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# DYNAMICS & FLUIDS

Example Sheet 1
Example 1.1 Problem 3.1 (Fox, McDonald & Pritchard 6th Edition)
Compressed nitrogen is stored in a spherical tank of diameter D = 0.75m. The
gas is at an absolute pressure of 25MPa and a temperature of 25
o
C. What is
the mass in the tank, given that R = 297 Jkg
1
K
1
is the gas constant for
nitrogen.
Example 1.2 Combine the ideal gas law p = RT, and the product rule
d (uv) = vdu +udv to show that
dp
p
=
d

+
dT
T
If for a reversible adiabatic (isentropic) process we also have p/

= C (const),
where is the constant ratio of specic heats, then show that
d

=
dp
p

p
p
0
=
_
T
T
0
_

1
given that p = p
0
at T = T
0
.
Example 1.3 Use the governing equations for a static ideal gas, namely
dp
dz
= g, p = RT
together with the condition
p = p
0
, T = T
0
at z = z
0
to nd the variation of pressure with the height z and temperature T in the
atmosphere if we assume that
(i) T varies linearly with z, T = T
0
m(z z
0
)
(ii) T is constant (isothermal) T = T
0
(iii) is constant
1
DYNAMICS & FLUIDS
Solution Sheet 1
Solution 1.1 Assuming ideal gas behaviour
p = RT =
M
V
RT
Thus the mass of nitrogen is
M =
pV
RT
=
p
RT
_
1
6
D
3
_
=
1
6

p
RT
D
3
=
1
6

25 10
6
297 298
(0.75)
3
= 62 kg
Solution 1.2 Given p = RT we have
dp = Rd (T) = R[Td +dT] = RT
_
d

+
dT
T
_
so that
dp
p
=
d

+
dT
T
Now since p = C

then
dp = C
1
d =
p

d
d

=
dp
p
Upon substitution for d/ the above equation we have
dp
p
=
dp
p
+
dT
T

1

dp
p
=
dT
T

dp
p
=

1
dT
T
Assuming p = p
0
at T = T
0
we see that upon integration
_
p
p
0
dp
p
=

1
_
T
T
0
dT
T
ln
_
p
p
0
_
=

1
ln
_
T
T
0
_
Thus we have
p
p
0
=
_
T
T
0
_

1
2
Solution 1.3 We have
dp
dz
= g =
pg
RT

dp
p
=
g
R
dz
T
so that upon separation of variables
ln
_
p
p
0
_
=
_
p
p
0
dp
p
=
g
R
_
z
z
0
dz
T
(i) For a linear variation we have
ln
_
p
p
0
_
=
g
R
_
z
z
0
dz
T
0
m(z z
0
)
=
g
R
_

1
m
ln [T
0
m(z z
0
)]
_
z
z
0
=
g
mR
ln
_
T
0
m(z z
0
)
T
0
_
=
g
mR
ln
_
1
m
T
0
(z z
0
)
_
Thus we have the pressure variation
p = p
0
_
1
m
T
0
(z z
0
)
_
g/mR
= p
0
_
T
T
0
_
g/mR
(ii) For an isothermal variation
ln
_
p
p
0
_
=
g
R
_
z
z
0
dz
T
0
=
g
R
_
z
T
0
_
z
z
0
=
g
RT
0
(z z
0
)
Thus we have the pressure variation
p = p
0
exp
_

g
RT
0
(z z
0
)
_
(iii) If =
0
then from the ideal gas law
p
0
=
0
RT
0
so that
dp
dz
=
0
g p p
0
=
_
z
z
0

