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Overcurrent Protection & Coordination for Industrial Applications

Doug Durand, P.E. Dominik Pieniazek, P.E.


2010 Industry Applications Society Annual Meeting - Houston, TX October 3-7, 2010

Slide 1

Agenda

Introduction Using Log-Log Paper & TCCs Types of Fault Current Protective Devices & Characteristic Curves Coordination Time Intervals (CTIs) Effect of Fault Current Variations Multiple Source Buses Partial Differential Relaying Directional Overcurrent Coordination

f O Transformer Overcurrent Protection Motor Overcurrent Protection Conductor Overcurrent Protection Generator Overcurrent Protection Coordinating a System Supplemental Material Coordination Quizzes Hands-On Demonstration References

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Slide 2

Introduction I t d ti

Slide 3

Protection Objectives Personnel Safety

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Slide 4

Protection Objectives Equipment Protection

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Slide 5

Protection Objectives Service Continuity & Selective Fault Isolation


13.8 kV

13.8 kV/480 V 2.5 MVA 5.75%

Faults should be quickly detected and cleared with a minimum disruption of service. Protective devices perform this function and must be adequately specified and coordinated. p g Errors in either specification or setting can cause nuisance outages.

480 V

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Slide 6

Types of Protection
Protective devices can provide the following assortment of protection, many of which can be coordinated. Well focus primarily on the last one, overcurrent. overcurrent Distance High-Impedance Differential Hi h I d Diff ti l Current Differential Under/Overfrequency Under/Overvoltage Over Temperature Overload Overload Overcurrent

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Slide 7

Coordinating Overcurrent Devices Tools of the trade in the good old days

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Slide 8

Coordinating Overcurrent Devices Tools of the trade in the good old days

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Coordinating Overcurrent Devices Tools of the trade in the good old days

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Slide 10

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Coordinating Overcurrent Devices Tools of the trade in the good old days

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Slide 11

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Coordinating Overcurrent Devices Tools of the trade in the good old days

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Slide 12

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Coordinating Overcurrent Devices Tools of the trade today

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Slide 13

Using L U i Log-Log Paper & TCCs L P TCC

Slide 14

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Log-Log Plots
Time-Current Characteristic C Ti C t Ch t i ti Curve (TCC)
1000 effectively steady state 100

Why log-log paper?


I2t withstand curves plot as straight lines

1 minute

Time In Seconds s

10 typical motor acceleration 1 typical fault clearing 5 cycles (interrupting) ( ) FLC = 1 pu Fs = 13.9 pu 10 100` Fp = 577 pu

Log-Log scale compresses values to a more manageable range. I2t withstand curves plot as straight lines.

0.1

1 cycle (momentary) 0.01 0.5

1000

10000

Current in Amperes
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Slide 15

16

Plotting A Curve
5000 hp Motor TCC 000 CC
1000

FLC = 598.9 A
100

13.8 kV

Time In Seconds I s

10

13.8/4.16 kV 10 MVA 6.5%

Accel. Time = 2 s
4.16 kV 1

0.1

M 4 kV 5000 hp 90% PF, 96% , 598.9 A 3593.5 LRC, 2 s start 10000

LRC = 3593.5 A
0.01 0.5 1 10 100` 1000

Current in Amperes
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Slide 16

17

Plotting Fault Current & Scale Adjustment


5000 hp Motor TCC with Fault on Motor Terminal
1000

FLC = 598.9 A
100

13.8 kV

13.8/4.16 kV 10 MVA 6.5%

Time In Seconds

10

Accel. Time = 2 s
1 15 kA

4.16 kV

M 0.1 4 kV 5000 hp 90% PF, 96% , 598.9 A 3593.5 LRC, 2 s start

LRC = 3593.5 A
0.01 0 01 0.5
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

15 kA
10000
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Current in Amperes x 10 A

10

100`

1000

Slide 17

18

Voltage Scales
5000 hp Motor TCC with Fault on Transformer Primary 000 CC f

45 kA @ 13.8 kV = ? @ 4.16 kV = (45 x 13.8/4.16) = 149.3 kA @ 4.16 kV

1000 13.8 kV 45 kA 13.8/4.16 kV 10 MVA 6.5%

100

Time In Seconds I s

10 4.16 kV 1 15 kA

M 0.1 4 kV 5000 hp 90% PF 96% , 598 9 A PF, 598.9 3593.5 LRC, 2 s start

15 kA
0.01 0.5 1 10 100` 1000 10000

149.3 kA

10 A Current in Amperes x 100 A @ 4.16 kV


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Slide 18

Types of Fault Currents T f F lt C t

Slide 19

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Fault Current Options


Crest/Peak Current

Momentary Initial Symmetrical

Interrupting/Breaking

ANSI
Momentary Symmetrical Momentary Asymmetrical Momentary Crest Interrupting Symmetrical Adjusted Interrupting Symmetrical

IEC
Initial Symmetrical (Ik) Peak (Ip) Breaking (Ib) Asymmetrical Breaking (Ib,asym)

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Slide 20

21

Fault Current Options


Crest/Peak Current

Momentary Initial Symmetrical

Interrupting/Breaking

Symmetrical currents are most appropriate. Momentary asymmetrical should be considered when setting instantaneous functions functions. Use of duties not strictly appropriate, but okay. Use of momentary/initial symmetrical currents lead to conservative CTIs. Use of interrupting currents will lead to lower but still conservative CTIs lower, CTIs.
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Slide 21

Protective Devices & Characteristic Curves

Slide 22

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Electromechanical Relays (EM)


100

IFC 53 RELAY
Very Inverse Time Time-Current Curves

10

TIME IN SECON NDS

10 Time Dial D Settin ngs 100

3 2 1

0.1

0.01 1 10 MULTIPLES OF PICK-UP SETTING


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Slide 23

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Electromechanical Relays Pickup Calculation


The relay should pick-up for current values above the motor FLC ( ~ 600 A). For the IFC53 pictured, the available ampere-tap (AT) settings are 0 5 0 6 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 1, 1.2, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, & 4. For this type of relay, the primary pickup current was calculated as: PU = CT Ratio x AT PU = (800/5) x 3 = 480 A (too low) = (800/5) x 4 = 640 A (107%, okay)
4.16 kV

800/5

IFC 53

Set AT = 4

M 4 kV 5000 hp FLC = 598.9 A SF = 1.0

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Slide 24

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Electromechanical Relays
100 TIME IN SECO ONDS

IFC 53 RELAY
Very Inverse Time Time-Current Curves 800/5 10 kA 15 kA

4.16 kV

IFC Setting = 4 AT (640 A pickup) 53 TD = ??

