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WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11

TOPIC 1

PARTS OF SPEECH / WORD CLASS

SYNOPSIS This topic aims to enhance learners knowledge of the formal features of the English language system. It provides an explanation to a selection of language structures identified in the English Language Proficiency 11 syllabus for non- TESL learners. The exercises that follow the explanation should provided some immediate practice applying the language rules learnt. Leraners are required to practice much more from publications readily available, should they wish to improve thier personal proficiency in the English language. Learning outcomes By the end of the topic, you will be able to; 1. understand the different types of language structures of word clasess namely, conjuctions, prepositions and interjections. 2. apply the language structures appropriately through relevant exercises

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11

TOPIC 1

PARTS OF SPEECH / WORD CLASS

1.0 Parts of Speech Words are divided into nine different classes, traditionally named as Parts of Speech or word classes. These word classes are categorised according to their use in a sentence. The main parts of speech in English include nouns, pronouns, verbs, adverbs, adjectives, prepositions, conjunctions and interjections. 1.1 Conjunctions Conjunctions are used to join words, phrases, clauses or sentences to express a partticular idea or ideas. Study the following examples. Anne and Kamilla are coming to the party. You can write the answer in ink or in pencil Although she is a famous and successful writer, she leads a simple and frugal life. Both the girls and their fathers are scientists. The conjunction and joins the words Anne and Kamilla. The conjunction or joins the phrases in ink or in pencil The conjunction although joins she is, a famous and successful writer and she leads a simple and frugal life The conjunction both...and joins the sentences the girls are scientists and their fathers are scientists

We can further discuss conjunctions in terms of their meanings or functions. A conjunction usually performs one function, but some conjunctions perform two different functions.

Conjunctions

Examples

Function shows

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 as As he was walking down the dark lane, he heard a strange noise behind him. I did not want to go to the movies as I did not have enough money since I have not met my brother since the day I was born. Since I studied hard for the examination, I passed them with flying colours. or Coffee or tea, sir asked the waiter. You had better finish the assingment fast, or you will not be able to submit it on time. while While I was walking home, it started to rian heavily. In the movie Beauty and the Beast, the heroine is ravishingly beautiful, while the hero is just the opposite. time

cause and effect

time cause and effect

choice condition

time

contrast

Conjunctions are analysed from three aspects, which are form, function and position. Forms Conjunctions have three basic forms; Single word Compound Correlative 3 Example: so, for, while, since Example: provided that, as well as, so that

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 Correlative conjunctions always appear in parts. The most common correlative conjunctions are; both...and, either...or, neither...nor not only...but also,so...as and whether...or. Example: Both my husband and my father were born in November. Functions Conjunctions have two basic functions a) Coordinating conjunctions are used to join two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal. The two parts may be single or clauses, for example: 1. Amariah and Azham are getting married next month (noun and noun) 2. They ran and laughed together. (verb and verb) 3. The water was warm, but I didnt go swimming. (clause and clause) b) Subordinating conjunctions are used to join a subordinate dependent clause to a main clause, for example; 1. I went swimming although it was cold. Positions Conjuctions can be placed at the beginning or between words or clauses. Example; 1. Since he is not there, we should not enter. 2. When I am sick, my father takes me to that clinic. 3. My mother cooked through the night though she was not well. 4. They would not take any action unless the firm does not meet thje requirement.

Exercise 1 Fill in the blanks with the appropriate conjunctions. 1. _______________he tried hard, he failed to get through the security. 4

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11

2. Wait here___________ I tell you to move. 3. Take your umbrella___________it is going to rain. 4. Sazali is slow____________ smart. 5. ______________he was ill, he had to stay at home. 6. I shall not ride in his carriage____________invited. 7. Be kind ___________you will be rewarded. 8. ____________Azlan ___________his wife are attending the ceremony. 9. ____________soon __________he is ready, bring down the cake. 10. He is___________here__________there. Exercise 2 Fill in the blanks with because, since, so and as long as. 1. The house was in need of major repairs______________we decided not to buy it. 2. __________________you are UITM students, you must always abide by its rules and regulations. 3. We decided not to go out shopping ______________we were tired. 4. You can play with your friends______________you have finished your homework. 5. ______________the weather was bad, we had to cancel the camping trip.

Exercise 3 Join the sentences using before, after or while. 1. The children were sleeping on the second floor. The fire started in the basement. 4

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 ________________________________________________________________ 2. It rained heavily. We arrived at the camping site. ________________________________________________________________ 3. The nomads set up the tent. They tied up the camels. ________________________________________________________________ 4. The police rushed over the house. They received the emergency call. ________________________________________________________________ 5. I withdrew some money from the bank. I went shopping. ________________________________________________________________ 1.2 Prepositions Prepositions are used to show the relationship or connection of a word with other words. They are used with nouns, pronouns, adjectives and verbs to introduce phrases which give more information about a thing, quality or action. They are used to indicate time, direction and other functions. Eg: We will go to Sabah on Monday. We will go by plane. Prepositions are usually single words, but there are some prepositions which have more than one word. Eg: We walked in between the parked cars.

Types of prepositions Roles Place Accompaniment 3 Prepositions in , at, around, beyond along, with

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 Manner Instrument Time Direction/movement Agent Stimulus Purpose Cause,reason Source in, with, like with, by before, after, at out of, toward, from, across by of, to, by to, for by, from, due to from

There are three types of prepositions, which are prepositions of place, prepositions of time and preposition of movement. Preposition of Place In general, there are some confusion regarding the use of prepositions at, in and on at is used when referring to a point. in is used when referring to an enclosed space. on is used when referring to a surface. in (enclosed space) in Bangsar In Kuala Lumpur in the bedroom in the bookstore on (surface) on the swing on Jalan Bangsar on the door on the wall

at (point) at the park at N0. 3 at the house at the junction Examples:

1. Mariana is waiting for you at the park in Bangsar. She will be on the swing. 2. My house is at No. 3 on Jalan Bangsar in Kuala Lumpur. 3. The boys are reading some books at the English corner in the bookstore on the 3rd floor. Exercise 1 3

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11

Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions 1. The picture is hanging _____the door _____the bedroom _____the house. 2. You cant find the plate? Maybe it is ____the entrance of the kitchen or ___the kitchen or hanging ____the wall. 3. A: I see you ____the junction. B: No, I am ____the building _____the ground floor. 4. Please go and get the leaflet ____ the front desk ___the main office. It is____the chair. 5. Gwen is studying Accountancy _____England. Prepositions of Time The following examples illustrate the use of prepositions in time expressions: at, in, on at for a PRECISE TIME in for MONTHS, YEARS, CENTURIES and LONG PERIODS on for DAYS and DATES IN/ MONTHS, YEARS etc in December in spring in 1963 in the past / future ON/ DAYS, DATES on Sunday On 4 December On my birthday on New Years Day

