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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

ARBA MINCH INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

ENGINEERING FACULITY DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL AND URBAN ENGINEERING INTERN SHIP REPORT ON WOLLEGA STADIUM MULTI PURPOSE PROJECT FROM OCTOBER, 4, 2012 TO DECEMBER, 30, 2012

PREPARED BY ESAYAS TAFESE (RET/858/O1)

SUBMISSION DATE FEBUARY, 10, 2012

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 CONTENT TABLE TITLE I Declaration. II III PAGE

EXCUTIVE SUMMERY..
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.................................................................................

CHAPTER ONE. INTRODUCTION. 1.0 THE GENERALDISCRIPTION OF THE BACK GROUND OF CAMPANY

1.1 Financial sports for wollega stadium.. . 1.2 Main product or services. .. 1.3 Main customers or the end users of its products or services.. 1.4 The back ground of the contractor company
1.4.1 ESTABLISHMENT 1.4.2 OBJECTIVE. 1.4.3 VISION. 1.4.4 MISSION. 1.4.5 MANDATE.. 1.5.1 ORGANIZATIONAL STATUS AND PROFILE. 1.5.2 HUMAN RESOURCES PROFILE. 1.5.3 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES

1.6 TASKS DISTRIBUTIONS AND COORDINATIONS. 1.7 CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

CHAPTER TWO..

2. Construction Materials.. 2.0 Water.. 2.1Aggregates..


2.1.1 Aggregates used for the construction of ground slab and concrete making

2.2 Sands 2.3 cements


2.4 Mixer

2.4.1Hand Mixing
2.4.2 Mechanical Mixer 2.5 Concrete

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

I Declaration

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

This report is the outcome of my observation on the Wollega Stadium project in the three months of duration of time. And it is not copied from any materials books. Its my own work.

Prepared by student Esayas Tafese ( RET/858/01) From the Department of Civil and Urban Engineering, 2012

II

EXCUTIVE SUMMERY

This report describes about Wollega stadium Multipurpose Project that found in Nekemte town. The project aims to avail a moderate entertainment center for the local youth for the sole of conducting the different types of sport activities. Generally the report is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the structural working and the second parts deals with the sanitary works on the project site. The first section of this part gives the general description on the back ground of the project area like its brief history, products or services, the end user of its products and the overall organization and work flows. The existing construction materials have been dealt in the second section of the report.

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 The sub structural works like the construction of the ground floor slab has been discussed in the third section. The super structural works begins in the fourth section. The construction procedure of stepped seats, beams and elevation columns has been discussed here. The fifth section is concerned with the masonry works. It deals the manufacture of blocks and the type of partition walls. The finishing material and their procedure works of plastering is discussed in the sixth section. In part two sanitary works that contain three sections, the first section is sanitary system and the second section deals about the appurtenance of sanitary which contain the parts of the sewerage and their respective construction materials. On the last section or section three the overall benefits of intern ship is discussed. And finally, conclusion and some recommendations have been made in the end section of the report.

III

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I would like to thank GOD for giving me the strength to complete this work. Next to GOD, I would like to thank my family and Arba Minch University Institute Of Technology for they help me both financially and morally. I extend my deepest gratitude to the project site manager Ato Ebsa Galena for his help, encouragement and initiation to do this practice effectively.

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION 1.0 THE GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE BACK GROUND OF COMPANY Wollega stadium is an ultra modern stadium which is under construction. The youth center and stadium with its all accompanying facilities will be built in the western part of Nekemte town around the area commonly called by the name Gimbi . The size area occupied with the plot is 13 hectare. The project can be considered as the most endeavor in positively changing the image of the town and building social infrastructure. The construction is expected to last in four years i.e. starting from 2008 up to 2011. However ti could not being full filled because of economical and some other problems. So that at this stage it is assumed about 72 % of the construction is completed. Whereas, the remainder part will be assumed to be finished in two years starting from now. The total project cost which is estimated at 190 millions of birr expected from each community, public and donors. Somewhat, to this date, about 83.000,000 is collected. The project is led by East Wollega Zone Youth and the Sport Bureau of this zone. The intention of the project is to construct a multipurpose stadium with a capacity to hold different kinds of sport competition. This step is believed to alleviate the shortage of entertainment facilities for the youth. The stadium has 20,000 seats that is fully covered roof with the following facilities:-Olympic standard running track and field. - FIFA standard foot ball field Gymnasium, swimming pool, tennis court, basket ball and volley ball fields etc. The functional element of the stadium is listed below.

Building function Main stadium Swimming pool Public library Guest house Outdoor games

Net floor area (m2) 29,000 2,346 1,147 808 1,194

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

1.1 Financial sports for wollega stadium


Since this stadium is an ultra modern one it need so much things such as money, manpower and materials to success its goal. Therefore so many organization are took a participation in it. Among this few of them are listed below. Financial supports could be made through a block of the project:-Account No.846 commercial Bank of Ethiopia, Nekemte, and oromia regional state. -Account No. (5047) 01718071650000 Commercial Bank of Ethiopia Addis Ababa branch. -Account No. 0171647552400 Commercial bank of Ethiopia Bole branch. -Account No. 0170954669000 Commercial Bank of Ethiopia, Arada Branch. -Account No. 123865133190 Awash International Bank, Merkato Branch and there are other organizational that are not listed.

1.2 Main product or services


The main objective of the Wollega Stadium complex project is to avail a modern entertainment center for the local youth for the sole purposes of conducting the different types of sport activities. The main functional elements of the sports center is being the stadium, other supportive facilities (i.e. reducing the spread of HIV, for the development of the town, etc) are also included. The design has also expansion possibilities with cost efficient strategies. The design reflects local culture (both tangible and intangible heritages).

1.3 Main customers or the end users of its products or services


The project aims at building productive generation of youth with sustainable mental and physical well being with emphasis on reducing the spread of HIV-AIDS. In addition to this it also increases the financial incoming economy either for the company or country as well.

1.4 The back ground of the contractor company


Oromia Water works Construction Enterprise (OWWCE) is Oromia regional administration governments organizations. It engages specifically in water resources development constructions and all water related constructions works. The enterprise carries out the professional duty of supplementing and enabling the government realize developmental action plan in the field of water resources development sector.

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

1.4.1 ESTABLISHMENT
OWWCE was established in 1991 by the Oromia Regional Administration Government. Relevant legislations were passed since then, the latest being in 2001, redefining OWWCE mandate and terms, capacitating the organization in its overall performance.(OWWCE magazine, September 2010,35)

1.4.2 OBJECTIVE
 Under take leading role in development activities.  Specialize in infrastructural constructions project net work nationwide.  Injecting professional excellence in this all important field of constructions engineering sector.  For over all development achievement goals.

1.4.3 VISION
Become most competent institution in the field of constructions sector is the main vision of Oromia Water works Construction Enterprise (OWWCE) Company.

1.4.4 MISSION
 Engage in water resources development activities by performing professional water constructions works;  Roads constructions;  Building constructions;  Provide different kinds of services efficiently and effectively, using up to date expertise to the satisfaction of clients and consumers, in relevant fields, including manufacturing of constructions related materials.

1.4.5 MANDATE
I. Engages in water resources development activities. The enterprise specializes in among others construction of dams, water based irrigations constructions, hydro electric power constructions works; construction of potable water supplies lines; sewage constructions and drainage systems; bore holes and deep water well drillings works, besides roads and buildings constructions works. Construct and administers water dams, and irrigations schemes; collects serviceprojects beneficiaries, so as to re-invest the funds elsewhere for similar developmental purposes. Issues, sells and pledges bonds.