10

M 10 4 kV 5000 hp 598.9 A, SF = 1

0.34 0.30 0.1 0.08 0.07

Time Dial Se ettings

1.21 1 1.05

3 2 1

IFC 53 Relay Operating Times Fault Current Multiple of Pick-up Time Dial Time Dial 3 15 kA 15000/640 = 23.4 0.07 s 0.30 s 1.05 s 10 kA 10000/640 = 15.6 0.08 s 0.34 s 1.21 s

0.01 1

15.6

23.4

Time Dial 10

10 100 MULTIPLES OF PICK-UP SETTING


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Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

Slide 25

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Solid-State Relays (SS)

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Microprocessor-Based Relays
2000/5 01-52B 41-SWGR-01B 41 SWGR 01B 13.8 kV OCR F15B 400/5 01-F15B
52B OC1
ANSI-Normal Inverse Pickup = 2.13 (0.05 20 xCT Sec) Time Dial = 0.96 Inst = 20 (0.05 20 xCT Sec) Time Delay = 0.01 s

52B

Seconds

F15B OC1
ANSI-Extremely Inverse Pickup = 8 (0.05 20 xCT Sec) Time Dial = 0.43 Inst = 20 (0.05 20 xCT Sec) Time Delay = 0.02 s

52B 3P F15B 3P 30 kA @ 13.8 kV

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)


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Power CBs
LT Pickup
PWR MCB 3200 A 16-SWGR-02A 0.48 0 48 kV PWR FCB 1600 A

LT Band
Power MCB
Cutler-Hammer RMS 520 Series Sensor = 3200 LT Pickup = 1 (3200 Amps) LT Band = 4 ST Pickup = 2.5 (8000 Amps) ST Band = 0.3 (I^x)t = OUT

Seconds Power FCB


Cutler-Hammer RMS 520 Series Sensor = 1200 LT Pickup = 1 (1200 Amps) LT Band = 2 ST Pickup = 4 (4500 Amps) ST Band = 0.1 (I^x)t = OUT

ST Pickup ST Band

Power MCB 3P 47.4 kA @ 0.48 kV

Power FCB 3P 90.2 kA @ 0.48 kV

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=0.48)


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Slide 28

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Insulated & Molded Case CB


Insulated Case MCB 1200 A 16-SWGR-02A 0.48 kV Molded Case CB 250 A

Insulated Case MCB


Frame = 1250 Plug = 1200 A LT Pickup = Fixed (1200 A) LT Band = Fixed ST Pickup = 4 x (4000 A) ST Band = Fixed (I^2)t = IN Override = 14000 A

Seconds

Molded Case CB
HKD Size = 250 A Terminal Trip = Fixed Magnetic Trip = 10

Fault current < Inst. Override

Insulated Case MCB 11 kA @ 0.48 kV

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=0.48)


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Insulated & Molded Case CB


Insulated Case MCB 1200 A 16 SWGR 02A 16-SWGR-02A 0.48 kV Molded Case CB 250 A
Insulated Case MCB
Frame = 1250 Plug = 1200 A LT Pickup = Fixed (1200 A) LT Band = Fixed ST Pickup = 4 x (4000 A) ST Band = Fixed (I^2)t = IN Override = 14000 A

Seconds

Molded Case CB
HKD Size = 250 A Terminal Trip = Fixed Magnetic Trip = 10

Fault current > Inst. Override

Insulated Case MCB 42 kA @ 0.48 kV

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=0.48)


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Power Fuses
MCC 1 4.16 kV Mtr Fuse Mtr Fuse JCL (2/03) Standard 5.08 kV 5R
Seconds

Minimum Melting

Total T t l Clearing

Mtr Fuse 15 kA @ 4.16 kV

Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=4.16 kV)


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Slide 31

Coordination Time Intervals (CTIs) C di ti Ti I t l (CTI )

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Coordination Time Intervals (CTIs) The CTI is the amount of time allowed between a primary device and its upstream backup.
When two such devices de ices are coordinated such that the primary device should operate first at all fault levels, they are selectively coordinated. coordinated

Backup devices wait for sufficient time to allow operation of primary devices.

Main

Primary devices sense, operate & clear the fault first first.

Feeder

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Slide 33

34

Coordination Time Intervals EM


In the good old (EM) days,
Main

What Wh typical CTI would we i l ld want between the feeder and the main breaker relays?
Seconds

Feeder

Main

30 kA

It depends. depends

Feeder ?s

30 kA
Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)
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Slide 34

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Coordination Time Intervals EM


On what did it depend? Remember the TD setting? It is continuously adjustable and not exact. So how do you really know where TD = 5? FIELD TESTING ! (not just hand set)

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Slide 35

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Coordination Time Intervals EM


Plotting the field test points.

Feeder

3x means 3 times pickup 3 * 8 = 24 A (9.6 kA primary) 5 * 8 = 40 A (16 kA primary) i ) 8 * 8 = 64 A (25.6 kA primary)

Seconds

3x (9.6 kA), 3.3 s 5x (16 kA), 1.24 s 8x (25 6 kA) 0 63 s (25.6 kA), 0.63

30 kA
Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)
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Slide 36

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Coordination Time Intervals EM


So now, if test points are not provided what should the CTI be? b ?

Main

0.4 s
Seconds

Feeder

30 kA Main w/ testing Main w/o testing Feeder

But, if test points are provided what should the CTI be?

