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Mobile Ad-hoc Network is an infrastructureless and decentralized network which need a robust dynamic routing protocol. Many routing protocols have been proposed to accommodate the needs of communications for MANET. This project focuses the problem of delivering data packets in a reliable and timely manner in highly dynamic mobile networks. A Position based Opportunistic Routing protocol (POR) was introduced that takes advantage of the stateless property of geographic routing and the broadcast nature of wireless medium. When a data packet is sent out, some of the neighbor nodes that have overheard the transmission will serve as forwarding candidates, and take turn to forward the packet if it is not relayed by the specific best forwarder within a certain period of time. The additional latency incurred by local route recovery is greatly reduced and the duplicate relaying caused by packet reroute is also decreased. In case of communication hole, a Virtual Destination based Void Handling (VDVH) scheme is further proposed to work together with POR. For those communication holes, a reposition scheme is used to smooth the edge of the hole. In order to enhance the robustness of POR in the network where nodes are not uniformly distributed and large holes may exist, a complementary void handling mechanism based on virtual destination is proposed. By introducing virtual destination, the packets are transmitted in an opportunistic routing as the temporary target that the packets are forwarded to.

1. INTRODUCTION A Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) is a self-configuring infrastructure less network of mobile devices connected by wireless links. The topology of the MANET may change uncertainly and rapidly due to the high mobility of the independent mobile nodes, and because of the network decentralization, each node in the MANET will act as a router to discover the topology and maintain the network connectivity. The following are the advantages of MANETs: They provide access to information and services regardless of geographic position. These networks can be set up at any place and time. Some of the applications of MANETs are Military or police exercises. Disaster relief operations. Mine cite operations. Urgent Business meetings. Due to the error prone wireless channel and the dynamic network topology, reliable data delivery in MANETs, especially in challenged environments with high mobility remains an issue. Traditional topology based MANETs routing protocols are quite susceptible to node mobility. Owing to the constantly and even fast changing network topology, it is very difficult to maintain a deterministic route. The discovery and recovery procedures are also time and energy consuming. Once the path breaks, data packets will get lost or be delayed for a long time until the reconstruction of the route, causing transmission interruption. No end-to-end routes need to be maintained, leading to high efficiency and scalability.