II.

III.

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IV.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 Manufactures, imports, sells, distributes, exports and rents water works construction equipments and related materials.

1.5.1 ORGANIZATIONAL STATUS AND PROFILE


Oromia Water Works Construction Enterprises (OWWCE) is a government parastatal organization that commands a record two billion birr capital.(OWWCE magazine, September 2010,

MACHINES AND MOTOR VEHICLES

Machineries 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Truck Loader Excavator Back hoe loader Tractor Front end dumper Compressor Dozer Compactor Grader Wagon drill Scraper Light vehicles Shower Truck Fuel Truck Crane Nissan flat bed Mobile work shop Low bed High bed Isuzu Truck

Number 84 12 6 4 13 8 5 14 8 4 1 2 143 5 1 2 1 2 5 1 2

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22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 Service Bus 3 Auto mobile 11 Station Wagon 8 Wheel excavator 3 Truck crane > 60 tone 1 Rig 19 Jack hammer 3 Flat bed Trucks(for rigs) 2 Total 373

1.5.2 HUMAN RESOURCES PROFILE


Oromia Water works Construction Enterprise (OWWCE) is proud to enjoy a 1810 man, dedicated work force. Besides, several other hundreds of contract-based staff and seasonal casual workers entail part of the able organizational work force.(OWWCE magazine, September 2010, 36)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

Staff by professional fields Engineers Construction Forman Surveyors Accountants Management Purchasing experts Marketing experts Economists Geologists Electricians Auto mechanics General mechanics Secretary science Lawyers Other professionals Semi-skilled Total

Numbers 215 183 81 138 79 37 17 19 23 56 88 25 26 7 83 733 1810

1.5.3 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES


OWWCE is governed by the board of Directors. The board is assigned and confirmed in to office by the president of Oromia regional state. OWWCEs board of governors is tasked among others with the responsibilities of: y Devising organizational strategy, layout short and long term action plan,

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

y y y y

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 Sets, decides and confirms annual regular working budget, The board conducts supervisory activities, Gives necessary support, and Take appropriate corrective measures whenever need arises.

OWWCE organizational operations are headed and coordinated by General Manager. Generally, organizational structures of OWWCE are as follows:

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES Board of directors divisions General Manager (GM) Auditing and supervisions

Legal Affair Chief Engineer and deputy (GM) Schemes Administrations

Chief Hydrologist

Business promotions procurement And contractor administration property Administrations and

constructions Branch-1

Constructions branch -2

Constructions branch-3

Supplies Machineries administrations and work shop branch

Human resources, drilling Administrations and branch Capacity building branch

Somali Regional project coordination office

projects office

Wolonchiti irrigations

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

1.6 TASKS DISTRIBUTIONS AND COORDINATIONS


As per OWWCE magazine, September, 2010, 37, The enterprises activities are organized in to nine major departments and a project coordinate office. Several departments further subdivide in to need-based divisions and services. The organizations structural design to ensure facilitations of the constructions works efficiently and professionally, as partly summarized below: 1) First, constructions department, 2) Second constructions department, 3) Third constructions department, 4) Human resources and capacity building department, 5) Property administrations and procurements department, 6) Contracts and Business development department, 7) Schemes Administrations department, 8) Drilling department, 9) Work shop and machineries Administrations department, and 10) Somale Region based project coordinate office,

1.7 CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS


OWWCE under took and engaged in a record fifty six (56) huge and diverse constructions projects. Of the 56 OWWCE construction projects, 52 projects site are in Oromia regional state provinces, while four projects sites are found in shinili province of the somale regional state. The following is breaking down list of the diverse constructions projects successfully under taken by OWWCE. They include: a) 13 water-based irrigations constructions projects. b) 29 clean potable water supplies lines constructions projects.

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 c) 9 buildings and towers constructions projects. d) 2 marsh lands reclamations (drainage system) constructions projects. and e) 3 roads constructions projects. The following drilling engagements were also parts of the water related constructions projects exercised by OWWCE. They were:   14 bore holes constructed with test-pumping performance. 21 water wells constructed without test-pumping.

-5 bore holes rehabilitations program completed. And -Pump-testing was completed on some 4 bore holes.

Three projects are on construction by OWWCE in Nekemte city at this time. These are: i. ii. iii. Wollega stadium construction project; Nekemte Referral hospital construction project; and Meka dam construction project. From the three above projects I have observed the construction of wollega stadium project for the duration time of three months.

CHAPTER TWO

2. Construction Materials
Construction materials are the materials that used for construction at the site. This materials are like water ,sand ,aggregate ,cement ,form work ,mixer ,reinforcement bar ,mortar ,concrete ,and etc. Let see the properties of each of these materials.

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

2.0 Water
The water that used as construction materials, especially for concrete making should be clean water that fit for drinking. As the author investigated at the site, they use clean water for the construction purposes. If it is not clean water what would be problem followed on the construction? If impure water is used like the water that consists of salts, oil, industrial wastes and silts, it makes an additional chemical reaction with cements. This results changing the color of concrete and affects the durability of concrete. Therefore, water of doubt full quality should be submitted for library analysis and tests. The water used in concrete mixes has its own function. This is to react chemically with cement and finally set and harden. And also it used to lubricate concrete and make it workable. The other use of water at this project football field is for watering of the grass on the This water reaches at grass by using pumping. First the water is pumped from the collector tanker with the help of generator. Then by the help of man power water become distributed over the surface of the planted grass .Note that this method is only when the project is on construction. When the project completed they will use splinter, which is on construction.

2.1Aggregates
Aggregate is used for different purposes at the construction site. This is for the construction of hardcore, ground floor slab, retaining wall and for concrete making. The aggregate that used for such purposes should be studied by Geologists before using it. If the rocks that used as aggregate contain some impurities like silts, firstly it should be it should be washed. But, if it is not washed, it weakens the bond between aggregate and cement. And results, reducing of the strength of concrete and the durability of concrete.

2.1.1 Aggregates used for the construction of ground slab and concrete making
The aggregates used as the construction of the ground slab and concrete making should be well graded. As the author observed at the site, the use of well

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

grading aggregate is in to reduce the void spaces created between them. When the void spaces is reduced or decreased the quantity of cement it needs also reduced or decreased. And finally, it results a good concrete and ground floor slab with an economical costs.

2.2 Sands
Sand is the material that used for concrete making and mortar making (used for binding materials of masonry blocks and plastering). The sands that used for construction of building materials should be well glade. That is a particle should be all fine or all coarse. When the sand is well gladded, the finer particles help to occupy the space (voids) between the larger particles. This is used especially when, the sand used for mortar (plastering). Thus the resulting dense mortar and permitting cement or lime in filling the remainder of the voids and binding the sand particle to gather. The sand used for concrete making is not being all fine as that used for plastering or mortar. It should contain fine and coarse sand. But before its use the silt contents of sand should be checked. The sand used should be cleaned and free from dirty or other foreign materials. The presence of this foreign material in sand prevents adhesion ability of sand.

2.3 cements
Cements are materials with adhesive and cohesive properties which make them capable of uniting or bonding to gather fragments or particles of solid matter into a compact mass. AS the author observed at the site, the cement that reaches at the site: It should not put (stay) more than 15 days in storage. It should be free from air entering. This is to avoid an additional chemical reaction. It should be free from moisture (dampness). This makes the concrete Un workable.