0.3 s

0.3 s 0.4 s

30 kA
Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)

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Slide 37

38

Coordination Time Intervals EM Where does the 0.3 s or 0.4 s come from? 1. 1 2. 3. 3 breaker b k operating ti ti time (Feeder breaker) (F d b k ) CT, relay errors (both) disk overtravel (Main relay only)
Tested breaker 5 cycle Disk over travel CT, l CT relay errors TOTAL 0.08 s 0.10 s 0.12 0 12 s 0.30 s Hand Set 0.08 s 0.10 s 0.22 0 22 s 0.40 s

Main

Feeder

30 kA

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Slide 38

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Coordination Time Intervals EM


Red Book (per Section 5.7.2.1)
Components

Obviously, CTIs can be a subjective issue. Buff Book (taken from Tables 15-1 & 15-2)
Components 0.08 s 0.10 s 0.17 s 0.35 s Field Tested 0.08 s 0.10 s 0.12 s 0.30 s

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Slide 39

40

Coordination Time Intervals EM & SS So, lets move forward a few years. For a modern (static) relay what part of the margin can be dropped? So if one of the two relays is static, we can use 0.2 s, right? CTI = 0.3 s
(because di k OT i (b disk is still in play)
Feeder (SS) Feeder (EM)

Disk overtravel It depends

Main (EM)

Main (SS)

CTI = 0.2 s

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Slide 40

41

Coordination Time Intervals


Main (EM) Main (SS)

Feeder (SS)

Feeder (EM)

Feeder (SS) 0.3 s disk OT still applicable


Main (EM) Feeder (SS) 30 kA @ 13.8 kV

Seconds

Main (EM)

Main (SS)

Feeder EM 0.2 s

Main (SS) Feeder (EM) 30 kA @ 13.8 kV

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)


Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)


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Slide 41

42

Coordination Time Intervals EM/SS with Banded Devices


OC Relay combinations with banded devices
EM Relay

Power Fuse

Static Trip or Molded Case Breaker

disk over travel CT, relay errors operating time x CTI disk over travel x CT, relay errors operating time x CTI

0.1 s 0.12 s 0.22 s 0.12 s 0.12 s


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Static Relay

Power Fuse

Static Trip or Molded Case Breaker

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Slide 42

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CTI EM/SS with Banded Devices


EM-Banded
EM Relay

SS-Banded

SS Relay

PWR MCB

PWR MCB

PWR MCB

EM Relay
Seconds

PWR MCB

SS Relay

0.22 s

0.12 s

25 kA
Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=0.48)
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25 kA
Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=0.48)
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Slide 43

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CTI Banded Devices


Banded characteristics include tolerances & operating times. There is no intentional/ additional time delay needed between two banded devices. All that is required is clear space (CS) (CS).

Seconds

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=0.48)


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Slide 44

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CTI Banded Devices


Note that areas of miscoordination may exist even if the TCC looks good. Manufacturer of banded devices will typically not provide data below 0.01 sec.

Possible point of mis-coordination


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Slide 45

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Coordination Time Intervals Summary


Buff Book (Table 15-3 Minimum CTIsa)

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Slide 46

Effect f Fault Current V i ti Eff t of F lt C t Variations

Slide 47

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CTI & Fault Current Magnitude


Inverse relay characteristics imply
Main

Relay Current

Operating Time
Seconds

Feeder

F1 = 10 kA

Main

F2 = 20 kA

For a fault current of 10 kA the CTI is 0.2 s 0 2 s. For a fault current of 20 kA the CTI is 0.06 s. Consider a main-tie-main arrangement with a N.O. tie breaker b k
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

Feeder

0.2 s 0.06 s

F1 = 10 kA

F2 = 20 kA

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)


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Slide 48

49

Total Bus Fault versus Branch Currents


10 kA 15 kA

1.2 kA

0.8 kA

2 kA

1 kA

For a typical distribution bus all feeder relays will see a slightly different maximum fault current. Years back, the simple approach was to use the total bus fault current as the basis of the CTI, including main incomer CTI incomer. Using the same current for the main led to a margin of conservatism.

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Slide 49

50

Total Bus Fault versus Branch Currents

Using Total Bus g Fault Current of 15 kA

10 kA 15 kA

Using Actual Maximum Relay Current of 10 kA

Feeder
M

Feeder Main
Seconds

Main
0.2 s

0.8 s

15 kA
Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)
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10 kA

15 kA

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)


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Slide 50

51

Curve Shaping

Most modern relays include multiple OC El Elements. t Using a definite time characteristic (or delayed instantaneous) can eliminate the affect of varying fault current levels.

Seconds

0.2 s 20 kA 15 kA 10 kA
Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)
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Slide 51

52

Curve Shaping Danger of Independent OC Units


Many software programs include the facility to plot integrated overcurrent units, usually a 50/51. , y However, the OC units of many modern relays are independent and remain active at all fault current levels. Under certain setting conditions, such as with an extremely inverse characteristic, the intended definite time delay can be undercut and higher fault levels.

Seconds

0.2 s

0.1 s 40 kA

20 kA 15 kA 10 kA
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Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)


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Slide 52

Multiple S M lti l Source Buses B

Slide 53

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Multiple Source Buses

When a bus includes multiple sources, care must be taken to not coordinate all source relays at the total fault current. y p y p Source relays should be plotted only to their respective fault currents or their normalized plots. Plotting the source curves to the total bus fault current will lead to much larger than actual CTIs.

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Multiple Source Buses

Plot to Full Fault Level


2 1

12 kA

18 kA
2

Plot to Actual Relay Current

30 kA

Seconds

1.1 s

0.2 s

12 kA

30 kA

12 kA

30 kA

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)


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Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)


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Slide 55

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Curve Shifting
Many software packages include the facility to adjust/shift the characteristics of the source relays to line up at the bus maximum fault f lt currents. t Shifting allows relay operation to be considered on a common current basis (primarily the max). ( ) g The shift factor (SF) is calculated using: SF = Bus Fault / Relay Current Source Relay SF = 30/12 = 2.5 Feeder Relay SF = 30/30 = 1.0
2 3

12 kA

18 kA

30 kA

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Slide 56

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Curve Shifting
2.5 25x

Without shift factor both pickups = 3000 A.

12 kA

18 kA

With shift factor relay 2 pickup shifts to 7500 A.

1 2

30 kA

0.2 s

Seconds

0.2 s

12 kA

30 kA

30 kA

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)


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Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)


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Multiple Source Buses

10 kA Bus A

10 kA 15 kA (Fa) 10 kA (Fb) Fa = 25 kA

5 kA

Bus B

Fb = 25 kA

Different fault locations cause different flows in tie. SF(Fa) = 25 / (10 + 5) = 1.67 SF(Fb) = 25 / 10 = 2.5 Preparing a TCC for each unique location can confirm defining case case. Cases can be done for varying sources out of service & breaker logic used to enable different setting groups.
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Slide 58

Partial Diff P ti l Differential Relaying ti l R l i

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Partial Differential (Bus O.C.) Relaying R l i


Source 1 Ip1 Is1
51A 51B

Source 2 Is2 Ip2

Commonly used on secondary selective systems with normally closed ti b k l d tie breakers. CT wiring automatically discriminates between faults on Bus A and Bus B. CT wiring ensures that main breaker relay sees the same current as the faulted f d f lt d feeder. 51A trips Main A & tie; 51B trips Main B & tie. Eliminates need for relay on tie breaker & saves coordination step.