At / PRECISE TIME at 4 oclock at lunchtime at sunset at the moment

Examples; 1. I am going shopping at 11.00am with a friend. 2. My anniversary falls on 15 December. 3. I forsee a lot of movement in the next month. Exercise 2 The following sentences have the prepositions at, in or on omitted. Rewrite each sentence, inserting the preposition at, in or on in the correct position. 4

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11

1. We can look for car accessories the new hypermarket Ampang Jaya. ________________________________________________________________ 2. People Malaysia live peace and harmony. ________________________________________________________________ 3. Sandra works as a sales assistant an antique shop Jonker Street. ________________________________________________________________ 4. The little child was trapped the bottom of the wall. ________________________________________________________________ 5. The parcel that you have been waiting for is your study table. ________________________________________________________________ 6. Mosquitoes breed clear stagnant water. ________________________________________________________________ 7. Do look the different models available the market before you decide which bicycle to buy. ________________________________________________________________

Preposition of Movement to is used to express movement Examples: 1. They were going to school together. 2. She has gone to the registrar office. Toward/towards are also used to express movement. Examples: 4

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 1. We are moving toward the future. 2. This is a big step towards the marriage No preposition is needed for these words: Home, downtown, uptown, inside, outside, downstairs, upstairs Eg: My father went upstairs to look for my mother but unfortunately she has gone home. 1.3 Interjections Interjections are short exclamations which show excitement and emotion. They do not carry grammatical value and are normally used in speaking rather than writing; extremely common in English to express strong emotion and in many situations where speakers are lost for words. An interjection is followed by an exclamation mark ( ! ) Interjections are usually one or two words that come at the beginning of a sentence. Some examples of interjections and their functions Interjections Functions Ah to express pleasure to express realization to express regret to express surprise Alas Dear to express relief, grief or pity to express pity to express surprise Eh to reconfirm Examples Ah, that sounds better. Ah, now I see the future. Ah, well, this cannot be avoided. Ah! We have arrived! Alas, it is over now. Oh dear! Is she badly hurt? Dear me! I never thought she would be here! A: The concert starts now. B: Eh? A: I said the concert starts now. What is your opinion on 3

to enquire

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 that, eh? to express suprise to express invitation Er Hey to hesitate to call for attention to express joy Oh Ouch Well to plead to express pain to reject to introduce a point Eh! Is that so? Lets move, eh? She is the wife of...er...Major Lee. Hey! Stop doing that. Hey! Thats a brilliant thing to do! Oh, please be there for me! Ouch! That hurts! Well I wouldnt want that! Well, your next point is?

Exercise Choose a suitable text and identify the use of conjunctions, prepositions and interjections found in the text. Suggested materials; newspaper clippings, short texts, excerpts from different text types, comic strips or drama scripts. You are to present the task to your respective lecturer during your tutorial session. Further practice Write a short passage inserting some form of conjunctions, prepositions and interjections. Task to be submitted to your lecturer during tutorial session. Summary 3

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 In this topic some basic parts of speech in English especially conjunctions, prepositions and interjections were presented. It gives you some practice in identifying the different parts of speech and how they are used in the sentences. This will help you to be more accurate in using the right parts of speech in your daily conversations with your pupils and friends. References; 1. Norhazian Mat Sapian and Yong Lee Choo (2011) Language Description 1. Oxford Fajar Sdn Bhd. Shah Alam, Selangor. 2. Azar, B and Azar, D (2004). Fundamentals of English Grammar Second Edition. Prentice Hall Inc. Malaysia. 3. Wren and Martin (2006). High School English: Grammar & Composition, Kuala Lumpur:S. Chand & Company Ltd.

Suggested Answers TOPIC 1: Parts of Speech Exercise 1 Conjunctions 1. Although 2. Until 3. because 4. but 5. As 6. unless 7. and 8. Both...and 9. As...as 10. Niether...nor Exercise 2 1. so 4

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 2. as long as 3. because 4. as long as 5. since Exercise 3 1. The children were sleeping on the second floor while the fire started in the basement. 2. It rained heavily before we arrived at the camping site. 3. The nomads set up the tent after they tied up the camels. 4. The police rushed over the house after they received the emergency call. 5. I withdrew some money from the bank before I went shopping. Exercise 1 prepositions 1. on, in, at 2. at, in, on 3. at, in on 4. at in, on 5. in

Exercise 2 1. We can look for car accesories at the new hypermarket in Ampang Jaya. 2. People in Malaysia live in peace and harmony. 3. Sandra works as a sales assistant in an antique shop on Jonker Street. 4. The little child was trapped at the bottom of the well. 5. The parcel that you have been waiting for is on your study table. 6. Mosquitoes breed in clear stgnant water. 7. Do look at the different models available in the market before you decide which bicycle to buy.

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11

TOPIC 2
Synopsis

LISTENING AND SPEAKING SKILLS

This unit enables you to acquire the skills in listening and speaking. Listening is a skill, which can be developed by knowing what it is and acquiring some effective strategies and techniques of successful listening. Speaking involves a number of routines conducted simultaneously by the speaker and the listener. Learning Outcomes At the end of this unit, you should be able to: 1. identify and use the skills in listening and use them appropriately. 2. listen for a variety of purposes and in different contexts. 3. respond to a variety of stimuli 4. express opinions and give personal responses

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11

Introduction LISTENING Listening is a very important skill that everyone should master because we spend nearly 60% of our working hours listening to a variety of things being said to us and around us. Listening is the ability to identify and understand what others are saying. This involves understanding a speakers accent, his grammar and vocabulary, and grasping his meaning. An able listener is capable of doing these four things simultaneously. A series of micro-skills are involved while one is listening. They include the following: Predicting what people are going to talk about Guessing unknown words or phrases Using ones background knowledge of the subject Identifying relevant points Retaining relevant points (note-making, summarizing) Rejecting irrelevant points Recognising discourse markers (e.g. well, oh, besides, another thing, now, etc) 4

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 Recognising cohesive devices (e.g. such as, which, however, etc) Understanding different intonation patterns and uses of stress Understanding inferred information

Listening is an active process and has three basic steps. They are hearing, understanding and judging. Hearing means listening enough to catch what the speaker is saying. For instance, if you were listening to a verbal documentary on cats and the speaker mentioned that many animals belong to the cat family. If you can repeat the fact, then you have heard what has been said. Understanding happens when you take what you have heard and understand it in your own way. Lets go back to the documentary on cats. When you hear that many animals belong to the cat family, think about what that might mean. You may think, Maybe this means that animals having certain features and characteristics of a typical cat that we know, belong to the cat family. Judging occurs when you understand what the speaker has said and think about whether it makes sense. Do you believe what you have heard? You might think. How could animals which we call by different names be all in the cat family? But, then again, when we bring in our knowledge of the world about human beings for example, we fall under one category called human beings and yet categorise ourselves as being Malay, Chinese, Indian, and others, according to our race. Thus, the information in the documentary we have just listened to seems believable. STRATEGIES FOR LISTENING Listening is a demanding process. In order to function efficiently in the English language, you must develop good listening strategies which will help you to listen, process and respond to information in both academic and social contexts. Some good listening strategies that can help you to listen better include the following: Concentrate and focus on the listening text/speech Listen with a purpose. Decide what information you should listen for and what you can ignore. If you are going to hear it only once, try to grasp the gist of the text/speech. Do not worry about understanding all the words you hear or even trying to memorise every detail. If you are going to hear it more than once, try to grasp the general meaning of the text/speech the first time you listen to it. When you listen to the text the second time, concentrate on identifying specific details or key words.