0
g dz
Hence
p = p
0

0
g(z z
0
) = p
0
_
1
g
RT
0
(z z
0
)
_
3
FLUIDS & DYNAMICS
Example Sheet 2
Example 2.1 Problem 3.5 (Fox, McDonald & Pritchard 6th Edition)
The tube shown (see solutions) is lled with mercury at 20
o
C. Calculate the
force F applied to the piston if SG
Hg
= 13.54.
Example 2.2 Find the pressure dierence p
B
p
A
for the multiple-liquid
manometer (see solutions)
In particular calculate the pressure dierence for case
A
=
B
=
H
2
O
, where
h
1
= 250 mn, h
2
= 75 mm, h
3
= 100 mm, h
4
= 125 mm, h
5
= 200 mm, given
that SG
Hg
= 13.6 and SG
Oil
= 0.88.
Example 2.3 Problem 3.29 (Fox, McDonald & Pritchard 6th Edition)
The inclined-tube manometer (see solutions) has D = 60mm and d = 5mm,
and is lled with Meriam red oil, where SG
Oil
= 0.897. Compute the angle,
, that will give a oil deection of L = 125mm along the inclined tube for an
applied pressure, p, of 25mm of water (gauge). Determine the sensitivity of
this manometer.
Example 2.4 Problem 3.30 (Fox, McDonald & Pritchard 6th Edition)
The inclined-tube manometer (see solutions) has D = 96mm and d = 8mm.
Determine the angle, , that will give a 5 : 1 increase in liquid deection L
compared with the total deection in a regular U-tube manometer. Evaluate
the sensitivity of this inclined manometer.
4
FLUIDS & DYNAMICS
Solution Sheet 2
Solution 2.1 We have mercury in a tube at 20
0
C

Hg

D = 50mm

`` ` ` ` ``
p
1
j
1

d = 1mm

`
h = 25mm

`
z

W

F
`` ` ` ` ``
p
2
j
2
`
H = 8h

## For a static uid with constant density we have pressure

p = p
atm
g(z z
0
)
if p = p
atm
in right-hand branch at z = z
0
. Consequently the pressure at the liquid
surface in the left-hand branch is
p
1
= p
atm
+gh
Thus the pressure acting on the piston due to the liquid and air
F
1
= p
g
1
A = ghA (gauge)
since atmospheric pressure cancels out. In equilibrium
F
1
W = 0 W = F
1
= ghA
When a force F is applied the pressure at the liquid surface is
p
2
= p
atm
+gH F
2
= p
g
2
A = gHA
Once again in equilibrium we require
F
2
W F = 0
Hence
F = F
2
W = gA(H h) =
H
2
O
SG
Hg
g
_
1
4
D
2
_
(H h)
= 1000 13.54 9.81
1
4
(0.05)
2
(8 1) (0.025)
= 45.63 N
5
Solution 2.2 We have
p
A
p
B
`
z
`
h
1
M
`
h
2

N
`
h
3

R
`
h
4

S
`
h
5

Oil

-
-
--

Hg
.
.
.

Beginning at the point A and applying pressure dierence equation between suc-
cessive points, yields
p
M
p
A
= +
A
gh
1
, p
N
p
M
=
Hg
gh
2
p
R
p
N
= +
Oil
gh
3
, p
S
p
R
=
Hg
gh
4
p
B
p
S
=
B
gh
5
Adding all the equations together yields
p
B
p
A
= g [
A
h
1

Hg
(h
2
+h
4
) +
Oil
h
3

B
h
5
]
For the case
A
=
B
=
H
2
O
p
B
p
A
= g [
H
2
O
(h
1
h
5
)
Hg
(h
2
+h
4
) +
Oil
h
3
]
=
H
2
O
g [(h
1
h
5
) SG
Hg
(h
2
+h
4
) +SG
Oil
h
3
]
=
H
2
O
g [(250 200) 13.6 (75 + 125) + 0.88 100]
=
H
2
O
g 2.582 m = 1000 9.81 2.582
= 2.582 mH
2
O = 25.33 kNm
2
= 25.33 kPa
6
Solution 2.3 We have the inclined-tube manometer
Equilibrium
level

