V,
V=dNA/
(2-7)
d - .
.

. ,
- - .
/ n m (nm nm). n ( ), a m - ( ).
: (m m),
, ()
(nm nm), . ,
Z,
EHnm,
Z, nm.
, , m m
, nm nm -
[10].
-
, - .

, , .

: V < 2,405 (
I0(), [1, 2]).
H11. , .
. 2.2 ,
(2-7).
. 2.2,
1550 (2-8),
. 1310 ,

. , , , ,
, .
-.
.
. , 850
(2-8) . ,
850 ,

. .
, 8/125
: 1310 1550 ,
.
2.2.
V

()

n1
NA
1550
1310
850
(%)
Step MMF 200/240
0,39*
V=158,09 187,06 288,29
Step MMF 100/140
0,29*
58,77
69,54
107,18
Grad MMF 62,5/125
2,1**
1,47**
0,28**
35,46
41,96
64,67
Grad MMF 50/125
1,25**
1,46**
0,20**
20,26
23,98
36,95
Step SMF (SF) 8,3/152
0,36**
1,468** 0,13**
2,187
25,88
3,990
: step MMF (multi mode fiber) - ; step
SMF (single mode fiber) - ; grad MMF -
; * - [3]; ** - ,
Corning [4]

. V < 2,405
, V ,
"" V ,
. 2.3.
2.3.

V
0-2,405
2,405-3,832
3,0832-5,136
5,136-5,52
5,52-6,38
6,38-7,02

NM
1
4
7
9
12
14

7,02-7,59

17

7,59-8,42

19


11
11, 01, 01, 21
11, 01, 01, 21, 12, 11, 31
11, 01, 01, 21, 12, 11, 31,
11, 01, 01, 21, 12, 11, 31,
11, 01, 01, 21, 12, 11, 31,
51
11, 01, 01, 21, 12, 11, 31,
5113, 12, 31
11, 01, 01, 21, 12, 11, 31,
5113, 12, 31 41, 61

21, 41
21, 41 02, 02, 22
21, 41 02, 02, 22, 31,
21, 41 02, 02, 22, 31,
21, 41 02, 02, 22, 31,

V Nm
:
2
2
1 2 1 d
1 d 2
(2 8)
Nm = V =
NA = ( n1 n22 )
2
2
2
, .

.

:

n1 [1 2 ( r / a ) 2 ]1 / 2 , 0 r a
n( r ) =
n
arb
2

(2-9)

( - , b - ) :
2
1 d 2
( 2 10)
N m = (n1 n22 )
2
. 2.3
: , ,
.

(cutoff wavelength)

,
, .
.
, .
-
, .
(F)
(CF). .
,
. ,
-. CF
F.
.
,
.

- (2-7), (2-8) (2-9) F


=dNA/2,405= 1,847dn1 .
CF F, .
F CF
(transmitted power method) [5, ].

2 ,
.
P ( )
Am ( ) = 10 lg S

( 2 11)
Pm ( )
m- ; Ps - ;
m - .
.

, . m(), . 2.4,
(1).
(2), (1) 0,1 .
(2) m() .

TIA/EIA
CCITT [1, 2, ]. ,
- 2.
- 200 ; 0,20;
10 , ;
1000 1600 10 .
F
2 ,
140 , . 2.5 .
, 140 .
,
(2-7), .

CF
22 .
, 140 ,
. 76
1
-, . 2.5 . , ,
, 140 .

2.5. : ) F; )

:
. ()
,
.
, :
; ; .

,
, . 2.6.

. 2.6.

( /)
:
(2-12)
=int + rad + =abs + sct + rad
abs
( ), ,
. ,
, ( )

.
, . 2.7.
1480 , -.
.
.

.
1,6 - ,
, . 2.7.
sct. 1970
(99,9999%),
.
800 1,5 /.
.
.
, , .
.
.
- 4
, . 2.7.

. 2.7. , 1500
( Corning Optical Fiber, [7])

,
, 1550

.
:
= rel - 4 + OH () + Ce- k/,
OH ()
1480 ,
(REL= 0,8 4/; = 0,9 /;
k = 0,7-0,9 ; ). . 2.8

(
850, 1300 1550 , 1480 )
.

. 2.8.
() rad ,
,
, , .

20% .
,
,
.

,
,
.

v=c/, - (3*108 /). ,
dv/d= - c/2 , , 0 ,

: =/ 20. 0= 1300 = 200 , v=35


(35*1012 ) , 0=1550 = 200 , v=25 .

1550 ,
0,2 /, . 2.8. ,
25 / ,
.
,
.
.
- WDM. WDM
(
- ),
( ). ,
- .

.
- DBR - 0,1 . ,
0,8 1530-1560 ,
EDFA,
40 - 40 .
10 / [8].
- TDM,
TDM 100
, 4 / ( 40 ) [9].
. ,
, .

,
. ,
,
.
, .
- -

2
tin2 [10].
L ( L) = tout
1 , /.
, :
(
mod),
(
w),

( mat).

,
. :
(2-13)
2 = 2mod + 2chr = 2mod + (mat + W)2.


, (. 2.3 ,
).
(2-9)
:

L - ( 5 ,
- 10 ).

, .
,
. L > Lc ,
.
2
. .

, ,

.
, ,
. W
[1]:
W = 0,44 /
(2-16)
*.
,

. W -
( )
1 . ,
.


,
.
- .

.

:
d 2 n1
mat ( , L) = L
= L M ( )
( 2 17)
c d2

[1]:
2n 21
wt ( , L) = L 2 = L N ( )
( 2 18)
c
() N() -
, () -
.
D() = ()
+ N(). /(*).
,
, .
, ( 1310 10
) ()
(), D() . ,
, 0.
,
0 .
Corning
.
1 .

(800-1600 MMF, 1200-1600 SF DSF)
,
( 2 ). , ,
, .

(Sellmeier, [4]): () = + -2 +
-2. , , , ,

(), . 2.10.
:
D()=/=2(B+C-3)=S0 (-04 /3)/4,
(2-19)
0 = (/)1/4 - , S0 = 8B ( /2 .), , - ,
.


() = +B+C..ln,

D()=/=B+C+Cln=0 S0 ln(/0),
(2-19)
0 = -(1+/) S0 = C/ 0, -
, 0 - , S0 - .

chr() = D()., -
.
, ( = 2 ),

. . 2.4
.
2.4.

MMF
50/125

850
1310
1550
850
1310
1550
1310

MMF
62,5/125
SF

,
/
mod
4141)
414
414
9733)
973
973
0

, /( )
D()
99,63)
1,0
19,2
106,74)
4,2
17,3
< 1,8


, *,
W=0,44/
=2 =4 =35
958
766
125
1062
1062
1050
1058
1044
540
441
414
114
452
452
450
451
450
384
>120000
61000
6900

8/152
DSF
8/125

1550
1310
1550

0
0
0

17,5
21,2
<1,7

12600
10400
>120000

6300
5200
65000

720
594
7400

,
- / - ,

.
. 2.4.
2.1. Ethernet .
10Base-FL
20 . = 35 (850 )
50/125 125
4 31 , 20 . ,
, 4
.
, 3 /,

. Ethernet 10Base-FL
2
( 62,5/125,
), -
Ethernet ( = 50 ).
2.2. FDDI .
FDDI PMD 4/5 125
. = 35 (1310 )
62,5/125 450 ,
2 225 , 125 , ,
, 2 ,
FDDI PMD .

( 62,5/125) ,
1310 (450 = 35 , 452 = 2
),

. , 1310
.
2.3. Fast Ethernet .
100Base-FX FDDI
4/5 125 . = 2
(1310 )
8/125 120000 100
1200 , 125 . , ,
100 ,
. 25

0,4 /
62,5 .
, 1550 .
25 ,
0,25 /, 100 .
= 2 (1310 )
8/125 12600 .
100 126 ,
Fast Ethernet. .
=2 ,
DSF.

(SF),
, = 1 .
2.4. 622 / (STM-4)
. 622 / 8/10,
778 . =
0,1 (1550 )
8/125 252000 (1260020)
100 2520 , 778 . ,
, , = 0,1 (1550 )
100 ,
.
2.5. - 100
DSF.
= 0,1 (1550 ) DSF 8/125
2400 (20 120000 )
20 120 , 100 . ,
, 20
. -
100 / ,
.

pmd -

.
1 (/()), pmd
pmd=TL .
2pmd (2-13). - pmd
,
( 2,4 /
) 0,1 .

.


, -
. ,
, , .
2.11 . ,

, . 2.11 .

pmd,
,
,
. ,
.
(>2,4 /) - pmd
.

()
, .

.
2.6. L0 , chr
pmd ,
T = 2 /(),
=0,5 / ,
=0,05 .
chr =DL pmd =TL, L0 =(T/D)2
=25 . L > L0
, L < L0 , , .

(>100 /) .
2.7.
Lmax
W=100 , ,
,
= 1,0 /.
(2-16) : pmd =TL<0,44/W.
Lmax =(0,44/WT)2=(0,44/(100109110-12))2 . =0,5/ 77 .

-
0,5. , ,
.
2.3.


: Corning Optical Fiber, Lucent Technologies Alcoa
Fujikura. , .
,
. ,
,
. 2.5.
2.5. [12]

I/I
I/I-455-78
I/I-455-59
I/I-455-62
I/I-455-170
I/I-455-175
I/I-455-113-122
I/I-455-164
I/I-455-176
I/I-455-176
I/I-455-176
I/I-455-173
I/I-455-178
I/I-455-31
EIA/TIA-455-28
I/I-455-111
EIA/TIA-455-60
EIA/TIA-455-89
EIA/TIA-455-3
EIA/TIA-455-72-73
EIA/TIA-455-74-75
EIA/TIA-455-67-70
EIA/TIA-455-76
EIA/TIA-455-97

I
IEC 793-1-1
I793-1-1
I793-1-1
IEC 793-1-
I793-1-7
I793-1-5
*
I793-1-9
I793-1-2
I793-1-2
I793-1-2
IEC 793-1-A3
I793-1-6
IEC 793-1-1
I793-1-2, 2
*
IEC 793-1-1
*
I 793-1-D1
*
*
*
I793-1-7
IEC793-1-B7D

* IEC


- 62,5/125 50/125, , . 2.12 .

.
2.12 .
. 2.6
50/125 62,5/125.
, 1300
850 .
. , ,
.

. 2.12. :
) 50/125 62,5/125;
)
2.6.

MMF50/125 MMF 62,5/125


850 (/)
2,4
2,8
1300 (/)
0,5
0,6
850 (/)
2,5
3,0
1300 (/)
0,8
0,7
850 (*)
400
200
1300 (*)
800
400
1297-1316
1332-1354
, 0 ()
, S0 (/(2*))
0,101
0,097
, d ()
50,0 3,0
62,5 3,0
, NA
0,200 0,015 0,275 0,015

-60- +850 -60 - +850
-60
0,2
0,2
+85 850 1300 (/)
-10
0,2
0,2
+85, 98% 850 1300
(/)
, ()
1100-4400
1100-8800
()
125,0 2,0
125,0 2,0
3,0
3,0
()
()
245 10
245 10

5%
5%

(/2)
neff
850
neff
1300

0,7
1,4897

0,7
1,5014

1,4856

1,4966

-
(2-14), (2-15)
,
. D()
1300 (0) , 850
100 /(2).
,
,
~ 50 ,
~ 2 . ,
850
.
,
.

1310 1550 ,
.

, ,
, :
SF (
, . 2.13 ), DSF (. 2.13 )
NZDSF.

1310 1550 ,
.
, , ,

, .
- .
(WDM) 1550
. , ,
,
,
.

[13].

. 2.13.
:
) ( );
) ( )

SF. 80- 1550



1300 .
SF (. 2.13 )
.
1310 ,
1550 .
DSF.
1550 ,
. 80-
DSF,
1550 , .
DSF .

EFDA,
. , (
90- ) ,
(1550 ), ,
( ,
),
.
DSF
WDM.
DSF WDM ,
,
( 0).
- ,
.
,
, . -
,

, 0 , ,
( ) .
NZDSF 90-
DSF,
. - ,
,
.
DWDM .

. 2.14. 1550

- , ,
: TrueWave Lucent Technologies [14]
SMF-LS Corning [15, 16].
. TrueWave
1523 ,
SMF-LS
1560 , . 2.14. 1998 Corning
- - LEAF [15].
TrueWave, SMF-LS LEAF
2.7.
2.7. NZDSF :
TrueWave [141 SMF-LS, LEAF 151

LEAF
TrueWave.
1 .
1550 .

2 , ,
, .

,
D
(STM-16 2,4 / STM-64 10 /)
WDM.
(Lucent,
MIT, Fujitsu .)
32 ,
40 / ,

( 16 2,4 10 /) .
,
2,4 10 /
.
, ,
, , .

, -
. TDM , - ,
,
. [17]:
DCF (dispersioncompensating fibers). ,
SF,
DCF
,
.

;

(0,1 ),
;
NZDSF, ""
1550 ,
,
, ,
( )
.
SF
90 ( 2,4 /).
,
, 140
, . 2.8 .
,
.

2,4 10 /. - ( 120-140
) 2,4 /
-
- 10 / .

(
70 ).

SF DSP
, NZDSF
. SF DSF , SF
, . SF 1550
,
(,
DFB ).
SF,
DSF NZDSF . 2.8 , .
2.8.

) 2,5 / ()

) 10 / ()

* - ,
.
: - , - , , - , ASE -
(amplified spontane-ousemission), 4-wave mixing -
, SPM - (self-phase modulation)

1. - : / . 3. , . .
, . , - .: , 1994. - 160 .
2. . , . .
, .: , 1973. - 832 . (. 777-781)
3. J. Hecht. Understanding Fiber Optics, Sams Publishing, 1993. - 477 p.
4. Corning Optical Fiber Information Center, Engineering Handbook, 1994 - 1995
5. 11-455-80 (FOTP-80). Cutoff Wavelength of Uncabled Single-Mode Fiber
By Transmitted Power, Method
6. EIA/TIA-455-170 (FOTP-170). Cable Cutoff Wavelength of Single-Mode Fiber By
Transmitted Power, Method B, Configuration 2
7. W. Hioki. Telecommunications, Second edition, Prentice Hall, 1995. - 501 p.
8. J. Hudgings, J. Nee. "WDM All-Optical Networks", 1996, http://wwwbsac.eecs.berkeley.edu/~jnee/ee228a/
9. All-Optical Networking Consortium - WDM Slide Presentation, 1996,
http://www.ll.mit.edu/aon/WDMSIide3B.html
10. - : / . .
, . -, . . . - .: , 1993. 264 .
11. What is PMD? Understanding Polarization Mode Dispersion, Corning TPD Library, 1994-1998, http://pro.corningfiber.com/library/nv1072.html
12. EIA/TIA-455-A. Standard Test Procedures for Fiber Optic Fibers, Cables,
Transducers, Sensors, Connecting and Terminating Devices, and other Fiber Optic
Components (A series of fiber optic test procedures, EIA-455-1 through EIA-455190.), (ANSI/EiA/TIA-455-A-91) (Aug.,1991)
13. . Fuerst. "Optical Layer Planning Requires Flexibility", Lightwave, October 1997. pp. 50-51
14. TrueWave Single-Mode Optical Fiber, Lucent Technologies, 1997,
http://www.lucent.com
15. Corning SMF-LS CPC6 Single-Mode Dispersion-Shifted Optical Fiber, Product
Information, 2/1995; Corning LEAF CPC6 Single-Mode Dispersion-Shifted
Optical Fiber, Product Information, 2/1998
16. M. A. McDonald, "Conventional Single-Mode Optical Fiber and Dispersion-Shifted
Optical Fiber Designed to be Different", Corning TPD, Library-UTC, 1995
17. G. F. Wildeman, C, Weinstein. Dispersion-Shifted Optical Fibers Adapt to Network
Capacity
and
Data
Rate
Changes
(R1052),
Corning,
1997,
http://pro.corningfiber.com/library/

3.


, , , , ,
, , ,
.., ,
-
.
.
- ,
, ,
,
- .

, .
- ,
-
. : -
( ) ,
, .
.
, ,
, .
( , connectors)
/.
.
3.1.


[1], . 3.1.
:
, . 3.1 .
- ,
. ,
.
-, .
,
,

.
.
.


: (coupling), . 3.1 .
(ferrule).
,
-
, , 3.1 .
.
2,5 .
() .
, ,
, .
126 +1/-0
127 +2/-0 .
(. 124, 125, 126, 127 )
. ,
, .
( ),
( ).
.
:
, ,
, ,
,
.

. 3.1. : ) ; ) ;
)
: 1 - ; 2 - -; 3 ; 4 - ; 5 - ; 6 ; 7 - (); 8 -
; 9 - ; 10 - ; 11

{ )
D D = out / in, a = - 10lgD= -10lgPout / Pin [], in out
.
.
,
(in).
.
out. (
), 0,3 0,5
. :
.
,
( ),
, ,
, /
.
.
, .
,
.
,
.
, .
-

F == - 101g(4n1n2 / (n1+n2)2) [], n1
n2 - ( ).
.
, ,
NA1, , NA2,
NA == - 10lg(NA2/NA2)2 []. NA1 <NA2 .
,
,
aD = 2
10lg(D2/D1) [], D1 D2 - ,
. D1 < D2 .
62,5/125 50/125.
50
62,5 .
.
-
50
. 50/125 62,5/125,
(

). 62,5/125 50/125,
(50/62,5) ,
1,94 . ]
.
, (50
), (62,5 ).

, , 62,5/125,
ANSI/T1A/EIA-568A [2].
|
,
. ,
FDDI (PMD), Fast Ethernet (100-FX)
11
2 . , 3
/, - 0,5 ,
62,5 50 , 2,5 ,
(2 )/
.
( 16 )
,
.
- ,
,
. :
( , L,
S); ;
, . 3.2.

. 3,2. [3]: )
; ) ; )
; ) -
, L S
(. 3.2 , , ) [1, 4]:

a = 10 lg1
(3 1)
[ ]
arcsin NA

4 L
a L = 10 lg1
[ ],
D

( 3 2)

a S = 10 lg[1 /(1 + 2( S / D )tg[arcsin( NA / n0 )])] 2 [ ],

(3 3)

NA - , D - , L , S - , - ,
.
, ,
(
), - ,
(. 3.2 ).

.
-
, ,
, . 3,3.

. 3.3.

:

, ,
.
F= - 10lgDF= - 10lg(2n1n2/(n12 +n22)) [], n1 -
(1,5), , n -
, . 3.3. (n=1) 0,35 .
, , ,
.
0,3-0,4
. , ,
.

PC, Super PC, Ultra PC, APC

,
. , ,
,
,
. , ,
.

, , .

,
( 1 ) ,

, , , .
,

.

. R R=Pr/Pin
, b b = 10lgR = 10lg(Pr /in) [], r -
. (
) ,
.
( 0 ) (
) .
, ,
S ( )
.

n1 - ( ), n (. 3.3).
.
, RF + DF = 1, .
S
. ,
, bF = - 101g(RF) = - 101g((n1-n)2/(n1
+n2)) []. n1 =1,5 n=1,0 -11 .
S ,
. . ,
.
,

, , .
. 3.1
.
3.1,
(n1=1,5; n=1,0; . 3.3)

S/, (S/<0,1)
,
.

, (physical contact, PC)
[5]. ? ,
.
,
, ,
, , 3.4 . , = 0,05
1 (
2,5 ).
, .4 .
,
: PC < -30 ; SuperPC < -40 ; UltraPC < -50 .
. 3.1 , .
R PC- 15
25 .
, ,
(,
).

() (angled PC, APC), . 3.4 .
, ,
,
.
,
, , .3.4 .
APC -60 , -75 .

R APC 5 15 .
PC ,
=1 - 2
.
80,
-70 .
,
.
,
, -
120 [].

. 3.4. : ) ; )
- (PC); )
- (APC)
- APC
.
HFC, ( 1 /
) APC.

. ,
.
, ,

. 5001000 .
0,2 .
, .
. ,
, ( , )
, .
, .

.

. ,
.
, ,
.

.
, ,
.
.

: Biconic, D4,
D-hole FC, FC, SC, MIC (FDDI), ESCON, SMA, ST, - .
SC, ST FC.
, SC
(. 3.2).
3.2.

SC

SC, NTT,
, ,
.
SC, . 3.5 . (push-pull) -
. SC
(mm), (sm) .
. 3.5 ) SC. SC Duplex SC, , , Duplex SC, . 3.5

, . Duplex SC
. ISO I
Duplex SC .
4 SC 4SC, . 3.5 .

. 3.5. SC: ) SC; ) Duplex SC; )


SC; ) Duplex SC; ) 4SC
( ): SC:
SC; Duplex SC: Duplex SC
SC; 4SC: SC.
SC . 3.3.
ST

ST (. 3.6 , ) , SC.
- , .
ST ,
. ST mm (Ethernet).
Ethernet
(-FL). ST ,
.
ST . 3.3.

. 3.6. ST: ) ST; ) ST (


); ) ST
FC

FC (. 3,7 , ) 80-
. , SC ST (2,5 ).
.
, SC. ,
, SC,

. FC ,
SC. . 3.7 .
FC . 3.3.

