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Primary Sources:

A headshot of Albert Einstein. N.d. public domain, About.com. about.com. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://physics.about.com////Einstein-photos/Einstein-headshot.htm>. Albert Einstein was likely the most famous scientist who worked on the Manhattan Project. This is a set of seven different head shots of Albert Einstein. The website also includes a brief biography of his personal and academic accomplishments, and because he was so responsible for the creation of the atomic bomb, this site helped us very much on the Manhattan Project portion of our website.

Beinart, Peter. "The Crazy Rush to Attack Iran." The Daily Beast. Yahoo!, 21 Feb. 2012. Web. 21 Feb. 2012. <http://news.yahoo.com/crazy-rush-attack-iran-094500024.html>. Iran is considered across the world, to be one of the less stable countries in existence. Now, with the very real threat of nuclear power coming out of the country, individual and governments across the world are pressing for immediate action. However, there are many risks that would have to be taken in order for anything to happen. This article covers both the risks and the benefits of attack on Iran. Many countries, like the U.S., have been pushing against attack, and the American author seems to agree that the negative consequences of having Israel, or any other country, attack would be far worse than the positives.

Brainy Quote. "Edward Teller Quotes." Brainy Quote. Brainy Quote, 2012. Web. 12 Feb. 2012. <http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/e/ edward_teller.html>. This website helped us better understand some of the motives that Edward Teller used in order to support his claims. Though all of the quotes were propaganda, and meant for the public, they still helped us. Edward Teller was thought to a fanatic, but he was still one of the most important people involved in developing the hydrogen and atomic bomb, and the only person deeply involved with both.

BBC News. "In Quotes: Iran Nuclear Crisis." BBC News. BBC News, n.d. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4786816.stm>. This website has quotes from eight countries and corporations about the Iranian nuclear crisis. Those countries include the United States, China, Russia, Iran, the United Nations, the United Kingdom, France, and Germany. These quotes helped us understand different international opinions about the Iranian nuclear crisis, and led us to another website with useful information about this particular issue.

Cool Hand Nuke. NRC Logo. N.d. Cool Hand Nuke, Cool Hand Nuke. Cool Hand Nuke. Web.16 Jan. 2012. <http://www.coolhandnuke.com/Hand-Blog.aspx>. This picture shows the logo of the organization Cool Hand Nuke, that we visited. At this building, we interviewed a person about the nuclear weapons, and the impact the atomic bomb had on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

CS Monitor. Hillary Clinton at UN. 2010. CS Monitor. CS Monitor, 12 Mar. 2010. Web. 14 Feb. 2012. This picture depicts Hillary Clinton as she talks and conferences with the United Nations. She is a leading figure in the Iranian nuclear weapons issue, and a important and influential political spokesperson. This picture heightened our understanding of her impact and influence.

Einstein, Albert. Letter to Franklin D. Roosevelt. 2 Aug. 1939. Hypertextbook.com. Web. 24 Jan. 2012. <http://hypertextbook.com/eworld/einstein.shtml#second>. This primary source is valuable in the way that it shows the beginning of the Manhattan Project and Einstein's role in it. Also, it displays the government's role and its need for this powerful weapon. Lastly, it shows Einstein and Roosevelt's relationship and the government involvement.

Gallup. Majority Supports Use of Atomic Bomb on Japan in WWII. Gallup. Gallup, 2011. Web. 12 Dec. 2011. <http://www.gallup.com///supports-use-atomic-bomb-japanwwii.aspx>. This pole is a useful primary source that helped me understand the way the public felt about the atomic bomb. It also had links to other poles that helped broaden my view on the public opinion. The same poll was taken six different times from the time the nuclear bomb was first detonated over Japan in 1945, up until 2005. This as useful and helpful, since it was interesting to see the way peoples opinions changed.

Garner, Joe. We Inturupt this Broadcast. Naperville Illinois: Sourcebooks, 1998. CD-ROM. Naperville Illinois: Sourcebooks, 1998. Disc 2. This is a DVD set that has recordings of the exact things said on the days after the first two atomic bombs were dropped. There is a speech that was made to the public by Harry Truman, which explains what had happened, and also explained that the war should soon be over. The speech was broadcast on six different stations, and millions of people nationwide and worldwide heard it. Truman also said that because Germany had been trying to make to bomb at the same time, dropping it was a victory over more than one Axis Power.

