P. Phetsri and A. Sungkhapong
S. Phaiboon
Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Prince of Songkla University,15 Hatyai, Songkla 90112, Thailand Email: parataph@ais.co.th
Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahidol University, 25/25 Salaya, Nakhorn Pathom 73170, Thailand Email:egspb@mahidol.ac.th
Abstract This paper presents the path loss prediction using a modified hillyforest model for micro cell environments in hilly suburban area. A location of received signal is chosen, where there is a problem in signal quality, which will be analyzed, and improved using the hybrid models called Leehilly model and modified COST 235 model. These models were evaluated with the realistic model parameters. The chosen location studied in this work consists of both the hilly and the rubber forest. The received signal strength was then improved by adjusting the base station parameter such as the height, transmitting power and angle of the antenna. The extensive drive test was performed to verify the modified model. The obtained results show that the modified path loss model can be used for microcell planning and signal quality improvement.
KeywordsPath loss; modified hillyforest model; drive test measurement; improved signal
I.
INTRODUCTION
Mobile communication requires the high quality of received signal, however some receiving points still provide weak signal. This is due to the obstruction between the transmitter and the receiver such as the hilly terrain, trees and buildings. In network planning, the Hata path loss model is used for predicting the macro cell coverage area. However in micro cell environment, the path loss models are also very important in order to solve the receiving problem. Lee model for hilly terrain [1] is used for predicting and solving the problem of the receiving points. The effective heights of knifeedge obstructions are needed to obtain the path loss solution. Including the tree models such as COST 235 [2] and ITUR [1] are also applied which require the tree parameters such as dimension of leaf, trunk and branch, leave density, etc. In hilly terrain, the effect of hilly knifeedge obstructions and attenuation from trees are significant. For forested environment, the propagation models have been the focus of much theoretical and experimental research over the years. In 1967, Tamir [3] examined the radio wave propagation in forest environments at the band of 1100 MHz, the forest configuration was considered with a dissipative slab. The lateral wave propagated over large foliage depth. Subsequently, Tamir
extended the theoretical study on the propagation in forested environment with the consideration of the ground effects on
radio wave propagation in the frequency range of 2200 MHz.
Weissberger’s modified exponential decay model [4]
where a
ray path was blocked by dense, dry, inleaf trees found in temperate climates. It is applicable in situations where propagation is likely to occur through a grove of trees rather than by diffraction over the tree top. ITU Recommendation (ITUR) was developed from measurement carried out mainly at UHF, and was proposed for cases where either the transmitting or the receiving antenna is near to a small grove of trees so that the majority of the signal propagates through the trees. This model is commonly used for frequencies between 200 MHz to 95 GHz In the COST 235 model, measurements were performed over two seasons, firstly when the trees are inleaf and secondly when they are out of leaf. This model is applicable for frequencies between 200 MHz to 95 GHz. While the Torrico model is dependent on the dimensions of leaves and branches
[5].
The objective of this paper is to propose a hybrid model by using the realistic parameters such as the effective height of knifeedge obstructions and foliage loss characteristics. The extensive drive test was performed to verify this hybrid model. The obtained results show that our proposed model can be used for signal quality improving and microcell planning as well.
II.
PROPAGATION PATH LOSS MODELS
A. Lee Model for Hilly Area
The propagation path loss for hilly areas is greater than that for flat areas. The various shapes encountered in the contour of hilly terrain are unpredictably irregular. However to solve this problem, Lee model is a method to predict the path loss for the
9781457705366/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE
4670
Fig.1. The aerial image of the terrain
Where v is a dimension parameter. The knifeedge losses, G _{d} (dB) are evaluated from
G d 
( dB ) = 0 
ν ≤ −1 

G ( dB) = 20 log(0.5 − 0.62ν ) d 
− 1 ≤ ν ≤ 0 

G ( dB) = 20 log(0.5 exp(−0.95ν )) d 
0 
≤ ν ≤ 1 

G ( dB) = 20 log(0.4 − d 

0.1184 − ( 0.38 − 0.1ν ) 
2 

1 ≤ ν ≤ 2.4 

= 20 log 0.225 
ν > 2 .4 

( dB ) 


