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Lesson No.

1 - Prophet Muhammad (SAWW) as an Educationist


PROPHET MUHAMMAD (SAWW) AS AN EDUCATIONIST It is an admitted fact that the first revelation of Allah Almighty received in the cave of Hira by the Holy Prophet (SAWW) was "Read in the name of thy Lord who created man from a clot of blood. Read! Thy Lord is most bounteous Who taught by pen." . This shows that Allah Almighty taught Hazrat Muhammad (SAWW) the two steps for education. The first step is reading and the second is writing. But what to read is the question. The Holy Prophet (SAWW) said, "Learn the Holy Quran and teach it to the people." The Holy Prophet (SAWW) stressed upon the right kind of education. . He (SAWW) made education a religious obligation. It was made compulsory for every man and woman to learn from cradle to grave. He imposed a condition for the prisoners of the battle of Badr to teach the Muslims. He (SAWW) taught how to teach effectively. To attract the attention of the listeners, he (SAWW) himself addressed the people as, "O.ye people" and asked a question which made the people attentive. Similarly on another occasion he invited the followers and asked a question, "Oh, Ansar, didn't I find you away from the right path and then Allah blessed you through me? They replied, "Verily, the Prophet of Allah is the custodian of truth. Then he (SAWW) proceeded on and concluded with a question. "Won't you prefer that while the other' share should be camels and goats, yours should be the Prophet of Allah? How beautifully he urged them to follow him. . Another technique that he (SAWW) employed was the use of gesture explaining how Allah held heaven and earth in His grip. The Holy Prophet (SAWW) closed his fist and then opened it while his whole body swayed from one side to the other and the pulpit shook under him. In fact, it was when the Holy Prophet (SAWW) wanted to demonstrate the dreadful sight of the doomsday. . In his address of Hajja-tul-Wida the followers noticed how by degrees his speech gradually rose to climax. The pauses, rise and fall of his forceful voice, made his speech effective. He demonstrated the concept of closeness by lifting his middle finger and showing its closeness to the index finger. . He (SAWW) remained relevant and brief in his speech to save the listeners from any inconvenience. He (SAWW) had literary taste and had perfect command on the language. His talk with people was persuasive. He was a great educationist and got the followers realized. .. Words Meaning . Revelation A message of God to a prophet Stress To emphasize; to give importance to Cradle to grave From the time one is born to the last day he lives in this world Verily Truly, really Custodian Care taker; incharge Employ To use

Climax The highest point . EXERCISES Q:1 Choose the correct answer. . i) The first revelation encourages us to (a) write (b) behave (c) read and (d) live . ii) How did the Holy Prophet (SAWW) attract the attention of listeners? (a) by speaking loudly (b) by starting with a question (c) by telling a story and (d) by addressing the people . iii) How did the Holy Prophet (SAWW) persuade his followers to follow him? (a) by promising them riches (b) by promising them paradise (c) by telling them that the Prophet (SAWW) would be their's and (d) by giving them camels and goats. . iv) Another technique used by the Holy Prophet (SAWW) was: (a) demonstration (b) writing down an idea (c) gesture and (d) climax . Q:2 Tick (-/) the statements either True or False. . i) The first revelation was: "read Thy Lord is most bounteous." T ii) A teaching technique was the use of the gesture. T iii) Demonstration was one of the techniques. T iv) Extinguishing a fire means putting it out. T v) The addresses of the Holy Prophet (SAWW) were usually short. T vi) Literary taste means having literary touch. T vii) Far away from the right path means not following the traffic rules. F . Q:3 Punctuate the following: Read in the name of thy lord who created man from a clot of blood read thy lord is most bounteous who taught by pen. Ans: Punctuated Passage. "Read in the name of the Lord, Who created man from a clot of blood Read! Thy Lord is most bounteous Who taught by pen." . Q:4 Tick (-/) the correct word and write the sentences in your note book. . i) He died of a serious ________ (disease, decease) ii) I will (not, naught)________ listen to you. iii) _______ on; Let's go (Cum, come) iv) She _________ (lets, let's) her child play in the park. v) East or West __________ (whom, home) is the best. vi) _______ him up. He seems depressed today. (Cheer, Chair) vii) A reminder was sent to the Ministry _________ vide letter number XYZ. (vide, wide) viii) The landlord purchased ________ more land to expand his farming business. (more land, land) ix) He has thick _______ (hair, hare) on his head. x) Some rulers have ________ reigned for as long as half a country. (reigned, rained)

