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A. Subject and Object Pronouns

Subject pronouns are used as the subject of a verb and object pronouns are used as the object of a verb or of a preposition. Subject Pronouns I You He She we you they it Examples Jason lent the novel to her after he finished reading it. OP S OV They gave him the money he asked fot S OV

Object Pronouns Me You Him Her us you them it note : S OP OV

: subject : Objet of preposition : Object of verb

B. Possessive Pronouns
Possessive pronouns Mine Yours His Hers Ours Theirs Examples My roommate borrowed mine because his is broken OV S He promised to introduce a friend of his tomorrow OP

C. Reflexive Pronouns
Reflexive pronouns are used as the object of a verb or of a preposition. They are used when the object of the verb or preposition refers to the subject. A special use of reflexive pronouns is to intensify nouns or pronouns. Reflexive pronouns Myself Yourself Himself Herself Oneself Itself Ourselves Yourselves Themselves Examples Ron hurt himself. OV Children should be taught to depend on themselves rather than on OP then on others. The students themselves insisted on having a discussion. (intensifying S)

D. Possessive Adjectives
Possessive adjectives are also tested in the paper-based TOEFL test. Possessive adjectives function to modify nouns and must agree with the nouns they refer to. Possessive adjectives My Your His Her Our Their examples All students must bring their IDs. (Poss. Adj.) He explained his plans to all of us (Poss. Adj.)

E. Possessive Pronouns
Relative pronouns are all used in adjective/relative clauses. y Who or that is used as a subject referring to a person. y Whom is used as an object referring to a person. y Which or that is used as a subject or an object referring to a thing. y Whose is used to replace a possessive adjective

Relative adverbs, also used in adjective/relative clauses, substitute for an adverb. They are not pronouns and they can cause confusion in the paper-based TOEFL test. y y y When refers to a time Where refers to a place Why refers to a reason Examples My sister who graduated from college last month is thinking rel.pron

Relative pronouns Who/that Whom

Student Book 1


Which/that Whose

of having a business of her own.

Relative adverbs Where When Why The book that I bought yesterday when I went to the new rel.pron. Mall is expensive. rel.adv

F. Forms of others Another refers to a nonspecific singular noun; others refers to a nonspecific plural noun; the other refers to a specific singular noun; and the others refers to a specific plural noun. All of theses pronouns are used as the subject or the object of a verb. Froms of other as Pronouns Another The other Others The others week. Did you lose your copy? I still have another. OV Here is one of the two books. Im still reading the other. OV Some people like reading; others prefer watching TV. S One student was playing the piano. The others were singing S ` along. Examples The 705DG scanner was sold. Another is available next S

G. Nonreferential It and there subjects

It and there, though classified as pronouns in most dictionaries and grammar books, differ from other pronouns. The main fuction of it and there is either to provide a sentence with a subject or to anticipate a true subject in the predicate position. The non referential it introduces predicates with special meanings such as to show identification, to express weather, time and distance, and to describe a situation. It is also used to anticipate the true subject. The nonreferential there occurs most often with a linking verb and the verb agrees with the subject that comes after it.


Student Book 1