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

2.4 Mixer
Mixer is the instrument used to mix the concrete making materials. Mixing may be done by hand or mechanical mixture (mixer).

2.4.1Hand Mixing
This method is carried when there are no suitable equipment materials on the site. Hand mixing, should be done on proper dry board, which can tight water and clean. The author investigated how hand mixing is carried out. This was when sand and cements are mixed to gather for the plastering purpose. How hand mixing is carried out? First the cement and sand are mixed to gather in dry state with the ratio of 1:3 respectively. Before mixing them to gather, it should be measured according to the ratio required. During this cement is measured by weight in cement bags. Each cement bags contain 50 kg, which correspond to 35 liter of volume. And sand is measured by a measuring box 40cm long, 35cm wide, and 25cm depth. Then by adding some amount of water mixing become continued up to get the required plasticity. Finally bring it to the required places and starting work with this made mortar.

2.4.2 Mechanical Mixer


Mechanical mixer is the type of mixer that can work with the help of the energy it gets from electric power. This machine has more advantages than that of hand mixing. It saves the time of working (i.e. it gives large product of concrete in short period of time.) and it makes a well chemical reaction between the constituent materials. Finally it results a good bond concrete.

2.5 Concrete
Concrete is a building construction materials that can be obtained by mixing aggregate, cement, sand and water and allowing the product t o cure for hardening.

2.5.1 The production of concrete at the site


Concrete is simply produced according to the procedure below.

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 First clearing the mixer and adjusting it for work. Then batching is followed, which is measuring of materials according to the required ratio.

This carried by measuring cement by cement bags in which contain 50kg, and measuring of sand and aggregate by using of a measuring box. This box has standard dimension which is 40cm long, 35cm wide, and 25cm depth. After the constituent materials are measured mixing with the required ratio. For example, C-25 concrete strength is mixed by the ratio of 1:2:3 (i.e. one bag of cement (50kg),two boxes of sand and three boxes of aggregate ) respectively. Then they collected in the collector part of machine which is flexiable, means has the ability to rise up and down. Then by rising up the collected constituent materials and allowing it to falls down in a movable cylindrical part of mixer after small amount of water is flushed to it. Then allowing freely rotation of this cylindrical drum for a few minutes (10 or 15 minutes). Finally, the resulted concrete becomes fallen down from the drum on clean places.

2.5.2 Handling of concrete


The obtained concrete by passing the above process should be properly handled. This to control the setting time of concrete. When concrete is transported to the required places by the use of labour force or machine care should be given to it. When mechanical machine is used it is better to use the machine thats circular in shape . Whereas, when labour force used care should given to for those that has hard power. This means when labourer transports the concretes to the place of working some of them are move quickly and some of them are move slowly due to lack of enough endurance or strength or force. This leads to make the stiffness concrete before its work due to the effect come from it from those weak labourers. Therefore labourer should be more power full to reaches the concrete to the required working place before it sets.

2.5 Mortal
Mortar is one of the types of construction materials that used for binding. When concrete is going to be placed on harder concrete, few millimeters of mortar is necessary to prevent formation of stone pockets and secure tight joints. As the author observed on the site they use mortar for the binding of hollow concrete blocks with each other. This mortar is obtained from the mixture of sand, cement and water.

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

2.6Reinforcement bar
Reinforcement bar is normally made up milled steel. As the author observed at the site , they use reinforcement bar at the position of tension resistance. There are different types of and sizes of reinforcement bars. Depending up on their sizes of diameter, there are 8mm, 10mm, 16mm, and 20mm diameters of reinforcement bars on the wollega stadium project t. They use this different size of bars for different types of purposes. They use: -8mm diameter bars for the lateral reinforcement bars (stirrups)of columns and beams. -10mm diameter bars for the lateral reinforcement bars of stepped seats. -16mm and 20mm diameter bars for the longitudinal reinforcement of columns, beams , Foundations and slabs. Whereas depending up on their mode of production at industry, there are plain, deformed/ribbed and twisted types of reinforcement bars.

2.6.1 Where they use this different types of reinforcement bars?


1. Plain reinforcement bars has diameter of 8mm and uses as stirrups of the longitudinal r reinforcement of beams and columns, as the author observed on the site . This is because of its low costs when compared with that of the deformed bars, but has low bonding capacity. 2. Deformed/ribbed reinforcement bar is produced in our country and uses at differen places like for the construction of beams, ground floor slabs ,columns and the like. It has high tensile strength than that of plain reinforcement bars. 3. Twisted reinforcement bar has high tensile strength than on the above two reinforcement bars. Almost all party of wollega stadium is constructed from this type of reinforcement bars, although its costy.the selected twisted bar is the one that produced in foreign country especially in Turkey.

2.7 Where reinforcement bars are stored?


- The reinforcement bars are put on wood in order to avoid rusting. - It should be free from moisture (i.e. its collected at dry area).

2.7.1. Reinforcement bars cover


Reinforcement bars have a minimum concrete cover of 25cm thick and for thick reinforcements at least twice the diameter of the reinforcement bars. This is done: -To avoid corrosion of reinforcement bars .

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 -To protect the steel bars from fire hazards. -To increase the bond strength.

Durability and control of crack width is related with finishing and provision of adequate cover to reinforcement bars. The nominal cover for structural elements located in the interior of the building with dry environment and mild condition is 15mm, example slab, humid environment with moderate exposure is 25mm, example beam, sever environment is 50mm, example footing.

2.5Form work
Form work is one type of the construction materials that used to give the required shape and size of the construction desired. Its made from wood, steel and plastic. Concrete when first mixed is a fluid and therefore to form any concrete member the wet concrete must be placed in a suitable form work or mould to retain its shape , size and position as it sets. It is important to appreciate that the actual form is the reverse shape of the concrete member which is to be cast. Each of the form work parts have its own services or purposes. That is; The formwork sides limits width and shape of wet concrete and has to resist the hydrostatic pressure of the wet concrete which will diminish to zero within a matter of hours depending on setting and curing time. The formwork base or soffit limits the depth and shape of wet concrete and has to resist the initial dead load of the dry set concrete until it has gained sufficient strength to support its own dead weight. Supporter or props: This part of the formwork is used to support the above form works on the desired level of them.

,;

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 SUPER STRUCTURE COSTRUCTION WORKS
Super structure is the structure that exists above the surfaces of the earth. And there are different kinds of super structure that the author observed on the site. These are: -stepped seats

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 -beams and -elevation columns.

3.1 stepped seats


The stepped seats are the structure that has similar serves and design as to slab. Slab is the structure that carries the live load (people and other movable materials loads) and dead loads (self weight and other fixed material loads) and transfer this loads to the constructed column under it. The constructed stepped seats and the one that are still on construction has two shapes. These are the straight and the curved shapes. And the straight stepped seats have the dimension of 10,000cm length, 80cm wide and 40cm riser or height. The curved shape has the same dimension with the straight one in width and riser, but different in length. This is due to its curved shapes. Its length is increase from the inner to outer since its radius is increase toward the outer direction. The main purpose of stepped seat is in order to give the suitable sitting places of the audience without one block the other audience during playing is taking places.