Goodman, David J. Iran Says It May Cut Off Its Oil Exports to Europe. New York Times. New York Times, 26 Jan. 2012. Web. 27 Jan. 2012. <http://www.nytimes.com//////-saysiran-is-ready-for-nuclear talks.html?_r=1&scp=2&sq=iran%20nuclear&st=cse>. This newspaper article talks about the growing tension between Iran and the United Nations. This tension has escalated to a statement announced by the President of Iran. Mahmoud Ahmadinejad told other countries that Iran is willing to have Nuclear Talks. Speculation then arouse, many wondering if Iran has nuclear weapons in store. But, there is no proof of this, and the President denies any such accusations. Ahmadinejad then said that they may stop supplies, particularly oil, from reaching Europe, due to his country feeling threatened. Because of this, Europe felt that this could result in negative ways, and is trying to communicate with Iran about their nuclear weapons.

Hiroshima Quotes. "Hiroshima Quotes." Hiroshima Quotes. Search Quotes, 2012. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. <http://www.searchquotes.com/search/Hiroshima/>. This primary source has a page full of heartfelt quotes about Hiroshima spoken by famous, influential people. This website also led us to other websites with more helpful quotes related to the atomic bomb. Not only do these quotes inform the reader about the impact of the bombings, but they touch readers through literary devices and descriptions like nothing else can.

HSEUPics. Cold War Cartoon. N.d. HSEUPics, HSEUPics. HSEUPics. Web. 22 Jan. 2012. <http://hseuspics.wikispaces.com/+Cold+War>. This cartoon depicts the cold war, and the tension that surrounded it. The Cold War was centered on the atomic bomb, and it is an example of how the atomic bomb affected the world internationally. Because it is a cartoon, it makes the Cold War a little easier for viewers to understand, and increased my understanding.

Institute for Advanced Study.edu. Robert Oppenheimer (1904- 1967). N.d. IAS.edu. IAS, 2012. Web. 16 Feb. 2012. <http://www.ias.edu/people/ oppenheimer>. This primary picture depicts Robert Oppenheimer, who was a leading scientist in the Manhattan Project. He was the Director of the Manhattan Project in Los Alamos, and received the Presidential Medal of Merit for work on Atomic Bomb in 1946. In 1947 he became the director of

the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University, and in 1963 received the Enrico Fermi Award, which is the Atomic Energy Commission's highest honor.

Japan City Guides: Hiroshima. Miyajima. N.d. Japan City Guides: Hiroshima, Japan City Guides: Hiroshima. Japan City Guides: Hiroshima. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://www.bookhostelbook.com/_info///_hostel.php This is a picture of modern day Hiroshima. It has been completely rebuilt since being hit by the bomb in 1945 and is now a green, healthy city. The picture is shown in comparison to the city before the bomb, and directly after it. The difference between the three time periods is remarkable, and it has often been said that the bombs that destroyed Hiroshima and Nagasaki gave them the opportunity to become something greater than they otherwise would have.

Kirk, Theodore Van. "'Would I drop the atomic bomb again? Yes, I would.'" Interview by Ed Pilkington. The Guardian. The Guardian, 20 May 2010. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/may/20/ hiroshima-enola-gay-last-crew-member>. This interview was with one of the most important people involved with the dropping of the atomic bomb on Hiroshima. Theodore Van Kirk was the navigator aboard the Enola Gay, and he was one of the people who helped with the bomb who said that he never regretted what he did. Though many of the people who help with the bomb said that they never would have done it if they knew how it would end, he never said this. This interview

helped us, because it is a primary source, and it also helped explain that the stereo-types many have about the atomic bomb are not universal.

KRQE News 13. Building After the Atomic Bomb. 1945. News 13, News 13. KRQE News 13. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://www.krqe.com///_galleries/Hiroshima-after-65-yearsjgr_3534662>. This photograph shows a building in Hiroshima after the atomic bomb was dropped. When I saw it, I understood even better how powerful the bomb is, and how devastating the effects were. Viewers will understand that too, by looking at this photograph.