. 3.7. FC: ) FC; ) FC (


); ) FC
3.3. FC, SC, ST

: SMF - , MMF ~ ,
D - SMF (8-10 ), FLAT - , PC , SPC - , UPC - , .
I

MIC (media interface connector)


FDDI, . 3.8.
Duplex SC. ,
MIC, ,
(, , Master, Slave).
, FDDI.

- ,
. ,
( , ), (
), ( ).
.
: ST - Duplex SC MM 50/125 5.
50/125 5,
Duplex SC, - ST.
- :
;
;
( -).
. 3.9.

. 3.9. : a) ST-ST; ) SC-ST


.
, .
- ,

.

, ..

,
: (
/ ),
.

,
3 900 (tightbuffer).
ST, FC, SC
1 [7].
()

, ,
, . - ,
,
250
-1 .
( )
) . ,
, < 0,2
< -50 , [7, 8].
.

- , , ,
, ,
-

,
, , .
,
, ,
.

. , -
.
() ,
, ,
, . ,
, ,
(
)
.

( , ,
,
). ,
.
: .
, .
: Seiko
Instruments, , , Amphenol, Molex, ADC Telecommunications.
()
" ". ,
- Seiko Instruments (90% ).

"-", " ", "
".
.
,
(, ).
3.2.

(fusion splicing)
,
.
, V-
.

S,
. ,
,
,
, .
V-
(V-groove)
, . 3.10.

. 3.10. Vgroove:
) ;
) / ;
)

V-groove:
(cladding diameter distribution);
/ (core/clad concentricity);
(fiber curl) - .
V-groove
125,01,0 , , Bellcore
TR-20 1994 .
1,0
/, 0,8
[10].

. ,
, -.
,

.
,
(
- ).
,
.


. ,

.
.
, .
.

(. 3.4)
- .
3.4.








.

. , ,
, . ,

.


.

.

,
. ,
.

0,05 0,1 ,
[9].
-
, .

, V-groove.
- ,
,
( 4
12 ). , ,

. () , , Vgroove.
,
V-groove.
- (36,72,144).

: .
(< -70 ),
, - .
, .


n/n < 0,001. ,
, .
, ,
.
. ,
-- ,
, , ()
.
-, , ,
. . ,

. , , ,
,
,
-
.
( ) . 3.11 .

(MFD, mode
field diameter). ( ),
MFD , . 3.11 .
-
MFD.
, --
MFD 9,3 0,5 0,04 .

. , ,
.
, ,

.
, ,
. ,
. , ,
, ,
.

.

. 3.11. [9]: ) -
; )

, ,
, ,
. ,
:
,
, .

Fujikura - FSM-30S Sumitomo Electric Industries Type-35SE.
3.3.

,
, (coupler,
splitter).
- ,
(all-optical networks).
.

, ,
,
[1].
,
, .

, , ,

.
;
; ; .

(tree coupler)


, (. 3.12 ).

. n m,
n - ( n = 1), m -
, .

2 32.
.
.
.
(star coupler)


.
.
22 44.
,
, - , . 3.12 .

.
(tap)

- ,

, .3.12 . 12, 13, 14, 15, 16,
18, 116, 132. ( 50%)
() ,
. .

. 3.12. : ) ; )
; )
,

. 3.12 , :
i - , i (,
d);
i,j - , j
i (, 1).

.
(insertion loss)
,
.
ains(i,j) = - 101g(Pi,j /Pi) .
i, j
, i = , j = 1.
,
.
,
, bdir (i,j) = 101g(Pi,j
/i) . i, j , i = 2, j = 3, i
= , j = (. 3.12 ). ,
. i, j

, , . 3.13 . ,
, . ,
.
.
bbs (i) = 101g(Pii /i) . ii i

.
.
-
i- (, 3.13 ).

.

.
( )
.

. 3.13. : ) , )


. nn
,
2n2n. 44 (. 3.12 ) . 3.5.
3.5. i,j,

,
4.

6,6-6,9 ,
- .

:
6,9 ;
( (6,9 ) (6,6
) ) 0,3 ;
-48,5 ;
-46,2 .

aexe (i ) = 10 lg ( Pi , j ) / Pi ,

j

i, a
. -
.
(passband) - ,
. ,
. ,
,
(achromatic).
35 .
.
(splitting loss) - , ,
.
(1n) n ,

, SL= - 101g(l/n).
- ,
. , 44 SL =
6,02 ( ).
(splitting ratio) ,
. ,
,
(
), ,
100% .
. 3.6 ,
- , ADC Telecommunications.
3.6.
[11]

3.4. WDM

() WDM - WDM

MUX
()

DEMUX ( )
- -
.

, MUX
DEMUX . WDM
,
, , . 3.14.
WDM 90- .
1310 1550 .
1550
WDM
, 1550 .
.
EDFA.
(pass-band), EDFA
/ (1530-1560 ),
. DWDM (dense
wavelength division multiplexer) - WDM 1,6 . WDM
WDM ,
.
, .
4, 8 16.
32.

. 3.14.

WDM

WDM .
.
(. 3.15 ) WDM
( ) -
, . 3,15 . WDM

. , . 3.15 .
1, 1 (. 3.15 ),
3 (common). , ,
1 2.
, . 3.15 , , 100%

1, 1 .

WDM .
.
, WDM
. .
NEXT (near-end crosstalk directivity)
,
1, 2,
2, , 1, 1 (. 3.15 ).
FEXT (far-end crosstalk,
isolation)
. , 1, 3
(common), (. 3.15 ), FEXT - ,
1, 2, 2.

. 3.15. WDM: )

;
)
;
)
/
WDM /
n / 1, 2, ..., n,
1, 2, , n, /
(com) , . 3.15 . 1:n.
:
Pi(k) - k, i;
i,j(k) - k,
j, , k
i (ij);

Pii(k) - k,
i;
Pi,com(k) - k, , , k
i;
:
Pcom(k) - k , -;
Pcom,j(k) - k,
j, , k
- (jk);
Pcom,com(k) - k,
-;
Pcom,k(k) - k,
k (), ,
k -.
bNEXT, bFEXT ,
bNE bFE
:

aNE

FE

WDM 1:n n
( ),
(n + 1)(n +1).
WDM 1:2 . 3.7.
3.7. ai,j () WDM 1:2

WDM

WDM ,
, 70
(1310, 1550, 1625 ).

1310/1550 ,
. 1550/1625
1625 .
WDM DiCon
. 3.16 .
: 1310/1550 ; - (.
3.15 ), (. 3.15 )
(. 3.15 ); -60 ; -40
( 1) -20 ( 2);
1,0 0,7 ( 1 2 ); 55 ; Corning SMF-28;
( 0 3 ,
900 ), .
WDM

1,6 ( 0,8 ) 70 .
, ,
. : EDFA,
"add/drop", .
3.5.

, ,
, ,
.
. ,
, ,
, . ,
(>100 ),
( -
1 ). ,

(, WDM , ),

.
.
, ()
.
, ,
.

-

.
=VBZd, V -
(Verdet) - , ,
, Z -
, d - - .

. ,
.
.

.
, ,

: ~ -2.

: 1 (
), 2 3 ( ), .
3.17. , ,
, 45.
.
, 1,
,
, . 3.17 .
2, 45
3.
(. 3.17 )
3, , 2,
. ,
1 90, 1
.

, ,
(~ 1-2 )
( )
(>30 ). ,
,
. 1,3-1,55 , , Y3 Fe3 O12. 0,85
.

. 3.17. : )
; )
; ) ()
, EOT (ElectroOptic Technology), OFR (Optical For Research, Inc.) . 3.8.

. ,
.
,
1
.

.
- , .
, ,
, ,
,
.
.
3.8.

:
DiCon [13], FOCI [14], FiberPlex.[19], Shinkosha [20].

3.6.


.
, .
.

.
.

0-20
0,5 .
.

, 0, 5, 10, 15 20 .

, ,
[7, 26].
, ,
.
: -,
-,
-FM
.
-
(ST, SC FC).
.
- (
), (
). -FM , . 3.18,
,
5, 10,15 20
( ,
).

. 3.18. -FM SC

- MFC ,
,
. ,
8
FC/APC SC/APC.

,
,
, .
,
, , .
.
- ,
, (,
, FDDI).
:
- ( ),
,
, : ,
, , ,
.
, , ,
. - .
:
1xN - ,
N , . 3.19 ;
2xN - ,
2, . 3.19 ;
2xN - ,
-
, . 3.19 ;
2xN - ,
1, . 3.19 .

. 3.19.
FDDI 8- (4 4 )
OBS (optical bypass switch),
: 1-1,
2-2, 3-3, 4-4;
: 1-2, 2-1, 3-4, 4-3.

. -

,
,
25 500 .
DiCon Fiberoptics
100,
(RS-232, RS-485). . 3.9
.
3.9. [13]

: ,
DiCon, Fibertron, JSD Fitel, Molex, NetOptics.



.

. ,
-
. , ,
, ..
,

- ,
. . 3.20.

. 3.20. : )
10 ( NK Cables); ) (
" ")

PLP [21], Lucent


Technologies, Siemens, NK Cables (Nokia) [22].
3.7.

( ) ,
, , -
( ).
.
.



, /,

.
:
; ,
(pig-tail-);
.

,
, , . 3.21 .

.
pig-tail-
pig-tail-.
Pig-tail -
, . .
o , . 3.21 .
,
, , .

.
(, -).

( ), . 3.21 .
. ,

. 3.21. : ) ; ) pig-tail-; )


, . ,
.
,
.

.
(), ()
.

. ,
- ,
(-) .
,
. ,
, - .
:
; .
()

,
,
. ,
-
,

.
- pig-tail-.
ADC
Telecommunications, AMP, Optronics, Telect, AT&T,
.
, : "-",
" ", " ".
: ,
, .
()

, . 3.22.

pig-tail-.
(. . 3.2.
), . Pig-tail
, .
pig-tail-
(). Pig-tail- ,
.

. 3.22.
: 1 - ; 2 - ; 3 -
; 4 - ; 5 - -; 6 - ; 7 - ; 8
- ; 9 - pig-tail-a; 10 - pig-tail-a; 11 -


SC mm SC mm, - FC sm, SC sm.

.


, , ,
.
- , ,
. . 3.23
.

. 3.23.
()
19". ,
- .
.
. . 3.24
. . 3.24 ,
-.
.
. 3.24 ,
. -,
, -
.
.

. 3.24. : ) 24 -
; ) 72- ,



, . 3.25. ,
, ,
,
. ,
, .
,
. ,
.
,
, .

. 3.25.

()
.
, .

. .
SFET,
ADC Telecommunications [23].
( ),
91,4 81,3 33,2
,
11,3
/,
14 (7+7) / 14 (7+7)
,
144
( ) SC, FC, ST, D4
SFET
-
.
.

()


(>100)
.
,

. :
- ( 120-500)
() - ( >500).

.
. 3.10
.
3.10.

: - ; ; - ; -

: ;
ADC Telecommunications; Lucent Technologies; Molex; Nortel; Reltec; Siecor; Telect.

.
,
SDH/ATM. ,
.
, .

, " " "all-optical networks".
-

:
(interconnect) - (cross-connect).

()

, ,
, , . 3.26 .
, ,
.
.
,
.
, ,
,
,
. ,
,
, . ,

.
, - ,
.
- (),
, ,
,
,
. (-)

, . 3.26 .
-
. -
:
1.
;
2. ( ) ,
, -
(
,
);
3. -
.

. 3.26. -

, -
, , ,
,
.

,
.
.
,
,
. ,
- ,
.
, ,
, . -
,
, . 3.27.

. 3.27.


.
.

: ,
; ;
; .
, . ,
,
. ,
.
,
5 .
, , , ,
.
.

, . 3.28.
1.
( 1).
2.
1.
.
.
4.
( 3).
5.
3.
.
.
7.
,
( 2, 3).
(logistics)
, ,
() ,
.. ,
-
.
~
.

, , .
.

,
.

,
.

. 3.28.

,
- .

FiberBase ADC Telecommunications [24] OSP InSight Advanced
Fiber Optics [25].


" -
. ,
,
- . ,
?
. 3.11
ADC Telecommunications - :
F3DF,
TMDF.
3.11.
ADC [26, 27]


H x W x D (3)


F3DF
214x58/77* (c
)30
SC, Angled SC, FC, D4, ST,
Duplex SC, MIC (FDDI)
576**
(8 72
./)


FMDF
SC, Angled SC, FC, Angled
FC
576
(12 FTB*** 72
./)

1728

2592

60

214 x 66 x 61

12, 13, 14, 15, 16


( SC PC, FC
PC, SC, 80 Angled SC, FC,
80 Angled FC)
* - 58 77 .
** - ,
, - ( ) .
***- FTB (fiber terminal bl)
.

( VAM)

12, 13, 14, 15, 16


( SC PC, FC PC,
SC, 80 Angled ST)

FMDF F3DF -
(60 8) .
F3DF , ,
. , 8-
() 5 .
FMDF , 6
, .

. 3.29. FMDF
FTB 72


. 3.30.

. 3.30.

.
1, 2,
3.
,
, ,
4.
,
5.
6, - 7. -
6 8 .
.
1.

2. 3,
.

1. - : / . .
, .. , P.M. . - .: , 1993. 264 .
2. ANSI/TIA/EIA-568A. Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard,
October. 1995
3. Warren Hioki. Telecommunications, 2nd ed., Prentice Hal), 1995. - 501 p.
4. J. Hecht. Understanding Fiber Optics, Sams Publishing, 1993. - 477 p.
5. N. Suzuki, "PC Polishing Techniques", Seiko OFC Section Teiln-NR, 1996 (pp.1-4)
6. M. Vukovic. "Analyze Connector Parameters to Realize High Performance",
LIGHTWAVE, July, 1996 (pp. 50-56)
Document
Library,
1996,
http://www-librarv.itsi,
7. Standards
disa.mil/org/fed_std/html/dir-022/_3260
8. Sunny Optic Technologies, Mechanical Splice, 1998, http://sunnyoptech.com/tyi438.htm
9. Single Fiber Fusion Splicing, AN103, Corning Inc., 1994.- 15 p.
10. W.T. Morris. V-Groove and mass splicing send manufacturers 'back to school' to
develop fibers that meet the challenges of these technologies, Geometry 101:
Studding
Fiber's
Parameters.
Corning
Inc,,
1998,
http://pro.corningfiber.com/library/r152.html
11. Frameworx - Value-Added Connector Module System, ADC Telecommunications,
891 7/1994.-28 p.
12. Fiber Optic Products - Catalog, Amphenol, March, 1998, http://www.amphenolfiber0ptics.com
13. DiCon Fiberoptics Inc., 1997, http://www.diconfiberoptics.com
Fiber
Optic
Communications,
Inc.,
1996/1997,
14. FOCI
http://www.focLcom.tw/96catal1.html
15. Lucent Technologies, 1998, http://www.lucent.com
16. Active and Passive Fiber Optic Components, Fiber Optic Product Catalog. Molex,
1998, http://www.molex.com/product/fiber/fi ber.html
17. Nortel: Info Center - Complete WDM Component Solutions, Feb, 1997,
http://www.nortel.com/home/press/1997a/2_18_9797053WDM.html
18. WDM cross-connect system, Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd, 1996,
http://bugs.wpi.edu:8080/EE535/hwk96/hwk5cd96/luke/luke.htmI
19. FiberPlex, Inc., 1997, http://www.tiberplex.com
20. Optical Isolator Products, Catalog, Shinkosha Co., Ltd., 1996.
Optic
Products,
PLP
Product
Overview,
1997,
21. Fiber
http://www.preformed.com/PROD/prod.html
22. - .
NK Cables, 1997. - 55 .
23. Outside Plant Secure Fiber Entrance Terminal (SFET), ADC Telecommunications,
User Manual, 1994, http://www.adc.com
24. FiberBase Fiber Network Management Software, ADC Telecommunications,
1997, http://www.adc.com/Products/fiberbase/10p-AD.html

25. OSP
InSight,
Advance
Fiber
Optics,
1997,
http://www.advancefiber.com/ospmain.html
26. Fiber Cable Management Products, Second edition, Catalog, ADC
Telecommunications, 1996, http://www.adc.com
27. Rber Main Distribution Frame, Catalog, ADC Telecommunications, 1996,
http://www.adc.com

4.
4.1.

(), ,
.
. ,
, .
,

.

.
, ,
:

. ,
: 850. 1300,
1550 ;

;
, ,
;
,
, ,

;

;

.

- (LED)
, (LD).
.
, , .
4.1 [1, 2].
.

,
, .


, . 4.2 . - -
() (- n-)
-n
, .
()
g () = 1,24/g , . 4.2 .

,
,
, .


.
GaAs 1.

, . 4.1.
0 ,
,
0,5 - ,
.

4,1. ,
[2]


. , .
,
, ,
.
,
(1-2 ) 30-50
, . 4.1.
. ,
,
. Ithres,
,
, . 4.3.

. 4.3. - :
1 - ; 2 -
out
(output power) .
.
out, (10 -3 ),
out=10lgout ().
. ,

, . (output power
range). , -19/-14 , out min= -19 , out max = - 14 .
1,3 1,55 .
1,55 ,
(L = 100 )
.

,
1,3 ( ).
1,55 SMF 17 /.

,
. . 2.4 ( 2) ,
=4 100 63 , =0,2
1260 . ,
1,55
(DSF),
(SMF),
.

: -; ;
; .
- (FP , Fabry-Perot).
,
.
, 100%,
, , , .
. 4.1
-. ,
, ,
.
.
. ,
2D = N, D - -,
N - . , ,
.
,
1 . 0,5
,
. FP
, ,
, ,
, -.
, , ,
,

,
-
( 10 1-2 ).

,
,
- [2].
(DFB )
(DBR ).

-,

. DFB
(. 4.4 ), DBR
(. 4.4 ).
. ,
DFB DBR FP :
,
10
. / FP 0,5-1
/, DFB 0,07-0,09 /.
DFB DBR ,
, .
( ).
, ,
,
. . 4-4 )
.
,
30% .
, , .

.
,
- - ,
30 . ,
[].
DFB DBR .

:
; .
.
, ,
,

0,1 0,9
.
, .. ,
. rise fall ,
, 0,1 0,9 ,
, 0,9 0,1.
,
0,1 0,9,
.
200 , - (
).
W. , (
), (2-8): W = 0,35/rise.

. 4.4. : )
, DFB ; ) ,
DBR ; ) ,
.
-
, , , .
.

. , ,
.
, ,

, 50000
(5-8 ).


.
(housing),
; ,
.
.
, . .
,
, . 4.5, [4].
. :
Epitaxx Inc. icsson Components Ab, Fujitsu Microelectronics Inc., Hamamatsu Corp.,
Hewlett-Packard, Hit Lasertron Inc., Laser Diode Inc., NEC Electronics tnc., OKI
Semiconductors, Optek Technology Optical Communication Product Inc., Orte! Corp.,
Siemens Corp. . [5].

. 4.5.
()
4.2.

()
- . -
, , .
.

:
,
;
,
, ;
, .

. ,
,

, ,
,
.

.
. 4.6 ()
() .
.

-
.
-
,
.

.
, 0 1,
, ,
.
.

. 4.6.
(): ) ; )

-
[]. .

.
- .
- . -

- ,
.
- .
(),
,
. , ,
. , ,
,
.
,
0,5 .
. ,
.

,
.
,
, ,
(
- ) -
,
.
-
. -n
, . ,
, p-i-n , ,
.
p-i-n ,
i- ( n) +- n+- (+ ), . 4.7 .
i- ,
. p-i-n U0
( ).
,
( ) i-.
i-, , i-

. i-,
- .

, .
i-, + - n+ -
,
.
+- ,
, .

. 4.7. , : ) p-i-n
; )
.
,
, . 4,2.
()
~ 80-100%.
-
.

-
/4 , (n1n2), n1, n2 - i- .
4.2. ,
41

, ,
.
, ,
, .
, ,
, , ,
.
: ;
; ; ;
; /
; ;
; ;
; .
() Sph (/)
Sph = Iph / P(), Iph - , () -
, .

.
( )
=Ne/Nph , Nph - ,
, a Ne -
( - ). p-i-n
1 (100%).
. 4.8.

S ph =

e
-19
, - (1,6010 ), hc

, h - (6,63-10-34 ), -
(3,00108 -1). S ph =

1,24

. 4.8
.
p-i-n
0,5-0,8 /, 20-60 / (. 4.3).
Sph ,
.

. 4.8.
[4]
Id ()
.
, ,
. ,
, (.
4.3). ,
.

: Isn - -i-n Isn=(2Id)1/2 , e , Id - , - ( );
Ijn, - Ijn=(4KTB/R)1/2 , -
(1,3810-23 -1), - (), - , R (), [7]. I ,
I = (I2sn +I2jn )1/2 .
rise ( fall) -
. ,
, 0,1 0,9 ( 0,9 0,1)
,
.
, ,
, .
( rise) .

.
, 0,707
.

,
.
(. 4.3). p-i-n .

p-i-n .
.
4.3.

n() -
, .

, / ,
n=In/Sph, In- . ,

. n B .
/1/2
.
, 2 ,
R= 5108 , Ssh= 0,5 /,
=1 , Isn= 2,510-14A,
Ijn=5.610-14 A, In= 2,610-14A,
n= 5,110-14 .
, , , ,
, ,
, , ,
, .
, , .
-
, .
, ,
: .
/ , .
/ .
/ -
50-60 , 30 .
n /,
n min - ,
.