3.1.1 The construction procedure of stepped seats


The basic procedure carried during construction of stepped seat is listed below: 1. A detail study: the detail study of stepped seats going to be constructed is taken from the blue print paper of drawing. Blue print paper is the paper that has a blue color and easily understands to read than the drawing on the manual design book. From this study the worker ( site engineer, consultant engineer, Forman and project manager and other related worker) can gets information like: -The sizes, quantities, types, places, spaces and the overall structure the reinforced bars of the stepped seats. -The characteristic compressive strength of concrete. -The shape and type of form work from the bill of quantity paper and the like.

2. Preparation of construction materials and the places of works: the preparation of the construction materials and the working place is the pre condition of construction works. These materials are: -formwork: it can be wood, steel and/or plastic according to the required shapes. -mixer: mixer is used to mixes the constituent materials of concrete (sand, aggregate, cement and water).

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 -survey equipments: like thedolite, total station, leveling and meter tape and other needed materials for survey measurements. -Scaffold, nail, oil and the like. 3. Construction of formworks: the form works are constructed by carpenter with the guidance of surveyor. Surveyor gives some information to the Forman to keep the quality of the work. These information are: -giving the alignment point of the stepped seats. -giving the elevation point of form work of the stepped seats. -giving the distance, angle and the level of form work and etc. Depending on this information the carpenter constructs the scaffolding and the formworks. The formworks should be attached with plastic fiber materials to avoid the some attachments of concrete during removal of formwork. It also used to left the outer faces of stepped seats smooth after concrete is set. 4. Arrangements of the reinforcement bars: the longitudinal and lateral or stirrups are arranged according to the specified design and tighten them with a thin wire. 5. Checking the arrangements of reinforcement bars. The site engineer checks the arranged reinforcement bars either it matches with the design or not. And report it to the consultant engineer. The consultant approves the arranged by looking: -The types of reinforcement bars they have used. This is either the ribbed or twisted bar and he checks the places of their production. -The sizes of reinforcement bars they have been used. -The spaces of the lateral and longitudinal reinforcement bars and etc. 6. Casting of concrete: After the consultant engineer approves the works the concrete become casted to the constructed form work. During concrete is casted it should be compacted with a uniform depth of not more than 25 cm. 7. Removal of the constructed formwork: the constructed form work is gradually removed from the stepped seats without any attachment of concrete to it. 8. Curing: after the form work is removed the outer faces of the constructed seat is covered with wet sacks. And then starting of curing with water up to the final setting time of concrete (i.e. up to 28 days)

Stepped

80cm

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 40cm stepped footing

20cm

40cm Fig 3.1.1 the cross section of stepped seat.

3.1.2

The detail of reinforcement bars

The longitudinal reinforcement bars are inserted into the arranged stirrups. The stirrups or the lateral reinforcement bars have L-shapes see fig 3.1.2. These stirrups are arranged on the leveled formworks through keeping of spaces distance given on the design paper. After that an additional reinforcement bars of beam is inserted into it .this beam has four longitudinal reinforcement bars that are positioned two of them are on the upper parts and the left two bars are on the bottom parts. Note that those added reinforcements are placed at the edge of the stepped seats. And they serve to resist the loads that come from the human foot loads and keep the seats from cracking when loads are applied on it, especially when the audience moves up and down on the seats.

Fig 3.1.2 the inverted L shape of stirrups of stepped seats.

Note: the way of construction of stepped footing is similar to the stepped seats. Its reinforcement bars arrangement is attached on the arranged reinforcement bars of stepped seats.

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 3.2 beams Beams are the structure that used to transfer the loads that come from slab or from stepped seats to the column constructed under it. There are three types of beams that are completely constructed and still on the construction. These are: i) ii) iii) Floor beams Grade beams and, Sloped beams.

i)

ii)

iii)

Floor beams Floor beams are the beams that found on certain elevation from the ground surfaces. It is used to transfer the loads that come from floor slab to the column. And it is constructed with the help of form work that has the shapes looks like an open box. (I.e. closed at the bottom face; an open at the upper faces and the closed two sides). Grade beams Grade beams the beam that attached with the ground surface. It used to carry the wall`s of ground floor and to give an additional support to the column. And also it gives the side support to the ground floor slab. The of its construction is different from the other. That is it does not need the bottom support form works. And its shape of form work is different from that of an open box shapes. Its bottom surface does not require closing of it since it is attached to the ground. Sloped beams These are the beams that found with some inclination angle measured from horizontal ground surfaces. It is used to support the stepped seats and transfer the loads to the column constructed under it. The way of its construction is similar to with that of floor beam.

3.2.1 The construction procedure of beams


The beams construction procedure is listed below with their specific definitions of each step. 1) Detail study of beam design: the beam structure is studied from the blue print paper. This detail study gives different information about the beams going to be constructed. The information that can be gained from this study is: -Knowing the type of beam going to be constructed. This tells either the beam will be floor beam or grade beam or sloped beam.

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 -Knowing the dimension of the cross section of the beam. -Knowing the sizes of the reinforcement bars. For example 14mm, 16mm, 20mm diameters of reinforcement bar. -Knowing the surface characteristics of the reinforcement bars (i.e. either deformed/ribbed or twisted). -Knowing the space distance of longitudinal and lateral reinforcement bars. -Knowing the quantities of the lateral and longitudinal bars. -Knowing the shape of stirrups and -Knowing of the characteristic strength of concrete. 2) Preparing of construction materials and the places of working: the materials needed for the construction of beams are:-form work: it can be steel or wood. -mixer -Vibrator, nail, oil and other materials. 3) Construction of form work: the form works are constructed by Carpenter with the help of the information obtained from survey. The surveyor gives -The alignment of the string will be stretched. -the elevation point of the beam -the dimensional point (the length, width and depth) of the beam -The level of the form work and etc. Depending on the above information carpenter erects form work. But before that moisten the internal surfaces of the form work with oil ; to avoid the attachment of concrete during removal of form work. The detail formwork construction is listed on the next section of 3.2.2 4) Arrangement of the reinforcement bars: The longitudinal reinforcement bars are arranged and positioned in their respective places with the help of stirrups. The lateral reinforcement bars and stirrups are connected with a thin wire through keeping of the design spaces. 5) Checking of the reinforcement bars arranged: The similar process is take places with the previous one which is stepped seats construction procedure.

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 6) Casting of concrete: after the consultant engineer approves the arranged reinforcement bars the concrete become casted into the constructed form works. The casted concrete should be compacted with vibrator. This is done on the uniform depth of not more than 25cm. and care should be given when the vibrator is used. If the concrete is excess vibrated the concrete become bleeding. Bleeding is the rising of water that carry many fine particles. The rising water tends to weakens the top portion and in extreme cases form scum over the surfaces. If concrete is less vibrated it results shrinkage during drying of concrete that leads to cracking of it. Therefore, since the objective of compaction is to eliminate air holes and achieve maximum density; it should be compacted with a medium time of vibration period. 7) Removing of form work: the striking or removing form work is take places in different condition. See the next section of 3.1.3 for a detail discussion. 8) Curing: after the form work is removed covering the outer surfaces with wet sack and starting of curing to avoid rapid evaporation.