. Q:5 Answer the following questions: . i) What was the first revelation received in the cave of Hira by the Holy Prophet (SAWW)? Ans: It is an admitted fact that the first revelation of Allah Almighty received in the cave of Hira by the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAWW) was "Read in the name of the Lord who created. He created man from a clot of blood. Read! And they Lord is most bounteous Who taught by pen. . ii) What steps were taught for "education" to the Holy Prophet (SAWW) by the Almighty Allah? Ans: The Holy Prophet (SAWW) taught us two steps for education. The first step is reading and the second is writing. . iii) Which is the best book to read and teach? Ans: The Holy Quran is the best book to read and teach. . iv) What kind of condition was imposed on the prisoners of the battle of Badr? Ans: The condition imposed on the prisoners of the battle of Badr was to teach the Muslims. . v) Who is the custodian of truth mentioned in the lesson? Ans: The Holy Prophet (SAWW) is the custodian of truth. . vi) What question did the Holy Prophet (SAWW) ask before concluding his address to the people of Ansar? Ans: The Holy Prophet (SAWW) asked them, "Won't you prefer that while the others' share should be camels and goats, yours should be the Prophet of Allah? . vii) What kind of gestures had made his speech effective in his address of Hajja-tul-Wida? Ans: The pauses, rise and fall of his forceful voice, made his speech effective. He demonstrated the concept of closeness by lifting his middle finger and showing its closeness to the index finger.

Lesson No. 2 - Festivals of Pakistan


FESTIVALS OF PAKISTAN Festival is a public celebration of an event to create a sense of brotherhood, selflessness, peace and sacrifice among the people. The celebration allow the people to rejoice themselves by leaving the routines which have made their life dull and boring/ They bring the people of different areas closer to create cultural harmony among them. Some of the festivals are religious and some are held to refresh the deeds of national heroes and political events. . Shab-e-Barat, a night of blessings, is celebrated on 14th Shabaan, 8th mointh of the Islamic calendar. The Muslims illuminate their houses and Masajid. Devotional prayers are performed throughout the night to seek the blessings of Allah. . After the fasting in the month of Ramadan the Muslims celebrate Eid-ul-Fiter on 1st of Shawal. Eid prayers, mostly on open fields are performed after sunrise. After the prayers the Muslims greet each other. They spend the whole day in feasting and rejoicing. . Eid-ul-Azha is the greatest event when millions of Muslims throughout the world gather at Kaabah to bow before Allah at the time o f Hajj. Those who can't go there offer special prayers after the sunrise on 10th Zilhaj. After the prayers the Muslims greet one another and offer sacrifice of a goat, a sheep, a cow or a camel to honour the sacrifice of the Prophet Hazrat Ibrahim (AS). The meat is divided in three parts one for the family, second for the relations and third for the poor. . Eid Milad-un-Nabi is celebrated on 12th of Rabi-ul-Awwal, a birthday of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAWW). The buildings and bazaars are illuminated. Seminars are conducted to induce the devotees to follow the life of Hazrat Muhammad (SAWW). . Some festivals are celebrated to refresh the memories of great saints. These are held at the shrines o f great saints. The Mela Chiraghan is held at the shrine of Hazrat Madhu Lal Hussain. The Urses of Bab Farid, Hazrat Data Gunj Bukhsh, Imam Bari, Saachal Sar Must and Abdul Latif Bhitai are held at the shrines o f these saints. People from far off places gather at the shrines to pay homage to the great saints. . The day of the Pakistan Resolution (23rd of March 1940) and Independence Day (14th of August 1947) are the most remarkable days in the history of Pakistan. The nation as a whole celebrates these occasions every year to refresh the greatness of these events. They also give us the knowledge and information related to freedom movement of Pakistan and the sacrifices made by the leaders in getting a separate homeland for the Muslims of South Asia. . These festivals also provide the opportunities to the artisans to display their handicrafts, which depict their cultural heritage. They attract the tourists from all over the world. Lok Melas are also arranged alongwith these exhibitions to enable the people to develop a sense of brotherhood among themselves. They are necessary to keep the people united and to honour the social activities of the people of different areas. . EXERCISES Q:1 Answer the following questions: i) How would you describe the word "festival"? Ans: Festival is a programme that is usually held at regular intervals, often in one place. It is a public celebration of an event.

