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University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Laser Engineering Branch Power electronics 2010-2011

Experiment No.7

Norton's Theorem
Aim of experiment: To investigate Norton's theorem practically.
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Apparatus
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1. DC circuit training system 2. Set of wires. 3. DC Power supply 4. Digital A.V.O. meter

Theory
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Another widely used network theorem, called NORTONS THEOREM, makes use of a theoretical, but very useful, device called a CONSTANTCURRENT GENERATOR. As the name says, a constant-current generator is a theoretical generator that delivers the same constant current to all finite load resistances it is connected to. Nortons theorem is expressed in terms of the short-circuit current delivered by the network, and in terms of conductances instead of resistances. This makes Nortons theorem especially useful in the study of parallel circuits. The statement of Nortons theorem is as follows, The current in any load conductance GL, when connected to two terminals of a network, is the same as if GL connected to a constant-current generator whose constant current is equal to the current that flows between the two terminals when they short-circuited together. This constant-current generator then being put in parallel with a conductance equal to the conductance seen looking back into the open-circuited terminals of the network. (In this last step, all generators removed and replaced with conductances equal to their internal conductances.) Nortons theorem is summarized graphically in Fig.(1), where I sc is the shortcircuit current that flows from the network when terminals a, b are shorted together. G g is the conductance seen looking back into the network with the terminals open-circuited, that is, with the switch open.
R R R R

University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Laser Engineering Branch Power electronics 2010-2011

Fig.(1)

Practical procedure for finding Norton s equivalent cir cuit: Remove the resistance (if any) across the two given terminals and put a short circuit across them. Compute short-circuit current I sc . Remove all voltage sources but retain their internal resistances, if any. Next find the resistance R i of the network as looked into from the given terminals. The current source (I sc ) joined in parallel across R i between the two terminals gives Norton 's equivalent circuit.
R R R R R R R R

CONSTANT CURRENT SOURCE

ACTIVE NETWORK

Ri

SHORT CIRCUIT

1IIsh sc

Ri

B
INTERNAL RESISTANCE INFINITE

Fig.(2)
Fig.( 9 - 1 )

University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Laser Engineering Branch Power electronics 2010-2011

Procedure
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1. Using the DC circuit trainer, connect the circuit shown below. 2. Measure the current and voltage of R L and record it. 3. A B A 82 100
R R

30

50

+ -

5V

RL
330

3. Remove (R L ) and measure (I sc ) as shown below A


R R R R

B Isc A

82

30

50

+ -

330 3

University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Laser Engineering Branch Power electronics 2010-2011

4. Replace voltage source by short cct , then measure (R N ) or (R AB )


R R R R

A 82 RN

30

5. Connect the circuit shown in figure below (Norton s equivalent cir cuit) according to the results from step (3) & (4) and then measure (I L &V L).
R R R R

50
330

Ish

RN

RL

Discussion
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1. Compare between the practical and Theoretical results. 2. Comment on the results 3. Find Norton s equivalent circuit for the circuit shown below

University of Technology Laser and Optoelectronics Engineering Department Laser Engineering Branch Power electronics 2010-2011

8V 1.0 8V 8 10 V 10 8 RL