3.2.1 Beam Formwork


This is basically a three sided box supported and propped in the correct position and to the desired level. The beam formwork sides are to retain the initial hydrostatic pressure of the wet concrete. Whereas the form works soffit is to support the initial load of the wet concrete until it has gained sufficient strength to be self supporting. It is essential that all joints in the form work are constructed to prevent the escape of concrete from the molded form work. The removal time of the form work will vary with air temperature, humidity and consequent curing rate. Struts

Soffit

Props

Braces

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 Fig 3.2.1 simple beam formwork detail

3.2.2 Erecting of beam form work


1) Props positioned and leveled through 2) Soffit placed, leveled and position checks 3) Side forms placed and their position is checked before being fixed 4) Strutting on the its position and fixed it 5) Final check before casting concrete. 3.2.3 Striking or Removing beam form work 1) Removing the side forms: this allows drying air movement to take place around the setting concrete. 2) Removing of soffit form work: this is practically within days but as a precaution some props are in position until concrete member is self supporting. Typical form work striking or removing time Beam sides:-9 to 12 hours. Beam soffits:-8 to 14 days but props left under it. Beam props:-15 to 21 days

3.2.4 The reinforcement bars of beam detail


There are negative and positive reinforcement bars. The negative reinforcement bars are placed at the upper part to resist the negative moments. Whereas the positive reinforcement bars are arranged at the bottom parts. This bar is used to resist the positive reinforcement bars. During the arrangement of bars there may be the splicing, bending or hooking and cutting of bars if it is so necessary. The bar splicing is will be done depending on the following rule. These are: -splicing of bars should be avoided at point of maximum moments. -bars which are spliced should be staggered. -Splices are made simply by lapping the bars at the sufficient distance to transfer stresses.

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

When the beam going to be constructs is an end beam; there is bending of the longitudinal reinforcement bars. This is depending on: -hook or bend may not start before the line of a support. -hook or bend may not start closer than d/2 from the face of the support.

Hook or bend

Main reinforcement bars

Stirrups spaces Stirrups

Fig 3 2.4 the reinforcement bars arrangement

3.3 Column Columns are the vertical load bearing members of the structural frame which transmits the beam loads down to the foundations. They are usually constructed in storey heights and therefore the reinforcement should be lapped to provide structural continuity.

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 Depending on their dimensional shapes, there are trapezoidal and rectangular cross sections of column on the project site. And also there are isolated and joint columns when they classified up on their relative distances. The joint columns were constructed at the position place of where the curve block and the straight block were come to gather. This means that the two joint columns have one foundation. The joint columns are separate from each other by use of insertion of cheapod between them. This cheapood helps to prevent the transmission of an accidental crack from one column to the other beside column. The isolated columns are the column that found on certain separate distance and has its own single foundation.

3.3.1 The construction procedure of column


1) Detail study: the column detail structure is obtained from the blue print paper. This paper gives deeply information like the shape, size, dimension, spaces, quantity, type and surface character of the reinforcement bars of the column going to be constructed. And also the characteristic compressive strength of concrete and its volume are the information obtained from the quantity or bill of quantity paper. 2) Preparing of construction materials and working places: the materials used for the construction of the column are first be prepared before the starting of the works. This materials are like the formwork, mixer, plumb bob, electrical conduit (optional),nail and other needed materials. 3) Arranging or positioning of reinforcement bars: the selected longitudinal reinforcement bars are tightening on the stator reinforcement bars. Start or are the bars that left above the column compacted with concrete. 4) Checking the spacing between the reinforcement bars and its verticality with the help of plumb bob. Then tighten with stirrups and attaching the spacer to it. 5) Construction of form work: the side forms are fixed on kicker by checking its perpendicularity with the horizontal construction under it. But before that the form works should be moisten first. 6) Fixing of electrical conduit (if any). 7) Casting concrete: concrete is casted to the constructed forms. The casted concrete should be compacted in a uniform depth of not more than 25cm. 8) Removing of formwork: the constructed forms are dismantled gradually with any attachments of concrete to its internal faces. 9) Curing: after the form work is removed the outer faces should be covered with wet sack and the curing becomes started until the column gets its strength needed.

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

3. 3.2 Reinforcement bars


The longitudinal reinforcement bars are tightening with the lateral reinforcement bars or stirrups. There are different shapes of stirrups that used for the column construction. This are depends on the dimension of the column going to be constructed. For the dimension of the column greater than or equal to 70cm they use an additional diamond shape of stirrups at the internal part of the column. These diamond shapes stirrups are position by jumping of two rectangular shape stirrups tighten. In general he main function of this lateral reinforcement bars are: - It hold the longitudinal bars in position in the forms while the concrete is being placed. -It prevents the slender longitudinal bars from buckling out ward by bursting the thin concrete cover. 3.3.3 Column form work This consists of a vertical mould at the desired shape and size which has to retain the wet concrete and resist the initial hydrostatic pressure caused by the wet concrete. See fig 3.3.2 below

Cleats

Soldiers

Fig 3.3.2. The Column form wo

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

The base of the column

CHAPTER FIVE MASONARY WORKS Masonry is the term used to refer construction using pieces of construction materials made into blocks and stacked together using different binding mechanisms. There are three types of masonry. These are: i) ii) iii) Concrete masonry Stone masonry Brick masonry.

From the above three types of masonry the project uses the first one which is the type of the concrete masonry for partitioning of wall. This type of concrete masonry used is Hollow Concrete Block (HCB). There are three types of HCB depending up on their dimension sizes (i.e. length, width and depth). These different sizes of HCB are used for different purposes. These are -for external partition wall they use, 20x20x40cm. -For internal wall they use, 15x20x40cm and -For partition wall they use, 10x20x40cm. The main reason of the project uses this Hollow Concrete Block masonry is: - They are cheaper to produce - Allow faster construction because of their size and light weight. - And they allow economical use of mortar.

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 5.1 The Manufacture and Curing of Hollow Concrete Block Concrete blocks shall be obtained from supplier or may be manufactured at site. And then samples and test results shall be submitted for approval by the engineer before any blocks are delivered or used in the construction works. 5.1.1 Manufacturing of Hollow Concrete Block Hollow Concrete Blocks shall be manufactured from cement, sand and aggregates. The contractor shall prepare design trial mix using the above available materials to give the average minimum compressive strength as specified in the compressive strength requirements of this section after casting and curing of 28 days. A minimum of 9 blocks shall be prepared from this mix for testing. Then the produced Hollow Concrete Block should be: Uniform in texture, shape, with sharp arises and free from any cracks or defects. -Produced under shed on suitable smooth floor. -Only machines of approved design shall be used for the manufacture of blocks. -Blocks shall be remaining under shed and wet cured for minimum of 7 days after casting. -The surface characteristics of blocks shall be such that a good key for plastering and render is provided where required. -Blocks shall not leave their place of manufacture before the age of 28 days. 5.2 Compressive strength of Hollow Concrete Blocks The following are the minimum compressive strength requirement for blocks at the age of 28 days. The mix proportion of the material components are to be adjusted as required to obtain the required compressive strength.

Hollow Concrete Block Class Average of 6 blocks 42kg/cm2 35kg/cm2 20kg/cm2 70kg/cm2 Individual block 38kg/cm2 32kg/cm2 18kg/cm2 65kg/cm2

Class A Class B Class C Class AA

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 Class AAA 50kg/cm2 46kg/cm2

Note: Class AA is for load bearing wall below grade Class AAA is for load bearing wall above grade. Load bearing walls are those walls that accept and transmit structural loads to the foundation. Whereas non load bearing walls are those which support their own self weight and do not accept any structural loads.