ii) What is the purpose o f celebrating a festival? Ans: A festival is celebrated to create a sense of brotherhood, selflessness, peace and sacrifice among the people. It allows the people to rejoice themselves. It also creates a cultural harmony among them. iii) When does Shab-e-Barat take place? What is the importance of this blessed night to the Muslims? Ans: Shab-e-Barat takes place on 15th Shaban, 8th month of the Islamic lunar calendar. It is a night of blessings. The Muslims perform devotional prayers through out the night to seek the blessing of Allah. . iv) Name the religious festivals of the Muslims are: Shab-e-Barat, Eid-ul-Fiter, Eid-il-Azha, Eid Milad-un-Nabi etc. Ans: The religious festivals of the Muslims are: Shab-e-Barat, Eid-ul-Fiter, Eid-il-Azha, Eid Miladun-Nabi etc. v) When and how are the national events celebrated in Pakistan? Ans: The day of the Pakistan Resolution is celebrated on 23rd of March and Independence Day is celebrated on 14th of August every year. The nation as a whole celebrates these occasions every year to refresh the greatness of these events. On this occasion the people are given the knowledge and information related freedom movement of Pakistan and sacrifices made by the leaders to in getting a separate homeland for the Muslims of South Asia. vi) What is the importance of Lok Mela? Ans: Lok Melas create a sense of brotherhood among people. These are necessary to keep the people united and to honour the social activities of the people of different areas. vii) What important religious event took place on 12th of Rabi-ul-Awwal? Ans: Our beloved Holy Prophet (SAWW) was born place on 12th of Rabi-ul-Awwal. Therefore it is the most important day for Muslims. viii) What is the importance of the 14th August in the history of Pakistan? Ans: The 14th of August is Independence Day for the Muslims of South Asia. They got their separate homeland, Pakistan on this day. ix) What kind of opportunities do these festivals provide to the artisans? Ans: On these festivals, the artisans display their handicrafts which depict their cultural heritage. Their hand made things attract the tourists from all over the world. x) Write an account of a religious or any other festival that you might have seen in your own village or town. Ans: A VILLAGE FAIR Every year, a fair is held in our village. It is held in the memory of a saint Baba Shah Muhammad. Arrangements for the fair are made long before the fixed day. A sort of bazaar, consisting of rows of stalls, is set up where all kinds of things are sold. On the day of the fair, crowds of villagers begin to pour in Men and Women, old and young are dressed in their best clothes. They sing songs, dance and make merry. Women ion their coloured garments and beautiful ornaments come to see the fair. In the bazaar there are shops of sweet sellers, fruit sellers,, toy sellers and many other. In the open space we see jugglers, acrobats,

snake charmers, monkey man and bear man. They all perform their tricks to earn money. Jugglers show their tricks to the spectators, snake charmers play on the pipe and show cobras to the people around them. The monkeys amuse the people by their funny tricks. There are some merry-go-rounds where children assemble to have a ride. There are wrestling bouts and Kabaddi matches. Races of animals especially camels and horses are also held in the fair. Q:2 Choose the correct answer from the following: Please note that the correct answer is shown in BLUE colour. i) The eighth lunar month is (a) Ramadan (b) Rajab (c) Shaban and (d) Safar ii) Sacrifice is offered to honour the sacrifice of (a) Hazrat Muhammad (SAWW) (b) Hazrat Ibrahim (AS) (c) Saints and (d) the people iii) Shab-e-Barat is celebrated on (a) 14th Shabaan (b) 1st Shawal (c) 10th Zilhaj and (d) 12th Rabi-ul-Awwal iv) Mela Chiraghan is held at the shrine of (a) Hazrat Data Gunj Bukhsh (b) Abdul Latif Bhitai (c) Ban Imam and (d) Madhu Lal Hussain . Q:3 Write down the following sentences in the Past Tense. i) Festival is a public celebration. Ans: Festival was a public celebration. ii) They bring the people closer. Ans: They brought the people closer. iii) They illuminate their houses. Ans: They illuminated their houses. iv) After the prayers they greet one another. Ans: After the prayers they greeted one another. v) Lok Mela are arranged to create a sense of brotherhood. Ans: Lok Mela were arranged to create a sense of brotherhood. Q:4 Tick (-/) the true sentences and cross (x) the false ones. i) Festivals are not celebrated with fervor. (x) ii) People mourn on 12th Rabi-ul-Awwal. (x) iii) Festivals create enmities. (x) iv) Festivals bring cultural harmony. (-/) Q:5 Connect the part sentence - with relevant part of sentence These sentences are connected with numbers e.g. Shab-e-barat (1) connected as a night of blessing (1) Shab-e-barat (1) on 1st of Shawaal. (3)