Likuj, Harold V. Atomic Bomb Hits Japan: Jet Plane Explosion Kills Major Bomb. Los Angeles Times 7 Aug. 1945: n. pag. Los Angeles Times. Web. 10 Nov. 2011. <http://www.latimes.com>. This newspaper article comes from the Los Angeles Times, and shows the media reaction to the bomb. This specific article told the public what had happened the day before, which was when Hiroshima was bombed. Although a little biased in the sense that it was written in a negative light, this primary source was not too biased in order to maintain wide spread popularity.

Nuclear Studies medical division. Radiocarbons Dates I. Spring Field VA: Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies, 1965. N. pag. Print. This was a medical report of the firsthand knowledge that was gathered by medical researched internationally on the harmful effects of the atomic bomb. It showed the

way people thought of the bomb from a biological point of view, and this particular document was widely complemented about it's in-depth research, and the implications of Japanese and American scientists working together.

PBS- American Experience. "President Truman- Leaflets Warning Japanese of Atomic Bomb." The American Experience- PBS. PBS, 2012. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. <http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/primary-resources/ truman-leaflets/>. This primary leaflet outlines the involvement and relationship between the American government and the Japanese people. The leaflet shows what to do during the atomic bomb attack, and where to go. It displays how while the American government was attacking Japan, it also wished to help the Japanese citizens.

Peace Memorial Museum. Hiroshima Before the Bomb. 1945. Peace Memorial Museum. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://www.hiroshima-spirit.jp///_e11.html>. This picture shows Hiroshima before the bomb was dropped. It explains to the viewer, as it did for me, how Hiroshima changed from before the bomb, to after to the bomb, and to modern day.

Picdit. 8 Insane Nuclear Explosions. N.d. Ben Gray, Picdit. Picdit. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://picdit.wordpress.com////nuclear-explosions/>. This is a collection of pictures of atomic and hydrogen bombs being exploded. The collection has pictures from different time periods, and from different countries. Also,

there are explanations of the backgrounds of each explosion. The pictures are ranked starting at the worst explosions, and continuing on from there. In total, there are approximately fifteen images, all of which relate to our NHD topic.

Ptak Science Books. "Deciding to Use the Atomic Bomb: The Chicago Metallurgical Lab Poll, July, 1945." Ptak Science Books. Ptak Science Books, 5 Aug. 2009. Web. 20 Dec. 2011. <http://longstreet.typepad.com/thesciencebookstore/ 2009/08/deciding-to-use-the-atomic-bomb-the-chicago-metallurgical-lab-poll-july1945.html>. This primary source shows that when the atomic bomb was finished being built, the United States government had to decide what to do with it. So, they sent out a questionnaire to the scientists around the country, and asked what they thought. Most answered that they believed it should be used for military purposes. Not only does this source explain this event, but it also features many other primary sources, and powerful pictures, as well as background knowledge.

San Francisco Sentinel. Mushroom Cloud. N.d. San Francisco Sentinel, San Francisco Sentinel Website. San Francisco Sentinel. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://www.sanfranciscosentinel.com/?p=42908>. This picture shows the mushroom cloud, also known as the atomic bomb. It is called the mushroom cloud because it looks like a mushroom, and is the color and looks like the texture of a cloud. This visually showed me what the atomic bomb actually looked like after it explodes, and broadened my perspectives about nuclear weapons.

Shalett, Sydney. First Atomic Bomb Dropped on Japan; Missile Is Equal to 20,000 Tons of TNT; Truman Warns Foe of a Rain of Ruin. New York Times 7 Aug. 1938, sec. 1: A1. New York Times. Web. 21 Oct. 2011. <http://www.nytimes.com/////.html>. This is the article from the New York Times that was published the night the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. The article simply tells the readers what had happened, and how people were already reacting to the news. It also quotes the speech made by President Harry Truman soon after the bomb was dropped. The article created a huge reaction, because the NYT was the most read newspaper in the nation. Teller, Edward, Dr. Interview by Sputnik. National Security Archives. National Security Archives, 15 Nov. 1998. Web. 24 Jan. 2012. <http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv////.html>. Edward Teller was one of the scientists who remained in the field of study of nuclear bombs even after the Manhattan Project had concluded. The interviewer asks him about various events regarding the atomic and hydrogen bomb, and he responds in a very positive way. Teller says he was less surprised when the S.U. dropped their first bomb, because he never under-estimated Russian capabilities. Though viewed as a fanatic by some, he remains unbiased throughout this interview.

