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Extraction and uses of metals

Metal ores Metals are usually extracted from metal ores (compounds of different elements). Metal ores come from the ground. For example, in the ground iron is always mixed with other elements. So in order to obtain the pure iron, we need to decompose the metal ore to separate iron from the other elements.

Decomposition of metal compounds

Metal Effect of heat on metal carbonate Po So No reaction. metal nitrate Metal nitrite and oxygen are formed. Ease of decompositi on Difficult to decompose

Eg: 2KNO3 2KNO2 + O2 Ca M A Z I L Copper Eg: ZnCO3 ZnO + CO2 Eg: 2Zn(NO3)2 2ZnO + 2NO2 + O2 Metal oxide and carbon dioxide are formed. Metal oxide, nitron dioxide and oxygen are formed.

Silver Gold

Metal, carbon dioxide and oxygen are formed.

Metal, nitrogen dioxide and oxygen are formed.

Eg: Eg: 2Ag2CO3 4Ag + 2CO2 + O2 2AgNO3 2Ag + 2NO2 + O2 Easy to decompose

It is difficult to extract a more reactive metal than a less reactive metal from its compounds.

Methods of extraction
The compounds of a more reactive metal are more stable and difficult to decompose. A more reactive metal are extracted from their compounds by electrolysis (passing through electricity though the molten metal ore)

The compounds of less reactive metal are less stable and can be extracted by heating the metal oxide with carbon or carbon monoxide. Metal Po So Ca M A Z I Using electrolysis through molten metal oxide Heating the metal sulphides or oxides in the air. Extraction method Using electrolysis through molten metal chloride

L Copper Silver Gold

Then reduce the oxides with carbon or carbon monoxide Heating copper(I) sulphide Obtained in pure form from the ground (Not present with other elements)

Extraction of iron
Iron is extracted from haematite (iron ore) in a blast furnace. The raw materials needed for extracting iron from haematite are:
a) Haematite (or iron ore) Iron (III) oxide mixed with sand

b) Limestone (calcium carbonate) c) Coke (Pure carbon) d) Air

The raw materials are mixed and heated in a blast furnace.

There are two reactions that take place in the blast furnace. They are: Extracting iron from iron ore Carbon reacts with oxygen to form carbon dioxide. Removing sand from iron ore Calcium carbonate decomposes into calcium oxide and carbon monoxide.

C(s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g) Carbon dioxide reacts with carbon to form carbon monoxide.

CaCO3 (s) CaO (s) + CO2 (g) Calcium reacts with sand (SiO2) in the ore to form molten calcium silicate or slag.

CO2 (g) + C (s) CO (g) Carbon monoxide reduces the iron (III) oxide or haematite to iron. CaO (s) + SiO2 (s) CaSiO3 (l)

3CO (g) + Fe2O3 (s) 2Fe (s) + 3CO2 (g)

Slag is floats on the iron and is collected at the bottom of the furnace.

Recycle materials
The supply of metals will run out one day. So, there is a need to recycle the metals. Using used metals to make new things is a way to recycle the metals.

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