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 Guess the meaning of unfamiliar words by paying attention to the context in which they occur. Learn to process information quickly or in real time because in real life situation, you often hear something said only once.

HOW TO BE A GOOD LISTENER 1. Give your full attention to the person who is speaking or to the text or speech you are listening to. 2. Make sure your mind is focused. 3. Let the speaker finish before you begin to talk. 4. Listen for main ideas. They are the most important points the speaker wants to get across. They may be mentioned at the start or at the end of the talk, and repeated a number of times. 5. Jot down some important points given by the speaker. (If you are listening to identify important points or to summarise the speech later) 6. Pay particular attention on the use of discourse markers and cohesive devices by the speaker. CRITICAL LISTENING Critical listening is a form of listening that involves analysis, critical thinking and judgment. Making judgments during listening is often considered as a barrier to understand a person, and there's a lot of truth in that. However, critical listening occurs when you still want to understand what the other person is saying, but also have some reason or responsibility to evaluate what is being said to you and how it is being said. For example, if there's an upcoming election and you need to decide who to vote for, you probably use some form of critical listening when you watch a televised debate. You listen, AND you evaluate. While experts on learning and communication almost universally demean the importance and value of critical listening, when it comes to real life, listening critically is used every day. The key though, is to try to understand the other person FIRST, before one evaluates Listening Text Types Below are some of the listening texts that we often need to listen to critically: Forum

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 A forum can be defined as a public meeting or a programme (as on radio or television) involving discussion of a problem usually by several authorities and usually among experts. It is an open discussion involving audience participation. Example : Money Matters Speech A speech is a talk or public address. The best impromptu speeches are the ones written well in advance. Giving a speech is also an act of expressing or describing thoughts, feelings or perceptions by the articulation of words. Example : Formal speeches given by ministers, corporate leaders, educationists

Documentary A documentary is a creative work of non-fiction. This includes documentary film, television, radio documentary and documentary photography. Example : Animal Planet, National Geographic News News is any information or information on current events which is presented by print, broadcast, internet, or word of mouth to a third party or mass audience. News is also the reporting of current information on television and radio, and in the newspapers and magazines. Examples : Business News, BBC News, CNN, Channel News Asia Multimedia Resources Multimedia is any combination of text, graphic art, sound, animation and video delivered to you by computer to other electronic means. Multimedia is not new. It has been used in the classroom for the last decade in the form of overhead projectors, slide shows, filmstrips and coloured chalk. Exercises 1. TELEVISION DOCUMENTARY Watch and listen to a television documentary. Identify the issue/s being discussed and give your personal response. 4. NEWS REPORT 3

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 Listen to the English news either on television or radio. List three issues that made the headlines today. News 1: __________________________________________________

News 2: __________________________________________________ News 3: ___________________________________________________ Provide reasons why they made the headlines. News 1: ____________________________________________________ News 2 _____________________________________________________ News 3 _____________________________________________________ 5. MULTIMEDIA RESOURCES Listen to an English song. Identify and analyse an issue reflected in the song that you have chosen. Additional Task Listen to a forum either on the radio or television and identify its features as follows : chairperson speakers (and their professions) topic/issues discussed opinion of each speaker

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11

What is spoken language? ...the ability to speak a language is synonymous with knowing that language since speech is the most basic means of human communication. Nevertheless, speaking in a second or foreign language has often been viewed as the mosy demanding of the four skill (Bailey and Savage, 1994) Oral Communication is a vital component of the English language arts curriculumn and provides base for growth in reading, writing and listening abilities. Oracy consists of both verbal and non-verbal communication is culture specific and be aware of the differences that may exist across cultures when students express themselves non-verbally. Oral comunication is a two way process between speaker and listener and involves productive skill of speaking and receptive skill of understanding (or listening with understanding) Receptive does not imply passive both in listening and reading, language users are actively involved in the process of interpreting and negotiating meanings. Verbal Communication involves articulatory organs that produce sounds which compose of words and sentence structure. By incorporating grammatical forms and vocabulary, speakers are able to express the desired meaning. Non-Verbal Communication includes a variety of gestures, expressions anmd signalling devices (stress and intonation). Through face to face interaction, a speaker can use a whole range of facial expressions and general body language to help convey the message.

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11

Exercise 1 Your class is organizing a project for the following semester holidays. The following are some of the suggestions made by the members of the class for the project:
1. Organise an educational trip to an Orang Asli settlement in Cameron

Highlands. 2. Participate in a foster family programme with a group of FELDA settlers in Jengka. 3. Go on a study trip to Borobudur in Indonesia 4. Conduct free tuition classes for the underprivileged school children near your campus. Think of various ways of agreeing and disagreeing with each of the suggestions above. List them. Support your opinion appropriately. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11

Fill in the dialogue with appropriate phrases. Situation 1 : The waiter doesnt have what the customer wants. You : Could I have fried noodles, please?

Waiter : _________________________________________ You : Well, could I have a mushroom omelette?

Waiter : ____________________________________________ You please. Situation 2 : Rahim arrives home. Hasnah : Did you remember to buy me some _________________? Rahim : Oh ________________ I completely forgot. : Oh, it doesnt matter then. Ill just have a cup of coffee,

Hasnah : Well, I hope you remembered to post my letters. Rahim : Hasnah : Rahim : What letters? The ones I gave you this morning. Oh ______________They are still at the office.

Situation 3 : Kikin has just won an essay competition. Kikin : Papa, Ive won the essay competition! Papa : ____________________ You made it! Kikin : ____________ Papa, for your support and guidance. Papa : Oh well, I know you are good like your papa. Kikin : Oh yes, like they say, like father like daughter. Papa : Kikin, I am really ________________________. 4

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 Summary In this topic we have looked at listening and speaking skills, and you have been given appropriate exercises and tasks to further enhance your understanding of the two skills.