Is1+Is2

Is2 Bus A Ip1+Ip2 Feeder A Ip2

Is2 Bus B

Feeder B

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Slide 60

61

Partial Differential Relaying


Scheme works with a source or tie breaker open.
Source 1 Ip1 Is1
51A 51B

Source 2 0 0 Open Bus B Ip1

Is1

The relay in the open source must remain in operation. Relay metering functions can be misleading due to CT summation wiring. Separate metering must be provided on dedicated CTs or before the currents are summed.

Is1 Bus A Ip1

Is1

Feeder A

Feeder B

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Partial Differential Relaying


Scheme will work for any number of sources or bus ties.
Source 1 Ip1 Is1
51A

Source 2 Is1+Is2+Is3 Is2 Is2+ Is3 Ip2+Ip3 Ip2

51B

Source 3 Ip3

0 Is3

A dedicated relay is needed for each bus section. Partial differential schemes simplify the coordination of multiple source buses by p y ensuring the main relay for each bus always see the same current as the faulted feeder. feeder

Is2+ I 2+ Is3 Bus A Ip1+Ip2+Ip3 Feeder A

Bus B

Feeder B

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Slide 62

Directional Overcurrent Relaying Di ti lO tR l i

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Directional Current Relaying

67

67

Bus A

Bus B

Directional overcurrent (67) relays should be used on double ended line-ups double-ended line ups with normally closed ties and buses with multiple sources. Protection is intended to provide more sensitive and faster detection of faults in the upstream supply system system. Directional device provides backup protection to the transformer differential protection.

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Slide 64

Transformer Overcurrent Protection T f O t P t ti

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Transformer Overcurrent Protection


NEC Table 450.3(A) defines overcurrent setting requirements for primary & secondary protection pickup settings.

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67

Transformer Overcurrent Protection


C37.91 defines the ANSI withstand protection limits. Withstand curve defines thermal & mechanical limits of a transformer experiencing a through-fault. Requirement to protect for mechanical damage is based on frequency of through faults & transformer size. t f i Right-hand side (thermal) used for setting primary protection. Left-hand side (mechanical) used for setting secondary protection.
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mechanical withstand thermal withstand based on transformer Z 25 x FLC @ 2s

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Transformer Overcurrent Protection


Relay pickup

Primary FLC = 2.4 MVA/(3 x 13.8) = 100.4 A Relay PU must be 600% FLC = 602 4 A 602.4 Using a relay setting of 2.0 x CT, the relay PU = 2 x 200 = 400 A 400 / 100.4 = 398% so okay Secondary FLC = 2.4 MVA / (3 x 0.48) = 2887 A MCB Trip must be 250% FLC = 7217 A Breaker Trip = 3200 A per bus rating 3200 / 2887 = 111% (okay)
Seconds

PWR-MCB

2.4 MVA, 5.75% Z Y -Y Resistor Ground

13.8 kV R-Primary 13.8/0.48 kV 2.4 MVA 5.75% 5 75% PWR-MCB 3200 A 480 V

R-Primary optional time ti l ti delay settings

Time d l d Ti delay depends on l d level of protection l f t ti desired.

Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)


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Transformer Overcurrent Protection


-Y Connections Phase-To-Phase Faults
A 0.5 0 a

1.0 B 0.5 C

0.866 b c 0.866

Setting the CTI based on a three threephase fault is not as conservative as for a phase-phase fault. The secondary curve could be shifted or a slightly larger CTI used, but can be ignored if primary/ secondary selectivity is not critical. y
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

Seconds

A phase-phase fault on the secondary appears more severe in one phase on the primary.

0.3 s

0.25 s

30 x 0.867 = 26 kA
Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)

30 kA

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Transformer Overcurrent Protection


-Y C Y Connections Ph ti Phase-To-Ground Faults T G d F lt
0.577 A 0 0.577 0 0 b c 1.0 a

2.4 MVA, 5.75% Z -Y Resistor Ground

B C

0.577

2.4 MVA, 5.75% Z -Y Solid Ground

58%

R-Primary y

A one per unit phase-ground fault on the secondary appears as a 58% ( )p (1/3) phase fault on the p primary. y The transformer damage curve is shifted 58% to the left to ensure protection.

PWR-MCB
Seconds

13.8 13 8 kV R-Primary 13.8/0.48 kV 2.4 MVA 5.75% PWR-MCB 3200 A 480 V

45 kA @ 0.48 kV
Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)

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Slide 70

71

Transformer Overcurrent Protection


Inrush Current
Use of 8-12 times FLC @ 0.1 s is an 01 empirical approach based on EM relays. The instantaneous peak value of the inrush current can actually be much higher than 12 times FLC.
PWR-MCB

2.4 MVA, 5.75% Z Y -Y Resistor Ground


Seconds

13.8 kV R-Primary 13.8/0.48 kV 2.4 MVA 5.75% 5 75% PWR-MCB 3200 A 480 V

The inrush is not over at 0.1 s, the dot just represents a typical rms equivalent of the inrush from energization to this point in time.

8-12 x FLC (typical)


45 kA @ 0.48 kV
Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)

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Slide 71

72

Transformer Overcurrent Protection


Setting the primary inst. protection
The primary relay instantaneous (50) setting should clear both the inrush & the secondary fault current. It was common to use the asymmetrical rms value of secondary fault current (1.6 x sym) to t bli h the instantaneous t establish th i t t pickup, but most modern relays filter out the DC component.
PWR-MCB

2.4 MVA, 5.75% Z Y -Y Resistor Ground


Seconds

13.8 kV R-Primary 13.8/0.48 kV 2.4 MVA 5.75% 5 75% PWR-MCB 3200 A 480 V

8-12 x FLC (typical)


Fs
Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)

Fp

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Slide 72

73

Transformer Overcurrent Protection


-Y Connection & Ground Faults
0.577 A 0 0.577 0 0 b c 1.0 a

H Z0

B C

0.577

Phase Currents

Zero Sequence Network

A secondary L-G fault is not sensed by the ground (zero sequence) devices on the primary () side. L Low-resistance and solidly-grounded systems on th secondary of a -Y i t d lidl d d t the d f Y transformer are therefore coordinated separately from the upstream systems.