.
, /
, . .

,
, .

. 4.9.
.
, ,
0 1,
.
.
, . 4.9.
5
10-12 10-3. ,
/ ,
. , ,
BER 10-9. BER
10-12. BER - , BER.

, BER , , .

.
.
.
,
.
,
, .
,
"" ,
, .
, ,
,
.

,
.

.
Ur - ,

.
.
,
.
(0). ,
.
, ,
. ,
. 4.10
.
,
1 . ,
600 ,
, >600
.
,
- ,
, . 4.10 .
8-10.

. 4.10.
: )
1 ; )
.
(. ).
, .

. ()
,
.
p+-i-n+, - (p+-i-p-n+), . 4.7 .
,
, ,
-. i-
- . ,
.
i- -
- -.
-, ,
() .

. ?
p-in .
=1/(1-(U/Ub)n) U - , Ub ,
(breakdown) - 100 ,.,
, n-
3 6, . 4.11.

. 4.11.

,
. ,
, ( 2,1).
,
30 100.

p-i-n

, ,
.


, , .
, :
, , , ,
.
.
1-10 , .
p-i-n 0,6
0,8 /, ,
. .
.
.
.
.
. , ,
,
.
, .
/
( ) . ,
, ,
, .
.
, ,
. -


. .
,
.
, (0), ,
(1).

. ,
,
. ,
.

,
, ,
, .
. -
.
, , 1 .

, .
"" .
(jitter,
). .
,
. ,
.
-
,
SDH. SDH

, (
) . SDH
(master clock),
.
. : Epitaxx
Inc., Hamamatsu Corp., Hewlett-Packard, Hitachi, Honeywelf Inc., Lasertron Inc.,
Laser Diode Inc., NEC Electronics Inc., OKI Semiconductors, Optek Technology Inc.,
Optical Communication Product Inc., Ortel Corp., Siemens Corp., Sumitomo Electric
Industries Ltd., Toshiba . [5].
4.3.

,
- .

- .
,

, ,
, ( )
,
- .


: .
-
, ,

.
(- )
, , ,
, . 4.12 .

. , ,
.
.
,
, . 4.6 .
.
, ,
, -.

, ,
. ""
, .
(), ,
,
, . 4.12 .
.
, . ,
.

. 4.12. : ) - ;
)

. 4.4. -

. ,
, ,
, . , ,
, . , ,
.
, .
.
,
.
.
,
,
(WDM ) ,
.
, , .


, .
,
(mm) (sm) .
. FDDI (100 /) [8, 9],
(155 /), (622 /) [10] sm/mm .
4.4.

850, 1300, 1550

,
,

1530-1560


.
, .
, . . 4.5 [4].
4.5.

-
,

,


1. -.
.
(25 ) (1,5 ),
(800 ) . ,

( 20
5 ). , -
,

WDM .
2. , .
- ,
,
, , f1 f2.
f1,

f2. ,
1,5 .
3. , .
- ,

. ,

(|f2-f1|) , ,
WDM .

.

4. ().
, ,
[11, 12].
, .

/4 , . 4.13.

. 4.13.

, . ,
.

, , ,
(~ 9 - ).

, .
,
, .
. ,
( )
4-8 . ,

.
. , .
( ),
.
.
,
.
. -
,
.

. 4.14
,
.
,
.
,
.

. 4.14. , (

)
5. .

,
[13, 14, 15].
. 4.15 .
(1) (2),
- ,
,
(3), ,
. ,
(4).
.
(5),
,
. - () -
. ,
.


, . (7)
(8) (9).
(10)

.

,

, . 4.16.
.
( ) (
).
. ,
,

. ,
, .


, .
, ,
. EDFA,
, , ,
[16]. EDFA 1530
1560 , hvCA,
980 .

1300
,
.

.
,
. , 1 (-30
), 1 (0 ),
30 .
, . ,
1
20 ,
13 .
. 4.17 , EDFA

. in = 1 .

.
( 1530 1560 )

.
.
,
,
.

. 4.17. EDFA
(
Corning)

, . 4.18 , ,

-
.

. 4.18. EDFA
4.4. EDFA

EDFA
: , [14].
.
EDFA
WDM
.
( -)
1530
1560 .
, , . 4.19.
EDFA
, /

.


EDFA.
1550 ,
,
40.
( ) ,
3 .

. 4.19. ,
,

DWDM
- . . 4-20
16-
STM-16 (2,5 /). ,
/ (SNR),
, 1540 , SNR .
, DWDM ,
(, 1545 ) SNR, ( 1540
) SNR.

. 4.20. ( )
DWDM : )
( 1540 ); ) -

, EDFA
,
EDFA.
( )
1530 1542 , .
,
,
, , , . ,
,
DWDM
.



SNR .
,
.
. ,
. ,
SNR STM-64 (10 /) 6 ,
STM-16 (2,5 /). ,
STM-64.
, ,

[17, 18].
EDFA
, ,
,
-

. ,
,
1530-1542 ,
DWDM .
. 4.20 , DWDM .

SNR.
,
.
- EDFA - (
) ,
1480 . , 980 ,
EDFA,
EDFA, ,

.

,
. ,
-
EDFA, ,
,

1. - : / . 3. , . .
, . . - -: , 1994. - 160 .
2. - : / . .
, . . , . . . - ,: , 1993. 264 ,
3. . Vilhelmsson. Continuously Tunable External-Cavity Semiconductor Laser,
Radians Innova AB, Box 14194, S - 400 20 Goteborg, Sweden, 1996. - 2 p.,
http://www.radians.se/laser/extprin.html
4. J. Hecht Understanding Fiber Optics, Sams Publishing, 1993. - 477 p.
5. Ronald Shamus. "Optoelectonic Components", EE535 Homework 5, 1996,
http://bugs.wpi. edu:8080/EE535/hwk96/hwk5cd96/rshamus/rshamus.html
6. F. Halsall. Data Communications, Computer Networks and Open Systems, AddisonWesley, 1996. - 907 p.
7. The Johnson-Nyquist Formula, 1998, http://www.tip. csiro.au/"fgreen/jnyq2.html
8. . Mills. Understanding FDDI: A 100 Mbps Solutions for Today's Corporate LANs,
Prentice Hall, 1995.-277 p.
9. FDDI Multimode to Singlemode Converter N320FD. Catalog - NBase. 1996,
http://www.nbase.conn
10. ATM Multimode to Singlemode Converter N420ATM. Catalog - NBase, 1996,
http://www.nbase.com
11. Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, May
1995, http://www-phys.llnt.gov/hLDiv/photonics/SOA.htnnl
12. Semiconductor and Erbium-Doped Fibre Amplifiers (EDFA), Australian Photonics
CRC, 1998, http://www.vislab.usyd.edu.au/vislab/photonics/
13. Optoelectronics in Japan and the United States. JTEC/WTEC, Feb. 1996, http://itri.
loyola. edu/opto/toc. htm
14. . Fuerst. "Today's Optical Amplifiers Enable Tomorrow's Optical Layer",
Lightwave, Ju!y 1997. (pp. 47-48)
15. . Fuerst. "Optical Layer Planning Requires Flexibility", Lightwave, October 1997.
(pp. 50-51)

16. P. Mysiinski, D. Nguyen, J. Chrostowski. "Effect of Concentration and Clusters in


Erbium-Doped Fibre Amplifiers", paper WP3, Conference on Optical Fibre
Communications, OFC'95, San Diego, CA, Feb-Mar.,1995
17. S. B. Alexander. "WDM Network Operation Calls for Close Control of Parameters",
Lightwave, June, 1997. (pp. 27-32)
18. . M. Kissa, D. J. Fritz. "AOTFs Route Traffic in WDM Networks". Lightwave,
June 1996. (pp. 64-66)

5.
5.1.



.
. , ,
,
,
()

- .
:
FDM:
,
.
TDM:
, - ,
-,

TDM

( -
( -)

, -
, ,
.
. 5.1 FDM TDM.
, (,
, , )
, MUX, ,
- DEMUX.
,
.
FDM

(. 5.1 )
, ,
, . ,
, ,
.


,
- 6,5 .
( 860 )

.
FDM WDM,
- .
1,3 (230 ) 1,6 (188 ).
15301560 .

n
( n
-) ,
,
. . 5.1 12- TDM. - 1
, 2 - .. - - W/n, W - .
-.

. 5.1.

,
-
W/n.
. ,
, , .
.
,
.
8
n - - .

.

. , ,
, ,
.


.
(
, )

.
,

.
: "-",
, . 5.2.
.

. 5.2.

. 5.3. " "




.
,
"",
" ", . 5.3.
- .

,
- .
" " SDH,
Token Ring, DQDB, FDDI.

, (drop-add-pass), .
5.4:
1. "Drop & Add" ( ).
( ),
.
, ,

.
,
TDM , , Ethernet
Token Ring.
-.
2. "Drop & Pass" ( ).
" ". -
.
- .
3. "Pass Only" ( ).
, ,
( -),
.

4. "Terminate & Add" ( ).


- ,
.
,
.
() " ".
5. "Drop Only" ( ).
" ".
6. "Terminate" ().
" ".
,
, ( -),
.

. 5.4. ,

- .
, -
TDM-.
- Optimux PAD.
. 5.5, . 5.1
.

. 5.5. Optimux RAD Data Communications


-,
, - ADC
Telecommunications - Quad Fiber Loop Converter, 4xE1 [2]; Pan Dacom FME-H, 6xE1 [3])
5.1. Optimux PAD Data Communications [1]

MagnumPlus ADC Kentrox. ,


. . 5.2.
,
MagnumPlus TDM ,
-, , .

TDM .
TDM
- .
SDH,
SDH .
5.2.
MagnumPlus [4]

MagnumPlus, . 5.6:
(IN/OUT).
, ,
- Ethernet Switch ( AUI, BNC, F/0), Token Ring 4 16
/ ( DB9), 1 (G.703);
. 48V DC, 110V AC, 220V
AC.
;
. ,
SNMP ;
.
(155 /)
(DS3, 45 /).

. 5.6. MagnumPlus ADC


Kentrox

TDM NBaseFibronics (Multi-HUB) [5] Racal Data Group (PremNet 5000, PremNet Branch) [].
SDH -
-
8.
()

, ,
.
-
.
, ,
-. ,
- ,
,
,
-. ,
.
- -
,
-.
, ,
, ,
, ,
.
TDM
, , , ,
.
, ,
. ,
.

.

.25, - Frame Relay .
. 5.3
. ,
.
5.3. TDM

5.1. .
. 4 , . 5.7 [7]. (
) 4- 100 /,
8- "" ""
, "" "" ,
- - -
, 10 -.
. - ,
100 /.
200 /. ,
4-
. , ,
-.
,
. . 5.7
40 /, -50 /, - 40
/, - 30 /.
160 /. 80% ( 16
20). 80% - -
, 8
10- -, - 160 / ( 64% =
).
. 5.7
. 100%
-.

. 5.7.

()

()

n
,
,

,
.

,
. ,
384 /
64 /,
. ,
( )
, 64 /.

-
,
.
. 5.8.

. 5.8.

.
( 1000 )
.
(EDFA),
. ,
(. 2),
. ,
.
, .

10/100 /. 2.5 ( 2)
100 - 20 . ,
-
, . 5.9 [8]. ,
,
.

() .
5.2.


-
. ,
, , .
,
.
, . 5.10.
. 5,11
.
:
[9, 10].
,
, , ,
,
.
,
ISDN.
(
).

( ).

,
,

. 5.10.

. 5.11.



.
.
,
. 5.10.
1. .
.
. ,
, . ,
4 .
-4 - , .
4 , 6.
,
4 , 5, (
D FDM) .
4 5.
4,

. 5 4

6 , 4.
6 .
, , ,
.
2. . ,
. (,
) (, ).
, .
, : -4,
4, 4-5, 5, 5-6,
6 6-. , ,
, .
3. .
,
. 4, 5, 6,
.
,
. , ,
,
.
, .
.

, .
100%.
,
, .
,
. , ,
,
.



,
. ,
.
,
, . ,
50%.
,
.

,
.
1. (, -)
.

. ,
.
2.
. -
,
.
.
, ( ).

.
-
,
, . 5.12.

. 5.12.
, , ,
. , ,
,
() .
.
. 5.13 .
(, )
().
/ , ,
, .
, . , ,
.
, .
"" ,
.
.

1. ,

.
,
, , ,
, . ,
, ,
-
.
-, .
2.
. ,

.
3. ,
,
.
.
,
,
.
4. .
, , ,
.
,
.
,
.

. ,
,
.
, :
;
,
, . 5.13.

. 5.13. -

,
.

.

.
-
. .
, , ,
, . ,

, -.
.
, ,
.
.
,
, . 5.14.
,

.
. ,
-

.
. ,
,
. , ,

.
,
,
(,
) -
.

. 5.14. -
.
,
.
, ,
, , .
,

.
, , ,
. ,
, 4 6 (. 5.14)

6 , 6 4 " .
, "" .
, ,
,

. , ,
.
. -

. -
. ,
, "" ,
, .

. -
. , ,
.
ISDN

-
.
,
,

, .

, ,
, , .

, .
.
.

.
.
,
, ,
. , ISDN.
ISDN
, . ISDN:
(BRI) (PRI). BRI (144
/) 64 /
D 16 / (2B+D). PRI

1 (1,544 /) 1 (2,048 /),


23 30 , , ,
0- 64 / (23B+D 30B+D).
-,
. ,

D .
, () ISDN
: , ?
, , ISDN
8 26
. ,
, .
, .

ISDN
. ,
,
.
ISDN ,
.
ISDN , - ,
, , , .
.25

, ,
, ,

.

, .25.
.25
. .25
,
,
.

.
.25
( ITU-T)
, , , .

.
.25
,

,
.
.
.
, .
.25.
,

64 /. , (
)
.
, ,
, .
Frame Relay

,

. ,
,
.
, , ,
.25.
,
- ,
.
.
Frame Relay
- .
Frame Relay ,
.25. Frame Relay
.
.
,
.

64 /, Frame Relay

2 /, Frame Relay
,
.
Frame Relay
, SNA, X.25
. , Frame Relay
. ,
, :

1500 . ,

Frame Relay -
. ,
.
(, , ),
"" .
,
Frame Relay ,

.
Frame Relay, ,
, , ,
.
Cell Relay

, ,

20 .
, .
, Frame Relay
, a Cell Relay ,
,
.
,
. Frame Relay
2 /,
/.


.
.

.
X.25 ,
.
,
,
. ,
, .

,
,

[11].
, ..
, .
.
(.25) -
.
, . 5.15 . ,
, , HDLC,
( ),
, .

. 5.15.

. , .
Frame Relay - -
.
, . . 5.15 .
B-ISDN ()
.
. ,
, . 5.15 .
5.3. OSI

.
.
.
- ,
.
,
- ,
.

,
.
.
,
.

.
,
.
:
;
, ;
.
,

(Open Systems Interconnection/Reference Model),
OSI ().
1977 . ISO
CCITT ( ITU-T)

, . 5.4 [12].
5.4. OSI

,
- .

IEEE 802

,
OSI ( ) IEEE 8802
( IEEE 802).
.
- MAC ( ) -
. , LLC ( )
3, 4 .. ,
. 5.16 IEEE 802.
, FDDI, ,
, ,
OSI/IEEE 802.

. 5.16. IEEE 802


:

,
;
, (, -)
.

1. Optimux-4E1, Four E1 Channel Multiplexer, RAD Data Communications, 1997


http://www.rad. com/products/family/opt_4e1/opt_4e1 .html
2. E1 Quad Fibre Loop Converter and Universal Mounting Chassis - Ordering
Information,
ADC
Telecommunication
QFLC,
1997,
http://www.adc.com/Products/FLC.products/E1Quad.specs.html
3. The Fiber Optic Multiplexer FME-H: Up To 6 x E1/T1 Over Fiber, Pan Dacom,
1997, http://www.pandacom.com/news/teleJ3/telecom.html
4. MagnumPlus and Magnum 100 Broadband Access Multiplexors, ADC Kentrox,
1998, http://www.kentrox.com/products/index.html
5. MultiHUB - Multifunctional intelligent hubsupporting Ethernet, Token Ring, and
real-time
protocols,
Fibronics,1996,
http://www.fibronics.co.il/fib96/multihub/mhinfo.html
6. PremNet Branch - The Power of PremNet in a Smaller Package, Racal Data Group,
1997, http://products.rdl.co.uk/nlines1/21f6.1be.htm
7. E. B. Came. Telecommunications Primer - Signals, Building Blocks and Networks,
Prentice Hall PRT, 1995. - 596 p.
Networking
Consortium,
WDM
Description,
1996,
8. All-Optical
http://www.ll.mit.edu/aon/aonWDM.html
9. M. De Prycker. Asynchronous Transfer Mode: Solution for Broadband ISDN, New
York: Ellis Horwood, 1993
10. W. Stallings. Local & Metropolitan Area Networks, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey 07458, 1997. - 605 .
11. M. De Prycker, R. Peschi, T. Van Landegem. "B-ISDN and the OSI Protocol
Reference Model", IEEE Network, March, 1993, pp. 10-18
12. Halsall. Data Communications, Computer Networks and Open Systems, AddisonWesley, 1996. - 907 p.

6. FDDI

FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) - , , ,


, , ,
- 100 /.
FDDI 9.5
(ANSI) 80- . FDDI ,
.

-
, FDDI ,
,
[1, 2, ].
FDDI
:
100 /;

- ,
,
..;

, .
FDDI Token Ring,
. FDDI
Token Ring. ,
,

.
FDDI IEEE 802.5 Token Ring [4]:
Token Ring , , ,
. FDDI
();
FDDI , Token Ring
.
. 6.1. FDDI.
6.1. FDDI

*
50 .
**

( WRAP) -
200 .
6.1.

FDDI ( ),
, , 6.1 .
.
.
, (primary).

.
FDDI, . ,
,
. (secondary)
,
.

. 6.1. FDDI: ) ; )
(WRAP)
- ,
(, ,

),
, ,
, . 6.1 .
WRAP, "" , ,
( ,
/).
. , FDDI

.

.
FDDI ,

5 ,
.
- .
FDDI
. ,

- (token). ,
, .
, ,
, . 6.2 ,
. FDDI
(upstream neighbor) (downstream
neighbor),
. .
4500 ,
.
, ,
. , ,
,
(token holding time) (. 6.2 ).

() , . 6.2 .
,
, .

. 6.2.
.
, - MAC -
, , . 6.2 .

, ,
( ),
(, IP),
(. 6.2 ),
:
,
.
, ,
, . -
,
, , (. 6.2 ),
, , ,
.
, .
- .
FDDI
95%. , Ethernet (
) 30%
.
FDDI, ,

. 6.7.
6.2. FDDI

FDD) ,
, . 6.3.

, FDDI
802.2 (LLC),
IEEE 802.2, ISO 8802.2, FDDI
LLC, - -

.

. 6.3. FDDI
( 1988 )
( ANSI / ISO FDDI
. 6.2):
PMD (physical medium dependent) - .
(
-
)

( 1300 ),
(2 ), ,
(optical bypass
switches), .
PHY (physical) - .
-
PMD, .
:
4/5; ;
125 ;
.
MAC (media access control) - .
: ( ,
); ,
( ,

32-

);

.
SMT (station management) - .
:

PHY, PMD MAC; ;


;
(
).
(1993-1994 .) PMD
, ,
:
SMF-PMD (Single Mode Fiber PMD) -
,
.
TP-PMD (Twisted Pair PMD). ANSI 1994
FDDI TP-PMD.
5
(UTP Cat.5) RJ-45 (CDDI FDDI ),
(STP IBM Type 1) DB-9
(SDDI).
100 .
6.2. ANSI/ISO FDDI [5]

6.3.

FDDI :
( , );
; - [1, 6].
FDDI
. FDDI . -
,
.
FDDI:
DAS (dual attachment station) - .
( )
FDDI
. DAS
- FDDI DAS
.

SAS (single attachment station) - .


( -) S
FDDI FDDI-.
DAC (dual attachment concentrator) - .
, ,
. .
SAC (single attachment concentrator) - .

S . SAC
.
NAC (null attachment concentrator) - .
-.
FDDI: , , S
.
, , PI/SO (primary in/
secondary out) ~
DAS DAC
, , .

FDDI.
, , PO/SI (primary out/
secondary in) - DAS DAC ,
, .

FDDI.
- master, , PI/PO (primary in/
primary out) - FDDI
(NAC, DAC, SAC). -
.
DAS, DAC ( , Dual
Homing ),
SAS SAC,
S. FDDI
,
.
S - slave, P1/PO - SAS SAC. SAS
SAC . ,

.
. 6.3.
DAS DAC
. 6.4,
S - . 6,5.
6.3. FDDI

A
B
S
M

S
M
V, N
V
V, N
VP
V
V, N
V, N
VP
V, N
V, N
V
V
V
V
V
X

: V - - N -
SMT VP - , ,
(, Dual Homing).
MAC. ,
(
),
-, -.
MAC, , ,
. FDDI,
, -.
- , ,
, ..
( ), -,
SM (single MAC) , , -,
DM (dual MAC) . -,
. DAS DAC
-,
. 200 /.
, 100 / -
- . ,
, Dual MAC
.