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11

TOPIC 3
Synopsis

READING SKILLS

This unit aims to enhance learners knowledge of reading skills with special emphasis on the Baretts taxonomy. The exercises that follow the explanation should provide some immediate practice in ehnancing your comprehension skills.

Learning Outcomes At the end of this unit, you should be able to: 1. understand Barretts taxonomy of reading comprehension 1. read for meaning and understanding of a variety of texts and give personal response.

CRITICAL READING SKILLS 3

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11

Critical reading means reading with the goal of finding deep understanding of a material, whether it is fiction or nonfiction. It is the act of analyzing and evaluating what you are reading as you progress, or as you reflect back. Critical reading skills involve your ability to analyze, evaluate, and synthesize what you read. It is the ability to see relationships of ideas and use them as an aid in reading. Barrett Taxonomy is a good guide to the levels at which we are trying to measure comprehension for a written text. The taxonomy was introduced at a conference in 1968. It is designed originally to assist classroom teachers in developing comprehension questions and / or test questions for reading. It is especially useful for classroom questioning in other content areas as well. We will now read and look closely at Barrett Taxonomy. Barrett Taxonomy of Reading Comprehension

1.0 Literal Comprehension 1.1 Recognition 1.1.1 Recognition of Details 1.1.2 Recognition of Main Ideas 1.1.3 Recognition of a Sequence 1.1.4 Recognition of Comparison 1.1.5 Recognition of Cause and Effect Relationships 1.1.6 Recognition of Character Traits

1.2 Recall 1.2.1 Recall of Details 1.2.2 Recall of Main Ideas 1.2.3 Recall of a Sequence 1.2.4 Recall of Comparison 1.2.5 Recall of Cause and Effect Relationships 1.2.6 Recall of Character Traits 2.0 Reorganization

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 2.1 Classifying 2.2 Outlining 2.3 Summarizing 2.4 Synthesizing 3.0 Inferential Comprehension 3.1 Inferring Supporting Details 3.2 Inferring Main Ideas 3.3 Inferring Sequence 3.4 Inferring Comparisons 3.5 Inferring Cause and Effect Relationships 3.6 Inferring Character Traits 3.7 Predicting Outcomes 3.8 Interpreting Figurative Language 4.0 Evaluation 4.1 Judgments of Reality or Fantasy 4.2 Judgments of Fact or Opinion 4.3 Judgments of Adequacy and Validity 4.4 Judgments of Appropriateness 4.5 Judgments of Worth, Desirability and Acceptability 5.0 Appreciation 5.1 Emotional Response to the Content 5.2 Identification with Characters or Incidents 5.3 Reactions to the Authors Use of Language 5.4 Imagery

(a) READ FOR MEANING AND UNDERSTANDING A VARIETY OF TEXTS

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 Reading for meaning focuses on five main areas namely Main idea The main idea is the summary of essential points of the paragraph. The main idea of a paragraph can often be substituted with a topic sentence with controlling ideas. Inference Inferencing is a reading skill in which you use observations, prior knowledge and experiences, and details from the text to make connections and come up with ideas. Sequence Sequencing in reading is to be considered when there is an order of incidents and actions in the selection. A sequence will be constituted only when order of occurrence is specifically required. Compare and contrast Comparing and contrasting is a reading skill where you can find the similarities and differences between items, characters, times and places that is stated in the selection. Cause and effect The skill of looking at happenings or actions in the selection where you can identify the causes of a problem or issue and the effects in an orderly way.

Now let us look at what text is and its variety. Text is any piece of writing. This could be a letter, an email, a novel, a poem, a recipe, a note, instructions for D.I.Y, an article in a newspaper or magazine, writing on a webpage or an advert. All of these examples can be called texts. When you are reading or writing any text, think about the purpose of the text or why it has been written. What might the purpose of a text be? An advert might be trying to persuade you to buy something. A letter from school might be to inform you about something. A novel might describe somewhere or someone to you. A car manual might instruct you how to do something to your car. Depending on the purpose of the text, different methods will be used to get the message across to the reader.

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11

Exercise Read each of the following paragraphs carefully. Look up any unfamiliar words if necessary. Then choose the title that best describes the main idea of each. Top of Form
/usr/w eb/home/m /usr/w eb/home/m /usr/w eb/home/m /usr/w eb/home/m 1

1. Universities are a microcosm of society. But they are more than a reflection or mirror; they are a leading indicator. In universities, an environment where students live, eat, and study together, racial and cultural differences come together in the closest possible way. Of all American institutions, perhaps only the military brings people of such different backgrounds into more intimate contact. With coeducation now a reality in colleges, and with the confident emergence of homosexual groups, the American campus is now sexually democratized as well. University leaders see it as a useful laboratory experiment in training young people for a multicultural habitat. Michael Sovern, president of Columbia, observes, "I like to think that we are leading society by grappling earnestly and creatively with the challenges posed by diversity." --Dinesh D'Souza, Illiberal Education 1. The best title for this paragraph is A. "The University Environment" B. "Sexual Democratization on American College Campuses" C. "The University vs.the Military" D. "The University as a Microcosm of Society" 2. Marriage was not designed as a mechanism for providing friendship, erotic experience, romantic love, personal fulfillment, continuous psychotherapy, or recreation. The Western European family was not designed to carry a lifelong load of highly emotional romantic freight. Given its present structure, it simply has to fail when asked to do so. The very idea of an irrevocable contract obligating the parties concerned to a lifetime of romantic effort is utterly absurd. --Mervyn Cadwallader, "Marriage as a Wretched Institution," Atlantic Monthly 3. The best title for this paragraph is A. "Unrealistic Expectations in Western Marriages" B. "The Failure of Romance" C. "Why Marriages Are Doomed to Failure" 4

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 D. "Marriage and Romance" 3. The baby mastering the skills that lead to establishment of the upright posture behaves in the same way as the novice skier. He feels compelled to repeat the activity hundreds of times until he has mastered the skill and mastered his anxiety. He often reveals that he is having difficulty in "unwinding" when we put him to bed for his nap or for the night, and if you peek into his room while he is settling down for sleep (or unsettling down for sleep), you may see him, groggy and cross-eyed with fatigue, still climbing and pulling himself upright, collapsing momentarily with weariness, then exerting himself for another climb. He repeats this over and over until finally he cannot lift himself even once more and succumbs to sleep. One set of parents discovered their eight-month-old daughter climbing in her sleep on several occasions during this mastery period. At eleven or twelve at night they could hear soft sounds in the baby's room and upon entering would find the baby standing in her crib, dazed and dimly conscious, too sleepy to protest when she was put down in her bed again. When the art of standing was perfected, the baby gave up practicing in her sleep. --Selma H. Fraiberg, The Magic Years The best title for this paragraph is A. "Babies' Nighttime Activities" B. "How a Baby Masters the Skill of Standing" C. "The Sleep Habits of Babies" D. "Practice Makes Perfect"