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74

Transformer Overcurrent Protection


-Y Connection & Ground Faults
The ground resistor size is selected to limit the fault current while still providing sufficient current for coordination. The resistor ratings include a maximum continuous current that must be considered.

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Slide 74

Motor Overcurrent Protection M t O t P t ti

Slide 75

76

Motor Overcurrent Protection


Fuse provides short-circuit protection. 49 or 51 device provide motor overload protection.
Hot

GE Multilin 469 Standard O/L Curve Pickup = 1.01 X FLC Curve Multiplier = 3 Bussmann JCL Size 9R

The time delay for the 49/51 protection is based on motor stall time.

Seconds

Overload pickup depends on motor FLC and service factor.

1000 hp 4 kV 650% LRC

M
Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=4.16)
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

3 kA @ 4.16 kV

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77

Motor Overcurrent Protection


In the past, instantaneous OC protection was avoided on contactorfed motors since the contactors could not clear high short-circuits. With modern relays, a definite time unit can be used if its setting is coordinated with the contactor interrupting rating.
Hot 1000 hp 4 kV 650% LRC
Seconds

GE Multilin 469 Standard O/L Curve Pickup = 1.01 X FLC Curve Multiplier = 3 Bussmann JCL Size 9R

Contactor 6 kA Int. M
Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=4.16)
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

3 kA @ 4.16 kV

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78

Motor Overcurrent Protection


The instantaneous or definite time setting for a breaker-fed motor must be set to pass the motor asymmetrical inrush. i h Can be done with a pickup over the asymmetrical current. current Can be done using a lower pickup and time delay to allow the DC component to decay out.
Seconds

GE Multilin 469 Standard O/L Curve Pickup = 1.01 X FLC Curve Multiplier = 3

5000 hp 4 kV 650% LRC

Hot

3 kA @ 4.16 kV

Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=4.16)


Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

Slide 78

Conductor Overcurrent Protection C d t O t P t ti

Slide 79

80

Conductor Overcurrent Protection LV Cables


NEC 240.4 Protection of Conductors conductors shall be protected against
overcurrent in accordance with their ampacities (B) Devices Rated 800 A or Less the next higher standard device rating shall be permitted (C) Devices Rated over 800 A the ampacity of the conductors shall be the device rating

NEC 240.6 Standard Ampere Ratings 240 6


(A) Fuses & Fixed-Trip Circuit Breakers cites all standard ratings (B) Adjustable Trip Circuit Breakers Rating shall be equal to maximum setting tti (C) Restricted Access Adjustable-Trip Circuit Breakers Rating can be equal to setting if access is restricted
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

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81

Conductor Overcurrent Protection MV Feeders & Branch Circuits


NEC 240.101 (A) Rating or Setting of Overcurrent Protective Devices
Fuse rating 3 times conductor ampacity Relay setting 6 times conductor ampacity

MV M t Conductors Motor C d t
NEC 430.224 Size of Conductors
Conductors ampacity shall be g p y greater than the overload setting. g

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82

Conductor Overcurrent Protection


The insulation temperature rating is typically used as the operating temperature ( o). p (T ) The final temperature (Tf) depends on the insulation type (typically 150 deg. C or 250 deg. C). When calculated by hand you hand, only need one point and then draw in at a -2 slope.
Seconds

1 3/C 350 kcmil Copper Rubber To = 90 deg. C

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. V=600)


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Slide 82

Generator Overcurrent Protection G t O t P t ti

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84

Generator Overcurrent Protection


FLC/Xd FLC A generators fault current contribution decays over time. Overcurrent protection must allow both for moderate overloads & be sensitive enough to detect the steady state contribution to a system fault. t t t ib ti t t f lt Voltage controlled/ restrained relays (51V) are commonly used used.
Interrupting contribution (FLC/Xd)

GTG-101A No Load Constant Excitation AC Fault Current


Seconds

The pickup at full restraint is typically 150% of Full Load Current (FLC) (FLC). The pickup at no restraint must be < FLC/Xd.
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Momentary contribution (FLC/Xd)


Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=12.47)
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

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85

Generator 51V Pickup Setting Example S tti E l


Fg 1200/5 19500 kVA 903 A Xd = 280%
51V

12.47 kV

Fg = FLC/Xd = 903 / 2.8 = 322.5 A 51V pickup (full restraint) 51V pickup (no restraint) > 150% FLC = 1354 A < 322.5 A

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86

Generator 51V Pickup Setting Example S tti E l 51V Setting > 1354/1200 Using 1.15, 51V pickup With old EM relays, 51V pickup (no restraint) = 1.13 = 1.15 x 1200 A = 1380 A

= 25% of 1380 A = 345 A (> 322 5 A not good) 322.5 A,

With new relays a lower MF can be set, such that 51V pickup ( restraint) i k (no t i t) = 15% of 1380 A f = 207 A (< 322.5, so okay)
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87

Generator 51V Settings on TCC


15% x Pickup Pickup = 1.15 x CT-Sec

decreasing voltage o tage no restraint


GTG-101A No Load Constant Excitation Total Fault Current

full restraint

Limited guidance on overcurrent protection (C37.102 Section 4.1.1) with respect to time delay delay. Want to avoid nuisance tripping, especially on islanded systems, so higher TDs are better.

Seconds

30 kA

Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=12.47)


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Slide 87

Coordinating a System C di ti S t

Slide 88

89

Coordinating a System
TCCs show both protection & coordination. Most OC settings should be shown/confirmed on TCCs. Showing too much on a single TCC can make it impossible to read.

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90

Coordinating a System
Showing a vertical slice of the system y can reduce crowding, but still be hard to read. Upstream equipment is shown on multiple and redundant TCCs.