The Shabaan is the (2) the sacrifice of Hazrat Ibrahim (AS) (4) The Muslims celebrate Eid-ul-Fitr (3) on 10th Zilhaj. (5) Eid-ul-Azha commemorates (4) 8th month of the Islamic lunar calendar. (2) The great event of Hajj is performed (5) a night of blessings. (1) The 12th Rabi-ul-Awwal (6) on 23rd March 1940. (7) Pakistan Resolution was passed (7) is the birthday of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAWW) (6)

Lesson No. 3 - The Difference Between a Brain and a Computer


The Difference Between a Brain and a Computer (Isaac Asimov) The difference between a brain and a computer can be expressed in a single word, that is, 'complexity'. The human brain is the most complicated thing, known to us. The human brain weighs only three pounds. In these three pounds are ten billion nerve cells and a hundred billion smaller cells. The billions of these cells are interconnected in a very complicated network that cannot be understood easily. Can a computer think? That depends on what you mean by "think." If solving a mathematical problem is "thinking," then a computer can "think" and do so much faster than a man. Of course, most mathematical problems can be solved quite mechanically by repeating certain straightforward processes over and over again. Even the simple computers of today can do that. It is frequently said that computers solve problems only because they are "programmed" to do so. They can only do what men have fed in them. One must remember that human beings also can do only what they are "programmed" to do. Our "program" is very complex. We might like to define "thinking" creativity that goes into writing a play, composing a symphony", in conceiving a scientific theory, or a judgment. In that sense, computers certainly can't think. The brain is made up of cells in a certain arrangement. The cells are made up of atoms and molecules in certain arrangements. To duplicate the material complexity of the brain is therefore to duplicate everything about it. But how long will it take to built a computer complex enough to duplicate the human brain? Perhaps not as long as some think. Long before we approach a computer, we will perhaps build a computer that is, at least, complex enough to design another computer more complex than itself. This more complex computer could design one still more complex than itself. This more complex compute could design one still more complex and so forth. In other words, once we pass a certain critical point, the computers take over and there is a "complexity explosion." In a very short time thereafter, computers may exist that will not only duplicate the human brain but will perhaps surpass it. Will a time ever come when a man will have to handover the job to someone who can do it better than him. Yes! Perhaps. But we will have to wait till such a wonder takes place! Notes: Most scientists and knowledgeable observers agree that computers will change our lives more completely than the automobile, television, or any technological innovation has done so far. How far can computers go? Science writer Isaac Asimov compares the computer with the human brain. His conclusions may frighten you. They're sure to make you stop and think. But computers definitely are going to create havoc, somewhere, sooner or later! Let's wait and see! Words

Meaning Complicated Difficult to understand Device A thing made for a particular purposes Compose Write with great care Complexity State of being complex Duplicate Make an exact copy Conceive Form an idea in the mind Symphony Long complex musical composition EXERCISES Q:1 Choose the most appropriate (the best) answer. (Correct answer in BLUE) i) The human brain weighs (a) two pounds (b) three pounds (3) four pounds and (4) five pounds ii) How many nerve cells are in human brain? (a) ten billion (b) eleven billion (c) twelve billion and (4) thirteen billion iii) The cells of human brain are (a) separate (b) disconnected (c) interconnected and (d) different iv) The computer can solve a mathematical problem (a) slower than a man (b) in no time (c) in a long period and (d) faster than a brain v) The computers are programmed to (a) solve the mathematical problems (b) think to create (c) plan and (d) forecast Q:2 Put a tick (-/) on the correct.