6.5. S

. 6.4
.
"" MAC. FDDI,
,
,
,
TTRT. ,
,
( SAS, -)
.
.
SAS MAC
(roving MAC), -.
-, -,
-
[].
- DAC, roving MAC,
, , S SAC,
, ,
. Roving MAC (
)
. roving MAC
,
,
.
FDD)
MAC.
FDDI .
FDDI

FDDI
"-". "-"
. ,

, - , - .
, ,
"-".
, ,
.
. ,
.

(,

), ,
.
FDDI ,
.
: , ; ; ;
;
Dual Homing.
-, . 6.4 . -
, FDDI SAS.
, ,
, .
, . 6.4 .
"-" (DAS),
( ),
, . 6,4 .
,
,
.

, .

. ( )
,
, . 6.1 .
, .
( )
.
, .

- DAS

(. . 6.4), .
,
, DAS , .
,


FDDI .

. 6.4.
FDDI
, . 6.4 .
FDDI NAC,
, FDDI (backplane). -
SAS, DAS . DAS
(/) - ,
- -
Dual Homing.
, . 6.4 .

(NAC) (. 6.4 ).
(SAS DAS) / (SAC DAC).

FDDI
FDDI.
:
,
;

,
;


.
, . 6.4 .
, ,
(DAC).
DAS,
"-" DAS DAC.
FDDI , ,
.
SAC DAC, SAS DAS, ..
- ,
FDDI.
,

.
.
Dual Homing, . 6.4 . FDDI
, DAS
( DAC),
,
- FDDI. ,
, Dual Homing.
,
DAS (DAC) .
,
, .
,
, ,
, , ,
.
-
.
6.4.

SAS -
, ,
. SMT
-,
, . 6.4 . , ,
, .
DAS DAC,
, , , WRAP.
, .

, .
6.5.
OBS (optical bypass switch),

( ) () .
DAS (DAC)
.
,
,
PHY .

. 6.5.
OBS


FDDI.
OBS (. 6.6).

. 6.6. (OBS)
. 6,7.
5 .
()
.
, OBS,
:

(
(. 6.7 ) ()

(. 6.7 ), .
tmax < 10 [7];
FDDI.
10 150
.
- ,
( 1 /
( 1300 ) OBS - FDDI
PMD OBS 2,5),

, . ,
(. 6.7 ). ,
2-3 , , ,
( )
.
OBS.
: - 2 ,
OBS, - 4 (
). ,
( )
11 , - 1 /,
- 0,3 , :

OBS (
(AMP)


,
3,0


,
3,5

1,2

2,8

1,1

2,1

5,3
4,7 (11-5,3)

8,4
2,6 (11-8,4)

. 6.7. : )
; ) ; )
OBS
OBS

-
: ,
. ,
,
.

. ,

. , , ,
.
.
,
- .
(
).
(, 6.8),
.
1, OBS ,
. 2, .

. 6.8. OBS, (
[7])
:In - OBS FDDI, Out -
OBS FDDI, - OBS , Rx -
OBS.

OBS DiCon
[8], Mofex [9], NetOptics [10].
. -

OBS.
( 3-4
OBS) ,
NetOptics, . 6.9.
OBS,
:
1280-1650


1,3 () 2,5 ()

+5 V (DC)

50
0 + 50 .
OBS NetOptics . 6.9.

. 6.9. OBS FDDI (


NetOptics [10])
6.5. PMD

FDDI PMD PHY


.
,
PMD PHY (. 6.3).

PMD
: , ,
.
MMF-PMD, SMF-PMD TP-PMD

, ,
,
. PMD (
PMD) ,
:
, - ,

PMD . 6.6.
FDDI MMF-PMD SMF-PMD
- , :
, ( ),
( ) , . 6.6.
FDDI
62,5/125 . 50/125 .
-
PMD. 1300 .

PMD -31 .
2,5 10 .
2 , 1 12
FDDI PMD
:
- 14 ;
- 20 ;
- 14 ;
-31 ;
11 ;
2,5 .
SMF-PMD
, MMF-PMD,
(-31 ).
MMF-PMD SMF-PMD,
1300 .
-PMD
, .

. -PMD
STP - 1 2 (
), UTP - 5 (4 ).

,
.
EIA/TIA, UL
NEMA, 1 2
, , RS232.

(
5):
3: 10 / ( 100 ),
Ethernet (10 /);
4: 16 / ( 100 ),
Token Ring 16 /, Ethernet;
5: 155 / ( 100 ),
(155 /), FDDI,
Token Ring, Ethernet.
PMD

, FDDI,
,
.
(signal detect).

PMD. PMD
Signal_Detect
.
PHY, Line State
Detect (. 6.10) [],
PMD
PHY Signal_Detect,
-43,5 ,
-45 . ,
1,5
-45 .

, ,
.
,
.
,
, PMD PHY Signal_Detect [1].
6.6. MMF-PMD, SMF-PMD
TP-PMD PMD

* - .
,
,

, 0,5-0,7/,
, .
FDDI
. , FDDI -, s
NBase-Fibronics, ,
PMD.
**
, ,
, 10 ,
, -.

. 6.10. PMD

ANSI FDDI
-
. MIC,
- FDDI (. 6.11), ,
, .
MIC ,
. ,

,
. MIC
, PMD, , 6.12.

. 6.11. MIC

. 6.12. MIC

FDDI ST, FC
( , SMF-PMD)
Duplex SC ( , , PMD
SMF-PMD). MIC
Duplex SC. , Duplex SC
. ,
. Duplex SC
, , ,
.
FDDI ,
. 6.13. ( )
.

.
(
) . ,

, Fast Ethernet ,
.

. 6.13. FDDI

(MMF-PMD, SMF-PMD TPPMD) .


,

- :
( ); ;
;
; ; - -.
.
,
-, : ;
.
. STP IBM
Type 1 UTP cat. 5
,
.
.
,
.
, .
.
,
- FDDI, .
6.6. PHY

PHY (physical layer protocol - )


(. 6.3)
, .
,
, PHY.
,
PHY:
-
;
-
MAC ,
FDDI;
- ,
;
,
;
, ,
;
,
.

FDDI PHY
. -
[1, 11].
.
.
, , .
,
, .
.
- .
,
. ,
, .. , .

, ,
. PHY,
MAC
PMD. PHY PMD
MAC, . 6.14.
FDDI : 4/5
NRZ! - [12].

4/5. FDDI
, Token Ring Ethernet,

( ), . 6.15. ,
200 ,
100 /. FDDI 4/5
, 4
5- - , . 6.7. ,
100 / 4/5 125
(125 ).
, 4/5 (4 ),
(5 ). ,
. ,
, .

. 6.14. 4/5 NRZI PHY

. 6.15. , Ethernet Token


Ring
NRZf. 4/5
, , NRZI.

( ), -
, . 6.16. ,

,
( ) .
NRZI, ,
. , 0,
,
.
( ,
),
NRZI,
,
, , .
4/5, , ,
,
. 4/5 ,
.
, .
, , ,
( 0, ~ 1).
, ,
NRZI, ,
,
. .

. 6.16. 4/5, NR2 NRZI


. . 6.7 5- ,
FDDI. 32
5 , 25 .
4 [12]:
(3) - Q, I, H.
(PHY).

PHY . 1 (Idle)

.

(4): - J, , L, - ,
L FDDI FDDI-11.
.(2) - R, S.
(16).
.
32 (. . 4.1) -

. ,
9000.
. FDD),
,
. (baseline wander)
, -
.
+1 -1,
. FDDI
4/5 NRZ/NRZI
, 0.
10%.
.
.
,
, .
(line states).
( ) . 6.8. ,
NRZI .
ILS - 62,5 . 4
: QLS, MLS, HLS ILS. - ALS NLS , , .
6.7. FDD1

* VIOLATION () ,
, (
, ), .

4B/5B+NRZI
DTP .5 -
- ,
IBM 1
2 - SDDI. FDDI -PMD, ,
UTP
.5. TP-PMD ,
Fast Ethernet
(IOOBase-) - .
UTP .5

(100 ), NRZ/NRZI,
MLT-3.

(
), ,
.
MLT-3,
. . ,
,
, , . 6.17.

. 6.17. TP-PMD
MLT-3. TP-PMD
FDDI (+1, 0, -1).
NRZI , ,
1. ,
:
, 1
, ,
, 1
.
,
.
4 ,
4 , 31,25 ( 125 ),
.

. 6.18. MLT-3
. MLT-3
,

.
, , ,
, 100 /.
-
.
NRZI MLT-3.
4/5,
( 11 +9),
. 6.19.
. ,
, . FDDI
(ILS, MLS, QLS, HLS),
.
"" ,
"" 11 . , .

. 6.19,

- , , , ,
,
.
. , ,
,
.
. ,
PHY :
(. 6.14).
,
, .
, , .
, ,
,
.
( - )

, .
,
FIFO (first in, first out ~ , ).
0,005%.
4/5.
9000 (4500 2,
5-
) 45000
10 (45000 0,00005 2 2 = 9, 1
), 2
0,01%, 2
, .
10
, 125 0,08 . ,
, ,
, - , 1 [13].
- , ,
, , ,
.
-
.
() ,
,
.

( , , 16 ). ,
,
,
. ,
()
,
(
, . .6.7. " MAC").

,
.
.
PHY , .
, ,

16 . ,
ANSI X3T9.5 FDDI,

,
, 10-12,
.

,
VIOLATION,
. ,
.
6.1. ,
5 /, FDDI
: ) 2 20 , ) 20 200 , ) 100 500
.
( FDDI) L =P+NxTS, P
- , N-
, S - :
) TL=2 x 5 + 20 x 1= 30 ( 3000 );
) TL=20 x 5 + 200 x 1= 300 ( 30000 );
) TL=100 x 5 + 500 x 1= 1000 ( 100000 );
, ,
-
,
, SAC,
SAS, -
.
2000 , .
6.7. MAC

OSI - .
MAC
LLC. MAC
FDDI. MAC FDDI
:
;

TTRP (timed token rotation protocol);
;
, , , ;
;
;
.

, FDDI,
, .
, ,
. - ,
. MAC
.
. 6.20 FDDI.
[12]:
. , ,
, 16 idle (I).
RCRCLK,
.
3D. JK,
.
FC. .
8- .
, CLFFZZZZ,
:
- - ( 1)
( 0);
L - (2 );
FF - , 01 LLC
( ) 00
-. -
- Claim Frame,
Beacon Frame
SMT Frame;
ZZZZ - .
DA - ( )
( ), () .
2- 6- .
SA - ,
. , .
INFO - , .
0 4478 ( 0 8956 ). FDDI
Source
Routing, 802.5.
SA 102 - , ,
,
.
FCS - 32- ,
CRC-32,

IEEE 802. FC,


DA. SA, INFO FCS.
ED - Terminate (),
. .
FS.
(error, E), (address recognized, )
(frame copied, ).
,
reset (R), - set (S).
.
, , -
FC, 1 0000 ZZZZ, . 6.20 .

SD - (starting delimiter)
FC - (frame control)
DA - (destination address)
SA - (source address)
INFO -
FCS - (frame check sequence)
ED - (ending delimiter)
FS - (frame status)
()

. 6.20. FDDI


FDDI Token Ring.
, FDDI.
FDDI ,
.
( 6.1 ,
). Token
Ring
, ,
, Token Ring ,
, , , FS
.

,
.
Token Ring,
FDDI
. ,
, (
FS ), , " " .
, , , ,
FDDI. -
,
( ).
.
FDDI.
-. ,
. ,
, .
. SA -
. ,
. (3D, FC, DA)
, -
. ,
, ,
SA. SA ,
.
- . ,
,
,
. ,
,
- , ,
6.2.
6.2. (), ,
() , () FDDI 100 , () FDDI
{4500 ).
5 /.
100 /
0,01 , 0,08 , n
0,08n . , ,
0,08/5 = 0,016n .
() 81 10,125 .
L = 0,162 ;
() L=0,016x100=1,6 ;
() L= 0,0164500 =72 .
TTRP (timed token rotation
protocol). B FDDI TRT
(token rotation time), ,

, ,
, . ,
TRT , . TRT
.

-
TTRT (target token rotation time), 4
165 . TTRT
.
:
(token holding time),
= TTRT - TRT. ,
. , ,
,
.
, TTRP
, TTRT .
. 6.21 ,
L
TTRT.
, ,

. 6.21.

:
, - (early token)
, - (late token)
-

,
. to
.
1, 1
. 1 TRT
, L.
, TTRT-TL ,
. 2,
, . 0,
TRT TTRT. 3 1

. t1 =t0+TTRT+TL/3 2
. 3 : t2
= t0 +2TTRT+2TL/3 , 1
t3 =t0 +3TTRT+3TL /3 = t0 +3TTRT+TL , ..,
TTRT-L .
U
, t0 t3,
:
U=

3(TTRT TL )
3TTRT + TL

[11]

n
[12]:
U=

3(TTRT TL ) TTRT TL

3TTRT + TL
TTRT

L
nTTRT . ,

TTRT. TTRT
, .

, FDDI
- [13].
,
(
, ,
).
FDDI,

synch ,
.
- ,
.
,
-
. ,
,
.
=TTRTTRT-Tsynch .
FDDI-II.
, :
.
FDDI, FDDI-II.
, , :
( ) FDDI-II ( ).

(. . 5). , FDDI-II
, FDDI.
.


. ,
,
- (
, TTRT),
,

, SMT
:
(claim token process);
(initialization process);
,

(beacon process).
.
TTRT, ,
.
TTRT.

,
TTRT,
.
, TTRT,
.
TTRT. TTRT
-. ,
(,
TTRT ).
.
. ,
, . ,
, .
, ,
,
TRT,
.
. ,
, ,
. (
165 ),

.
, .
, , .
,
, .
.
. 6.22.

. 6.22. FDDI [12]


6.8. SMT

PHY, PMD MAC, FDDI


SMT (station
management).
,
FDDI. SMT
, . ,
SMT
, FDDI.
SMT
[].
SMT (. 6.23):
(connection management);
RMT (ring management);
, FBM (frame-based management).

(entity coordination management) ,


,
. ;
(physical connection management)
.
;
CFM (configuration management) -
(configuration
control element). MAC
.

. 6.23. SMT
: m - MAC, -

RMT

RMT
MAC, ,
SMT . RMT .
-. RMT
SMT :
- ;
Beacon ;
-;
Trace,
( Stuck Beacon);
.
.
. MAC
Beacon :

Claim Token
;
SMT MAC Beacon.
, F

SMT ,
,
. FBM
, :
NIF
,
, -
.
.
SIF
.
SIF , , ,
, , .
SRF
,
. , ,
, ,
.
PMF
SMT
MIB.
- ECF .
6.9. FDDI
FDDI

FDDI
:
;
,
;
;
,
;

;
, ;

FDDI
, Ethernet Token Ring
LLC.
FDDI - ,
. ,
. , Fast Ethernet
100 /,

( Fast
Ethernet).
- .
- FDDI
100- .
- ,
. ,
, . -
FDDI Fast Ethernet
, Fast
Ethernet .
,
. ,
FDDI, :
,
;
( 10 );
(2 4);
(
).
. 6.24.
FDDI. . 6,24
FDDI.
, . :
FDDI.
. ,
, -
, .

.
Fast Ethernet, . 6,24
.
Fast Ethernet Ethernet ,
( )
,
"-". ,

()

),

.
, 1-10
10 , 1-9 - 8, .. ( 1)
.
Fast Ethernet
, . 6.24 . 6
Fast Ethernet.
.
Spanning Tree.
. ,
Spanning Tree , 6.
,
.
"-".
, . 6.24 .
ATM/Fast Ethernet/Ethernet .
,
,
Ethernet Fast Ethernet. ,
() , 1
6, , 6.24 , .
, Ethernet/Fast Ethernet
( access).
Fast Ethernet,
. 6.24 . Fast Ethernet
,
. ,
Fast Ethernet ,
.

. 6.24.

FDDI Ethernet Fast
Ethernet .
FDDI
FDDI.

.
FDDI, FDDI
FDDI/Ethernet/ATM .
( 1991 . - FDDI, 1994
. - ANSI TP-PMD SMF-PMD),
, FDDI : 3Com, Adaptec, BayNetworks,
Cabletron, Cisco, DEC, NBase-Fibronics, Madge, Network Peripherals, SysKonnect
.
. 6.9 FDDI,
. . 6.25 FDDI .

6.9. FDDI

* , ,
, STM-1 (155 /, - 194
).
** FDDI UTP/FO Fast
Ethernet UTP/FO, Fast Ethernet FDDI PMD
.

. 6.25. FDDI

1. A. Mills. Understanding FDDI: A 100 Mbps Solutions for Today's Corporate LANs,
Prentice Hall, 1995. -277.
2. Welcome - FDDI Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), United States Navy
Computer, 1996, http://sholeh.nswc.navy.mil/x3t12/FDDlFAQ.htm!
3. Our Testing Environment and Capabilities, FDDI Consortium, 1998,
http://www.iol.unh.edu/consortiums/fddi/index.html
4. . . . - : - , 1992. 756 .
5. ANSI X3T12 (FDDI) Home Page, United States Navy Computer, 1996,
http://sholeh.nswc.navy.mil/x3t12/
6. " ", ,
1997, http://www.citforum.ru/nets/fvs/contents.html
7. Increase FDDI Reliability with Bypass Switches, AMP, 1997 http://www.amp.
com/product/artic!es/dd68_a.html
Dual
Bypass
Switch,
DiCon
Fiberoptics
inc.,
1997,
8. FDDI
http://www.diconfiberoptics.com/dicon.htm
9. Active and Passive Fiber Optic Components, Fiber Optic Product Catalog, Molex,
1998, http://www.molex.com/product/fiber/fiber.html

10. FDDI Dual Bypass Switch - Single Mode Fiber Networks, Net Optics, 1997,
http://www.netoptics.com/sm_bypass.html
11. Ross F.E., HamstraJ.R. "Forging FDDI", IEEEJ. Select. Areas Commun,, vol. 11,
no.7, Feb.,1993. pp.181-190
12. W. Stallings. Local & Metropolitan Area Networks, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey 07458, 1997. - 605 .
13. F. Halsall. Data Communications, Computer Networks and Open Systems, AddisonWesley, 1996. - 907.
14. Welcome - FDDI Products (Adapters), United States Navy Computer, 1997,
http://sholeh.nswc.navy.mil/x3t12/Adapters.html
32-Bit
FDDI
Adapters,
3Com,
1998,
15. FDDIUnk
http://www.3com.com/products/dsheets/400191.html
16. Backbone/Enterprise Switching Solutions. NBase, 1998, http://www.nbase.co.il/
17. PT-SBS600 high-performance SBus FDDI adapter. Performance Technologies,
1997,
http://www.wcmh.com/lantimes/lantimes/buyers/company/192485/341613.html
SK-56x1),
SysKonnect,
1997,
FDDI
SBus
(Model
18. SK-NET
http://www.wcmh.com/lantimes/lantimes/buyers/company/192394/321445.html
9000
FDDI
Products,
Cabletron
Systems.
1998,
19. SmartSwitch
http://www.cabletron.com/switching/9000/
20. GiGAswitch/FDDI Multitechnology Switch, Digital Equipment Corporation, 1998,
http://www.networks.digital.com/dr/npg/defga-mn.html
21. N320FD FDDI Multimode to Singlemode Converter, NBase Communications, 1998,
http://www.nbase.com/
22. Fiberoptic Multimode to Singlemode Fiber Converter {ATM, FDDI, 100 BASE
Ethernet or SONET), Net Optics, 1997, http://www.netoptics.com/convertor.htm!
23. FDDI Fiber to UTP Media Converter Product Description, Transition Networks,
1998, http://www.transition.com/products/mediacon/fddLcddi.html

7. Ethernet/Fast Ethernet/Gigabit Ethernet

Ethernet IEEE 802.3,



() CSMA/CD. -
, , , Ethernet
,
Ethernet, Fast
Ethernet - Ethernet.
Ethernet Xerox
ALOHA [1], ,
CSMA/CD, 2,94 /.
100 .

Xerox, DEC Intel Ethernet,
10 / [2].
IEEE 802.3.
. .
Ethernet

UTP cat.5 .
,
.
. 7.1. 1980
Xerox, DEC Intel DIX1 Ethernet,
10 / .
, ,
.
Ethernet , ""
,
. 90-

Ethernet, (collapsed backbones) ,
, .
, ~
"", -
-
Ethernet.
1995 IEEE 802.3u Fast Ethernet,
100 /.
: Fast Ethernet
, 10/100 /
. , , Gigabit Ethernet
IEEE 802.3z IEEE 802.3b.

,
- , ,
( Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet)
(
) .

, ,
, : ,
, , ..
, ,
, , .
Ethernet.
Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet
,
.
Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet,
, 802.3,
802.1Q, RSVP, Gigabit Ethernet
- .

. 7.1. Ethernet
7.1. Ethernet

: ,

CSMA/CD : ,
, - [].
Ethernet

. 7-2 Ethernet.
:
: 7 ,
10101010.
.
(SFD, start frame delimiter): 1 ,
10101011.
,

. .
(DA, destination address): 6 , -
(- ), ()
. (unicast),
(multicast) (broadcast).
(SA, source address): , -
, .
( or L, type or length): 2 .
Ethernet ( raw formats ) Ethernet_II IEEE 802.3 (. 7.2),
. Ethernet_II
.