(b)

USE CONTEXTUAL, SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC CLUES TO DERIVE MEANING

When reading a passage for the first time, you have to make an effort to cope with unfamiliar or difficult words that you come across. You should first try to 3

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 guess the meaning of the words rather than look them up in a dictionary. One way to find out the meaning of unfamiliar words is through the use of context. The context in reading refers to the overall meaning of the text. The context also refers to the surrounding words in a sentence that gives us clues about the words we read. The syntactic clues give us the word order clues where the information implicit in the grammatical structures of the language is utilized. The semantic clues give us the meaning clues where the reader recalls his own experiences and utilizes his own conceptual background in order to bring meaning to his/her reading. Example 1: Read the two sentences. (a) The hungry spider __________ the juicy fly. [ With knowledge of spiders and flies, (that is context) the reader would be likely to predict that the missing word is ate.]

(b) The loving mother __________ the hungry baby. [ With knowledge, of mothers and babies (that is context) the reader would be likely to predict that the missing word is fed.]

Exercise Write the meaning for each of the nonsense words by reading the contexts. 1. Bultums Bultums are useful to wear when the weather is cold. Some bultums are waterproof. There are different types of bultums for different occasions.

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 Some houses have a special cupboard near the front door where visitors can hang their bultums Bultum means: _______________________________ 2. Kester Mother gets kester when we are late home for dinner. The teacher was very kester when a student broke the computer. As people get older, they usually learn to control their kester moment. A kester person does not think as clearly as a non-kester person

Kester means: _______________________________ (c) READ AND MAKE INFERENCE Making Inferences is a tool that takes us beyond what is literally on the page, expanding it to open up new meanings and personal connections. When we infer, we take statements in the text and read between the lines to figure out what an author is hinting at or to draw our own conclusions. For instance, if we are reading an article about a hospital closing, we would probably ask ourselves why. The reason might not be directly stated in the article, but from other facts in the article as well as what we know about where it is located, we might infer that the hospital was not getting enough funding to stay open.

More tips to help you to infer Question the text, argue with it, or raise doubts about it. Show how to include your own ideas when you restate the text. Make an inference by connecting two or more details from different places in the text. Use the text as your support to make an argument or try to persuade someone. Make inferences as you reflect on the text after reading. 3

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 Example 1: When Sarah went on stage to receive the best actress award for her role as Tun Fatimah in her Primary School play, her mothers eyes were brimming with tears. The stated meaning contains the following information: (a) Sarah received her best actress award on stage. (b) She played the role of Tun Fatimah. (c) She was still in Primary School. (d) Her mother had tears in her eyes The pieces of information that are not stated but can be interpreted or inferred are as follows: (a) Sarah was rewarded for her fine acting. (b) Sarah was still below 13 years old. (c) Sarahs mother witnessed her daughter receiving the award. (d) She was proud of her. (e) Her daughters achievement caused her to shed tears of joy.

(d) DISTINGUISH FACT FROM OPINION A fact is objective information that can be checked or proved to be true and not a statement about the future. An opinion is a statement that cannot be proven to be true or false and is ones personal belief, idea, or feeling about a subject. Clues to help you identify facts and opinions. Facts The use of dates and year The use of statistic/figures/precise numbers or quantities The use of definitions 3 Opinions The use of adjectives which show your point of view or emotions The use of comparison words which show a comparison between two or more things The use of other words which show frequency, possibility, advisability

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 and necessity The use of phrases which show a belief, a suggestion, a feeling, or an opinion

When stating a geographical or scientific fact

Lets look at some examples. These are facts because they are concrete. 1. 2. 3. The house was painted on November 18, 1999. Today is Saturday.

My son had a temperature of one hundred and two degrees this morning. However, these facts can be changed to opinions when we add a belief or view. 1. 2. The house was painted recently on November 18, 1999, so it looks as good as new. Today is Saturday and Mark always sleeps in on Saturdays, so that is why he is late for the game. 3. There was no way for me to go to school because my son had a temperature of one hundred and two degrees this morning.

Exercise Read the following statements. Determine whether each statement is a fact or opinion. What are some of the signal words? No. 1 Statements The cerebral cortex or brain is characterized by a division into halves termed hemispheres which are connected by tissue called the corpus callosum. I think it is more interesting to watch a movie than to watch football at the stadium. The majority of drug addicts are between the ages 12 35 years. Fact / Opinion

2 3

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 4 5 6 7 8 I believe that kids skip school because teachers are unsympathetic. As a matter of fact, oil spills from factories have been found to be related to the death of marine life. In my view, men are better at raising children than women. It is a matter of opinion that all facts are scientific facts. According to the national weather service, there is a 90 per cent chance of rain today. Therefore, it will probably rain today.

Task Read an interview from a magazine or newspaper. Try to identify whether the speakers are giving their opinions or facts?

(e)

IDENTIFY SHIFT IN ARGUMENT

Transitions are words and phrases used by writers to indicate specific relationships between ideas and to create coherence or logical connection between ideas and to create a coherence or logical connection between the ideas in a passage.

Lets look at some examples. The following paragraph shows how carefully chosen transitions (CAPITALIZED) lead the reader smoothly from the introduction to the conclusion of the paragraph. I dont wish to deny that the flattened, minuscule head of the large-bodied "stegosaurus" houses little brain from our subjective, top-heavy perspective, BUT 3

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 I do wish to assert that we should not expect more of the beast. FIRST OF ALL, large animals have relatively smaller brains than related, small animals. The correlation of brain size with body size among kindred animals (all reptiles, all mammals, FOR EXAMPLE) is remarkably regular. AS we move from small to large animals, from mice to elephants or small lizards to Komodo dragons, brain size increases, BUT not so fast as body size. IN OTHER WORDS, bodies grow faster than brains, AND large animals have low ratios of brain weight to body weight. IN FACT, brains grow only about two-thirds as fast as bodies. SINCE we have no reason to believe that large animals are consistently stupider than their smaller relatives, we must conclude that large animals require relatively less brain to do as well as smaller animals. IF we do not recognize this relationship, we are likely to underestimate the mental power of very large animals, dinosaurs in particular. Stephen Jay Gould, Were Dinosaurs Dumb?