CHAPTER SIX Building Finishing: Plastering, Pointing


6.1 Plastering:

Plastering is the process of covering rough surface of wall, columns, ceilings and other building components with thin coat of plastic mortar to form a smooth durable surface. objectives of plastering: o To protect the external surface against penetration of rain water and other atmospheric agencies. o To give Smooth surface in which dust and dirt can not lodge. o To give decorative effect o To protect surfaces against vermin

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 o To conceal (hide) inferior materials or defective workmanship. A good plaster should be: o easily adhere able to the back ground and remain adhered during all variations in seasons and other atmospheric Conditions o hard & durable o With good workability o possible to apply all weather Condition o Effectively check penetration of moisture.

6.1.1Types of Mortars for plastering The selection of type of plaster depends up on the following factors. Availability of binding materials, durability, finishing requirements and weather conditions. 1. Lime mortar: - The lime used for plastering may be either fat lime or hydraulic lime. However, fat lime is preferred since it yields good putty after slaking. Hydraulic lime Contains particles which slake very slowly as it comes in contact with atmospheric moisture; such slaking may even continue for 6 to 8 months. - If un slaked particles remain in such a plaster, blisters are formed during the process of slow slaking. Thus, the plastered surface gets damaged. - Hydraulic lime yields harder and stronger surface - The mix proportion (i.e. lime: sand) varies from 1:3 to 1:4 for fat lime and 1:2 for hydraulic lime. 2. Cement mortar: - Is the best mortar for external plastering work as it is practically non absorbent. - much stronger than lime mortar - The mix proportion (cement: sand) may vary from 1:4 to 1:6 - The sand used for plastering should be clean. Before mixing water, dry mixing is thoroughly done. When water is mixed, the mortar should be used with 30 minutes of mixing, well before initial setting takes place. 3 Lime- Cement mortar Have both the properties of lime mortar as well as cement mortar. Addition of lime to cement imparts adequate plasticity resulting in smooth plastered surface. Mix proportions (cement: lime: sand) generally used are: 1:1:6, 1:1:8 or 1:2:8 6.1.2 Number of coats of plaster.

The back ground over which plastering is to be done depend up on the type of wall construction, such as random rubble (R.R) masonry, brick masonry, and

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 cement block work etc. Different thickness of plaster is required for different types of back grounds. Plastering is, therefore, can be applied in one, two, or three coats. Plaster in one coat is applied only for inferior work, since it causes heavy shrinkage and Consequent cracking. Generally, lime plaster is applied in three coats while cement plaster is applied in two coats. The first coat (under-coat or rendering coat) provide means of Leveling uneven surface. 10 to15 mm thick. The second coat (floating coat) serve as an intermediate coat. Average thickness is 6 to 9mm. The third coat (setting or finishing coat) provider smooth surface and is about 2 to 3 mm thick. If plastering is done in a single coat only, its thickness should lie between 6 and 12mm. 6.1.3 Methods of plastering preparation of back ground: For plastering new surfaces, all masonry joints should be raked to a depth of 10mm in brick masonry 15mm in stone masonry for providing key to the plaster. All mortar droppings and dust should be removed with the help of stiff wire brush. Any unevenness is leveled before the first coat is applied Keep the back ground wet before applying the first coat during plastering. 1. Lime plaster: After preparing the back ground, lime plastering can be applied in three or two coats. (a) Three coat plaster. i) Application of rendering coat     The mortar is forcibly applied with masons trowel and pressed well in to the joints and over the surface. The thickness of coats should be such as to cover all inequalities of the surface. The normal thickness is 12mm. This surface is allowed to slightly harden and then scratched criss -cross with the edge of trowel. Then, the surface is allowed to set for at least 7 days.

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 (ii) Application of floating coat: The rendering coat is cleaned of all dirt, dust and other loose mortar droppings. - It is lightly wetted. The mortar is then thrown with masons trowel, spread and rubbed to the required plain surface with wooden float. (iii) Application of finishing: Consists of cream of lime applied with steel trowel, rubbed and then smooth finished. Applied immediately after the floating coat.

b) Two coat plaster: In case of two coat plaster, the rendering coat is a combination of the rendering and floating coat of the three coat plaster and is done under one continuous operation except that the scratching of rendering coat as specified in three coat plaster is not done. The total thickness may be about 12mm Finishing is applied in a manner Similar to three coat plaster.

2. Cement plaster and Cement-lime plaster: a) Two- Coat plaster Backing ground is prepared by racking the joints, cleaning the surface and well-watering it. - If the surface to be plastered is very uneven, a preliminary coat is applied to fill up the hollows before the first coat. - Then the first coat or rendering coat of plaster is applied. In order to maintain uniform thickness of plaster screed are formed of plaster on wall surface by fixing dots of 15mm size of 2m interval. - The rendering is kept wet for at least 2 days, and then allowed to dry completely. - Before applying the final coat, the rendering coat is damped evenly. b) Three coat plaster: The procedure similar to two-coat plaster except that an intermediate coat known as floating coat is applied. It provides even surface. c) Single-coat plaster Used only in inferior quality work. 6.1.3 Special Materials used in Plastering

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 Special materials are used in plastering or over the plastered surface to meet some specific requirements of the finished surface; such as to increase durability, for better appearance, fire proofing, sound insulation etc.

1) Acoustic plaster 1) Contains gypsum mixtures applied as final coat in finishing the plastered surface 2) Such coat under goes chemical reaction resulting in production of gas bubbles and consequent formation of tiny openings in the coat. These honey-Combed minute openings absorb sound. 3) used in halls, auditoriums

2) Barium plaster 1) made from cement, sand and Barium sulphate 2) Provided in x-ray rooms. 3) Gypsum plaster (plaster of Paris) 1) Obtained by heating finely ground gypsum heated at 1600 to 1700C. It hardens with in 3 to 4 minutes of adding water. To extend the setting time suitable retarders are used. 2) Plaster of paris in Combination with lime used for ornamental work, and for repairing holes and cracks 4) Others

6.1.4 Defects in plastering 1) Blistering of plastered surface  This is the formation of small patches of plaster swelling out beyond the plastered surface, arising out of late slaking of lime particles in the plaster. 2) Cracking  Formation of cracks or fissures is due to  imperfect back ground  structural defects in building  excessive shrinkage  movements of back ground  faulty workmanship 3) Crazing  It is the whitish crystalline substance which appears on the surface 4) Efflorescence

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 It is the whitish crystalline substance which appears on the surface due to presence of salts in plaster-making materials as well as building materials like bricks, sand, cement etc and even water. Removed by dry brushing and washing the surface repeatedly.

5) Flaking  Formation of very loose mass of plastered surface, due o poor bond between successive coats. 6) peeling  Complete dislocation of some portion of plastered surface, results in patch.

6.2 POINTING

The term pointing is applied to the finishing of mortar joints in masonry Pointing consists of raking the joints to a depth of 10 to 20mm and filling it with better quality mortar in desired shape. Pointing is generally recommended for the finishing of exposed external wall. Advantage of pointing. Protects the joint from adverse effect of atmospheric actions. Hides defective workmanship. Imparts better appearance to exposed surface.

6.2.1MORTAR FOR POINTING I. Lime mortar, lime: sand (1:2) II. Cement mortar, cement: sand (1:3)

6.2.2 METHOD OF POINTING All joints are raked down to a depth of 20mm while the mortar is still soft. The surface and joints are then cleaned and thoroughly wetted. Now mortar is carefully placed in desired shape in these joints with the help of a small trowel. The mortar is pressed to bring perfect contact between the old interior mortars.