: 00800 IP, 00806 ARP, 0809 AppleTalk,
00600 XNS, 08137 IPX/SPX.
( ) ,
.
IEEE 802,3
- (LLC Data).
64 , LLC Data Pad.

, IEEE 802.3
1500 (0x05DC). ,
, ,
.
(LLC Data): , LLC.
IEEE 802.3 .
,
IEEE 802.3:
Ethernet_802.3 ( , ,
Novell) - LLC Data 0xFFFF;
Ethernet_SNAP ( IEEE 802.2 SNAP ,
,
TCP/IP) - LLC Data 0;
Ethernet_802.2 ( IEEE 802.2 ,
Novell NetWare 4.0) - LLC Data 0xFF (11111111),
0 (10101010).

(pad - ) - ,
,
64 - .

.
(FCS, frame check sequence): 4 , ,
,
SDF FCS.

. 7.2. MAC Ethernet


CSMA/CD
.
.
,
.
.
,
.
, (,
, Token Ring FDDI),
- ,

( Arcnet, 100VG AnyLAN).
, ,
- ,
,
. -,
, .
,
.
: ,
,
(collision domain). - ()

,
(
, > 20-25),
(> 2 ).
.
,
, ,
Ethernet IEEE 802.3.

(. 7.3): , 1 - [5].

. 7.3. (CSMA)
(collision backoff)
(nonpersistent) . ,
, .
1. , , (..
), , - 2.
2. , (
) 1.

. ,
,
, , .
( ,
), ,
,
, .
,
.
. ,
, , , ,

,
, ,
. - ,
.
1- (1-persistent) . ,
, 1- .
, ,
.
1. , , , ,
2;
2. , ,
, , , .
1- , ,
1- , ,
"". , (,
), , , .
, .
- (p-persistent) .
:
1. ,
(1-) .

;
2. , ,
, 1;
3. , 1.

. ,
. , n
, , .
, ,
, n.
np > 1, ,
. , ,
1, .
, , , n,
, , ,
. n
. ,
, .
, ,
(1 - )/ ,
. =0,1, , ,
9.

CSMA/CD

CSMA/CD [3]
- .
,
,
() . ,
.

. CSMA/CD
.
(. 7.4 ):
1. , , , ,
. (.. ), 2.

- ,

( 1);
2. , , , ;
3. , , , ,
, ,
- jam-,
, ;
4. jam-

, 1.
IFG (mterframe gap) 9,6 (12 ).
, ,
. ,
, , ,
.
Jam- (jamming - ). jam-
, , ,
, jam-,
. Jam-
,
SF (safety margin)
. jam-
, CRC
(802.3), 62
1 0 1.

. 7.4. CSMA/CD ( MAC):


) ; )
. 7.5
"" (
( 10Base5 10Base2 ).
t0 A (DTE ) ,
. t1
(DTE ), , , ,
. t2 = t1 + ,
(
). jam-
. t3 ,
jam- .

. 7.5.
CSMA/CD Ethernet
Ethernet , ,
, .
, ,
, 64
.
ST (slot time) - ,
, .
, Ethernet IEEE
802.3.
- . ,
,
.
tP . .
t1=tP -
.
t3 = 2tP - . , , ,
, ,
, , , ,
, . ,
. ,
, 2tP -
RTD (round-trip delay). , RTD
, -
, ,
.
: (bit
time). 1 ,
, .. 0,1 10 /.
Ethernet
[4]:

1. , 512- ,
;
2. ,
- 576 (512
SFD);
3. ~ ,

, , - ,
575 .
Ethernet ,
.
.
RTD ; RTD < 575
.
, 1500 , ,
, ,
64 ( ,
, ,
"" , ). jam-
, CSMA/CD
,
. . ,
,
, .
(

)
U RTD/ST, [5]:
1
1
U=

1 + ( e 1) RDT / ST 1 + 1,72 RDT / ST


- .
.
( RDT = ST) 37%,
( RTD , ST) 1.
, ,

, ,
, , , ,
15.
. ,
IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD, 1- ,
-
. ,
.

, -
.


.
( 51,2 ),
, N- (N - 1
- ),
R
0R< 2K, = min(N,BL), BL (backoff limit) -
, 10.
16, 16 ,
.

CSMA/CD


,
.
. -, 1,
( ),
2,
, , 2

. ,
, . ,
. , 25 2 [6].
,
.
(. 7.4 ).
, ,

( ). .
MAC ,
.
, , , SDF FCS
,
FCS (
CRC-32). ,
. .

( ),
( ),
.
.

Ethernet .
7.1.7
7.1. Ethernet IEEE 802.3
, /

10 (
)
, ()
51,2(512)
, ()
9,6 (96)

16

10
jam-,
32
,
1518
,
64
20-150

Jabber-,

IEEE 802.3

1985 , IEEE 802.3,


:
( 6 ) BNC (10Base-2),
( 13 ) - AUI (10Base-5,

). : - RJ-45
(10Base-), 75 - (10d36),
( ) - ST (10Base-F).
.
10Base-F, ,
:
10Base-FP - 1 33.

.
.
(),
.
,
.
10Base-FB.
2 "-"
. ,
( 15) .
10Base-FL - 2 ,
"-"

, .
- ( 10Base-FB)
.

( 100 , ), 10Base-FL.
Ethernet.
. 7.2 Ethernet
( 10Bd36, 10Base-FP 10Base-FB
).
7.2.
Ethernet IEEE 802.3

10Base5

10Base2

10Base-T
RJ-45 (MDI
MDI-X)

10Base-FL

AUI

BNC

(50 )

(50 )

UTP
cat.3

mm/sm*

/ onoff

500

185

100

Mm - 2000, sm ***

100
(
)

30 (
)

-(
"-")

-(
"-")

10

0,4-0,6

62,5/125 ,
50/125

**

ST

:
MDI - ; MDI-X -
. / RJ-45
MDI.
*
850 (mm) -
10Base-FL, 1310 - (sm) .
** ,
,
***
Ethernet.
, 100 .

7.2. Ethernet
AUI Ethernet

AUI (attachment unit interface) -


Ethernet,
PLS (physical signaling)
(physical medium attachment),
. 7.6.
( ,
10Base-T, 10Base-FL), .
MDI
(transceiver) -MAU (media attachment unit, ).
,
, .. PLS ( ,
, ) AUI , ,
, .. MDI, - MAU.
AUI 15 (), , MAU
15- () ,
AUI .
1 ,
50 .
, 4 . 12,5 . 15
10 -
4, 7, 8, 14 15 .
AUI.

. 7.6. Ethernet, AUI


Ethernet
()
MAU: 10Base5 - ,
,
"" ; 10Base2 (BNC) -
; 10Base-T (RJ-45) - ; 10BaseFL ( ST) -
- ().
.


Allied Telesyn [7], NBase [8], SVEC [9], Surecom [10], Transition
Networks [11]. NBase
, 2
110 ( 7.3, . 7.7 ).

. 7.7. : ) Ethernet [8], )


10Base-FL/10Base-T [11] )
Ethernet/Fast Ethernet [12]
7.3. -
NX300FO Nbase

NX300FO/X

,
mm
,
sm

,
(min/max)

, (min/max)


, /

FO/MX

FO/S

FO/S
X

FO/SY

FO/SZ

Mm

Mm

sm

sm

sm

sm

850

1300

1300

1300

1300

1550

-28

-28

-28

-28

-28

-28

-6

-6

-6

-6

-6

-6

-19/-14

-19/-14

-19/-14

-10/0

0/6

0/2

9/14

9/14

9/14

18/28

28/34

28/30

0,4

0,4

0,4

0,2

0-2

0-5

0-18

15-35

30- 60

40-110

FO/M

10Base2/10Base-FL)

Ethernet

UTP

(10Base-T/10Base-FL,


,
. ,
, .


, . 7.7 , 19",
, . 7.7 .

.
, , Ethernet, Fast
Ethernet, ,
.
10Base-T/10Base-FL

, (1-3 ).
, ,
.
, , ,
MDI.
Ethernet BNC (10Base2/10Base-FL),
,
.
,
,
. ,
.

-
50 .
Ethernet
: Adaptec[13], IMC [14], LANCAST, NBase,
NetOptics [15], FOCI .
-, "-", , "-".
,

(-)
NIC (network interface controller,
network interface card). .
DTE (data termination
equipment, ).
(
)
-
BNC. ,

,
.

RJ-45 ( MD1).
AUI Ethernet.
, ,
.
-
Ethernet (, 7.8).

. 7.8. PCI RJ-45/FO ST mm [7]


Ethernet - -
6 , , .
,
.
()

(repeater) - ,
.
, , . 7.9
. .
(12, 16 24
RJ-45), BNC AUI.
, (4 RJ-45,
8 RJ-45). , Ethernet
OSI (. 7.9 ),
FDDI (DAC, SAC, NAC),
MAC ( OSI)

. 7.9. Ethernet: ) ; )
OSI

RJ-45 MDI MDI-X, RJ-45 8 .


, 1-8 RJ-45
.
.
,
: 1 - 1. 2; 2 - 3, 6; 3 - 4, 5;
4 - 7, 8.
10-
: 1 2, . MDI ( DTE)
, 1
2. , MDI-X ,
2 1.
RJ-45 .
-, 1-3, 2-6, 3-1, 6-2, 4-4,
5-5, 7-7, 8-8.
RJ-45 MDI-X,
.

MDI. , . 7.10
1 2, 3 2 ,
RJ-45 1 3 MDI,
( 2 - MDI-X).
Jabber-. Ethernet ,
. ,
, 1518
1,2 .
. (
, ) ,
, .

(jabber signal - , ),
,
.
jabber-.
,
20 150 , ""
. Jabber- - , ,
, ,
, , , ,
[16].
, (10Base-T)
(10Base-FL) , ..
, Ethernet

. ,

. , ,
-
. -
10 /,
""
( 10Base-T 10Base-FL.)
, ""
( 10Base2 10Base5).
,
,
,
.
, .
""
. 7.10.

. 7.10. ,
: )
; ) ; ) ,
(),
(. 7.10 ).
,

, , ( -
" "), ,
. .
(, )
, 1 (. 7.10 ),

(collision presence). ,
,
, jam
. 1 ,
. 2,
1, .
3.
. 7.6
, . , 2
CD 1 2
1,
, .
, (. 7.10):
1.
,
( ,
);
2. ,
(
,
).

- .
OSI . -

.

(non-blocking), Ethernet
,
.
.
,
, , . 7.11.

. 7.11. Ethernet [16]


.
, ,
, .
,
. , -
-, , , ,
. ,
(broadcast), .. -
1, (
), .. .
:
1. (cut-through, on-the-fly - );
2. SAF (store-and-forward, buffered
switching - ).
, (. 7.12 ),
, -
, ,
. ,
140-150 (1,4-1,5 ). - ,

( - 64 , ),

,
.

Ethernet , .
Ethernet ,
,
, .
cut-through
, ICS (interim cut-through switching ).
, .. 64 (512
). , 512 ,
.
, , .
512 (> 5,12 ), ICS
cat-through, .
ICS
, 64 . ICS
.
, , (. 7.12 ),
, ,
. ,

(destination
address,
DA)

FCS,
, (). ,
"" .
, , Ethernet Fast Ethernet,
- Ethernet-FDDI
.
1512 (151264= 96768 , 1 ). ,
, , . ,

.
- .
. ,

.
. , 1
2, 3 5.
, 2, 3 5.
,
(, TCP/IP),
.
,
.
(flow

control) . Ethernet (, back pressure), . 7.13.


1
2, 3 5. , ,
, . ,
2,
, ,
.

,

. ,
Ethernet,
CSMA/CD.

. 7.12.

. 7.13.
RJ-45 MDI-X,

, : -,
, ,
10Base-T/100Base-TX, .

7.3. Ethernet

Ethernet,
( > 2,5 ),
(> 2),
.
1 - .
, .

1. , .
,
2.
Ethernet ( 1)

1 ,
Ethernet.
1 ,
[4, 17].
1. . (

IEEE 802.3 9 ,
, .)
2. , AUI (. 7.9 ),
,
(DTE). (
- Ethernet .
MAU )
3. DTE 5
, 4 ( AUI ), 2
( MAU ) 2
(MAU , , ).
4. 25
( 50 ,
-
- -).
5. DTE
, ( 10Base2 / 10Base5)
-
("-", . 10Base-T / 10Base-FL).
"10Base-FL 500 .
6. DTE
, :
(10Base-FL)
1000 ;

(10Base-FL) DTE
400 ;
(
, .
/ ).
Ethernet, . 7.14.

. 7.14. Ethernet
1 2; - 4, - 5,
- 2, (AUI ) - 2,
50 ,
2, .. 3 ( - -).
, 1 2 1.
1 3 ,
4.
. ,
3 ,
, AUI 3 ).
.
1 3 2.
Ethernet ( 2)

2,
1, , 1,
2.

1. 2
(DTE)
Ethernet [4, 18]. : -,
RTD
- 575 ; -,
IFG -
49 .

RTD. DTE
, , .
. 7.4 .
DTE1 DTE2 ,
, RTD
. DTE1 DTE2 , RTD
,
. 575
. L
RTD=Base+RTDML
RTD 2 ,
. 7.14:
RTD(1, 2) = 30,73+89,8+4,88+233,5+(500+500) 0,1+176,3 = 468,71
RTD(2, 1) = 26,55+89,8+4,88+233,5+(500+500) 0,1+188,48 = 476,71
RTD(1, 3) = 30,73+89,8+4,88+(12-2) 0,1026+233,5+(500+500) 0,1+156,5 =
449,936
RTD(3, 1) = 12,25+89,8+4,88+(12-2) 0,026+2,5+(500+500) 0,1+188,48 =
463,436
RTD(2, 3) = 26,55+233,5+(500+500) 0,1+(12-2) 0,1026+156,5 - 351,076
RTD(3, 2) = 12,25+233,5+(500+500) 0,1+(12-2) 0,1026+176,3 = 356,576
SF (safety margin) 575-max
(RTD). Ethernet SF 0 5 ,
(. 7.14) SF = 575 - 477 = 98 . 5 50

, .
7.4. RTD () [18]

RTDM*
,
Base** Max*** Base

Base
Max (/)
10Base5
500 11,75
55,05
46,5
89,8
169,5
212,8 0,0866
10Base2
185 11,75
30,731 46,5
65,48
169,5
188,48 0,1026
10Base-T
100 15,25
26,55
42
53,3
165
176,3 0,113
10Base-FL
2000 12,25
212,25 33,5
233,5
156,5
356,5 0,1

48
0
4,88
0
4,88
0
4,88
0,1026
ADI****
* RTDM -
1 .
** Base - ,
{DTE ),
.
*** - .
**** AUI 2 .
. 2 , RTD
.

7.1 (. 7.15 ). Ethernet,


, - .

.
.
. L. SF = 5
:
RTD+SF = 26,55+33,5+L0,1+176,3+5=575 . L=3336 .
,
2000 , ,
.
,
. 2000 ,

- L = 3336 .
7.2 (. 7,15 ). , 7.1,
, .
.
. L1 L2. SF = 5 :
RTD+SF = 26,55+33,5+33,5+(L1+L2)0,1+176,3+5 = 575 . L1+L2=3001 .
7.3 (. 7.15 ). L
, (
).
. .
.
1 2 :
(2 ): RTD = 12,25+156,5+33,5+L0,1
(1 ): RTD = 12,25+156,5+L0,1
,
33,5 .
33,5 , , ..:
(0 ) RTD+SF == 12,25+156,5-33,5+L0, 1+5 = 575 . L
= 4347 .
.
IFG 96 ,
, ,
.
.
CSMA/CD.
96 , , ,
.
,
. ,
-
- , ,
. , ,
SVV (segment variability value), ,
, ,

, .
, 49 .

. 7.15. Ethernet -

IFG
, , ,
IFG. SW
,
.
,

IFG.
7.5. IFG (),
SVV,


(10Base2, 10Base5)
BOK(10Base-FL),
(10Base-T)


16


11

10,5

SVV , . 7.14:
SVV ( 1, 2) = 16+11+8+8 = 43
SVV ( 2, 1) = 10,5+8+8+11 = 37,5
SVV(ye 1, 3) = 16+11+8 = 35
SVV(ye 3, 1) = 10,5+8+11 = 29,5
SVV ( 2, 3) = 10,5+8 = 18,5
SVV ( , 2) = 10,5+8 = 18,5
, SVV 49 ,
2.
1 , ,
, 5 :
SVV=16+11+11+11 = 49 .

7.4. N
, ,
/ .
L .
. N-2, SVV = 10,5+(N-2)8.
N = 6, SVV = 42,5 49 ( N = 7, SVV =
50,5>49). N = (5 ).
,
1. L , RTD (
) ,
( 10Base-T 10Base-FL . 7,4).
,
( ):
RTD+SF = 15.25+(N-2) 42 +165+10,113+5 == 575 .
N = 6 L == 1962 .
Ethernet,
7,4, 5,
, ,
10 ..
,
(n>20) , :
1/n 10 /,
1/n2.
,
.
7.4. Fast Ethernet

Ethernet
Fast Ethernet, IEEE 802.3u [19, 20]:
;
CSMA/CD, Ethernet;
, Ethernet;
- ,
, ,
10/100 /,
Fast Ethernet,
Ethernet Fast
Ethernet,
.
Fast Ethernet.
Fast Ethernet

. 7.16 Fast Ethernet.


100Base-T IEEE 802.3u ,
,
(, FX, T4).
Ethernet, ( )
PLS (. 7.6),
AUI. Fast Ethernet
PCS,
. ,
,
,
4/5 NRZ1 100Base-FX.
MII Fast Ethernet. MII (medium
independent interface) Fast Ethernet AUI
Ethernet. MII
. -
. II
Fast Ethernet. 40-
. II
0,5 .
(, RJ45),
. ,
,
.

. 7.16, Fast Ethernet, Mil


Fast Ethernet
Fast Ethernet

Fast Ethernet IEEE 802.3u


(. 7.17. . 7.6): 100Base-FX, 100Base- 100Base-T4.

. 7.17. Fast Ethernet


100Base-FX. -
FDDI PMD, 6.
100Base-FX Duplex SC.
.

7.6.
Fast Ethernet IEEE 802.3u [19]

100Base-FX
Duplex SC

100Base-TX
RJ-45

UTP Cat. 5

100Base-T4
RJ-45
UTP Cat.
3, 4, 5
8/6
NRZI


4/5
4B/5B
NRZI
MLT-3
/
2
2
4

412 (mm)

2 (mm)*
100
100

100 (sm)*
: mm - , sm -
* - .

100Base-TX.
5.
FDDI UTP PMD,
6. RJ-45, 10Base-T,
: MDI ( , ) MDI-X ( Fast
Ethernet, ). MDI
Fast Ethernet. 1
3. 2 4 - . RJ-45
, 100Base-TX, 10Base-T,
.
RJ-45 , ,
.
100Base-T4.
UTP Cat. 3 .

Ethernet Fast Ethernet


UTP Cat. 3
.
100Base-TX,
, 100Base-T4
(. 7.18 ).

1, 3 4, - 2, 3 4. 1 2
Ethernet. 3 4
, , ,
.
, 5.
33,33 /.
8/6.
, 33,33
/, 30 .
,
() (ternary) .
8/6 [16]; , , ,
8 ()
6 ()
. , .7.18 ,
: (1006/8)/3 = 25 ,
.
100Base-T4 .
Fast Ethernet
100Base-TX 100Base-T4 (
, 100 /),

100Base-T4 .
, 100Base-TX
100Base-FX.

. 7.18. 100Base-T4: ) ;
) 6/8

Fast Ethernet

, Fast Ethernet,
Ethernet: ; ; (
/ ); ; .
- ( Ethernet)
, PCS. PMA, PMD AUTONEG, ,
, II , -
(100Base-FX, 100Base- 100Base-T4).
, ,
, II.
.
100Base- 1. ,
, RJ-45
100/10 / .
.
100Base-FX ( IMC, Adaptec,
Transition Networks .) -
SC ( ST) .
(media converter) - ,
. ,
, ,
100Base-T4, 100Base-TX/100Base-FX.


- . , 100BaseTX/100Base-FX,
- ,
RJ-45 (100Base-).
.
Fast Ethernet :
I. RTD 130 .
,
4 TX/FX, .
II.
: RTD < 92 ,
TX/FX; RTD < 67 , 4- (

4 TX/FX. ,
4 TX/FX,
I.)
-
, Fast Ethernet
100/10 / RJ-45
( 100Base-

T4).
up-link .
Fast Ethernet 100Base-FX, FDDI , (155
/), Gigabit Ethernet . Fast
Ethernet : 3Com, Bay Networks, Cabletron, DEC, Intel, NBase,
Cisco .
7.5. Fast
Ethernet

Fast Ethernet
( Ethernet). 1
, .
Ethernet, , ,
, .
1,
2. , ,
1, 2.
1

1 . 7.19 [21].
- 1
. , [
1D) 5 . ,
- ,
(. 7.7).

. 7.19. 1, 1, 1, 1D:

(1) "-",
.
( , -),
. ,
412 .
, ,
,

, ,

(,

,
).
7.7. 1, 1, 1, 1D: [22]



1
FX
412
FX, ,
2000
FX, ,
110*
1
TX/FX
160
UTP - 4
131
1
TX/FX
208
1D TX/FX
111
: FX - 100Base-FX, TX - -lOOBase-TX, T4 - 100Base-T4, *
Nbase.