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91

Coordinating a System
A set of overlapping TCCs can be used to limit the amount of information on each curve and demonstrate coordination of the system from the bottom up. Protection settings should be based on equipment ratings and available spare capacity not simply on the present operating load and i t ll d equipment. d installed i t Typical TCCs can be used to establish settings for similar installations. installations Device settings defined on a given TCC are used as the starting point in the next upstream TCC TCC. The curves can be shown on an overall one-line of the system to illustrate the TCC coverage (Zone Map) Map).
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Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

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92

Phase TCC Zone Map

TCC-6 TCC-3 TCC-2 TCC-Comp

TCC-5 TCC-1

TCC-4

TCC-307J TCC-101J
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

TCC-212J
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Slide 92

93

Coordinating a System: TCC-1


Zone Map

Motor starting & protection is adequate. Cab e s a d p o ec o s adequate. Cable withstand protection is adequa e The MCC main breaker may trip for faults above 11 kA, but this cannot be helped. The switchgear feeder breaker is selective with the MCC main breaker, although not necessarily required
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

Seconds

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=0.48)


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94

Coordinating a System: TCC-2


Zone Map

The switchgear feeder breaker settings established on TCC-1 set the basis for this curve. The main breaker is set to be selective with the feeder at all fault levels. A CTI marker is not required since the characteristic curves include all margins and breaker operating times. The main breaker curve is clipped at its throughfault current instead of the total bus fault current to allow tighter coordination of the upstream relay. (See TCC-3)

Seconds

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=0.48)


Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

Slide 94

95

Coordinating a System: TCC-3


Zone Map

The LV switchgear main breaker settings g g established on TCC-2 set the basis for this curve. The transformer damage curve is based on frequent faults and is not shifted since the transformer is resistance grounded. The primary side OC relay is selective with the secondary main and provides adequate transformer and feeder cable protection. The OC relay instantaneous high enough to pass the secondary fault current and transformer inrush current.
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

Seconds

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=0.48)


IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

Slide 95

96

Coordinating a System: TCC-307J


Zone Map

Thi curve sets the basis f th upstream d i This t th b i for the t devices since its motor is the largest on the MCC. Motor starting and overload protection is acceptable. Motor feeder cable protection is acceptable The motor relay includes a definite time unit to provide enhanced protection. The definite time function is delay to allow the asymmetrical inrush current to pass pass.
Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=4.16)
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

Slide 96

Seconds

97

Coordinating a System: TCC-4


Zone Map

The 307J motor relay settings established on TCC-307J set the basis for this curve. The tie breaker relay curve is plotted to the total bus fault b f lt current to be conservative. tt b ti The main breaker relay curve is plotted to its let-through current. A coordination step is provided between the tie and main relay although this decision is discretionary. All devices are selectively coordinated at all fault current levels. The definite time functions insulate the CTIs from minor fault current variations.
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

Seconds

Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=4.16)


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98

Coordinating a System: TCC-5


Zone Map

The MV MCC main breaker settings established on TCC-4 set the basis for this curve. The transformer damage curve is based on frequent faults and is not shifted since the transformer is resistance grounded. grounded The primary side OC relay is selective with the secondary main and provides adequate transformer and feeder cable protection. The OC relay instantaneous high enough to pass the f f secondary fault current and transformer inrush current.
Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

Slide 98

Seconds

99

Coordinating a System: TCC-Comp


Zone Map

Due to the compressor size, this curve may set the basis for the MV switchgear main breaker. Motor starting and overload protection is p acceptable. Short-circuit protection is provided by the relay/breaker instead of a fuse as with the 1000 hp motor. The short-circuit protection is delayed 50 ms to avoid nuisance tripping.
Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

Slide 99

Seconds

100

Coordinating a System: TCC-6


Zone Map

The feeder breaker settings established on TCC-3, TCC-4, and TCC-Comp are shown as the basis for this curve. Th settings for feeder 52A1 (t th 2 4 MVA) The tti f f d (to the 2.4 could be omitted since it does not define any requirements. A coordination step is provided between the tie and main relay although this decision is discretionary. All devices are selectively coordinated at all fault current levels. The definite time functions insulate the CTIs from minor fault current variations.
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

Seconds

Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)


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Slide 100

101

Ground TCC Zone Map

TCC-G1

TCC-G2

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Slide 101

Supplemental Material S l t lM t i l

Slide 102

103 103

Current Transformer Basics


51 50 51 50

51 50

51 50

Dont let polarity marks fool you!


Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

Slide 103

104 104

Current Transformer Basics


51 ia ib ic 51 50

ia+ib+ic 51 N Protected Bus

Residual CT connection
ia+ib+ic Ia Ib Ic 51 G

51

Zero sequence CT q

Bus NOT Protected

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Slide 104

105 105

Current Transformer Basics

Understand How CTs work!


IEEE Guide for the Application of Current Transformers Used for Protective Relaying Purposes - IEEE Std C37.110

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Slide 105

106 106

Basic Guides for Protective Relay S tti R l Settings Suggested Rules of Thumb for MV Equipment Rules Thumb Transformers Bus Feeders Motors Capacitors

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Slide 106

107 107

Basic Guides for Protective R l S tti P t ti Relay Settings Suggested Rules of Thumb for MV Equipment gg
The intent of this section is to provide a range of typical settings. It is the engineers responsibility to verify the application on an individual basis. This section does NOT apply to equipment 600 V and below. Care must be taken when coordinating a microprocessor TOC element with an electromechanical relay downstream The electromechanical relay may downstream. respond to a fundamental phasor magnitude, true RMS, or rectified magnitude .

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Slide 107

108

Rules of Thumb(above 600 V) Power T P Transformers f


Phase Relays (delta wye)

Primary Phase Settings CT Ratio: 200% FLA Set pickup to comply with NEC 450-3, but as a rule of thumb setting should be less than 300% of transformer self cooled rating or 150% of transformer maximum rating. Try to set the time dial such that pickup time for maximum through fault is in the neighborhood of 1.0 seconds or less. If higher, ensure that ANSI damage points are not exceeded. d i t t d d Set instantaneous at between 160% and 200% of maximum through fault (assume infinite bus). Ensure that available system short circuit allows this. Time Dial set at 1.0 to 1.5 seconds at maximum fault. Do not exceed Time 2.0 seconds which is the mechanical damage point.