i) Computers can/cannot think for us. (-/) ii) Computers can/cannot dream for us. (-/) iii) Computers can do (-/)/can't do what men have given them. iv) Computer is / is not the equivalent of human brain. (-/) vi) The human brain is (-/) / is not the most complicated thing. Q:3 Answer the following questions. i) In what single word can difference between a brain and a computer be expressed? Ans: The difference between a brain and a computer can be expressed in a single word, 'complexity'. ii) How much does the human brain weigh? Ans: The human brain weighs only three pounds. iii) How long will it take to built a computer complex enough to duplicate the human brain? Ans: Perhaps it will not take as long as some think to build a computer complex enough to duplicate the human brain. iv) Can computers think? Explain your answer. Ans: There are three definitions about thinking. According to the first definition 'thinking' means to solve a problem. According to the second definition 'thinking' means to follow a programme. According to the third definition 'thinking' means creativity like writing a play, composing a symphony, in conceiving a scientific theory, or a judgment. In the first sense, a computer can think. In the second sense, a computer can also think because it also follows a programme or programmes. In the third sense, a computer certainly can't think. v) Do you think computers have the capacity to take over the world? Why or why not? Ans: At present, computers do not have the capacity to take over the world because they can not think like men. Q:4 Read the lesson carefully. Fill in the blanks with suitable words given below. Cells three, thinking, think, ten, complexity, fed, programmed i) The difference between a brain and a computer can be expressed in one word complexity. ii) The human brain weighs three pounds. iii) There are ten billion nerve cells in the human brain. iv) Can a computer think? v) Computers solve problems only because they are programmed. vi) Computers can do only what men have fed in them. vii) The creativity that goes into writing a great play or composing a symphony is defined as thinking. viii) The brain is made up of cells. Q:5 Connect part of the sentence in column I with relevant part of the sentence in column II. Column I --------------------------------------- Column II Complexity (1) -------------------------------- A mathematical problem (2) A computer can solve (2) --------------------The difference between a brain and a computer. (1)

Computers solve problems (3) ------------ That goes into writing a play or composing a symphony. (4) Thinking is creativity (4) ------------------- Because they are programmed to do so (3) The brain is made up of cells (5) ---------- In a certain arrangement. (5) Q:6 Use the following words in sentences of your own. Size What is the size of a computer? Complicated A computer can solve complicated problems. Device A keyboard and a mouse are input devices. Program Do you know how to install a program in computer? Compose He composed a message on computer and sent it to his friend.

Lesson No. 4 - Blessings of GOD

Blessings of God
(Cecil Alexander) All things bright and beautiful. All creatures great and small, All things wise and wonderful, The Great God made them all, Each little flower that opens, Each little bird that sings, He made their glowing colours, He mad ether tiny wings, The purpose headed mountain, The river running by, The sunset and the morning, That brightens up the sky, The cold wind in the winter, The pleasant summer sun, The ripe fruit in the garden, He made them every one, The tall trees in the greenwood, The meadows where we play, The rushes by the water, We gather every day, He gave us eyes to see them, And lips that we might tell, How great is God Almighty, Who has made all things well. CENTRAL IDEA In this poem the poet has described and mentioned all those things with which God has blessed us. He made beautiful flowers, singing birds, mountains, sunrise and sunset and soon to make us conscious of God's blessings. He wants us to praise Him and thank Him for it. SUMMARY In this poem the poet Cecil Alexander wants to make us realize the existence and presence of God Almighty. He does so by describing the beautiful objects of nature with which he has blessed us. The poet mentions beautiful and bright things like flowers, birds, mountains, rivers, sunrise and sunset, trees and green meadows. He says that God has made all these beautiful things for the benefit of man. They are His blessings on us. He has also given us tongue to praise His glory and thank him for his benevolence. WORDS ---------- MEANING Glowing ---------------Shining ------Purple headed mountain --------------Mountain with a reddish peak. Meadows -------------------------Grassy grounds, pastures Rushes -------------Grassy plants