The following are also some of the words and phrases to indicate transitions in a paragraph or passage. To show addition: again, and, also, besides, equally important, first (second, etc.), further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, moreover, next, too To give examples: for example, for instance, in fact, specifically, that is, to illustrate To compare: also, in the same manner, likewise, similarly To contrast: although, and yet, at the same time, but, despite, even though, however, in contrast, in spite of, nevertheless, on the contrary, on the other hand, still, though, yet To summarize or conclude: all in all, in conclusion, in other words, in short, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to sum up To show time: 4

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 after, afterwards, as, as long as, as soon as, at last, before, during, earlier, finally, formerly, immediately, later, meanwhile, next, since, shortly, subsequently, then, thereafter, until, when, while To show place or direction: above, below, beyond, close, elsewhere, farther on, here, nearby, opposite, to the left (north, etc.) To indicate logical relationship: accordingly, as a result, because, consequently, for this reason, hence, if, otherwise, since, so, then, therefore, thus (adapted from Diana Hacker, A Writers Reference)

Task Choose one argumentative essay and identify the shift in arguments or ideas in the text.

Exercise A. Read the following paragraph and circle the transition words that show time. You can make your own cards to celebrate special events. First, gather the materials you need: construction paper, scissors, crayons or markers, and glue. Second, fold a piece of construction paper to create a card that has a front, a back, and an inside. Cut out interesting shapes from more construction paper, and glue the shapes to the front and back of your card. You may also draw colorful pictures on the front and back of the card. Finally, write a brief message inside the card, and sign your name. Now you're ready to give your card to someone special. B. Read the sentences below and circle the transition words that compare or contrast. 1. I was anxious to leave. However, we had to wait until Uncle Pete arrived.

2. Mother told us to hurry onto the bus. Otherwise, we all would have been caught in the rain. 3. I make my sandwich in the same way that Shawna does. We both use food that is peanut free because of our food allergies.

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11 4. 5. I asked about the homework, but neither Todd nor Antonio knew what had been assigned. Even though it was very cold, Mary Beth did not wear a jacket.

C. Transition words have been left out in the following paragraph. Select appropriate words from the list below, and write them in the blanks. There can be more than one word that fits in some blanks. Select the one that you think fits best. meanwhile as a result of first while through next under beside then once upon a time

WAJ 3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY 11

__(1) __ there lived a family of bears in a lovely wooded area. Their home was __(2)__ some trees __(3)__ a small stream. One day __(4)__ the bears were not at home, a little girl came to the house. __(5)__, she knocked on the door. __(6)__, even though no one answered her knock, she entered the house. __(7)__, she ate some of the bears' food, and she napped on one of their beds. __(8)__, the bears returned home. They were surprised to see their door open. Their roars woke up the girl, and she fearfully ran from the house, __(9)__ the woods, and back to her own home. __(10)__ her experiences, she never again went into the woods alone.

(f)

IDENTIFY EMOTIONALLY-LADEN WORDS

Authors often write not only to communicate but also to arouse some emotion or make readers respond to their ideas or suggestions. Authors select words for their emotional, suggestive meanings to create vivid images. Carefully chosen words can be very effective in accomplishing these purposes, and a careful reader can recognize how words are used for certain effects. Lets look at some examples. These are words found in a text about adoption. The writer is very careful to use positive or neutral words so to sound politically correct and not offensive. Birthparent not real parent Biological parent not natural parent Biological or birth father not real father Birth child not own child My child not adopted child, own child Born to unmarried parents not illegitimate Terminate parental rights not give up Make adoption plan not give away Waiting child not Adoptable / available child Making contact with not reunion Parent not adoptive parent 21

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Task What other words or phrases can you think of that are emotionally laden words? List them down (g) IDENTIFY WRITERS MOOD, TONE, BIAS, PURPOSE OR POINT OF VIEW While an authors purpose is closely related to the main idea and can often be inferred from the main idea and the way in which the details are presented, the tone of a piece of writing is a little more illusive. The tone refers to the authors attitude, mood or feeling reflected in the writing. The tone also suggests the authors purpose to criticize, to persuade, to sympathise and to appreciate. Below is an example of how you may infer a writer's tone or attitude: "...Had the researchers spoken to anyone who has witnessed the ravages of the Green Revolution, they would have learned that their basic premise was dismissed as simplistic nonsense years ago.' (an extract from Beware Outbreak of Mad Scientist Disease) Tone and Attitude The use of such a negative word like "ravages" suggests the writer is highly critical of the usefulness of the Green Revolution, and his dismissive tone as exemplified by the use of the phrase "simplistic nonsense" indicates his low opinion of the researchers' achievement.

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(WAJ3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY) Exercise 1. What is the writer's attitude towards pure scientists? Find five words/phrases in this passage that indicate the writer's attitude. Pure scientists have by and large been dim-witted about engineers and applied science. They couldn't recognise that many of the problems were as intellectually exacting as pure problems, and that many of the solutions were as satisfying and beautiful. Their instinct -- perhaps sharpened in this country by the passion to find a new snobbism wherever possible, and to invent one if it doesn't exist -- was take it for granted that applied science was an occupation of second-rate minds. 2. What is tone of the excerpt below? What devices does he use to show his attitude to the government of Singapore, caning and Americans who support the caning? Does he try to present his own inferences as facts? What kind of person does he want to be seen as? What kind of person do you infer him to be? The verb "torture" is defined in the Webster's Tenth Collegiate Dictionary as "the infliction of intense pain (as from burning, crushing or wounding) to punish, coerce or afford sadistic pleasure". The dictatorship of Singapore has found an American teenager guilty of spray-painting cars and sentenced him to four months in prison, a $2,000 fine -- and torture. Singapore's torture of choice is flogging by rattan cane which elicits the screams satisfying to the torturer and scars the torturee physically and mentally for life. Torture is an act of savagery as old as civilisation. Demosthenes described it as the surest means of obtaining evidence. Tomas de Torquenada issued detailed instructions for its use in the Spanish Inquisitions. But now civilised nations have a Covenant on Civil and Political Rights that declares, "No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment." The United Nations has a "Convention Against Torture". The government of Singapore stands aloof from the universal condemnation. Singapore's dictator is actually proud of his country's reputation for keeping order by inflicting pain. Moreover, his diplomats in the United States report that many Americans endorse the lashing to be meted out to the young offender. That some people in America thoughtlessly espouse torture is undeniable. One sap on the street in Washington told a New York Times reporter: If you've ever had your antenna ripped off your car, you can sympathise with the government of Singapore. Lash him."