Time Magazine. Cover of Albert Einstein. 1946. Time Magazine, Time Magazine. Time Magazine. Web. 16 Jan. 2012. <http://www.time.com///,16641,19460701,00.html>. This photograph shows the cover of Time magazine with Albert Einstein on it, when the first atomic bomb was being built. You can visualize Albert, and it shows how the media was quite involved with the building of the bomb, and the coverage it attracted.

Timmerman, Kenneth R. Countdown to Crisis. New York: Random, 2005. Print. This book focuses on the modern day impact the atomic bomb and nuclear weapons have on the world international, specifically in Iran. It gives a detailed account to the relationship between Iran and America, and gave me a interesting perspective on the immense impact nuclear weapons still have on the world, which allowed me to connect these modern events with the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Truman, Harry S., President. Diary entry about dropping the atomic bomb. 25 July 1945. Dannen Online Lib. Atomic Bomb: Decision. Web. 22 Jan. 2012.<http://www.dannen.com//jl25.html>. In this diary entry by Harry Truman, the Trinity Test is described, and Truman predicts what will happen after the bomb is dropped. President Truman also explains his opinion of the bomb, and states that it should not have been dropped on any innocent women or children.

A Typical Life. "Hirayama on Hiroshima." A Typical Life. A Typical Life, 11 June 2008. Web. 13 Feb. 2012. <http://www.atypicallife.com/quote-of-the-week-hirayama-on-hiroshima/> This website has numerous primary quotes regarding the atomic bomb. The quotes are about a wide variety of topics, including the destruction the bomb created, how people were affected by it, and the international reaction to it. The website also included other sources that helped us.

United States. Department of Defense. 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. By United States Department of Defense. Washington DC: United States Government, 2010. Access Military, Government and Defense. Web. 26 Jan. 2012. <http://www.defense.gov/// %20nuclear%20posture%20review%20report.pdf>. In 2010, the Unites States Government published a document to the Countries of the world

regarding the nation's plans for the nuclear bomb. Disarmament, preventing nuclear proliferation, and keeping in control of nuclear bombs, were several of the five categories discussed in the report. The fight against terrorism is perhaps though the most significant and quantitative thing covered. The report was put out by the department of defense. The speech President Obama made in Prague in 2009 is also talked about.

Secondary Sources: Alsos. "Alsos: The Atomic Age Opens." Rev. of The Atomic Age Opens, by Alsos. Alsos. N.p., 15 Sept. 2011. Web. 12 Nov. 2011. <http://alsos.wlu.edu/default.aspx>. Alsos is a website that has information on many different things relating to the nuclear bomb. The full name of it is Alsos: Digital Library for Nuclear Issues and it covers many different media types and different topics. Many of my other websites come from external links on this site, and it is well known in the world of nuclear studies. Alsos emphasizes the importance of the cost befits to the nuclear bomb, because of the amount of money that was saved for the U.S. on the Manhattan Project compared to an invasion.

The Brookings Institution. "The Costs of the Manhattan Project." Brookings. The Brookings Institution, 2011. Web. 11 Dec. 2011. <http://www.brookings.edu/projects/archive/nucweapons/manhattan.aspx>. This website is about the cost of the Manhattan Project, and shows the different materials used. It also compares it to the cost of other wars, which helped put the Manhattan Project in context. It shows that the project was not as expensive as other weapons, and was very effective. Because of this, President Harry Truman used it to justify dropping the bomb.

Clemins, Kevin P. The Challenge of Abolishing Nuclear Weapons. New Brunswick NJ: Transaction Publishers, 2009. Print. It has good information about what groups of people were doing at various times. Also, there are a number of quotes from people who disliked the atomic bomb and who never believed Truman when he said that the bombs' positive results outweighed the negative. The book covers the topic of disarmament, and it compares to dangers of abolishing all nuclear weapons, and the risks of keeping them. Because of the danger, nothing has been done yet, and leaders across the world are trying to decide what to do.