Almighty ---------All powerful Notes: The poet describes beautiful objects of Nature around us to make us conscious of God's blessings. The beautiful flowers, the singing birds, mountains, the sunset and tall trees move us to praise God and be grateful to Him for His gifts. I. Comprehension 1. What are the objects of Nature which remind us of the glory and greatness of God. Ans: The objects of Nature which remind us of the Glory and Greatness of God are, the blooming flowers, singing birds, the mountains, rivers, the sunrise and the sunset and green meadows. 2. Write a summary of the poem. . SUMMARY In this poem the poet Cecil Alexander wants to make us realize the existence and presence of God Almighty. He does so by describing the beautiful objects of nature with which he has blessed us. The poet mentions beautiful and bright things like flowers, birds, mountains, rivers, sunrise and sunset, trees and green meadows. He says that God has made all these beautiful things for the benefit of man. They are His blessings on us. He has also given us tongue to praise His glory and thank him for his benevolence. 3. Prepare a list of the rhyming words in the poem (Example: small, all) Answer Beautiful, Wonderful, - Small, All, - Sings, Wings, - By, Sky, - Sun, Once, - Play, Day, - Tell, Well II. Vowels and consonants: English has 26 letters of alphabet. These letters are divided, according to sound into: (a) Vowels: a, e, I, o, u (b) Consonants: All letters from b to z excluding the vowels above. When we produce a vowel sound, our breath flows out of our mouth freely, without any stop, fiction or obstruction. But when we produce a consonant sound, say 'b', 'p', 'm', our lips meet to stop our breath. In the case of the vowel sound 'u', you will note that it sounds more like 'y' in the word 'you' which is a consonant sound. It will sound as a vowel if we say 'oo' like in 'fool', 'put', 'book'. This is very important. You must remember this point. III Syllables: When we say a word by just one sound of the voice, such a word is said to be of 'one syllable'. Thus words like 'fish', 'hand', 'friend', 'school', 'show', are one syllable words. It is the sound and not spelling that is important. All the following are one syllable words: Book, each, night, rule, plough, loud, bright Words that need two sounds from the voice are called two syllable words. Here are some: But-ter (butter) kind-ness (kindness) Dra-ma (drama) stu-dent (student) If there are three voice sounds in a word, we say it is a three syllable word, e.g.,

But-ter-cup, beau-ti-ful, lib-ra-ry, ma-na-ger This division of a word in syllables is very important in learning the correct pronunciation of a word. Take, for example, the word ;present'. It is a two-=syllable word: pre-sent. Now if we say the first part louder than the second: PREsent, the word will mean 'gift' (noun) or the opposite of absent (adjective). If we say the second part louder as PreSENT, it means to offer (verb). This in English is known as 'stress'. There are many two syllable words which have a different meaning if their first syllable is stressed and quite different if the second syllable carries the stress, e.g., CONtract (noun) : an agreement conTRACT (verb) : opposite of expand OBject (noun) : thing that can be seen or touched obJECT (verb) : to say that one does not agree to something Stress is important for correct pronunciation of words also. The word 'library' is a three syllable word, we stress the first syllable for correct pronunciation. The word id LIBrary. So is the word MANager. All good dictionaries indicate the headwords in bold letters divided in syllables. They also show the primary and other stress for the correct pronunciation of words. Try to understand them. Write the following words in columns showing how many syllables they have: Example: One syllable ------- Free Two syllables ----- English Three syllables. -- Following School, Blackboard, Teacher, Chalk, Tuck shop, Bicycle, Transport, Policeman, Doctor, Urdu, Cricket, Election, Difficult, Leader, Important, Primary, Understand, Sofa, Patient, Medicine, Injection, Plough, Rough, Thought. One syllable School, Chalk, Sofa, Plough, Rough, Thought, Leader Two syllable Blackboard, Teacher, Tuck shop, Bicycle, Transport, Policeman, Doctor Urdu, Cricket, Election, Difficult, Primary, Patient Three syllable Important, Understand, Medicine, Injection

Lesson No. 5 - Hazrat Ayesha (RA)