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(WAJ3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY) I have had more than a few antennas ripped off my car, and a few swastikas sprayed on my house, and have felt a surge of mindless fury at the perpetrators. But I have also seen a Kurdish patriot crippled for life by one of Saddam Hussein's tortures, and witnessed the misdirected self-loathing on the face of a rape victim, and I don't think any person or government has any right to inflict any physical pain on another human being. (From The New York Times, 1994 "The Caning of Michael Fay, by William Safire)

(h) UNDERSTAND THE USE OF FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE AND ITS EFFECT ON MEANING Writers sometimes use figurative language to express a point or to clarify an idea through imaginative comparisons or with words used in unusual, suggestive or symbolic ways. Figurative language often enhances meaning by representing abstract ideas in more concrete, vivid images. To understand figurative expressions, you must first recognize words are being used figuratively and are not meant to be taken literally. You must infer what the figurative expression means in the context of the sentence. There are many types of figurative language used in writing, but the most frequently used are similes, metaphors, hyperboles, personification, symbolism and irony. Simile A simile uses the words like or as to compare one object or idea with another to suggest they are alike. Example: busy as a bee Personification A figure of speech in which human characteristics are given to an animal or an object. Example: My teddy bear gave me a hug. Hyperbole An exaggeration that is so dramatic that no one would believe the statement is true. Tall tales are hyperboles. Example: He was so hungry, he ate that whole cornfield for lunch, stalks and all. Symbol A thing (could be an object, person, situation or action) which stands for something else more abstract. Example: a flag is a symbol of our country 23

(WAJ3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY) Irony It is a figure of speech when an expression used is the opposite of the thought in the speaker's mind, thus conveying a meaning that contradicts the literal definition. Example: The Road Not Taken: Verbal irony - the speaker knows he will tell the old story "with a sigh" of a choice that "made all the difference."

Exercise Read the lyrics below and identify the figurative language.
Breath (2am) 2 AM and she calls me 'cause I'm still awake, "Can you help me unravel my latest mistake? I don't love him. Winter just wasn't my season" Yeah we walk through the doors, so accusing their eyes Like they have any right at all to criticize, Hypocrites. You're all here for the very same reason Chorus: 'Cause you can't jump the track, we're like cars on a cable And life's like an hourglass, glued to the table No one can find the rewind button, girl. So cradle your head in your hands And breathe... just breathe, Oh breathe, just breathe May he turned 21 on the base at Fort Bliss "Just a day" he said down to the flask in his fist, "Ain't been sober, since maybe October of last year." Here in town you can tell he's been down for a while, But, my God, it's so beautiful when the boy smiles, Wanna hold him. Maybe I'll just sing about it. Chorus There's a light at each end of this tunnel, You shout 'cause you're just as far in as you'll ever be out And these mistakes you've made, you'll just make them again If you only try turning around. 2 AM and I'm still awake, writing a song If I get it all down on paper, it's no longer inside of me, Threatening the life it belongs to And I feel like I'm naked in front of the crowd Cause these words are my diary, screaming out loud And I know that you'll use them, however you want to

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But you can't jump the track, we're like cars on a cable, And life's like an hourglass, glued to the table No one can find the rewind button now Sing it if you understand. and breathe, just breathe woah breathe, just breathe, Oh breathe, just breathe, Oh breathe, just breathe.

(i) IDENTIFY AND DIFFERENTIATE IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS AND METAPHORS Idiomatic Expressions Language is full of idiomatic expressions or idioms. They can be just one word or a group of words. If you try to understand an idiomatic expression literally, in most cases, it will make very little sense. The objective of an idiom is to try to develop a new meaning that goes beyond the literal significance. Idiomatic expressions have different forms and structures. They can be short with only one word or they can be long using combinations of words. Bill has two hands, a right hand and a left hand. (literal sentence) Bill is an old hand in the store. (This means that Bill has a lot experience in the store. An old hand refers to a person with experience.) John is a nut. (John is crazy.) Bob has the bull by the horns. (Bob has the situation under control.)

Metaphor The metaphor states a fact or draws a verbal picture by the use of comparison. A simile would say you are like something; a metaphor is more positive - it says you are something. Example: You are what you eat. Exercise Choose the correct meaning. 25

(WAJ3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY) A. Animal Idioms 1. Wow! It's raining cats and dogs today! I wish I'd brought my umbrella to school! a. I forgot my umbrella today. b. It's raining heavily. c. Cats and dogs are falling from the sky. 2. When I told my mom I would be home around 2 am, she had a cow! a. My mom bought a baby cow. b. My mom is really strange. c. My mom was really upset. 3. Jean: How did you know it was my birthday today? Susan: Oh, a little birdie told me! a. Jean told Susan it was her birthday. b. An unnamed person told Susan about Jean's birthday. c. Susan told Jean it was her birthday. 4. Frank: Why didn't your brother ride the roller coaster with us? Sam: Oh, he's such a scaredy cat! He won't get on any fast ride. a. Sam's brother is afraid to ride the roller coaster. b. Sam's brother is a cat. c. Sam's brother didn't go to the roller coaster. A. Body Idiom Idiom You did it. You have to face the music. Yes. You hit the nail on the head. You two don't see eye to eye. You have to learn it by heart. Meaning You have to memorize it. You have to accept the consequences of your actions. You're absolutely right. You don't agree with each other.

Task Go online and try to collect more idioms. http://www.idiomconnection.com 20/10/2009 http://knowgramming.com/metaphors/metaphor_chapters/examples.htm 27/10/2009

(j) READ CRITICALLY AND RESPOND TO TEXT Critical reading is a skill which can be developed through practices, such as: 26

(WAJ3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY) a. Taking notes of the text's main ideas and adding your own responsive comments. b. Talking to others about what you have read. c. Relating a given text to similar or contrasting themes. d. Explaining what the text means and making it intelligible. This will help you to see the underlying, unstated assumptions e. Asking yourself: "Is it possible to disagree with any of this?" f. Asking yourself: 'How can I convince my peers that I understand what this is about?' Exercise Read the following paragraph and answer the questions that follow. In ancient times people believed in the predictions and advice of astrologers because astrology was part and parcel of their magical world view. They looked upon celestial objects as abodes or omens of the Gods and, thus, intimately connected with events here on earth; they had no concept of the vast distances from the earth to the planets and stars. Now that these distances can and have been calculated, we can see how infinitesimally small are the gravitational and other effects produced by the distant planets and the far more distant stars. It is simply a mistake to imagine that the forces exerted by stars and planets at the moment of birth can in any way shape our futures. Neither is it true that the position of distant heavenly bodies make certain days or periods more favorable to particular kinds of action, or that the sign under which one was born determines one's compatibility or incompatibility with other people. --Bart J. Bok, "Objections to Astrology," The Humanist Top of Form
/usr/w eb/home/m /usr/w eb/home/m /usr/w eb/home/m /usr/w eb/home/m 1

1.

This paragraph is a _____________. A. narration B. description C. exposition D. persuasion

2. Which of the following can we accurately infer? Astrology developed in the ancient world largely because A. people believed that the stars and planets were deities B. it was part of their traditional mythology C. they had a desire to explain what they didn't understand D. they were scientifically ignorant 27

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3.