: 1 I ( I 1
), 1 1D - II.
,
.
2

RTD
. Fast Ethernet RTD
512 .
Ethernet (575 ), ,
Fast Ethernet
DTE,
.
, -
Fast Ethernet
,
( Ethernet).
RTD
RTD ,
. . 7.8

Fast Ethernet .
,
0,5
DTE.
(. 7.7)
(. 7,8) 2 , ,
D 1 (. 7.19).
1: RTD = 100+4121,0 = 512 FX, -
1: RTD= 100+1001,112+140+1601,0 =511,2 - TX/FX
1: RTD = 127+1001,112+140+1311,0 - 509.2 - UTP
T4
1: RTD = 100+1001,112+92+2081,0 =511,2 - TX/FX
1D: RTD = 100+2051,112+292=511,96 - TX/FX ( 1 2)
1D: RTD = 100+1051,112+292+1111,0 =511,76 - TX/FX
( 2 3).
RTD 512 ,
2.
Fast Ethernet
2 (, 7.20). 7.5-7.7 ,
10 . 7.8
:
100- 100Base-T4.
7.8. RTD Fast
Ethernet , [21]


RTD, ()*
100**

DTE / ( /
FX)
DTE / ( 4)
138**
DTE / ( 4 FX)
127**
I
140
II ( TX/FX)
92
II ( 4)
67
I (TX/FX )
130
II (TX/FX )
92
UTP Cat. 3***, 1
1.14
UTP Cat. 4***, 1
1,14
UTP Cat. 5, 1
1,112
, 1
1,0
* DTP Cat. 5.
.
** .
*** 100Base-T4.

. 7.20. Fast Ethernet

7.5.
I (TX/FX),
10 , (. 7.20 ). . . 7.8 :
RTD = 100+201,112+2140+L1,0 = 512 . L= 109,76 .

7.6.
II (TX/FX),
10 , (. 7.20 ).
. RTD = 100+201,112+292+L1,0 = 512 . L = 205,76 .
7.7.
II (TX/FX) ,
10 , (. 7.20 ).
. RTD = 100+101,112+92+11,0 = 512 . L = 308,88 .
7.8.
1 2 , . 7.20 .
. RTD = 127+(L1+ L2+ L3 + L4) 1,112+67+140+92 = 512 .
L = 77.33 . . ,
Fast Ethernet, SM
= 5 , 5 , .. 10 , Ethernet
- 50 .
7.6. Ethernet

(
)
.
.
- ( 100BaseT4) - .
"-". -
. Ethernet,
"", ,
.
,
MAC.

( /)
,
.
.

. MAC
- ,
.
CSMA/CD,
(. 7.21),
(. 7.4 ).
, , MAC, ,
( 1995 ) ,
,

. Ethernet
, 1997 , ,
IEEE 802. - , [23].
- .
, :
1. ()
, IFG, 96 ,
,
.
2. 20 /
Ethernet.
3. -
( 98%) .
4. , ,

100 ,
,
5. ,
( : , , ..).

. 7.21. (
MAC)
Ethernet/Fast
Ethernet 10Base-T 10Base-FL, 100Base-TX
100Base-FX . AUI II
(, ) ,
,
MAC. Ethernet/Fast Ethernet,
7.7. Gigabit Ethernet ( IEEE 802.3z 802.3ab)

1996 IEEE 802.3


Gigabit Ethernet 802.3z. 1996 11 (3Com, Bay Networks, Cisco,

Compaq, Granite, Intel, LSI Logic, Packet Engines, Sun, UB Networks VLSI
Technology) Gigabit Ethernet Alliance - GEA [24].
,

Gigabit Ethernet, :
Ethernet Fast Ethernet
;
;

.
GEA 100 .
IEEE 802.3
.

802.3z [25].
Gigabit Ethernet

. 7.22 Gigabit Ethernet.


Fast Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet
, - ,
, 1000Base-LX/SX/
8/10 [26], , , 1000Base-T
/T2 [27].
PCS,
GMII (gigabit media independent interface).
GMII MAC
, II
10, 100 1000 /. 8-
,
. , GMII ,
, -
, - ,
. ,

, , , Gigabit Ethernet
GMII .
PCS.
"1000Base- PCS
8/10, ANSI X3T11 Fibre Channel.
FDDI,
, 8 ,
, 10- . ,
10 , , (
Gigabit Ethernet 512 ).

1000- PCS

DTP Cat.5 100 - /2,
Level One Communications [28, 29].
- .

. 7.22. Gigabit Ethernet, GMII


Gigabit Ethernet

. 7.23. Gigabit Ethernet


PMD. Gigabit Ethernet
, 5,
.
PCS
,
() PMD.
PMD /
. 4
,
802.3Z (1000Base-X) 802.b (1000-), (. 7.23),
1000Base-X. 1000Base-X
Fibre Channel - , ,
. Fibre Channel 4-

. FC-0 ( ) FC-1
(/) Gigabit Ethernet. Fibre
Channel ,
Gigabit Ethernet.
8/10 4/5, FDDI.
4/5 Fibre Channel,
.

, 1 ( ),
0 ( ),
.
1000- ,
[30]:
1000Base-SX -
770-860 , -10
0 , ON/OFF ( / ) 9 .
-17 , 0 ;
1000Base-LX -
1270-1355 , -13,5
-3 , ON/OFF ( / ) 9 .
-19 , -3 ;
1000Base-CX - (STP "twinax")
.
. 7.9
, Hewlett Packard
1000Base-SX ( HFBR-5305, = 850) 1000BaseLX ( HFCT-5305, = 1300).
7.9. Gigabit
Ethernet [31]

,
,
,
,
/ ,
,
/ ,

1000Base-SX
=850
min
max

1000Base-LX
= 1300
max
min

0
4,75
-10
0
9
-

0
4,75
-13
-3
9
-

70
5,25
-4
-17
0,85
0,26

70
5,25
-3
-20
4
0,45

1000Base-X .
7.10.
7.10.

( ),

*,

1000Base-LX (9 )
5000**
( - (50 )***
500
550
1300 )
(62,5 )***
320
400
1000Base-SX (50 )
400
500
( - (62,5 )
200
275
850 )
(62,5 )
160
220
1000Base- ; STP 150
25
* , (25 ),

** ,
/ 100 .
*** (. -
)

8/10
1250 /. ,
625 . . 7.10 ,
2-6 . - Gigabit Ethernet
.
, . . ,
NBase Gigabit Ethernet,
40
- DFB--,
1550 [32].


62,5/125 50/125. ,
Gigabit Ethernet

. 1000Base-SX
1000Base-LX ,
.

( 30-50 ).

.
.
.
Gigabit Ethernet
- 1250
, - 0,8 . ,
,

622,08 / (STM-4, 8/10,


777.6 ).
Gigabit Ethernet ,

. ,
.
.


( ),
.
, ,
,
, ,

.
DMD. ,

(. 7.24 ).
: ,
(, )
. DMD ,
,

. ,
( 1300 ) [33, 34].

.
100- ,

DMD,
1000Base-LX. ,
Gigabit Ethernet - ,

. -
,
,
(. 7.10).
(mode conditioning patch-cords),
( ,
) .
, - Duplex SC ,
- Duplex SC, : Duplex SC-Duplex SC.
, ,
Fast Ethernet, - Duplex
SC,


.
. ,
.

, 10-15 (. 7,24 ) [35, 36].
,
1000Base-LX ,
.

. 7.24,
:
) (DMD)
; )

1000Base-SX. 1000Base-SX


,
.
1000Base-T - Gigabit Ethernet
5 100 .
,
250 /. ,
,
- (dual duplex) 1000Base-T.
1 / UTP cat.5
, , 1000Base-TX.


,
.
1000Base-T,

: 5- - -5; QAM-25, . [37].


-5.
5- ? 4-
. 4
- 00, 01, 10, 11.
, 2
4- , 125 250 , (. 7.25), ,
, .
.
. 6 /.

P802.3ab. -
1999 .

. 7.25. 4- -4
MAC

MAC Gigabit Ethernet


CSMA/CD, Ethernet Fast Ethernet.
( )
.
Ethernet IEEE 802.3 64
.
( ).
, - - 512
51,2 . Ethernet
, RTD,
, 512 (
).
Ethernet Fast Ethernet ,
64 -
512 5,12 ( Fast Ethernet 1 = 0,01 ). ,
,
:
1. ,
(, , );
2. ( ),
.

Fast Ethernet ,
Ethernet. ,
.
Gigabit Ethernet
, Ethernet
Fast Ethernet. , ,
.
,
20 , .
Gigabit Ethernet
. Gigabit Ethernet 512 8
Ethernet Fast Ethernet. ,
Ethernet Fast Ethernet, ,
,
" " (carrier extension).

,
" ".

.
( 512 ) ,
- , 512
,
.
. LLC
. 512 ,
. . 7.26 Gigabit
Ethernet .

. 7.26. Gigabit Ethernet


SDF: Start of frame Delimiter -
DA: Destination Address -
S: Source Address -
L: ( 802.3)
: ( Ethemet_II)
FCS: Frame Check Sequence -

- ,
Fast Ethernet
.
. 448 (512-64)
. Gigabit Ethernet
NBase Communications .
, (packet
bursting), .
/ ,
512 ,
.
96 ,
(. 7.27 ).
, ,
.
,
1518.
, ,
,
, (. 7.27 ).

. 7.27. : ) ; )


Gigabit Ethernet: , , ,
.
(1000Base-FL, 1000Base-SX) Duplex SC,
1000- UTP cat.5 100
1999 .

Gigabit Ethernet. PCI,


SBus .
G-NIC, Packet Engines [38]:
1. 64/32- PCI- 33
2 /.
2. , ,
.
3. IEEE 802.3 IEEE 802.3z
.
: Windows 95 (NDIS3);
Windows NT (NDIS4, NDIS5, Intel DEC Alpha ); Novell NetWare (ODI
3.12 ); Solaris (2.5x, PCI SBus); DEC UNIX (4.3 BSD); SGI IRIX (5.3
6.2); HP-UX (10.20); Linux; FreeBSD.
. Ethernet
, MAC.
RJ-45 (10Base-T, 100Base-),
, -
1,
. Gigabit Ethernet
,
- .
CSMA/CD , .
- (.
7.28). .
, ,
MAC . ,
,
(
). CSMA/CD,

.
,
- .
, ,
100 ,

. 7.28. Gigabit Ethernet


, ,
, .
,
802.3, MAC
.
,
,
.
. Gigabit
Ethernet:
;
, IEEE 802.3;
Ethernet, Fast Ethernet;
;
3;
QoS RSVP;
IEEE 802.1q .

Gigabit
Ethernet.

Gigabit Ethernet : 3Com,


Acacia Networks, Alteon Networks, AN-COR, Cabletron, Cisco Systems, Essential
Communications, Foundry Networks, GigaLabs, Hewlett Packard, NBase
Communications, Packet Engines, Rapid City Communications, XLNT Corp. [39].
7.8. Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet.
: Gigabit
Ethernet, Fast Ethernet Gigabit
Ethernet, Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet.
Gigabit Ethernet.
-, Gigabit Ethernet
(. 7.29).
550 , -
, UTP Cat.5 - 100 (. 7.10).
802.3
-.

- 7.29. Gigabit Ethernet


Fast Ethernet Gigabit
Ethernet.
Gigabit
Ethernet (. 7.30). 802.1Q,

.
Fast Ethernet Gigabit Ethernet.

, N
10/100 / (N = 8-16), 1000 / ( =
4-8).
( ) Gigabit Ethernet up-link . ,
Fast Ethernet,

Gigabit Ethernet
(. 7.31).

: , (IEEE
802.3); ; (IEEE 802.1Q); RSVP .

. 7.30. Fast Ethernet


Gigabit Ethernet

. 7.31. Fast Ethernet Gigabit


Ethernet
. . 7.32
Ethernet. (,
) ,
: -,
RTD, -,
, 15-25,

50-100 .
Ethernet MAC,

.
, .

. 7.32. : ) ;
) (
); ) ( 802.3)


(. 7.32 ). ,
,
-; Fast
Ethernet Ethernet,
- , ,
" " .
.
(
) ,

, .
.
.
,
, .
, ,
Ethernet,
. ,
(
).
(. . 7.2).
, CSMA/CD,
.
Ethernet

(. 7.32 ). "-"
( IEEE 802.3) - ,
MAC. Gigabit Ethernet
,
. 802.3

Fast Ethernet Ethernet.



, ,
, .
. VLAN (virtual LAN)
,
,
. VLAN
, .

, .
-
. ,
, , ,
,

.
( -).

IP, IPX ..
, ,
, , . ,
, -
.
, ,
,
.
IEEE 802.1Q,
.
- (tag switching) [40].
( ,
) -
, 2 : (12 );
(3 ) TR (1 ).
1
(. 7.33). 2
, V1,
-
- - V1
.

. 7.33.

IEEE 802,1Q
:
MAC Address Tagging - - ;
Frame Type Tagging -
(, IP IPX);
Layer 3 Tagging - I
;
Policy-based Tagging -
, , .
IEEE 802.1Q
Gigabit Ethernet.
Gigabit Ethernet,
IEEE 802.1Q.
RSVP.
. ,
,
.
.

Internet. RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol)

. RSVP TCP/IP,
Internet,
RSVP
QoS (Quality of Service),
. , RSVP
, ,
.
/
- RSVP -
: (.
7.34 ). , ,
QoS. ,
.
, RSVP
,

. , RSVP
QoS
. QoS
,
, .
RSVP -
,
,
. ,
, .
,
, (. 7.34 ).
RSVP
, ,
.
RSVP
Internet. RSVP
,
, ,
.
,
, RSVP
, .

. 7.34. ) RSVP ,
QoS; )

Ethernet .
OSI, RSVP IEEE 802.1Q
Ethernet,
, Gigabit Ethernet
. QoS RSVP
QoS, , , RSVP

.

QoS .
QoS, ,
,
.
10G Ethernet ( 10 /),
2001 [41]. , Ethernet
10/100/1000/...
, ,
.

1. N. Abramson. "Development of the ALOHANET//IEEE Transactions on


Information Theory, Vol. IT-31, March, 1985
2. Digital Equipment Corp., Intel Corp., and Xerox Corp. The Ethernet: A Local Area
Network, Data Link Layer and Physical Layer Specifications, Version 1.0, Sept.,
1980.; Version 2,0, Nov., 1980
3. ISO/IEC Standard 8802-3. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection
(CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications [ISO publication
of IEEE Standard 802.3], 1996
4. .1.5.2 Maximum Collision-Fragment Size, Annex B. ISO/IEC Standard 8802-3,
1996 (E)
5. W. Stallings. Local & Metropolitan Area Networks. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle
River, New Jersey 07458, 1997. - 605 .
6. D. Boggs, J. Mogul, Ch. Kent. "Measured Capacity of an Ethernet: Myth and
Reality". Digital, Western Research Laboratory, Palo Alto, 1988, pp. 1-20
7. Media Converter and Media Conversion Kits. Allied Telesyn, 1997,
http://www.alliedtelesyn.com/prod12t.htm
8. PDF Documents: Enterprise Switches, Switches, Expansion Modules, Hub Data
Sheets, Giga-HUB Modules, Transceiver and Adapter Data Sheets, Miscellaneous
Manuals, White Papers, NBase Advertisements. NBase Communications, 1998,
http://www.nbase.conn/pdf/
and
Ordering.
SVEC's
complete
product
list,
1997,
9. Products
http://www.svec.com.tw/Products/producte.htm
Transceiver
/
Repeater.
SURECOM
Technology,
1998,
10. Ethernet
http://www.surecom-net.com/product/pro-8.htm
11. Media Conversion Products - Go the Distance with Fiber. Transition Networks,
1998, http://www.transition.com/products/converterJndex.html
12. 10&100Mbps "twister" Media Translators in Standard Rackmount Chassis. Lancast,
1998, http://www.lancast.com/7000.html

13. Networking
Products.
Adaptec,
1998,
http://www.adaptec.com/support/overview/networking.html
14. Products: Media Conversion, Media Conversion, Media Conversion Switches,
Bridges/LAN Extenders, Hubs/Repeaters, Transceivers & Network Interface
Cards. IMC Networks, 1998, http://www.imcnetworks.com/
15. Welcome to Net Optics Global Source. NetOptics 1998, http://www.netoptics.com/
16. F. Halsall, Data Communications, Computer Networks and Open Systems. AddisonWesley, 1996. -907 p.
17. 7.4 10-Mbps Configuration Guidelines: Model 1, Quick Reference Guide to
Ethernet.
Charles
Spurgeon,
1995,
http://wwwhost.ots.
utexas.edu/ethernet/10quickref/ch7qr_5.html
18. 7.5 10-Mbps Configuration Guidelines: Model 2, Quick Reference Guide to
Ethernet.
Charles
Spurgeon,
1995,
http;//wwwhost.ots.utexas,edu/ethernet/10quickref/ch7qr_6.html
19. IEEE Standard 803.3u. Media Access Control (MAC) Parameters, Physical Layer,
Medium Attachment Units, and Repeater for 100b/s Operation, Type 100Base-T,
1995
20. . , . . Fast Ethernet: ,
, . BHV, 1998. - 444 .
21. System consideration for multi-segment 100Base-T networks. IEEE Standard
802.3u, 1995. -pp. 281-287
22. H, Johnson. Fast Ethernet: Dawn of a New Network. Prentice Hall PRT, 1996. - 310
p.
23. IEEE Standard 802.3x. Specification for 802.3 Full Duplex Operation, 1997
24. Gigabit Ethernet Alliance 1998, http://www.gigabit-ethernet.org/
25. "Gigabit Ethernet Standard Makes Considerable Progress To Meet June Ratification
Date." Gigabit Ethernet Task Force Resolves All Comments To Gigabit Ethernet
Draft Standard. 1998, http://www.gigabit-ethernet.org/news/releases/031698.html
26. Draft Standard IEEE 802,3z. Media Access Control (MAC) Parameters, Physical
Layer, Repeater and Management Parameters for 1000Mb/s Operation, 1998
27. Gigabit Ethernet over Category 5. 1997, http://www.bicsi.org/gigabit.html
28. ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A. "Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling
Standard", October 6,1995
29. H. Koeman, A. Bennett. "Relationship [Between] Near End and Far End Crosstalk in
Modular RJ-45 Connectors". Contribution to TIATR41.8.1-97-08-46, 8/1997
30. R. Seifert. Gigabit Ethernet: Technology and Applications for High-Speed LANs.
Addisson-Wesley, 1998. -411 p.
31. HP 850 nm Gb/s (Gigabit) Ethernet Fiber Optic VCSEL 19 Transceiver. Hewlett
Packard,
1997,
http://www.hp.com/HPCOMP/fiber/gigabit/prelim/hfbr5305_p.html; HP 1300 nm Gb/s (Gigabit) Ethernet
Fiber
Optic
Laser
19
Transceiver,
Hewlett
Packard,
1997,
http://www.hp.com/HP-COMP/fiber/gigabit/prelim/hfct5305J3.html
32. Backbone/Enterprise Switching Solutions. NBase, 1998, http://www.nbase.co.il/
33. D. Cunningham. "Modal Bandwidth Investigation: Examination of the Fundamentals
of Multi-mode Fiber Behavior with Laser Sources". Presented to IEEE 802.3z,
November 1997.

34. H. Frazier. "Results of Field Measurements of Optical Fibers", presented to IEEE


802.3z, November 1997
35. Differential Mode Delay - Gigabit Ethernet - Transmission Distances, 1998,
http://www.computercrafts.com/White%20Papers/differentiaLmode_delayJnfo.htm
36. Differential Mode Delay Q&A, Gigabit Ethernet Alliance, 1998, http://www.gigabitethernet.org/technology/overview/dmd.html
37. Gigabit Ethernet Over Category 5: Part I - Proposed Signaling Schemes, Part II Channel Environment and SNR Margin. Scope Communications, 1998,
http://scope.com/white15.htm; http://scope.com/white19.htm
Network
Interface
Card.
Packet
Engines,
1998,
38. G-NIC
http://www.packetengines.com/products/gnic/default.htm
39. Vendors of Gigabit Ethernet equipment, 1998, http://www.infotech.tuchemnitz.de/paetz/ge/
40. An Introduction to VLAN Tagging, 1997, http://www.lanoptics.co.uk/tagging.htm
41. High Performance Network Buying Decisions: A Walk-Trough the Evaluation
Parameters of Gigabit Ethernet and ATM Networks. Packet Engines, 1998. -13 p.

8.

(1 / )
.

:
, ,
.

5-8 ,


-
, .
AON (All-optical Networks)
, ,
, (),
.

,
, .

, [
, WDM,
EDFA, ),
, . ,
, : Lucent
Technologies, Alcatet, Ericsson, Fujitsu, Hewlett Packard, NEC, NTT, Nortel. Siemens
[1-4].
8.1.

,
AON,
, 1
, 0 - .
, EDFA
.
, AON.
.
- .
( ),
.
20 100 ,
1 5

0,1 . - 10 ,
1 . pin InGaAsP, 1300
100 /,
(DFB),
1550 10 /.
.
; ( ,
standard fiber, SF), (dispersion shifted fiber,
DSF), (non-zero dispersion shifted
fiber, NZDSF),
50/125 62,5/125.
- .
NZDSF, DSF.