Hazrat Ayesha (RA) Hazrat Ayesha (RA) was the beloved daughter of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA). She was born ion Makkah. Her parents brought her up in conformity with the true spirit of Islam. She was very young when she got married to the Holy Prophet (SAWW). She proved herself to be extremely faithful, intelligent and a loving wife. Hazrat Ayesha (RA) was blessed with an amazing memory. She listened to the lectures given by the Holy Prophet (SAWW) to the delegates and other people most attentively. Sometimes she asked the opinion of her husband (SAWW) on delicate matters relating to Islam. This secured her position as the most authentic reporter and scholar of the tradition of him (SAWW). Hazrat Ayesha (RA) remained with Holy Prophet (SAWW) for ten years. After the death of the Holy Prophet (SAWW), his faithful companion Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) became the first Khalifah of Muslims. Hazrat Ayesha (RA) continued to enjoy the most eminent position of "UmmulMomeneen". She (RA) was universally recognized as the most important woman in the Muslim world. Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) did not live long and died two and a half years after the death of the Holy Prophet (SAWW). During the reign of Hazrat Umer Farooq (RA), the second Khalifah, Islam spread rapidy. Hazrat Ayesha (RA)'s wise counsels were sought and respected on all major issues. She (RA) was witness to all the changes through which Islam passed during the thirty years of the peious Khilafat. She (RA) died in 678 AD during the reign of Amir Muawiya. She was distinguished for her virtues piety learning, wisdom, simplicity, generosity and the care with which she safeguarded and faithfully reported the religious sermons of the Holy Prophet (SAWW). She bravely criticized the thing that she thought against Islam. Her simplicity and modesty serve as a guiding light to all the Muslim ladies of the world. There were hardly three successive days during the life time of her husband (SAWW), when Hazrat Ayesha (RA) had a full meal. The night when the Holy Prophet (SAWW) breathed his last she had no light to lighten her lamp, nor anything to eat. Hazrat Ayesha (RA) seldom kept the money and gifts she received. She promptly distributed them among the needy. Once during the month of Ramadan when Hazrat Abdullah Ibne Zubair presented her a purse of one lakh dirham she distributed them before breaking her fast. Hazrat Ayesha (RA) had a splendid quality of oration. Her services to promote the knowledge and Islamic Jurisprudence have few parallels in the Islamic history. Whenever a difficult problem came up the matter was ultimately referred to her and her word was considered final. She is regarded as the greatest genius of early Islam. The great lady of Islam breathed her last on 17 Ramadan 58 A.H. Her death cast a gloom over Madina and the entire Islamic World. Words Meaning Beloved Greatly loved

Faithful Trustful Amazing Wonderful Secure Safe Authentic Genuine Succeed Follow Safeguard Protect Piety Piousness Oration Speech Splendid Very impressive Jurisprudence The philosophy of human law Genius Intellect EXERCISES Q:1 Put a tick (-/) if the statement is correct and a cross (x) if it is not correct. i) Hazrat Ayesha (RA) was born in Madina. (x) ii) She (RA) was the daughter of the First Khalifah of Islam, Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA). (-/) iii) Hazrat Ayesha (RA) is known as the most authentic reporter of traditions of the Holy Prophet (SAWW). (-/) iv) She (RA) lived in a grand palace. (x) v) Hazrat Ayesha (RA) was a well known orator. (-/) vi) She (RA) lived a life of simplicity and piety. (x) vii) She (RA) died during the reign of Hazrat Ali (RA). (x)

Q:2 Tick (-/) the right anser. i) Hazrat Ayesha (RA) was the dauther of (a) Hazrat Umer (RA) (b) Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (-/)(RA) and (c)Hazrat Usman (RA) ii) Hazrat Ayesha (RA) remained with the Holy Prophet (SAWW) for (a) ten years(-/) (b) nine years and (c) seven years. iii) Hazrat Ayesha (RA) had a splendid quality of (a) writing (b) oration(-/) and (c) painting iv) She (RA) was born in (a) Madina (b) Makkah(-/) and (c) Taif v) Hazrat Ayesha (RA) is regarded as one of the greatest (a) genius of early Islam(-/) (b) writers of early Islam and (c) poetess of early Islam Q:3 Fill in the blanks i) Hazrat Ayesha (RA) was the beloved daughter of Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) ii) She (RA) was born in Makkah. iii) She had an amazing memory. iv) Hazrat Ayesha (RA) remained with the Holy Prophet (SAWW) for ten years. v) Hazrat Umer Farooq (RA) was the second Khalifah of Islam. vi) She (RA) was the most authentic reporter of the traditions of the Holy Prophet (SAWW). vii) Hazrat Ayesha (RA) died in 58 A.D. Q:4 Answer the following questions. i) Who was Hazrat Ayesha (RA)'s father? Ans: Hazrat Abu Bakr Siddique (RA) was Hazrat Ayesha (RA)'s father. ii) Where was she (RA) born? Ans: She (RA) was born in Makkah.