The author's attitude toward astrology can be best described as A. unbelieving B. angry C. sympathetic D. laudatory

Suggested Answers (a) READ FOR MEANING AND UNDERSTANDING OF A VARIETY OF TEXT Exercise 1. C 2. A 3. B (b) USE CONTEXTUAL, SYNTACTIC AND SEMANTIC CLUES TO DERIVE MEANING Exercise 1. jacket 2. Temperamental DISTINGUISH FACTS FROM OPINION Exercise 28

(c)

(WAJ3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY) 1. Fact 5. Fact (d) 2. Opinion 6. Opinion 3. Fact 7. Opinion 4. Opinion 8. Opinion

IDENTIFY SHIFT IN ARGUMENT A. Read the following paragraph carefully. Then, locate and circle each transition word that shows time. You can make your own cards to celebrate special events. First, gather the materials you need: construction paper, scissors, crayons or markers, and glue. Second, fold a piece of construction paper to create a card that has a front, a back, and an inside. Cut out interesting shapes from more construction paper, and glue the shapes to the front and back of your card. You may also draw colorful pictures on the front and back of the card. Finally, write a brief message inside the card, and sign your name. Now you're ready to give your card to someone special. B. Read the following sentences carefully. Then, locate and circle each transition word that compares or contrasts. 1. However 2. Otherwise 3. that is 4. but 5. Even though. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Once upon a time under beside while First Then Next Meanwhile through As a result of

(e) IDENTIFY WRITERS MOOD, TONE, BIAS, PURPOSE OR POINT OF VIEW Pure scientists have by and large been dim-witted about engineers and applied science. They couldn't recognise that many of the problems were as intellectually exacting as pure problems, and that many of the solutions were as satisfying and beautiful. Their instinct -- perhaps sharpened in this country by the passion to find a new snobbism wherever possible, and to invent one if it doesn't exist -- was take it for granted that applied science was an occupation of second-rate minds. (The writers attitude is very sarcastic, arrogant and condemning. Yes, the writer is trying to convince his readers through wit.) 1. 29

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2.

The verb "torture" is defined in the Webster's Tenth Collegiate Dictionary as "the infliction of intense pain (as from burning, crushing or wounding) to punish, coerce or afford sadistic pleasure". The dictatorship of Singapore has found an American teenager guilty of spray-painting cars and sentenced him to four months in prison, a $2,000 fine -- and torture. Singapore's torture of choice is flogging by rattan cane which elicits the screams satisfying to the torturer and scars the torturee physically and mentally for life. Torture is an act of savagery as old as civilisation. Demosthenes described it as the surest means of obtaining evidence. Tomas de Torquenada issued detailed instructions for its use in the Spanish Inquisitions. But now civilised nations have a Covenant on Civil and Political Rights that declares, "No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading punishment." The United Nations has a "Convention Against Torture". The government of Singapore stands aloof from the universal condemnation. Singapore's dictator is actually proud of his country's reputation for keeping order by inflicting pain. Moreover, his diplomats in the United States report that many Americans endorse the lashing to be meted out to the young offender. That some people in America thoughtlessly espouse torture is undeniable. One sap on the street in Washington told a New York Times reporter: If you've ever had your antenna ripped off your car, you can sympathise with the government of Singapore. Lash him." I have had more than a few antennas ripped off my car, and a few swastikas sprayed on my house, and have felt a surge of mindless fury at the perpetrators. But I have also seen a Kurdish patriot crippled for life by one of Saddam Hussein's tortures, and witnessed the misdirected self-loathing on the face of a rape victim, and I don't think any person or government has any right to inflict any physical pain on another human being. (From The New York Times, 1994 "The Caning of Michael Fay, by William Safire) (The writer does not agree with caning. He includes concrete evidence and personal experience to convince the readers. He is trying to infer himself as a person who is against cruelty.) (f) UNDERSTAND THE USE OF FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE AND ITS EFFECT ON MEANING
Chorus: 'Cause you can't jump the track, we're like cars on a cable - simile And life's like an hourglass, glued to the table personification / simile No one can find the rewind button, girl. So cradle your head in your hands - personification And breathe... just breathe, Oh breathe, just breathe Chorus There's a light at each end of this tunnel, - metaphor You shout 'cause you're just as far in as you'll ever be out - simile And these mistakes you've made, you'll just make them again

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If you only try turning around. 2 AM and I'm still awake, writing a song If I get it all down on paper, it's no longer inside of me, Threatening the life it belongs to And I feel like I'm naked in front of the crowd - simile Cause these words are my diary, screaming out loud - personification And I know that you'll use them, however you want to

(g) IDENTIFY AND DIFFERENTIATE IDIOMATIC EXPRESSIONS AND METAPHORS Exercise A. Animal Idioms 1. B 2. C B. Body Idioms Meaning You have to memorize it. You have to accept the consequences of your actions. You're absolutely right. You don't agree with each other.

3. B

4. A

Idiom You did it. You have to face the music. Yes. You hit the nail on the head. You two don't see eye to eye. You have to learn it by heart.

(h)

READ CRITICALLY AND RESPOND TO TEXT Exercise 1. C 2. B 3. A

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TOPIC 4
Synopsis

WRITING FOR DIFFERENT TEXT TYPES

Good writers are not born but developed. You too can be a good writer if you follow some golden rules of writing, What you write have to be organised and clearly expressed so that your thoughts can be conveyed to the reader. This unit deals with the basic principles of report writing, summary writing and letter writing. Learning outcomes At the end of this unit. you should be able to; 1. write reports for academic purposes 2. write summaries for academic purposes 3. write letters for different purposes and audience

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Report Writing Reports are compositions that give information. You usually write a report for someone in authority, for example a teacher or a principal. We also write reports for the police if we witness an accident or a crime. Guidelines; 1) Write the title and date of your report at the top left hand corner of the paper. 2) If you are writing a report for somebody (e.g. the school principal, a teacher) write at the top whom the report is addressed to. 3) If you are writing a report for a newspaper, include as many facts as possible. Write the day and the place when the incident happened. 4) Write in clear, precise language. If you are describing an event, write a summary of the events. Do not give lengthy explanations. 5) Remember to allocate one idea for ane paragraph. 6) At the end of the report, write your name in block capitals and sign the report.

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(WAJ3103 ENGLISH LANGUAGE PROFICIENCY) Example You witnessed an accident in the science laboratory and have been asked to write a report to your principal. In the report you should explain the events leading to the accident, the accident itself and the outcome. The Principal Sekolah Menengah Seri Andalas Klang Selangor. 12 May 2010 A Report on a laboratory acident in Form 3K

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TOPIC 5

WRITING ACADEMIC PAPERS

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TOPIC 6

WRITING REFLECTIONS

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