D

M
N

`
h

`
`
`
`

d
p
2
= p
1
+ p

p
1
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>

`
`
>
>
>.
L
>
>
>
`
`
`
z
Assumptions: (i) static uid, (ii) gravity is only body force, (iii) z-axis vertically
upward.
The basic equation for the pressure yields
p = p
2
p
1
=
Oil
g(z
2
z
1
) =
Oil
g(Lsin +h)
=
H
2
O
SG
Oil
g(Lsin +h)
for the manometer.Since the volume of the oil remains constant
1
4
D
2
h =
1
4
d
2
L h =
_
d
D
_
2
L
Thus
p =
H
2
O
SG
Oil
gL
_
sin +
_
d
D
_
2
_
We are given that p = 25mm H
2
O. That is
p =
H
2
O
gH = 1000 9.81 (0.025)
= 245.25 kgm
1
s
2
(Nm
2
)
Thus we have
H = SG
Oil
L
_
sin +
_
d
D
_
2
_
Solving for sin yields
sin =
_
1
SG
Oil
_
H
L
_

_
d
D
_
2
_
=
1
0.897
_
1
5
_

_
1
12
_
2
so that
= sin
1
[0.216] = 12.5
0
The manometer sensitivity
s =
L
Oil
L
H
2
O
=
5
1
= 5
7
Solution 2.4 We have the inclined-tube manometer
Equilibrium
level

D

M
N

`
h

`
`
`
`

d
p
2
= p
1
+ p

p
1
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>
>

`
`
>
>
>.
L
>
>
>
`
`
`
z
The basic equation for the pressure yields for the inclined manometer
p = p
2
p
1
= g(z
2
z
1
) = g(Lsin +h)
where since the volume of the liquid remains constant
1
4
D
2
h =
1
4
d
2
L h =
_
d
D
_
2
L
Thus
p = p
2
p
1
= gL
_
sin +
_
d
D
_
2
_
For the U-tubed manometer
p = p
2
p
1
= gH
Hence for same applied pressure p we have
H = L
_
sin +
_
d
D
_
2
_
solving for yields
= sin
1
_
H
L

_
d
D
_
2
_
= sin
1
_
0.2
_
8
96
_
2
_
= sin
1
[0.193] = 11.1
0
8
FLUIDS & DYNAMICS
Example Sheet 3
Example 3.1 Consider the liquid pressure forces acting upon a rectangular
vertical wall section of width w. (see solutions). Show that resultant force
F
R
= p
c
A. By taking moments about the s-axis show that
M
x
= p
0
x
c
A+g A
xs
|
O
where A
xs
|
O
=
__
A
xs dA
Using the parallel axis theorem
A
xs
|
O
= Ax
c
s
c
+ A
xs
|
C
where A
xs
|
C
=
__
A
(x x
c
)(s s
c
) dA
show that the x-coordinate of the centre of pressure is given by
x = x
c
+
g
F
R
A
xs
|
C
Example 3.2 A rectangular gate, of width w = 5m and length L = 4m,
is hinged at the point, P, at an angle = 30
0
to horizontal, as shown (see
solutions). The upper edge of the gate is a distance D = 2m below the water
surface. Atmospheric pressure acts on the outer surface of the gate and at the
surface of the water.
Find the resultant force F
R
due to both all uid pressure and obtain the
position of the centre of pressure.
Example 3.3 A rectangular door, of width w and length L is hinged along
its bottom edge, P, as shown (see solutions). A pressure p
g
0
(gauge) is applied
to the liquid free surface. Find the force F
t
required to keep the door closed.
9
FLUIDS & DYNAMICS
Solution Sheet 3
Solution 3.1 We have the following situation