2 .
, , ,
.

, ,
.
. -
, FDDI, Fast Ethernet
( 100 /, 125 ), (STM-1
155/, 194 ), STM-4 622
/ ( 778 ) Gigabit Ethernet (1000 /,
1250 ), ,
STM-16 (2,5 /), , , STM-64 (10 /).
/ (. .
8.2). ,
WDM, ,

/ (DWDM) 40 .

,
.

,
.
(. . 8.4)
.
EDFA,
980 1480 . 1535 1560
, 30-38
. EDFA

, WDM ,
,
(. . 8.5)
,
, .
22
44, 88 1616.

, ,

, , ()
. , ,
. .
(. . 8.6)
. , 1
,
- 2,
1 2 2 ,
.

. 8.1.
8.2.
DWDM

DWDM ( WDM)
:
1550 ,
EDFA (1530-1560 );
, (3,2 / 1,6 / 0,8 0,4
).
, DWDM
( 32- ), DWDM,
()
, ,
WDM
/ ,
. /
, ,
. -
,
DWDM

WDM (
1310 , 1550
1650 ).
( ) ()
DWDM .
DWDM WDM,
8.1. AON

DWDM
. 8.1 .
.
. -
,
AWG (arrayed waveguide grating). -
, (1, 2, ... )
.
, , ,
-,
, . , , ,
AWG ,
.
.
,
- (. 8.1 ).
,
.
DWDM , ,
. , (. 8,1 ),

10-12 ,
<-20 , 1 , (
Oki Electric Industry [5]). -
/ DWDM
.

. 8.1. DWDM : ) [5]);


) - [6]
DWDM


.
,
,
.
ITU-T DWDM
100 (0,8 ), (. 8.2).

50 (0,4 ). ,
, ,
,
.
100 . . 8.2 100
. , 500/400,
.
,
,
.
:
( -); - 2,4 /
(STM-16) 10 / (STM-64); ,
.
EDFA
- 1540
(. 4.19, . 4),
/ .
, .


/ - , STM-64 4-7 ,
STM-16. ,
EDFA
STM-64 (1540-1560 ), STM-16 (
EDFA,
).
8.2. ITU-T [7]
,

100
(8
)

200
(4
)

196,1
196,0
195,9
195,8
195,7
195,6
195,5
195,4
195,3
195,2
195,1
195,0
194,9
194,8
194,7
194,6
194,5
194,4
194,3
194,2
194,1
194,0
193,9
193,8
193,7
193,6
193,5
193,4
193,3
193,2
193,1
193,0
192,9
192,8
192,7
192,6
192,5

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

400
( 4
)

500/400

( 8
)

600
( 4
)


1000 ,
( 4
)

*
*
*

*
*

*
*

*
*

*
*

*
*
*
*

*
*

1528,77
1529,55
1530,33
1531,12
1531,90
1532,68
1533,47
1534,25
1535,04
1535,82
1536,61
1537,40
1538,19
1538,98
1539,77
1540,56
1541,35
1542,14
1542,94
1543,73
1544,53
1545,32
1546,12
1546,92
1547,72
1548,51
1549,32
1550,12
1550,92
1551,72
1552,52
1553,33
1554,13
1554,94
1555,75
1556,55
1557,36

192,4
192,3
192,2
192,1

*
*
*
*

*
*

*
*

1558,17
1558,98
1559,79
1560,61

50 . , ,
50 15401560 , EDFA.
. -,

,

( ). , 0,4
STM-64 (. 8.2).
, STM-64 50
,
[7].
(STM-4 ), . -,
50 ,
, ,
.
EDFA, (
1530-1560 ) .
EDFA 40 STM64 100 400 .

. 8.2.
. 8.3
, 100/50 ,
Ciena Corp.
8.3. DWDM MultiWave Sentry 4000 ( Ciena Corp. [8])


, /




(BER)

100 (40 2,5 /)


OC-48/(STM-16)/OC-48c/STM-16c
50
5 25 (500 ) 2 33
(240 )
< 10-15

,
,
,







,
40 ,

/ STM16/G.957 1-16 & S. 16.1

18 3
-5 0,5
1250-1600
WaveWatch CIENA SNMP
TMN
VT100 (), RS-232,
Telnet, ITU TMN, TL-1, SNMP
1
SDH,

RS-422/X.25 (TL-1 ), IP/802.3


10Base-T
2,048 / 1625
-48 58
800 , 925 () - 1
1000 , 1250 () - 2

8.3. EDFA

EDFA
- .
- , (. 8.3 ).

, .
,
, ,
,
, ,
. , , ,
.
EDFA
(. 8,3 ). ,

"" ,

,
,
. EDFA WDM
, .
, ,
,
, ,
.
EDFA,
,
.

. 8,3. : )
; ) EDFA
,
, . ,
, EDFA .
EDFA

, EDFA:
, ,
-.
out sut (saturation output power) -
.
.
. EDFA
36 (4 ).
G (gain)
P
(8 1)
G = S out ,
PS in

PS in, S out - ()
, g=101gG
().

. , EAU-200/350, IRE
POLUSE-GROUP, 42
(. 8.4).
ASE (amplified spontaneous
emission). EDFA
.

. ,
EDFA, ,
, ,
. .
(, 8.4).
1 /.
,
, , , -
, ,
ASE (. 8.4).
ASE
.
.
, ,
. ,
c
, ( v = 2 ,
),
,
ASE=ASE .
, EDFA ,
.
,
,
.

. 8.4. EDFA, (ASE


- )
EDFA -
~1 ,
10 [9] - - ASE
.
. [10]
n
ASE = hv sp (G 1)
(8 2)

h - , 6,6252 10-34 2 , v - (),


1530-1560 (v =/ -
, 2,9979 108 /), nsp - , . nsp= = 1 G >> 1,

ASE id /G hv, =1550 1,28 10-19
/ 1 . 0,8
100 , '
1,28 10-8
- 48,9 ).
- NF (noise figure) /
(SNR,) / (SNRout):
P
P
(8 3)
NF = S in / S out
PN in PN out
,
PN in = hv v.
ASE
, : N out =ASE+hv v.
, PS out / PS in = G -
:
1
ASE
NF = (1 +
)
(8 4)
hv
G

EDFA - :
nf=101gNF. - 1 (0 ) nsp/=1
G = 1. , ,
. 3 (101g2 )
nf , (
), n=2, 5,5 .
1 -,
.
- . - NF
, G1 G2 NF1 NF2.
(8-5)
PN out=hvv [NF1G1G2 + (NF2 - 1)G2]
,
,
(8-6)
PS out=G1 G2 PS in
-
(8-7)
NF = NF1 + (NF2 - 1)/G1

, ,

.
.
- (8-4),
G ASE . . 8.5
[11].

. 8.5, EDFA

, EFDA . ,
ASE .
(, 100 , 50 ) 1
. ~ (
),
, ASE

,
( ). - , . .
ASE II = ASE. ASE=ASEII +ASE = 2ASE
. out
=tot -ASE. tot- - ,

( ).
in,
( ). (8-4)
G.
. 8.4
EDFA,
(. ) IPG
Laser, IP Fibre Devices IPC - IRE-POLUS [12].

8.4. EDFA EAU-200 EAU-350


[12]


, DWDM


,
1530
1570
Pout sat (in= -3),
23,0
23,5
: EAU-200
25,5
26,0
EAU-350

42
, (=1545)

1553-1567 (Pin= -3 ),
0,3

,
0,2
nf
1545-1565 , in= - 4
5,5
in= +4
6,0
,
0,2
/,
50
/
/
SMF-28

FC/PC, FC/SPC, FC/APC
pig-tail-a,
1,5

,
965
,
1100
,
500000
1000000

, ( )
5
7
20 ,
12

,
-30
+65
,
-30
+80
, .
3
, %
0
95
,
11521165
,
0.3

Bellcore

EDFA

, ,
, (. 8.6).

()


/
.


.


, -
, , WDM.
,
.
()

, .
, ,
-
.

. 8.6.
. 8.5 EDFA
.
8,5, EFDA


G
*

NF

out sut

*
**



G
* ;
** : G ,
, PMD ,

EDFA

. 8,7
,
EDFA.

( g() () N0()
(). .

. 8.7.
EDFA.
(/),
L () EDFA L .
,
EDFA :
g=10lg(Pout i / Pin i)
(8-8) / (8-9)
L=10lg(Pout i 1 / Pin i)
N N0
),
(8 10) / (8 11)
g = 10 lg( out i
L=10lg(Nout i 1 / Nin i)
N in i
in, out i, .Nin i.Nout i
,
i .
Pout sat.
,
( ) -
,
(, ) .
, out i - 1
= Pout i = Pout sat. L = g. , (8-10) (8-11),
Nout i =Nout i - 1 +N0. Nout 0
, .. Nout 0=0 /
k- : snrk=10(Pout sat / Nout k)=10lg(Pout sat / kN0)
, ,
:
(8-12)
snrk=pout sat-nout-10lgk ()
nout=101gNout=n out id + nf= - 134/1 + 10lg + g + nf ()
.
(8-12), SNR EDFA.
SNR /
.
,

,
.
,
: ATM/STM-1, ATM/STM-4, Gigabit Ethernet, STM-16,
SNR, ,
, - STM-16.
8.4. WDM/TDM


SDH
2,5 / 10 /.
80 ,
32 STM-16 8 STM-64.
- 32 STM-16 8 STM-64:
;

(1,5/2/6/8/34/45/140 /);
SDH ;
.

/. . 8.6
STM-16 STM-64. ,
STM-64 /,
510 STM-16,
EDFA STM-64,
8.6.
STM-16 STM-64 [13]

/,
, /
- PMD

STM-16
(2,5 /)
18-21
10500

STM-64
(10 /)
27-31
1600
< 400

. STM-16
, STM-64,
,
. ,
- , . 8.7 (
SF NZDSF 20 5,5 /( ),
). ,
, ,
.
8.7.


SF,
NZDSF,

STM-16
525
1909

STM-64
80
291

. PMD
STM-16 STM-64. , PMD
1/10 .
40 10
STM-16 STM-64 . PMD
L pmd(L)=T L, -
. =0,5 / ( NZDSF TrueWave SMF-LS, . . 2.7, . 2) STM-16 STM64 6400 400
. , .
, ,
.
, NZDSF - LEAF, 0,08
/ .

. 8.8
32STM-16 8STM-64, 496 . ,
32STM-16
. 8STM-64
,
EDFA.

. 8.8.
SDH 496 : ) 32STM-16; ) 8STM64

,
. STM-64

: STM-4 STM-16,
,
STM-1
1, 2, .., STM-64 ,
STM-64 STM-4 STM-16.
STM-16 .
8.8.
STM-16 STM-64

/
STM-16 (2488,320 /)
STM-4 (622,488 /)
STM-1 (155,520 /)
(34,368 /)
1 (2,048 /)

SDH

STM-16

STM-64 (9953,280 /)

STM-64 ,
STM-16. Release 1.0
STM-64, ,
.
( - 4- )
STM-16. ,

.
Release 1,0 STM-64
.


, ,
.
8STM-64 10 /, ,
32STM-16 2,5 /.
, - WDM , - - ,
STM-16
STM-64 SDH.
8.5.


, .3.6.
( 20 50
).

.
-
,
.
, .
: , ,
, .
- ,

.
(Pockels),

.
, .

/ WDM,
-
.
-.
- 22 ( 22)

- . 8.9 .
, ,
. k
, g .

=27(N1 N2)/ , ( N- )
L. ,
,
,
.

. 8.9.
) -; )
,

, [10]:
IR= - R + kS,
iS=S + kR
(8-13)/(8-14)
=/2, R S - ,
- . ,
, . . R(0) = 1, S(0) = 0, , (813) (8-14), , , . .
S(L) , :
1
1
2
2 2
=
sin kL[1 + ( / k ) ]
(8 15)
1 + ( / k ) 2

(. 8.9 ) (=0)
=sin2 kL. kL= (2n+1)/2, n-

, L = /2k .
(8-13) (8-14),
.
, , (=0 L=/2k),
() ,
- ,
, k, ,
, L. , 0
kL .
(=0)
, .
=(3/L).
100%
( - ,
),
0. (8-13) (8-14)
, ,
, . , 22 .
- 22,
-, . 8.10.

. ,
,
.

. 8.10. -
,
,
[14, 15].
22
.
,
[16, 17].
nn

- 22 -
- nn.

22
, nn
.
, ,
.

nn ,
(. 8.11).
44 (. 8.11 ) 16
.
,
1 ( 1.1)
7 ( 4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 3.4, 2.4, 1.4). ,
,
,
, .

, ,
( ).
.
44 (, 8.11 ) 6
.
, 44 ,
4 -
(1-i), (2-j), (3-k), (4-1), (i, J, k, I)
(1, 2, 3, 4),
. .1,1 (1-1.1-1.2 1.3-1), .2 .2 -
(2-1.1-2.2-1.3-2), , , (42.1-2.2-2.3-4) (3-2.1-1.2-2.3-3). .1.1 .4-.4, . . .1, 4 . 1, 4
( ). , ,
.1 .4. - .

.

. 8.11. :
) 44 ( , 16 ); )
44 ( , 6 ); ) DeEta
3232 (, 90 )

3232 (. 8.11 ) 90
Delta-
.
,
. , ,
1, 2 31, 32.

1.1 2.2.

22 ( 2,2).
a, b , d,
: -, b-d, a-d, b-c.
nn ,
22 , n n ,
,
. nC nL

.
(strictly non-blocking),
- (i, k)

i-k, ( )
.


nn, nC=n2 nL=2n-1 (. 8.12, . 8.9).

. ,
,
,
. nn ,
,
(. 8.12), i-k
i.k. , ,
i k i.k
, , .
nxn

. nC nL
n.

. 8.12, nn
nn (blocking),
(i1,i2,..,1n) (1, 2,..., n), n
, (1,i1), (2,i2).
(n,in). :
Delta Dn,2, Banyan Yn,2 Omega n,2, (, 8.13) [18, 19]. Delta
:
D2,2=X2,2, Dn,2=X2,2 x Dn/2,2.
Delta, Banyan Omega ,
nC nL
nn (. 8.9),
.
.

nn

(rearrangeable non-blocking), (i1,i2,...,in)


(1,2,..., n), n ,
(1,i1), (2,i2), (n,in). ,

.
,
,
,
.

. 8,13. : ) Delta
; ) Delta 1616; ) Banyan 1616; ) Omega
1616

. ,
Banyan Batcher
[20]. (Batcher + Banyan,
SnxYn,2) ,

. (nlog2(n2), , . 8.9)
. Batcher
()
, . SnxYn,2

, ,
.
-
ns n,2 - . 8.14 . ,
Delta ,
:
B2,2 = X2,2, B2,2 = X2,2 x Bn/2,2 x X2,2
n,2 Cantor
, (. 8.14 , . 8.9),
: Kn,2,m = X1,m x Bn,2 x Xm,1. nC nL
m=log2n.

n - Cantor
nC nL .

. 8.14. :
) nes ; )
Cantor
8.9.

Delta
Banyan
Omega
Batcher +
Banyan

Dn,2 *
Yn,2
n,2
Sn x Yn,2

Benes

Bn,2

Cantor

Kn,2,m

Crossbar

Xn,2

nC

nL

n
log 2 n
2

log2 n

n
log 2 n (3 + log 2 n )
4

1
log 2 n(3 + log 2 n )
2

n
( 2 log 2 n 1)
2
3n
n(log2 n ) 2 + log2 n 2n
2
n2

2 log 2 (log 2 n ) + log 2 n

2 log 2 n 1

2n-1

* n - / (2 22)
8.6.



. ,
-,
,
.


(10 / ).

,
.

,
(. 8.15 ).

.
,
, ..
: 1/C =1/P 1/s.
. 8.15. )
(S =1536 ) (C = 1545 )
P = 770 ,
. :
10 ; - 100 ;
10 .

. 8.15. : )
; )
( OKI
Electric Industry [21]).
[22].
DSF 2 .
, ,
,
: 2/P =1/S + 1/C (
). ,
,
.
DSP.
8.7.

.
.

-
.
, 1
/, 2,5 / 10 /
ATM/SDH, Gigabit Ethernet ..,
""
. , "" ? , ,
. -
AON,
, , , -
,
.
AON. AON
[23,29]: , () ,
(. 8.10).
8.10. AON

()

AON. AON
-
. AON
(, FDDI,
..). ( - , ) WDM
- -
.
WDM ,
.
(, , ),
AON , ,
, ,
. ,

.
(
) , ,
, WDM , ,
.
AON
: (tunablelaser transmitters) / (tunable filters
heterodynes).
( ),
,
.

.
,

AON .
. ,
AON
.
SMWL


AON ( , .
8.16). "" , ,
, .
: ,
;
(
);
(, Gigabit Ethernet, SDH/PDH ..)
-
.

,
.

. 8.16.

,
"
".
SDH
"-", .

.

-
( ),
-
.
, ,
[24].
/. ,
/, EDFA,
, . . 8.3,
EDFA ,
.
, 18
EDFA
622 / STM-4
/, 11 2,5 /
/. EDFA
- .
EDFA.
EDFA -
EDFA, 2 30 . 50
30 10 .

(DWDM) .
, EDFA, ,
,
, .
. ,
-.
,
.
.
.
, . ,
, 20
, .

,

. -
,
.

.
,
NZDSF 5-6 / 1 .

.
EDFA.
,
-
( ),
,
. EDFA, , ,
, ,
/.
(PMD).
- . PMD

(10 /).
PMD 1/10 [25,
26]. PMD L ( L1/2),
.
. ,
,
.

, ,
(
v), : (
v - ) ( v + ), -
.
, ,
. - , 0
4 , 8
1000 , 4 8000
[27].
FWM. FWM

,
vi, vj. vk vl. vi +vj=vk
+v1 .

. - FWM


. FWM
DSF -
EDFA,
, -
, ,
, . -
.
:
(
, DSF
- FWM );

EDFA;

- ,
( Corning LEAF
MFD
, ,

;
;
, , .
8.8. AON

AON (
)
PON (passive optical network). PON - AON,
: , ,
, , . PON
, ,
- "--" (fiber-to-the-home)
"--" (fiber-in-the-loop). ,
( the "bury it and forget it") -
, . PON
, ,
EFDA,
.
AON

AON

, .

,
, ,
, , . 8.17.

. 8.17. AON
,
,
, WDM. ,
.

,
WDM , .
- AON
IBM: Rainbow-1 (1991 ) Rainbow-2 (1995 ) [28].
Rainbow-1 - 32 IBM
PS/2.
Micro Channel .
:

;
1505 1545 ;
-
50 . 10
/, 250
;
200 /
SF8/125.
:
,
:
1. ,
-
.

2. .
(,
),
.
,
, ,
.
(
),
, .
,
.
, ,
.
Rainbow-2 -
Rainbow-1.
,
Rainbow-2 :
Rainbow-1 - ,

.
Rainbow-2

;
Rainbow-1 PS/2
Micro Channel, Rainbow-2 ,
-;
Rainbow-2 1 /
15
32.
AON,
,
, ,
, [29].
CSMA.
AON
,
.
, AON
. -,

,
. ,
. -, AON ,
,
.
,

DWDM
200. , , 20 , 4000 ,
.


.
AON

AON
, . 8.18.
( )
,
,
-

,

.

. 8.18. AON

,
WDM .
AON


.
. ,
, .
. 8.19 AON

AON, (
,
), ()
.

. 8.19. AON
. , AON
.
, ,
,
,
.
.
,
-
VCI (Virtual Circuit Identifier).

,
, , 8.20. ,
()
, , ,
,
.
(. 8.20 ).
( 1). D .
2, S2,
1, .
(. 8.20 ). F G.
.
(. 8.20 ). D ,
.
, . . (1 2),
, -
S2, S1. ,
F G 1 2
1 ( -

, . 8,5).
-
.
, .
8.20 .

. 8.20. AON :
-) , ; )

,
(. 8.21),

[29].

. 8.21. AON .
AON AON


. 8.22. ,
, (
) . -
. , ,
.

.
-
.

.
, :
,
;
() ,
, ,
;
, ,
;
.
-
. ,
Rainbow-1/2, ,
. ,
, :
. ,
;

,
;
;
,
( - 1 / )
,
.

. 8.22. AON :

8.9. AON


,
.
, -
" "
.
,
.
AON
AON
. ,
, ,
AON.

AON .
, ,
.

.
,
(cut through).

,
.
AON:
.

BSPS (bit-sequential
packet switching) -
, , .
BSPS
( 1
, 0 - ).
,

. ,
.
2 .
,
. ,
, ,
-
.
SWANET (Selfrouted Wavelength-Addressable NETwork) BSPS
[30], SWANET BSPS WDM,
,
(. 8,23), SWANET
BSPS . , ,
,
.
. k,
( ) , k-1
. ,
( )
k. .
""
, .
,
,
.
, -
. SWANET
.

. 8.23. SWANET [30]



BPPS (bit-parallel packet switching):
- SCM (sub-carrier multiplexing)
BPPS.
,
.
, ,
, .
SCM
(. 8.24 ).
SCM
, , .
, SCM , . .
.
SCM
.
,
.

.
, , ,
,
.
SCM ,
, .
.
,
/ ,
- .
2,5 /
40 /, 3
[31].
-
,
[32].