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Slide 108

109

Rules of Thumb(above 600 V) Power T P Transformers f


Primary Ground Relay Settings

Primary Ground Settings Set 50G if primary winding is delta connected connected. Provide time delay (approx 20 msec) when setting digital relays with zero sequence CTs. No time delay when using elecro-mechanical relays with zero sequence CTs. CT considerations: Residually connected neutral. CT mismatch and residual magnetization will not allow the most sensitive setting. Recommend to delay above inrush. Zero CT. Zero sequence CT Care must be taken to ensure that cables are properly placed and cable shields are properly terminated.
ia ib ic 51 50 ia+ib+ic ia+ib+ic i ib i 50 N Ia Ib Ic 50 G

Ia Ib Ic

Residual CT connection
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

Zero sequence CT
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110

Rules of Thumb( above 600 V) Power Transformers


Primary Fuse Phase Protection

Primary Fuse Rating of power transformer: 135% FLA < Fuse < 250% FLA Try to stay in the range of 150% FLA. 150%. Primary fuse rating of power transformer should be approximately 200% FLA if transformer has a secondary main. Generally use E-rated fuses. Note that TOC characteristics of fuses are not all the same.

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111

Rules of Thumb( above 600 V) Power Transformers


Secondary Resistance Grounded

Secondary Low-Resistance Grounded Set pickup for 20% to 50% of maximum ground fault. Note that ground resistors typically have a continuous rating of 25-50% of nominal. This value can be specified when purchasing the equipment equipment. Example: 2000 A main breaker (2000:5 CTs), it may make sense to specify an 400 A ground resistor with a continuous rating of 50% (200 A) such that a 2000:5 residually connected CT input can be used with a minimum pickup (0.1 x CT = 0.5 A secondary, 200 A primary). Set the time dial such that at the time to trip is 2.0 seconds at maximum Set 20 ground fault Protect I t curve Protect resistor using It curve. Typical resistor is rated for 10 seconds at nominal current (to be specified at time of order).
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

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112

Rules of Thumb( above 600 V) Power Transformers


Secondary Solidly Grounded

Secondary Solidly Grounded (for balanced three phase industrial loads) If secondary is solidly grounded and neutral relay is available (using CT on X0 bushing), set pickup at approximately 50% of phase element and ensure bushing) transformer 2 second damage point is protected. Coordinate TOC with main breaker (or partial differential) ground relay. Decrease the primary phase element by 58% (to account for transformer damage curve shift). This is the equivalent current seen on the primary (delta) for a secondary ground fault (refer to the Symmetrical Components presentation on O t 5th, 2010 b D K t Ed h ff) t ti Oct 5th by Dr. Kurt Ederhoff).

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113

Rules of Thumb( above 600 V)


87T

Protection for Transformer


Secondary Faults on Solidly Grounded Systems It is certainly preferable to rely on the transformer primary phase overcurrent relay for backup of transformer secondary ground faults. However, downstream coordination does not always afford us that luxury (shifting the transformer damage curve and associated transformer primary relay 58%). For solidly grounded transformer secondary installations, an argument can be made that the 87T is the primary protection and 51NT is the backup protection for a transformer secondary ground fault. This will allow you to set the 50T/51T relay without consideration of the 58% shift.

50T 51T

Phase-Gnd

51 NT

51 Main

51 N

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Slide 113

114

Rules of Thumb( above 600 V) Power Transformers


Primary Neutral (wye delta)

Primary Side Wye-Grounded Transformer Pi Sid W G d dT f If primary is solidly grounded and neutral relay is available, set pickup at approximately 50% of phase element. This must coordinate with upstream line protection devices ( p (i.e. 21P, 21G, 67, 67G ). If its at the utility level, , , , ) y , they will review and provide settings. g p p (GSU), the HV 51NT should typically be the ), yp y For generator step-up transformers ( last device to trip for upstream ground faults. Ensure that the GSU damage curve and the H0 grounding conductor is protected.

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115

Rules of Thumb( above 600 V) Directional O Overcurrent


50T 51T 50T 51T

Consideration for transformer secondary fault

51B

For f lt b t F a fault between the th transformer and main breaker, the partial differential bus relays will not detect current (other than motor contribution).
Trip Dire ection 67

Trip Direc ction

67

N.C.

51B

Set 67 pickup at 40% of transformer FLA. Coordinate with time curve with 50T/51T
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

Both transformer primar primary overcurrent relays will detect see the same current. A directional overcurrent relay is required to prevent tripping of both transformers via 50T/51T.

IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

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116

Rules of Thumb( above 600 V) Directional O Overcurrent


50T 51T 50T 51T

Consideration for transformer secondary fault

51M 51 Tie

51M

For a fault between the transformer and main breaker, the main and tie breaker relays will all see the same current (other than motor contribution).
Trip Directio on

67

N.C.

67

The ti b k Th tie breaker will t i f ll ill trip followed d by the respective transformer primary overcurrent. A directional overcurrent relay is required y q to prevent loss of one bus.

Trip Direction n

Set 67 pickup at 40% of transformer FLA. Coordinate with time curve with 51Tie
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

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117

Rules of Thumb( above 600 V) Bus d Feeders B and F d


Bus Relays (Main Breaker or Partial Differential): Pickup set between 100% and 125% FLA ( p (150% FLA maximum) ) Set to coordinate with transformer primary protective relaying Do not enable the instantaneous overcurrent element on main breaker relays! Feeder Relays: Set pickup to comply with NEC 240-100 (limited to 600% of rated ampacity of conductor). Actually, pickup permitted by NEC is slightly higher. Keep it down in the neighborhood of 200%. The intent is NOT to provide overload protection. The intent is to provide short-circuit protection. Set time dial as required to coordinate with downstream devices while protecting conductor against damage. Enable instantaneous element only if the load has a notable impedance (i.e. transformer, motor, capacitor, etc) or if the load is the end of a radial circuit. f ) f f
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

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118

Rules of Thumb( above 600 V) Induction Motors


Pickup set at 101% - 120% Nameplate Rating depending on Service Factor and normal load. Motor < 1,500 hp Motor > 1,500 hp Set at 1.15 x FLA Set just above FLA x S.F.