s
O
z
y
s
`
s
2

`
s
1

p
0

s
O
x
z
s
s
1
s
c
s
s
C
s
s
2

w

dx
dA

ds
`
a a +w
x
c
Consider a horizontal strip of width w, thickness ds, a distance s from the liquid
surface (x-axis). The force acting on the strip is
dF = p(s)dA
strip
= p(s)wds where p(s) = p
0
+gs
The total (resultant) force is
F
R
=
__
A
p(s)dA = p
0
__
A
dA+g
__
A
sdA
= (p
0
+gs
c
) A = p
c
A
By taking moments about the s-axis we have
M
x
=
__
A
xp(s)dA = p
0
__
A
xdA+g
__
A
xsdA
= p
0
x
c
A+g A
xs
|
O
Now given the parallel axis theorem
A
xs
|
0
= Ax
c
s
c
+ A
xs
|
C
we have
M
x
= p
0
x
c
A+g (Ax
c
s
c
+ A
xs
|
C
) = (p
0
+gs
c
) x
c
A+g A
xs
|
C
= p
c
x
c
A+g A
xs
|
C
= F
R
x
c
+g A
xs
|
C
Thus if we apply the resultant force, F
R
, along the line of action, a distance x from
the s-axis, it will have a moment
x F
R
= M
x
= F
R
x
c
+g A
xs
|
C
Equating the two moments yields
x = x
c
+
g
F
R
I
xs
|
C
10
Solution 3.2 We have the following situation

s
O
s
P
`
z

h
`
D

F
R

s
O
s
P
x
s
s
s
c
s
`
L

x
c a a +w
s
s

w

dA
ds = d

`
For convenience, let us introduce the variable = s D/ sin , and let us assume
that the gate lies in the xs-plane. We shall solve this problem in two ways
(i) Direct Equations Because atmospheric pressure acts on both sides of the plate
its eect cancels, and so we shall work in terms of the gauge pressure
p
g
(s) = gh = gs sin = g (D + sin )
Consider a horizontal strip of width w and thickness ds = d, a distance from the
pivot P, a distance s from O. We have
F
R
=
__
A
p
g
(s)dA = g
_
L
0
(D + sin ) wd
= gw
_
D +
1
2

2
sin
_
L
0
= gwL
_
D +
1
2
Lsin
_
= 999 9.81 5 4
_
2 +
1
2
4
1
2
_
= 588 kN
For the location of the force we compute s = + D/ sin , the distance from the
x-axis
=
1
F
R
__
A
p
g
(s)dA =
g
F
R
_
L
0
(D + sin ) wd
=
gw
F
R
_
1
2
D
2
+
1
3

2
sin
_
L
0
=
gwL
2
F
R
_
1
2
D +
1
3
Lsin
_
=
999 9.81 5 16
588 10
3
_
1
2
2 +
1
3
4
1
2
_
= 2.22 m
Thus
s =
D
sin
+ =
2
1/2
+ 2.22 = 6.22 m
Also
x =
1
F
R
__
A
xp(s)dA =
g
F
R
_
L
0
__
a+w
a
xdx
_
(D + sin ) d
=
gw
F
R
_
a +
1
2
w
__
L
0
(D + sin ) d = a +
1
2
w = a + 2.5m
11
(ii) Algebraic Formulae We have
F
R
= p
g
c
A = gh
c
A = gs
c
sin A = g (D +
c
sin ) wL
= gwL
_
D +
1
2
Lsin
_
= 588 kN
as obtained by direct integration. For the rectangular plate
s
c
=
D
sin
+
c
=
D
sin 30
0
+
1
2
L =
2
1/2
+
1
2
4 = 6m
A = wL = 5 4 = 20 m
2
A
ss
|
C
=
1
12
wL
3
=
1
12
5 4
3
= 26.7 m
3
, A
xs
|
C
= 0
Then
s = s
c
+
1
Ay
c
A
ss
|
C
= 6 +
26.7
20 6
= 6.22 m
x = x
c
+
1
Ay
c
A
xs
|
C
= x
c
= a + 2.5m
Solution 3.3 We have the following situation
s
O
s
P
p
g
0

F
R

F
t

`

s
O
x
s
z
s
s
c
s
L
x
c a a +w
s
s

w

dA

ds
`
Since atmospheric pressure acts on both sides of the plate its eect cancels. Thus
F
R
= p
g
c
A, = (p
g
0
+gs
c
)A = (p
g
0
+
1
2
gL)wL
However, because of the non-zero gauge pressure at the free surface, we must use
s = s
c
+
g
F
R
A
ss
|
C
=
1
2
L +
g
(p
g
0
+
1
2
gL)wL