The general challenges of the construction works and its solutions

1) The sliding of the soil of the soil

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 When the trench is excavated for the sanitary works there was the sliding of soil into the open trench. This makes the problem of reducing the required depth of the trench. And it needs a reclearance of the sliding soil in the trench which results wastage of time and costs. The sliding of soil occurred due to the remaining of black cotton on the top during the site clearance and also it may come from the staying of trench openly with out applying the desired works with a limiting given time. Therefore it is better to clear the sites deeply before any construction project is applied on it. In addition to that making the desired plan before excavating the trench and after the trench is excavated applying the construction on it and finally back filling with a selected material.

2)

The installation of the sewer line

When the installation of sewer line is carried in the excavated trench they simply make the back filling of soil in it immediately after the working is finished with checking of the leakage the sewer at the joint or deflected point of the pipe. When the project completed and starts its serves there may be the leakage of sewer at the joint or at any place. This may makes the deeply percolation of wastes down to the soil and reaches at the foundation. When the foundation is affected by the saturation of soil it may results the differential settlement of the construction. Therefore the trench is back filled with the selected material it is better to check the leakage effects of the pipe with water.

3) The positioning of the stirrups When the stirrups are positioned on their respective design spaces they should be tighten with the longitudinal reinforcement bars it each joint. But I have seen the problem raised on the column. After the column is casted with concrete and set the stator reinforcement bars left for continues floor become disordered. i.e. the longitudinal reinforcement arranged at the four sided place of the column comes into the center instead of holder at the side. This makes the hard problem when they want add the column of the next floor. Therefore its better to arrange the reinforcement bars by the skilled Forman. 4) The shortage of construction materials Especially at the beginning of the iterance of me at the site, the construction was almost stopping its work due to the shortage of the construction materials. This is the first case to extend the construction period of the project. And also it may fail the contractor in credit. As

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 I have seen on this project the formwork constructed for the construction of the stepped seats were stayed a minimum of one year due to the lack of the cement and reinforcement bars at the construction site. The formworks were decomposed due to the rain. Then they replace this form work with the other new form work and the old form work become useless. Therefore the construction materials should be prepared before any construction step is started in order to finish the works on the specified agreementof time and to be kept from the cost credit .

PART TWO CHAPTER ONE SANITARY WORKS 1. Introduction Sanitary work is one of the works that were partially constructed and partially on the construction at wollega stadium construction project site. The purpose of the sanitary work at this site is in order to remove the waste products that will come from different rooms of this project. The type of sanitary that was on the construction was sewerage works. The sewage work on this site is provided for disposing of spent up water. In doing so the human waste is also carried through the sewers. Sewers are provided also to prevent flooding of the city flowing rain fall. The aims and objects of sewerage works are described below. -To provide a good sanitary environmental condition in a project. - To dispose the human excreta to a safe place by a safe and protective means. -To dispose of all liquids from a community of stadium to a proper place for preventing favorable condition of mosquito breeding, fly developing or bacteria growing. -To treat the sewage if required so as not to endanger the body of water, or land to get polluted where it is finally disposed of. -proper disposal method should be adopted to protect sub soil water getting polluted. 1.2 SANITATION SYSTEM

System of sanitation is classified on the basis of methods of collection and conveyance of waste produced in a community at the project site. This is mainly related to excrete disposal. The methods of collection adopted are mainly the following two types.

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 -Dry or conservancy system -Water carriage system 1) Dry or conservancy system:- in this system all sorts f refuse from a community is collected first in a dust bins or garbage vats, and from this dust bins the refuse is collected and carried by trucks or carts to the point of disposal. 2) Water carriage system: - this is the one that that wollega stadium project uses for its system of sanitation. In this system some additional water is required for flushing and collecting human excreta. The volume of water requirement is comparatively large and the sewage thus produced is carried through properly designed sewerage system. The disposal of sewage is done to a body of natural water or on land generally after doing required treatment.

1.3 sewerage system Nature of sewers provided for carrying different types of liquid wastes will indicate the sewerage system. There are three types of sewerages. These are -combined sewerage system -separate sewerage system and -partially separate system I) Combined system:- in combined system one single set of sewer are laid for carrying liquid wastes from a community. Both sanitary sewage and storm water is allowed enter the sewerage system for disposal. II) Separate system: - In separate system two separate sets of sewers are laid. One set will carry sanitary sewage and the second set will carry storm water. As storm water is carried separately, it is not foul in nature and normally disposed to natural water course without treatment. Whereas the sanitary sewage is taken to treatment plant separately and after required treatment it is disposed of. III) Partially separate system: - In this system of sewerage, the sewers are designed as sanitary sewer but sufficient excess capacities are provided to carry a part of storm discharge also.

The initial washing from drainage area i.e. a part of the storm water is included in the sewer. When the quantity of storm further exceeds the permissible capacity, the excess is diverted to the natural water courses. This system helps in simplifying the drainage of the houses.

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 From those the above three types of sewerage system the wollega stadium project uses the second system which is separate sewerage system. In this case they use the plastic pipes which are laid according to the required slope that is still on construction. Whereas for the storm water carriage they use a ditch constructed from reinforcement concrete in which it work is almost completed when the author reached the project site. 1.3.1 Sewer line Sewer is a pipe or conduit, generally closed but normally not flowing full, used for carrying sewage. A sanitary sewer is one which carries sanitary sewage and excludes as far as possible storm sewage. A storm sewer carries storm water only, including surface run off and street wash. The construction of this storm sewer is almost is almost completed, when the author was there. Therefore, this discussion considers the one that were on the construction which is sewer line. 1.3.2. Sewer materials There are various materials used for sewer construction. Each may be suitable under different conditions. In general the pipes should have the following qualities: -It should be durable i.e. resistant against corrosion and abrasion caused by sewage - It should have strength normally to bear external force. -It should have good hydraulic property i.e. smooth surface. -It should be easy to handle i.e. light weight, non brittle etc. -Material used should be cheap for economizing the sewerage scheme. -Material should be such that joints can be easily made. The material that can be suitable for sewerage construction are brick, stone ware, cement concrete both plain and reinforced, cast iron, plastic materials, glass fiber reinforced plastic pipes. From all types of these construction materials the plastic pipe is used as sewer for the sanitary work of stadium projects. The main case of they use this type of plastic pipe is: -it has light weight -It has smooth surface hence hydraulically more efficient. - It has a quick installation helping faster execution and - It is easy to handle.

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 1.3.3 Shape of sewer There are different shapes of sewer like circular, rectangular, egg shaped, horse shoe type and etc. from this type of shapes the circular one is exist on the this construction project site. This has its own reasons. Circular sewer is the most common and widely used from very small diameter to large section. Besides it gives maximum cross sections area for the amount of materials used in walls, it has fairly good hydraulic property.

CHAPTER TWO SEWER APPURTENANCES Sewer appurtenances are those structures which are constructed at suitable intervals along a sewerage system, and help in its efficient operation and maintenance. These devices include man holes, drop man holes, clean out flushing tanks and the like. From these let see that were on construction at the project site which is man holes. 2.1 Man holes Manholes are masonry or reinforced concrete chambers, constructed at suitable intervals along the sewer lines, for providing access into them. the manholes thus help in joining sewer lengths and also help in their inspection, cleaning and maintenance. If the manhole covers are perforated they may also assist in ventilating the sewers. 2.2 Construction of sewers

The complete design and detail drawings should be available before available before execution the actual construction. The detail working drawing will indicate -the alignment of sewers -the size of sewers - The position of manholes and other appurtenant structures -The pipe levels and grades at different position. -The width and depth of trenches. -The nature and type of bedding.