Coleman, David G., and Joseph M. Siracusa. Real-World Nuclear Deterrence: The Making of International Strategy. Westport CT: This is very specific, but a bit hard to understand because it requires detailed background knowledge. However, the book has very good information on international views of the bomb, both past and modern day. It focuses on the

disarmament debate between nations. There is a specific section of the Manhattan Project, and information about the scientists is very helpful.

Kelly, Cynthia C., ed. The Manhattan Project. United States: Black Dog & Leventhal, 2007. Print. This book was extremely helpful to us in the way that it goes into detail about the science of the atomic bomb, in a way that we could understand, yet at the same time using words that were scientific.

Gordin, Michael D., Ph.D. Red Cloud at Dawn: Truman, Stalin, and the End of the Atomic Monopoly. New York City: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2009. Print. A very helpful source and it fits thesis well, though it is mostly focused on the government, not the people. The Cold War is cover in great detail throughout the book, and the relationship between Truman and Stalin is the main focus. There is also a fifty page bibliography at the end which led me to other sources that were helpful.

Maxwell School of Syracuse University, comp. "Japanese Americans in Concentration Camps." Maxwell School of Syracuse University. N.p., 2009. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. <http://classes.maxwell.syr.edu/soc248/JapaneseIntern.html>. This website briefly outlined information on the discrimination done against Japanese-Americans during World War II. It tells how the U.S. government was paranoid about the possibility of Japanese spies in the United States, and so they opted to ban those of Japanese descent from the

general population. This was a topic of much debate in both countries at the time, and though no one was killed, it was later periodically compared to the misdeeds Hitler forced upon the Jews of Axis and conquered powers.

Oregon State University Libraries. "Quotes of or Related to Edward Teller." Oregon State. N.p., 2010. Web. 10 Dec. 2011. <http://osulibrary.oregonstate.edu/specialcollections/coll/pauling/peace/ quotes/edward_teller.html>. This page of the website had many different quotations that were either said by Edward Teller, of they were of the same era, but about him. Edward Teller, a scientist who worked on the bomb in the Manhattan Project, the top secret initiative that the country used to create the first nuclear bomb, was very outspoken for the bomb. He was one of the scientists who emigrated from Germany during Hitlers rule, and was very patriotic to the U.S. It was largely due to his scientific efforts that the atomic bomb existed at all. Teller believed that the atomic bomb was an important invention, and that further development of it in the field of science could be nothing but a service to the nation. The scientists of the Manhattan Project had been asked before the Trinity Test, which was the first time an atomic bomb was ever dropped, what they thought the government should do with the powerful atomic bomb. Eighty-seven percent of the scientists thought the bomb should be put to military use, and Teller was included in this number. Teller was a strong advocate for testing the hydrogen bomb, a weapon like the atomic bomb, but even more deadly. When the idea of it was first introduced, some people thought that the bomb should not be tested, due to the massive harm to

the environment it would bring, but Teller did not care.

Smith, P. D. Doomsday Men. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2007. Print. The book Doomsday Men has very detailed information about the cultural reaction to the atomic bomb, in the United States specifically. It covers many aspects of culture, over the period of about thirty years after 1945. This book led me to several other primary sources, including the movie "Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb." Along with this being the source of the title, this movie was likely the best known reaction to the atomic bomb in media.

Steele, Diana. Dickinson. Dickinson, Aug. 2010. Web. 3 Nov. 2011. <http://users.dickinson.edu/~history/product/averill/seniorthesis.htm>. This website goes into detail about the impact the atomic bomb had on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as well as many powerful and helpful descriptive quotes. It also includes background knowledge that helped me better understand my topic and reevaluate the affect the atomic bomb had. It outlines in detail the before and after the bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which helped paint a picture of the immense power the atomic bomb had.

Tal, David. The American Nuclear Disarment Dilemma. Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press, 2008. Print. Ever since the Soviet Union started to test the first bomb that was detonated created by the U.S.S.R. disarmament became an international issue.

This bomb was called the Tsars Bomb, and shows a part of the powerful impact the atomic bomb had on the world. The United Nations, among other places, has been a place for argument about the destroying of nuclear weapons since the bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since those bombings, many countries have pushed for the destroying of all nuclear weapons, and since then, no nuclear bomb has ever been dropped in warfare.