1
12
wL
3
=
1
2
L
_
1 +
gL
6(p
g
0
+
1
2
gL)
_
Taking moments (anti-clockwise =positive) about the point P we have

M
P
F
t
L F
R
(L s) = 0
This yields
F
t
= F
R
(1
s
L
) =
1
2
(p
g
0
+
1
2
gL)wL
_
1
gL
6(p
g
0
+
1
2
gL)
_
12
FLUIDS & DYNAMICS
Example Sheet 4
Example 4.1 Problem 7.7 (Fox, McDonald & Pritchard 6th Edition)
At very low speeds, the drag on an object is independent of the uid density.
Thus the drag force, F
D
, on a small sphere is a function only of the speed,
V , the uid viscosity, , and sphere diameter, D. Use dimensional analysis to
determine how the drag force F
D
depends on the speed V .
Example 4.2 Problem 7.8 (Fox, McDonald & Pritchard 6th Edition)
At relatively high speeds, the drag on an object is independent of the uid
viscosity. Thus the aerodynamic drag force, F
D
, on an automobile is a function
only of the speed, V , the uid density, , and the vehicle size, characterised
by the frontal area, A. Use dimensional analysis to determine how the drag
force F
D
depends on the speed V .
Example 4.3 Problem 7.45 (Fox, McDonald & Pritchard 6th Edition)
An airplane wing, with chord length 2m and span 10m, is designed to move
through standard air at a speed of 70 m/s. a
1
10
-scale model of this wing is
to be tested in a water tunnel. What speed is necessary to achieve dynamic
similarity? What will be the ratio of forces measured in the model ow to
those on the prototype wing?
You are given that
water
= 1, 000kg/m
3
,
water
= 1.0 10
3
Ns/m
2
, and at
15
0
C, we have
air
= 1.23 kg/m
3

air
= 1.8 10
5
Ns/m
2
13
FLUIDS & DYNAMICS
Solution Sheet 4
14
DYNAMICS & FLUIDS
Example Sheet 5
Example 5.1 Determine whether the following ow uid ows are (a) 1, 2
or 3 dimensional; (c) steady or unsteady; and (b) rotational or irrotational.
(i) v = 2xy + 3t +x
2

k
(ii) v = yz +x
(iii) v = 2 cos 2t cos 2xsin 3y + 3 cos 2t sin 2xcos 3y
Example 5.2 For the following ow nd the uid particle acceleration
v = 3xyt +yz + 3

k
Example 5.3 For the following 2-D Eulerian velocity elds
(i) v(r) = a(x y ) where a is a positive constant
(ii) v(r) = (x
2
+xy ) where is a positive constant
(iii) v(r) = x +y + (x
2
+y
2
)

k
nd the particle path
r = r
p
(r
0
, t) = x
p
(r
0
, t) +y
p
(r
0
, t) +w
p
(r
p
, t)

k
for the uid particle initially at position r
0
= x
0
+y
0
+z
0

k at t = 0. Then by
repeated dierentiation obtain the Lagrangian velocity vector and acceleration
of the uid particle
v
p
(r
0
, t) =

t
_
r
p
(r
0
, t)

r
0
, a
p
(r
0
, t) =

t
_
v
p
(r
0
, t)

r
0
Hence conrm that the Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptions are equivalent,
namely that
v
p
(r
0
, t) = v
_
r
p
(r
0
, t), t