2.2.1 The construction procedure of sewer

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 1) Locate the position of manholes: the position of man holes are located and marked on the ground with the help of detail layout plan. Particularly manholes are important and they are numbered. 2) Marking of alignment: the center lines of the sewers are marked on the ground first. Then the edge line of the sewer trench etc, are also marked before starting excavation. 3) The alignment and grade control are the most important factors in sewer construction, the sewer lines are divided into smaller segments between two adjacent man holes. It becomes easier to establish the sewer pipes by fixing the level of manholes. 4) Excavation of trench 5) Dewatering of trenches (optional): in water logged areas or in case of deep sewers when the trenches goes below the ground water table trench gets filled up with water by seepage water. In such case construction become difficult and arrangement of dewatering has to be done. Normally the trench water is allowed to collect into a sump in the trench and from there it is pumped out. In case of severe water problem the water is brought down below the trench level by well point method. 6) Providing of bedding to make hard surface of uniform and required gradient. Depending on the nature of soil and size of sewer pipes the type of bedding is determine.

(a) Fig 2.2.1

(b)

(c)

(a) Normal bedding : - used in firm compacted soil (b) Haunch bedding:- used in loose soil (c) Encased bedding:- used under heavy external load.

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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 7) Sewer lay: after the bedding has been prepared as detailed above pipes are laid. Pipes should be from defects and cracks. 8) Testing of sewers:- after sufficient time is allowed for setting the joints and before back filling the excavated trench, the sewer is tested against leakage. This leakage may take place either through joints or through cracks in pipes. If the leakage is heavy proper repair has to be done. Back filling of trenches:- after the sewer is laid and tested, the trench is filled up by the excavated materials in layers of 15cm each. Each layer laid should be properly compacted by ramming and watering. By this way the proper consolidation of the filling materials is achieved. The top of trench is finally restored similar to the original road surface CHAPTER THREE THE OVER ALL BENEFITS OF THE INTERN SHIP Intern ship enables students to gain and improve the applying of the theoretical knowledge into the actual working. In addition it helps the student the achievement of the following. 1) Improving the practical skills This is the main out come of the benefits of the internship. The knowledge I gained that related with practical skills is the procedure of constuction works. What ever method of construction is used the construction sequence will follow the same pattern. i) ii) iii) iv) Assemble and erect form work Prepare and place reinforcement Pour and compact or vibrate concrete Strike and remove form work then curing proceeds.

The use and the time period of removing form works. That is: -side form work in 9 to 12 hours -soffit form work in 7 to 14 days -props in 15 to 21 days. 2) Up grading of the theoretical knowledge In this intern ship, I have understood the big difference between referring of any necessary material for the supervision of the applying working is better than that of what I had been reading for the case of passing the class exam or simply for success. In general the following are some of the knowledge I have improved during field practice. These are:

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 -the identification of the type and shape of reinforcement bars those that are produced in our country and at the foreign country especially in Turkey. The one that were produced in foreign country has the most twisted surface character and make high bonds with concrete. But those that produced in our country has twisted surface character that were not high as to the foreign . -why and how the soil sliding is occurred. The sliding of soil is take place when there is a lack of actual or deep site clearance of site. This make the remain of black cotton soil on the top. And also the case is occurred when the time of back filling of the excavated trench is exceeds its limiting time (i.e. three or four days). When the trench is excavated it should be back filled with a selected material after three or four days after the desired construction is worked in it, unless it makes the sliding of soil into the open trench before the construction is carried in it.

If the sliding of soil is occurred due to accidental shortage of construction material, supporting the sliding soil faces by form work. -reading drawing detail from a blue print paper and etc. - The way of sand is tested at the site. -the placement place of the construction materials:- placing of the reinforcement bar at dry places or at the place free from moisture; placing and producing concrete block in a shed area; placing cement bags adry or free from moisture area that does not exceed 15 days and etc. -the difference between mixing of concrete with warm water and cold water. The warm water react rapidly with cement than cold water. 3) Improving inter personal communication skill. There are different nation and nationalities and the project site. And I have learned from them the way of they communicate, tolerate ,respect themselves and their leader to ful fill their own duty works. And also how to communicate with the stranger coming on site for observation or supervision of the site and support him by giving the information they need. Knowing the chain age of process when somebody fails in a problem or criminals and the solution given to him. How to ask the site leader for the need of some information or to share his knowledge. 4) Improving team playing skill Team works are more power full than individual works. The of I said this is when I was at the site, I had participate in team working. This team work includes different students that came from different university institute with different field of study like civil engineer, construction technology management and hydraulics. On this team works the coordinator of the site order as to do the calculation of the quantity

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 materials for that were constructed and for that on the construction. In this we have done on the calculation of super structure, sanitary and electricity by sharing the idea relate with our field of study to each other and we could finish the works in time given.

5) Improving leader ship skill

There are different leaders on the site starting from the project site manager to the Forman. From these leaders I have learned the responsibilities of each of them. I) Project Manager: Manages all the daily activities carried out on the site and order them by giving the work schedule to each employer according to their field.

II)

III) IV)

Consultant Engineer: Approves the each steps of the worked construction through looking those completed. If the constructed works does not match with the designed drawing he has the authority to dismantle all works. Office engineer: Office Engineer have the duties of calculating the cost estimation and proposing the project schedule. Site Engineer: site engineer applies the design into the actual works through supervision of Forman and survey. And etc.

5) Improving the understanding of work ethics This is how to respect the rule and regulation of company like: -Respecting the working time -Keeping the equipment`s company -knowing the responsibilities and duties of employer -Not to absent from the work with out any problems -Reflecting a basic work habits and etc.

Conclusions

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 Before any construction is carried preparing and testing of the construction materials is the pre condition for any project after the site is investigated and cleared. Whatever method of construction is used the construction sequence will follow the same pattern i) ii) iii) iv) Assemble and erect form work Prepare and place reinforcement Pour and compact or vibrate concrete Strike and remove formwork, then curing proceeds.

The sanitary works means the installation of the sewer for the disposal of wastes and finally to treat it. Internship helps student to upgrade the theoretical knowledge they gained from the class into the actual working.

Recommendations
I need to recommend some of the company problems and the constructed project. In the case of the following problems. I) Management The management system of at the higher level of the have some problems like: -Lack of employing labour skilled from different field of study. -shortage of construction materials during the working time of construction that results the broken of works before finishing. -Lack of budgeting budget at the required time -Lack of the supervision of labour force effectively and the like. The company should overcome those problem listed above for his future works by strengthen its management system. II) Planning The company planned to finish the works in the past four years (i.e. from 2008 to 2011). But still now the only 72% was constructed due to some problem faced. And it extends the plan to the next coming two years to finish the left works ( at the middle of 2014 years). Therefore

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 the company should improve the methods of his planning for the future by searching the solutions of the past weaken.

III) Foot ball field The foot ball field of stadium is design as to possibility of playing foot ball during the rainy season. This is by using different layers of selected material with slopes and perforated pipes. But due to some missing activities the field failed to do so. Its better to re arrange the selected materials especially the top black soil to grow fast the planted grass on it. IV) Intern Ship All Most all construction is carried depending up on the building construction or equipment course and quantity survey or specification course. But we have not learned these two courses. Therefore it is better to learn the two courses before the student go to the intern site for the future generation.

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.