ν 

(a) Before improvement
(b) After improvement
RxLev >= 55 And RxLev <10 
Very good signal level 

RxLev >= 74 And RxLev <55 
Good signal level 

RxLev >=84 And RxLev 
<74 
Medium signal level 

RxLev >=94 And RxLev 
<84 
Weak signal level 

RxLev >=120 And RxLev <94 
bad signal level 
Fig. 2. The received signal strength levels
B. Weissberger model This model is applicable
dense, dry, inleaf trees
where a ray path is blocked by
L _{W} (dB) = 1.33f ^{0}^{.}^{2}^{8}^{4} d ^{0}^{.}^{5}^{8}^{8} 14 m 
< d 
400 m 

= 0.45f ^{0}^{.}^{2}^{8}^{4} d 0 m 
< d 
14 m 
(2) 
where f is the frequency in GHz, and d is the depth of the trees in meters. The frequency range is between 230 MHz to 95 GHz for this model.
C. ITUR model
This empirical model is used in cases of distance between the transmitter and the receiver, which is within 400 m and the
antennas are near the trees so that the dominant path of the signal propagates through the trees. This model is generally used for frequencies between 200 MHz to 95 GHz.
L _{I}_{T}_{U}_{}_{R} (dB) = 0.2f ^{0}^{.}^{3} d ^{0}^{.}^{6}
(3)
where f is the frequency in GHz, and d is the depth of the trees in meters.
D. COST 235 model
The COST 235 model, which was proposed, is based on measurements made in the frequencies of 9.6–57.6 GHz. While FITUR model was derived from the ITUR fitting at the frequencies of 11.2 and 20 GHz. These models are out of UHF
band and the 2.4 GHz WSN. The COST 235 model, which was proposed, based on measurements made in the frequencies of 9.6–57.6 GHz for vegetation in leaf is as follows:
L(dB) COST235,inleaf = 26.6f ^{}^{0}^{.}^{2} d ^{0}^{.}^{5}
And for vegetation out of leaf
L(dB) COST235,outleaf = 15.6f ^{}^{0}^{.}^{0}^{0}^{9} d ^{0}^{.}^{2}^{6}
(4)
(5)
where f is also the frequency in GHz, and d is the depth of the trees in meters. The seasonal difference is of the order of 46 dB.
E. Torrico model
The specific attenuation for an ensemble of thin leaves in decibels per meter for vertical polarization is as follows:
where
(6)
is the imaginary part of the relative susceptibility of a leaf, f _{G}_{H}_{z} is the frequency (GHz), ρ _{d} is the number density (m¡3), t is the leaf thickness (m),
is the leaf radius (m), and θ _{I} is the angle of incident plane wave as shown in [5]
4671
Fig. 3 Path profile height of the terrain
TABLE 1 Parameters of path loss modeling and checking
Site No. 
Model Type 
Model Parameters 
Path Loss (dBm) 

Old 
New 
Modeling 
Measutement 1 
Vertification 
Measurement 

B 
Leehilly and modified COST 235 model 
Pt =40W (46dBm) 
Base Station Transmit Power=40W (46dBm) 
92.37 dBm 
93 dBm 
81.69 
82 