Instantaneous Trip set at 200% LRC. A higher p p g pickup may be used depending on system p y p g y available short circuit, however, do not lower below 160% LRC unless you know that the relay filters/removes the DC component. Ensure that the instantaneous trip setting will not cause a motor starter to attempt interrupting a fault beyond its rating. p g y g Ground Overcurrent. For Zero Sequence CT (BYZ) set ground Trip at 10A primary and Alarm at 5A primary. Set for instantaneous if using electromechanical and set at 20 msec delay ( y (minimum) if using digital relays. ) g g y For solidly grounded systems, ensure that the ground trip setting will not cause a motor starter to attempt interrupting a fault beyond its rating. Mechanical Jam set 150% FLA at 2 sec, unless application does not allow this ( pp (i.e. g grinder, crusher, etc).
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

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119

Rules of Thumb( above 600 V) Capacitors


Capacitor Bank: For individual protection, the Fuse protecting the capacitor is chosen such that its continuous current capability is greater than or equal to 135% of rated capacitor current. The feeder cable should be sized as such for continuous operation. This over rating is due to 10% for allowable overvoltage conditions, 15% for capacitor kVAR rating tolerance (this correlates to 15% percent deviation f it ti t l (thi l t t t d i ti from nominal capacitance) and 10% for overcurrent due to harmonics. For unbalance, set Alarm for loss of one capacitor, set Trip for overvoltage of p p g 110% rated (nameplate). For feeder protection, set Pickup at 135% of FLA, set Time Dial at 1.0, set 50P element above maximum inrush and include a slight time delay to coordinate with individual fuse clear time. Plot TOC to protect the capacitor case rupture curve. Note: Systems with high harmonic content require special attention.
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

Slide 119

Hands-On D H d O Demonstration t ti

Slide 120

Coordination Quizzes C di ti Q i

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122

Coordination Quiz #1
2000/5
OCR

Main SWGR-1 400/5 / 600/5 TR-FDR1


OCR OCR

Does this TCC look okay?? There is no need to maintain a coordination interval between feeder breakers. The CTI between the main and feeder 2 is appropriate unless all relays are electromechanical and hand t h d set. Fix base the setting of the feeder 2 relay on its downstream equipment and lower the time delay if possible.

TR-FDR2

Seconds

TR-FDR2-P OC1 TR-FDR1-P OC1

Main-P OC1

0.3 s 0.3 s

Main-3P TR-FDR2-3P TR-FDR1-3P 15 kA @ 13 8 kV 13.8


Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)
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123

Coordination Quiz #2
2000/5
OCR

Does this TCC look okay?? The CTIs shown between main and both feeders are sufficient. Assuming testing EM relays, the 0.62 s CTI cannot be reduced since the 0.30 s CTI is at the limit.

Main-1 SWGR 3 SWGR-3 400/5 600/5 FDR-1


OCR OCR

FDR-2

Main-P Main P OC1


Seconds

FDR 1 P FDR-1-P OC1 FDR-2-P OC1

0.62 s 0.30 s

The main relay time delay is actually too fast since the CTI at 30 kA is less than 0.2 s.
Main-3P FDR-2-3P FDR-1-3P 30 kA @ 13 8 kV 13.8

Fix raise the time delay setting of the main relay.

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)


Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

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124

Coordination Quiz #3
2000/5
OCR

Main-3 SWGR-4 400/5 600/5 FDR--1


OCR OCR

Does this TCC look okay?? The marked CTIs are okay, but. okay but A main should never include an instantaneous setting.

FDR--2

Seconds

Main-3-P OC1 FDR--1-P OC1 FDR--2-P OC1


0.47 0 47 s 0.33 s

Fix delete the instantaneous on the main relay and raise the time y delay to maintain a 0.2s CTI at 50 kA.

Main-3-3P FDR--2-3P FDR--1-3P 50 kA @ 13.8 kV 13 8


Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

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125

Coordination Quiz #4
Does this TCC look okay?? Primary relay pickup is 525% of transformer FLC, thus okay. Transformer frequent fault protection is not provided by the primary relay, but this is okay adequate protection is provided by the b th secondary main. d i Cable withstand protection is inadequate. inadequate Fix Add instantaneous setting to the primary relay. relay
Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

Seconds

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126

Coordination Quiz #5
Does this TCC look okay?? Selectivity between Relay14 on the transformer primary and CB44 on the secondary is not provided, but this can be acceptable.
Seconds

Relay 14 is not, however, selectively coordinated with feeder b k CB46. f d breaker CB46
0.08 s

Fix raise Relay14 time delay setting and add CTI marker. marker

Amps X 10 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)


Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

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127

Coordination Quiz #6
Does this TCC look okay?? Crossing of feeder characteristics is no problem.
LVMain a
Seconds

LVFDR2 LVFDR1
0.21 s

There is no need to maintain an intentional time margin between two LV static trip units clear space is sufficient. Fix lower the main breaker short-time delay band.

LVMain 3P 30 kA @ 0.48 kV

LVFDR2 3P LVFDR1 3P 45 kA @ 0.48 kV

Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=0.48)


Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

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128

Coordination Quiz #7
10 kA 5 kA

Does this TCC look okay?? The source relays should not be plotted to the full bus fault level unless their plots are shifted based on: SF = Total fault current / relay current. Assuming each relay actually sees only half of the total fault current, the CTI is actually much higher than 0.3 s. Fix plot the source relays to their actual fault current or apply SF SF.
IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

Source1 - P OC1
Seconds

Source2 - P OC1 Feeder - P OC1


0.3 s

Source1 - 3P Source2 3P Feeder 3P 15 kA @ 13.8 kV


Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=13.8)
Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

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Coordination Quiz #8
Does this TCC look okay?? There are two curves to be concerned with for a 51V full restraint and zero restraint.
51V - P OC1 FDR-5 - P OC1
0.30 s

Seconds

Assuming the full restraint curve is shown, it is coordinated too tightly with the feeder. Th 51V curve will shift l ft and The ill hift left d lose selectivity with the feeder if a close-in fault occurs and the voltage drops. g p
51V 3P FDR-5 3P 15 kA @ 13.8 kV
Amps X 100 (Plot Ref. kV=12.5)

Fix show both 51V curves and raise time delay.

Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

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References R f

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Selected References
IEEE Std 242 Buff Book IEEE Std 141 Red Book IEEE Std 399 Brown Book IEEE C37.90 Relays IEEE C37.91 Transformer Protection IEEE C37 102 C37.102 G id f AC G Guide for Generator Protection t P t ti NFPA 70 National Electrical Code Applied Protective Relaying Westinghouse Protective Relaying Blackburn Protective Relaying Theory and Applications ABB Power T&D Company Protective Relaying for Power Systems IEEE Press Protective Relaying for Power Systems II IEEE Press AC Motor Protection Stanley E. Zocholl Industrial and Commercial Power System Applications Series ABB Analyzing and Applying Current Transformers - Stanley E. Zocholl

Overcurrent Coordination for Industrial Applications

IEEE IAS 2010 - Copyright: IEEE

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