, a
p
(r
0
, t) =
D
Dt
_
v
_
r
p
(r
0
, t)
_
15
DYNAMICS & FLUIDS
Solution Sheet 5
16
DYNAMICS & FLUIDS
Example Sheet 6
Example 6.1 Hot and cold air are mixed within a mixing box, and air at
an intermediate temperature is emitted from the outlet, as shown. Find the
outlet velocity for the conditions indicated.
Example 6.2 Problem 6.42 (Fox, McDonald & Pritchard 6th Ed)
Water ows steadily up a vertical pipe, of diameter d
p
= 100mm, and out
of a horizontal nozzle, which is of diameter d
J
= 50mm, discharging to at-
mospheric conditions. The stream velocity at the exit nozzle must be 20m/s.
Find the minimum gauge pressure at the section A, a vertical distance h = 4m
below the nozzle. If the device were inverted what would the required mini-
mum pressure at section A to maintain the nozzle exit velocity at 20m/s.
Example 6.3 Problem 6.46 (Fox, McDonald & Pritchard 6th Ed)
A stream of liquid moving at low speed leaves a nozzle pointed directly down-
ward. The velocity may be considered uniform across the the nozzle exit
and the eects of viscosity ignored. At the nozzle exit, located at an eleva-
tion z
0
, the jet velocity and cross-sectional area are V
0
and A
0
, respectively.
Determine the variation of the jet area with elevation.
Example 6.4 Air ows steadily at low speed through a horizontal contract-
ing pipe, usually known as nozzle (since by denition it is a device for ac-
celerating ow), discharging to atmosphere. The area of the nozzle inlet is
0.1m
2
. At the nozzle exit, the area is 0.02 m
2
. Determine the gauge pressure
required at the nozzle inlet to produce an outlet speed of 50m/s.
Remark For diagrams relating to the above questions see solution sheet be-
low.
17
DYNAMICS & FLUIDS
Solution Sheet 6
18
DYNAMICS & FLUIDS
Example Sheet 7
Example 7.1 Problem 4.71 (Fox, McDonald & Pritchard 6th Ed)
A reducer in a piping system transforms a pipe from a diameter d
1
= 0.4m
and pressure p
1
= 58.7kPa (gauge) to one of diameter d
2
= 0.2m and pressure
p
2
= 109kPa (abs). The internal volume of the reducer is 0.2m
3
and its mass
is 25kg. Given that V
1
= 3ms
1
is the initial uid speed nd the total force
that must be provided by the surrounding pipes to support the reducer. The
uid is gasoline with specic gravity SG = 0.72.
Example 7.2 Water ows steadily through a 90
0
reducing elbow. At the
inlet to the elbow, the absolute pressure is 220kPa and the cross-sectional
area is 0.01m
2
. At the outlet, the cross-sectional area is 0.0025m
2
and the
velocity is 16m/s. The elbow discharges to the atmosphere. Determine the
force required to hold the elbow in place.
Remark For diagrams relating to the above questions see solution sheet be-
low.
19
DYNAMICS & FLUIDS
Solution Sheet 7
20
DYNAMICS & FLUIDS
Example Sheet 8
Example 8.1 A water jet from a stationary nozzle strikes a vertical at plate
as shown. The water leaves the nozzle at 15m/s; the nozzle area is 0.01m
2
.
Assuming the water is directed normal to the plate, and ows along the plate,
determine the horizontal force on the support.
Example 8.2 Problem 4.52 (Fox, McDonald & Pritchard 6th Ed)
A jet of water issuing from a stationary nozzle at 15m/s (A
j
= 0.05m
2
) strikes
a turning vane mounted on a cart as shown. The vane turns the jet through
an angle = 50
0
. Obtain an expression for the value of M required to hold
the cart stationary.
Example 8.3 Problem 4.57 (Fox McDonald & Pritchard 6th Ed)
A shallow circular dish has a sharp-edged orice at its centre. A horizontal
water jet, of diameter D and speed V , strikes the dish concentrically. Obtain
an expression for the external force needed to hold the dish in place if the jet
of water issuing from the orice, of diameter d, also has a speed V . Obtain
the required force as a function of the angle (0 < < 90
o
) and the ratio
d/D. Evaluate this force for V = 5ms
1
, D = 100mm, d = 20mm, = 45
0
.
Remark For diagrams relating to the above questions see solution sheet be-
low.
21
DYNAMICS & FLUIDS
Solution Sheet 8
22