Antenna Gain =16.5 dBi 
Antenna Gain =17.7 dBi 

Direction = 290 degree 
Direction = 290 degree 

hp1= 53.9 meter 
hp1= 40 meter 

r1= 1,074meter 
r1= 1,074meter 

r2= 1,431 meter 
r2= 1,431 meter 

v 
= 5.47dB 
v 
= 4.06 dB 

Lr = 27.72 dB 
Lr = 25.13 dB 

f = 948.2MHz 
f = 948.2MHz 

d 
= 30 m 
d 
= 30 m 
TABLE 2 Parameters for each branch group
TABLE 3 Parameters for leaves
Fig. 4 Photo of rubber trees
The parameters for each branch group and leaves are shown in Table 2 and Table 3 respectively
III. MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE AND SITE
A. Measurement site
The drive test measurements were done on the high way road number 41 between Pathong PTT oil supply and Suanpak intersection in area of Tumyai, Thungsong, Nakornsrithumraj as shown in Fig.1. The terrain consists of mountain and rubber
forests along the road. The rubber trees are evergreen and have an average height of approximately 20 m and are nearly equally spaced with a distance of 10 m. The average tree trunk diameter is around 0.50 m. The leaf has a dimension of 6x20 cm with density of 679 leaves per cubic meters. The bush contains many branches, each which are at an average angle of 30 degrees to the ground. The foliage depth is more than 10 km. This foliage depth is observed from the aerial images. During the measurements, the foliage is wet with strong wind.
4672
Fig. 6 The verification of path loss (dB) in yaxis and distance (m) in xaxis with COST 235 models at a frequency of 450 GHz
strength level from the base station B. The circular mark in the figure shows a complained receiving point where the received signal strength is – 93 dBm. Table at the bottom of Fig. 2 shows the criteria of the received signal strength level from the very good signal level (green) to bad signal level (red).
IV. PATH LOSS MODELING AND CHECKING
In order to model and check the path loss in realistic area, the measured signal was calculated to obtain the path loss data. The eq. (1) was then applied for hilly area. While the modified COST 235 was used for the rubber forest area as follows,
L (dB) = Af ^{B} d ^{C}
(7)
Fig. 7 The verification of path loss (dB) in yaxis and distance (m) in xaxis with COST 235 models at a frequency of 948.2 MHz
Fig. 8 The verification of path loss (dB) in yaxis and distance (m) in xaxis with COST 235 models at a frequency of 1800 MHz
where f is also the frequency in GHz, and d is the depth of the trees in meters. the three numerical values A, B, and C are estimated using least squared error fit on the measured data and are found to be 30.2, 0.5, and 0.3, respectively. It can be written as
L _{P}_{R}_{O}_{P}_{O}_{S}_{E}_{D} (dB) = 30.2f ^{0}^{.}^{5} d ^{0}^{.}^{3}
(8)
To verify Eq. (8) with simulation, the path loss models in Eq. (2) to Eq. (8) are used as shown in Fig. 68 for frequencies of 450 MHz, 958.2 MHz and 1800 MHz. Table 1 shows the summaries of the parameters of the path loss model for modeling and verifying. From the figures, it can be seen that the proposed model generally provides prediction over the COST 235, LITUR and L _{w} models at all frequencies. This is because the rubber trees consist of the big leaves with high density. The wave propagates through the foliage with high attenuation. While the Torrico model is depended on the dimensions of the leaves and branches and therefore it provides high attenuation with large leaves. The LITUR and L _{w} models provide good agreement with the COST 235 in case of out of leaf at all frequencies. These findings confirm that the LITUR and L _{w} model are fitted from forest with low density of leaves or small grove of trees. To improve the received signal strength, a group of new parameters are applied as shown in Table 1. The height of the transmitting antenna was increased to reduce the knifeedge
losses. The received signal after improvement is 82 dB as shown in Fig. 2 (b)
V.
CONCLUSION
We have proposed the method to improve the received signal strength and modified path loss model for rubber forest in hilly terrain. We performed measurements with derive test on road number 41. The COST 235 model was modified with the three numerical values A, B, and C, which are estimated using least squared error fit on the measured data and found to be 30.2, 0.5, and 0.3, respectively. Comparing with the well known models and preliminary improvement of signal quality confirm the verification of the proposed model.
[1]
REFERENCES
Parsons, J. D., The Mobile Radio Propagation Channel, 2 ^{n}^{d} Edition, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1992.
[2] COST235, “Radio propagation effects on nextgeneration fixedservice
[3]
terrestrial telecommunication systems,” Final Report, Luxembourg, 1996. T. Tamir, “Radio waves propagation along mixed paths in forest
environments,”IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag., vol. AP25, pp. 471– 477,Jul. 1977. [4] Weissberger, M. A., “An initial critical summary of models for predicting
[5]
the attenuation of radio waves by foliage,” Electromagnetic Compatibility Analysis Center, Annapolis, MD,ECACTR81101, 1981. Torrico, S. A. and R. H. Lang, "A simplified analytical model to predict the specific attenuation of a tree canopy," IEEE Trans.Veh. Technol., Vol. 56, No. 2, pp. 696703, Mar. 2007.
4673
Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.
Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.
Отменить можно в любой момент.