, ,
( )
(. 8.24 ).

SCM . -,
,
. -,
, ,
.
, ,
, , .

. 8.24. : )
; )
8.10. AON

:
, , ,
, , .
,
, ,
[2].
, . 8.25.
, , ,
, -0, -1 -2 (.
8.26).

. 8.25.

. 8.26.
- ,
AON.
,
.
.
1 : 100-
Fast Ethernet
1,55 .
2:
(622 /) 1,33 ,

.
.
,
, ,
.
-0. AON
( )
. ,

/, .
-0 ,

-1, .
Rainbow-1. -0
. 8.27.

. 8.27. 0
-1. AON
.

-1 . 8.28.

. 8.28. 1
-2. AON,
.
,
.
(AON ),
(AON ).
-2
.
-2 . 8.29. -2.

( )
1, 2,... -
.
(WDM DEMUX) ,
, .
( ), - ,
.
,
.
,
, .
,
- EDFA.
B

8.11. AON

,

, :
IBM, AON (All-Optical Networking), AT&T, DEC, MIT
Campus, MIT Lincoln Lab (); ACTS Photonic Technologies
Area, Alcatel Alsthom Recherche, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de
Lausanne, France Telecom-(CNET), Royal Institute of Technology, University College
of London, University of Athens, University of Ghent, University of Ulm, Ericsson,
Siemens (), Oki R&D Group .

. 8.29. 2

AON,
[18, 29]:
VERTICAL (VERtical cavity laser Technology for Interconnection and
AccessLinks), 1,3 / 1,55
,

.
WOTAN (Wavelength-agile Optical Transport and Access Network),
, ""
.


.
BROADBAND (Broadband Loop), -


.
PLATO (Photonic Links in Atm and Optical systems).
KEOPS (KEys to Optical Packet Switching),

.
UPGRADE (High Bitrate 1300nm Upgrade of the European Standard
Single-Mode Fibre Network).
PHOTOS (PHOtosensitive Technology for Optical Systems).
CAPITAL (Customer Access Photonics and Integrated Technology for
Active Low cost Devices).
PLANET (Photonic Local Access NETwork).
MIDAS (Multigigabit Interconnection and Advanced techniques).
HORIZON (Horizontal action transport networks).
FAST (Ftuoroaiuminate Amplifiers for Second Telecom window).
ESTHER (Exploitation of Soliton Transmission Highways for European
Ring).
BLISS (Broadband Lightwave Sources and Systems).
OPEN (Optical Pan-European Network) ,
-
.
.

,
.
HIGHWAY (Photonic Technologies for Ultra High Speed Information).
COBNET (Corporate Optical Backbone Network),

()
.
METON (Metropolitan Optical Network),
SDH

, .
FOTON (Paneuropean Photonic Transport Overlay),
.
"-"

, SDH .
MEPHISTO (Management of Photonic Systems and Networks)
(TMN)
,
(WDM)
, .
MOON (Management of Optical Networks)
.

Networking
Consortium:
WDM
Description.
1996,
1. All-Optical
http://www.ll.mit.edu/aon/aonwdm.html
2. . Krause. "Migration to All-Optical Networks". Alcatel Network Systems, 1998,
http://www.usa.alcatel.com/telecom/transpVoptical/techpaps/migration/
Technologies
Area:
BilIBoard,
1998,
http://www.intec3. Photonic
rug.ac.be/horizon/bitlboard.htm
Cross-Connect
Technology,
Oki
Electric
Industry,
1996,
4. WDM
http://www.oki.co.Jp/OKI/RDG/Engtish/kikaku/okayama/main.html
5. Optical wavelength multiplexer/demultiplexer (Wavelength router). Oki Electric
Industry
Co.,
1996,
http://www.oki.co.jp/OKI/RDQ/English/kikaku/okayama/eWAG.html
6. S. Cortez and M. Dickerson. "Enabling the all-optical network". America's
Networks,
1998,
http://www.americasnetwork.com/issues/98issues/980201/980201_ optical.html
7. DWDM Channel Spacing: Do You Know How Much Capacity You're Realy
Getting?
Alcatel
Network
Systems,
1998,
http://www.usa.alcatel.com/telecom/transpt/optical/techpaps/ad9804/
8. MultiWave Sentry 4000; DWDM transport system. ClENA Corporation, 1998,
http://www.ciena.com/products/mwsentry4000.html

9. Technical Application Note, No. OA1-001: Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers in


Networks. 1998, http://www.ditechcorp.com/notes/An0a1.htm
10. , . . . - M.: , 1991. - 575 .
11. Testing Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers, Article 12, Hewlett-Packard Journal,
December 1997, .http://hpcc923.external.hp.com/hpj/97dec/de97a12.htm
12. Fiber Amplifiers for Telecommunications, Catalogue IRE-POLUS Group, 1997,
http://ire-polusgroup.com
13. 8-Channel -192 or 32-Channel -48? Optimizing the WDM/TDM Solution.
Alcatel,
1998.
http://www.usa.alcatel.com/telecom/transpt/optical/techpaps/ad9801/
14. . . Kissa, D. J. Fritz, "AOTFs Route Traffic in WDM Networks". Lightwave,
June 1996 (pp. 64-66).
15. Acousto-Optic Tunable Filters. Brimrose, 1998, http://www.brimrose.com/aotf.htm
16. Space Packet Switch. Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering
University ot Maryland Baltimore Country, Baltimore MD-21250, 1998,
http://coe1.engr.umbc.edu/'choa/switch.htm
17. Optical Loop Memories. Department of Computer Science and Electrical
Engineering University of Maryland Baltimore Country, Baltimore MD-21250.
1998, http://coe1.engr.umbc.edu/choa/loopmem.htm
18. . . , . . . : . .: -, 1997. - 232 .
19. J. Turner. Design and Analysis of Switching Systems. 1997. - 220 .
http://www.arf.wustl.edu/'jst/cs/577/intro.html
20. F. Halsall, Data Communications, Computer Networks and Open Systems, AddisonWesley, 1996. -907.
21. Wavelength converter. Oki Electric Industry Co., Ltd., 1996, http://www.oki.
co.jp/OKI/RDG/English/kikaku/vol.l/okayama/eWC.html
22. All-Optical Frequency Conversion. All-Optical Networking Consortium: WDM
Slide Presentation, 1996, http://www.ll.mit.edu/aon/WDMSIide20.html
All-Optical
Network
Types.
IBM,
1995,
23. Three
http://www.research.ibm.com/wdm/motive/roadmap.html
24. J. Yoo., S. Banerjee. "Design, Analysis, and Implementation of Wavelength-Routed
All-Optical Networks: Routing and Wavelength Assignment Approach". 1997,
http://boni.eecs.stevenstech.edu/homepage/papers/ieee_survey1/survey.html
Mode
Dispersion
(PMD),
Alcatel,
1998,
25. Polarization
http://www.ans.alcatel.com/cc/techprs/fnlpmd2.htm
26. What is PMD? Understanding Polarization Mode Dispersion, Corning TPD -Library,
1994-1998, http://pro.corningfiber.com/library/nv1072.html
27. M. O'Mahony, et. al. "The Design of a Eropean Optical Network". Lightwave
Technology, Vol. 13, No. 5, 1995, pp. 251-256
28. H. Dutton, P. Lenhard. High-Speed Networking Technologies: An Introductory
Survey (Fiber optics, SDH/Sonet, High-speed LAN principles). IBM Corp.,
Prentice Hall PRT, 1995. - 600 p.
29. J. Hudgings & J. Nee. "WDM All-Optical Networks EE228A Project Report",
EE228A Project Report, 1996, http://www-bsac.eecs.berkeley.edu/~jnee/ee228a/

30. L.A Backman. "Applications in Optical Communications: Optical Transmission of


Millimeter-Wave Signals; and, An All-Optical Wavelength-Routed Switching
Network". Ph.D. thesis. University of California, Berkeley, 1996
31. A, Budman, E. Eichen, J.Schalafer, R. Olshansky, and F, McAleavey. "Multigigabit
Optical Packet Switch for Self-routing Network with Subcarrier Addressing", in
OFC'92 (San JOse, CA) 1192, paper Tu04, pp. 90-91
32. D.J. Blumenthal, P.R. Prucnal, and J,R. Sauer. " Photonic Packet Switches:
Architecture and Experimental implementations". Proceedings of the IEEE, vol.82,
no.11, November, 1994, pp.1650-1665
33. , Fuerst "Optical Layer Planning Requires Flexibility". Lightwave, October 1997
(pp.50-52).

9.


.
- , ,
, .

,

.
, -,
,
.
, ,
,
.

,
, -
.
,
, -
. ,
, , ,
,
, .

, ,
. '

.
- ,

.
: - (HFC),
" " (FTTC) "
" (FTTH).
, 1998 2/3
, , , 12 .
.; 2003 3/4
30 . . [1].

9.1.

,
, ,
.
5-10 . . 9.1 ,
. , ,
, .. .
, , ,
, .
,
. - .
(, ),
(.. ,
, ..).

, :
, ,
, ,
, .
9.1.

CD-

SVGA
JPEG


8 / 8 /*

64 /

8-32 /

16 / x 8 /*

128 /

48-64 /

44,1 / 16 /*
640 / 480 /
8 /c
720 / 576 /
16 /c

705,6 /

128 /

2,458 /

24-245 /

6,636 /

104-830 /

31,46 /

300 /-3
/

9,115 /

64 /
(=1,2)

3,04 /

64 /

36,45 /

m 368 /
(= 1, 2, 3,4, 5)

30,4 /

1,15-3 /

30,4 /

1,15-3 /

1280 / 1024 /
24 /c

QCIF
(.261)

MPEG-4
(.320)
CIF
(.261)

MPEG-1

(PAL)
MPEG-1
(NTSC)

176 / 144 /
12 /c 30 /**
176 / 144 /
12 /c 10 /
352 / 288 /
12 /c 30 /***
352 / 288 /
12 /c 25 /***
352 / 240 /
12 /c 30 /***

CIF
352 / 240 /
30,4 /
4 /
VCR
(MPEG12 /c 30 /***
2)
MPEG-2 720 / 576 /
124,4 /
15 /
(PAL)
12 /c 25 /***

MPEG-2 720 / 480 /



124,3 /
15 /
(NTSC)
12 /c 30 /***

1920 / 1080 /
994,3 /
135 /
HDTV
16 /c 30 /***

1920 / 1080 /
MPEG-3
745,8 /
20-40 /
12 /c 30 /***
* - ,
** -
*** 30, 15, 10 7,5 /
c -
-
CIF (common intermediate format) -
QCIF (quarter common intermediate format) -
MPEG (moving pictures expert group) - ,
JPEG (joint photographic expert group) -
,

,
, :
, ( , ISDN);
(), .
:
;

Internet ( ,
).

, , ,
,
.
:
( );
(),
;
(
MPEG-2, MPEG-3);
"" ;
Internet ,
(-, ..).

. 9.1
.
, ,


(trunk coax) -
.
- (tap) -
- (feeder coax) -
.
, ,

(drop coax).
,
,
. , -,
. , ,
.
,
HFC, .

10-15 . - 35,
,
, - 125000.

. 9.1.
-
(, ..).
,
, . 33,6 /.
- 56 / ( V.90), 128 /
ISDN (BRI) -
: , -

, , - , ISDN .

Internet
HDSL. .
-

- HFC (hybrid fiber/coax)


-
(. 9.2). HFC
, ( FTTH)
-
. HFC
, .
: , , ,
. [2].
HFC ,
,
. HFC
80 .
( DFB )

,

ODN (optical distribution node). , ODN,

.
4 10
.
500 3000.

. 9.2. -
(HFC)


( , -
) ,
- .
" "

" " FTTC (fiber to the curb)



(. 9.3). FTTC -
( , )
(curb). ,
,
( , ,
), .
.
( 100 ),
( 100 /
). ,
: Internet, ,
MPEG-2/MPEG-3 ..

,
.

. 9.3. " " (FTTC)


" "

" " FTTH (fiber to the


home) .
, -
, ,
. FTTH
[1], HFC
FTTC.


(. 9.4).
, ""
, , .

. 9.4. " " (FTTH)


9.2. HFC

HFC
(, headend controller, ),
(ODN) (ISU, integrated service
unit, ). IEEE
802.14, - MAC
( HFC),
,
[5].
, , ,

, ,
HFC.
: ADC Telecommunications, Motorola, Nortel, NTT, Scientific Atlanta, Warner Cable [4, 5].
HFC . , ,

.
-, , ,
1 .
802.14

802.14
HFC, HFC
"- "

,
" -" - .

, ..
. ISU

.
, 802.14 -
MAC .
, HFC [1,
6]:
(CBR);
(VBR);
(ABR).
, ,
, "" .
, .
, , :
, .
.

. 9.5.
, 5 862
, 862 1 .
50 550 .
8
. 550 862 ,
MPEG-2/MPEG-3, ,
" " VOD (video on demand)
.

. 9.5.

fC :
B

RS
R
) < ( f c = n ( 40 )) < ( f max (1 + a ) S )
2
2
(roil-off factor) a = 0,25, n - , RS , a fmin fmax
. 9.2.
( f min + (1 + a )

9.2. "sub-split"

fmin ()
5
5
5
B

fmax ()
42
65
55
B



"mid-split" "high-split" 5 108
5 174 .

, ,
.
(l+)RS.
fC1 fC2
(fC2 > fC1 ) Rs1 Rs2
:
R
R
f C 1 + ((1 + a ) S 1 ) = f C 2 ((1 + a ) S 2 )
2
2

(, , ,
) 802.14.
B

, ,
(. 9.3). ,
. ,

,

.
9.3.

fmin ()
88

fmax ()
860

110
90

862
770


QAM-64 QAM-256
30-40 /,
.

QAM-16 / -
QPSK, , ,
. QPSK 2-10
/. (5-45
). ,
. ( )
,
.
,

, ,
, .

,
ODN
.
PHY ,
802.14 (. 9,4).
, 8
(PAL/SECAM), - 6 (NTSC).
.
9.4.
: , ,

f,

RS,
/
B

A
8

B
6

C
6

RS (RS Reed-Solomon)
QAM-64 QAM256
(n250) 30


RS-
QAM-64 QAM256
(n250) 30

RS

0,15
6,0-6,95

0,18

0,12

5,057-5,064

QAM-64 QAM256
(n250) 30
0,13
5,0-5,31

, ,
HFC , .

: -
. FTTH
.
: .
.
:
.
,
,
1 .
:
, .

.
, :
, , . IEEE 802.14

.
, ,
, .

.
: ""
.
. .
, HFC
: " - "; " - "; " -
"; " - "; " ". , HFC

, .
9.3. Homeworx

,
.
HFC.
Homeworx ADC Telecommunications, [4].

, Homeworx,
. 9.5.

9.5. , Homeworx


60

200 "
"
(

,
,
, Internet

,
,



2- /
.).

..

-
,
..

Homeworx

:
1. :
, . ,
, , . ().
.
. .
2. (ODN);
. , ,
.
3. ,
:

(ISU, , , ,
). Set-top-unit - . .
4. - :
.

50-750 (862) .
1,3 1,55 10 .
,
. 1,55
. HWX (. 9.6 )
.
, ,
HWX, .
U

. 9.6. : ) HIU
, , ) ODN
[7]
. .
50-750 (862) ,

5-42 .
.
- . ,
,
Internet, .
.
(,
, )
. ""
. HFC
,
TV . ,
, ,
.
(D).
Homeworx .
28 1 24 1.
TR-008 TR-303 (
) V.5 (). DSO (64K)
- (TST) -
- .
ISDN.
(ODN)
, ,
ODN, ,
. ODN , /
. ODN
,
U

.
.
ODN ,
/ ,
(. 9.6. ). ,
, ODN
, ,
,
. FTTH.
STU (set too unit)
(MPEG2/3) .
STU
, . -
,
. ,
.
, STU ,
, , .

, (.
9.1). MPEG-2 1,5
/ ( ) 60 / (HDTV)
15 /, NTSC, PAL SECAM.

-.
,

HFC .
(RAD);
.
.

. 1 (1),
HFC.
.
ISU (. ). 64 (RS232)
512 ( Ethernet 10Base-T),
Internet.
(Home ISU).
,
.

HFC.
, .

U

CATV (
). ,
Ethernet, ISDN,
.

(MISU).

( , . .)
HFC : , , Ethernet /Internet ( 512 /), 1 , ISDN BRI,
&, .
MISU 12 96
, HISU MISU . MISU , ,
, . .
,

Homeworx.


( EML). ,
, .
(NMCS),
-
,
ISU. , EML
.
U

Homeworx

( )
5-42 . ( )
50-750 (862) . 750-1
( .).
OFDM
(orthogonal frequency division multiplexing),
4,2 .
6 , 480 ().
(BER=10-9
) 2 /. 6 240 DSO
(64 /). 18
(12-30 ),
720 (3240).
5-12
, -
.
P

54-550
, 60 PAL, SECAM 110
NTSC, 625-750
,
, (2880 DSO 64 /).
550-750 400
, MPEG-2.MPEG-3 3 /,
VSB-16 QAM-256.
OFDM?
. ( )
,
. () , ,
, .
, .
.
HFC ,
, ,
. ,
,
, , ,

.
HFC
.
.

. ,
TDM
QPSK QAM-16 . ,
DSO (RF)
. , ,
. TDM,
.
-
RF
, . ,
, RF .

.
FDM ( , OFDM)
, DSO
RF , . 9.7. RF
,
, DSO ( U

TDM/QPSK), DSO ,
. ,
,
DSO,
,
.

. 9.7. TDM (OFDM)



ODN

,
5-42 .
; , ,
,
.
, ODN
,
(
).
ODN
(.
9.8). , ODN 5 42
2, 3 4,
,
5 200 .
5 42 ,

.
5 42
.

. 9.8. - ODN,

Homeworx


.
(,
).
,
.
,
, :
; ;
.
. Homeworx
:
-
(
, ,
;
Homeworx :
(
ODN );
(
);
(
STU,
, );
;
.
U

-
.
( 16 ).
: - ,
,
,
.

CATV
.
.
, Homeworx
.
.
HDT , -
ISU, ODN , .
HDT ,
(Internet).
. -
Homeworx
.
,
.
.
, .
Homeworx . 9.9.
U

. 9.9. DV6000
9.4. DV6000

DV6000 ADC Telecommunications


,
.
DV6000 ,
( DAP, drop/add/pass)
.
120 . ,
( D1, 270 /), MPEG,
(1, ), ( Ethernet).
. 9.10.
DV6000 . 9.6.

. 9.10. DV6000
DV6000 ,
. (10 8 )
. DV6000
,
.
, ,
,
.
. DV6000
DV.
: DV6010 DV6300.
TDM,
16

2,4 /.
WDM,
1550 , ..
64 .
DV6000 , ,
. ; , ,
, .
DV6000 . 9.11 .
(MUX) clock,
(DEMUX),
.

(. 9.11 ). (DAP)
/ . . 9.11 )
( MUX DAP),
.
21,
DAP,
.
, . 9.11. ). DAP
, .
9.6. DV6000


,







2.38 /
1310, 1550, 1546.1, 1549.3, 1552.5, 1555.7
Cyep FC/PC SC/
DFB
0-3
InGap
30 BER < 10-9
-8
P

NTSC, PAL, SECAM,


,
10.1

75 ;

13,524

8
10
/ ( 59 67
)
( )
4,2
0,10
0,10
6,1
+0,3/-1,0
+0,3/-1,0
6,2
+0,3/-3,0
+0,3/-3,0
, %
2,5
1,5
,
15
15
, %
2
1
, %
3
1,5
, %
3.5
1,5
2,0
1,0
,
, %
4
+2
,
2
1


5-18

600 , .

41,88

16
1 , %
0,05

, ,
30-125
125-10000
10000-15000

,

-0,6/+0,17
0,17
0,6/-0,17
70

. 9.11. DV6000:
) ;
) ;
) -

1. P.W. Shumate. Ch.2 Telecommunications, Cable Television, and Data Link


Systems: (Broadband Access), in Optoelectronics in Japan and the United States,
1997, http://itri.loyola.edu/opto/c2_s4.htm
2. The Cable Connection: The Role of Cable Television in the National Information
infrastructure. CableLabs, 1995, http://www.cablelabs.com/WPapers/cableNII,html
3. IEEE Project 802.14/a Draft 3 Revision 1: Cable-TV access method and physical
layer specification. Edited by Ivan Reede, Matt Brandt, and Jeyhan Karaoguz. (EEE
1998. - 216 pp.
4. Hybrid Fiber/Coax (HFC) Telephony, ADC Telecommunications, 1998,
http://www.webproforum.com/adc/tp01.html

5. Components
of
the
HFC
Network.
Scientific
Atlanta,
1998,
http://www.webproforum.com/sci-atlanta/tp01.html
6. H. Nguyen, F. Yao. Hybrid-Fiber Coax. Project 1 4984: Telecommunication
Networks,
1996,
http://fiddle.ee.vt.edu/courses/ee4984/Projects1996/nguyen_yao/nguyen_yao.html
7. Homeworx Hybrid Fiber/Coaxial Access Platform. ADC Telecommunications,
1997, http://www.adc.com/Products/BCDproducts/Hwx-Home.html
8. DV6000 Universal Digital Transport. ADC Telecommunications, 1998,
htt://www.adc.com/Products/DV6000/

Оценить