Lesson No. 6 - Transport


TRANSPORT . People of earlier times prepared bullocks, cart and went on a long, slow journey on bad, rough roads. Bullock carts were common means of transport. Now we only have to buy a ticket for road, railway or air journey and are taken to our destination in hours instead of days. Modern transport is time saving and helps to promote both social and national unity by keeping people in contact with each other. Transport is a mode of conveyance. It carries people or material from one place to another. People use transport for trade, business or when going on a tour. They visit their relatives, friends and offices, transport has made the life of man mobile, fast and efficient. Nobody can deny the importance of it. The travel from one place to another is not a problem in the modern age. A man can go miles away in the morning and after doing the job in the day can come back home in the evening. In the past people mostly walked to other places, they used to ride on animals. Sometimes they even used carts and carriages driven by bullocks and horses. It was a slow speed transport and was used only at the time of absolute necessity. With the invention of internal combustion engine, transport was revolutionized. It became fast and easily available. There are three types of transport. One is road transport including the railway. Second is the water transport and third the air transport. Railway became the popular mode of travel in the mid of the 20th century. It carries thousands of people and hundred and thousand ton freight with speed and ease. But with the development of modern net work or road the load has shifted mainly to the road transport. Now motor vehicles are carrying the larger proportion of freight than that of railway. . Bus is a widely used form of public transport in the country inter city transport has made the mobility of the people faster and easier. The working class use bus for transportation for their jobs. Many people now maintain their own vehicles i.e. cars, motorcycles and vans. Auto rickshaws are also available in urban areas. The people hire them to reach the place of job. The water transport consists of boats, ships and tankers. In the first half of the 20th century people mostly went abroad by ships. But road transport and air transport have provided better, luxurious and fastest mode of travel for the public. Ships are now used to carry the freight and the oil tankers. Inter-continent travel has made air transport popular. It has helped the people to come closer to share their socio cultural heritage. It has made the movement from one part of the world to another easier and desirable. It fulfills the individual, national and international obligations. Transport is now considered important for the economic life of a country. Hundreds and thousands of people travel daily from one place to another to boost up their economic activity and enhance their income or to get education. They can also visit the far off healthy resorts. It provides aid and relief goods to the calamity stricken people in a short time. So transport is a companion of good and bad time. Word Meaning Mobile Moving Efficient Performing duties well

Freight Cargo, burden . EXERCISES Q:1 Choose the correct answer. . Transport is a mode of travel (b) conveyance (c) truck (d) bus . People use transport to (a) replace the bullock cart (b) work from morning to dawn (c) carry their material from one place to another (d) attack the enemy . In the past people used animals to pull their (a) cars (b) carts (c) huts (d) bags . Modern transport is (a) time saving (b) time killing (c) time consuming and (d) time bar . Transport has shortened (a) difference (b) distance (c) deference (d) preference . Q:2 Write true (T) or false (F) against each statement. . Transport has made life difficult. (F) . It provides a wider choice of moving from one place to another. (T) . There are may types of transport. (T) . Railways carry the larger portion of freight inland. (F) . Bus is not used for transport. (F) . Q:3 Write short answers. . Why do the people move around in the country? Ans: People move around in the country for trade, business, to get education or when going on a tour. They visit their relatives, friends and offices. . What is the importance of transport in the country? Ans: Transport promotes social and national unity by keeping people in contact with each other. It fulfills the individual, national and international obligation. It is very important for the economic life of a country. . What is auto traffic? Ans: The word 'auto' means 'automobile' like car, bus, van, motorcycle etc. The word 'traffic' means the 'movement of vehicles along the roads in a particular area'. Therefore, 'auto traffic' means 'the movement of modern transport along the road'. . Q:4 Fill in the blanks. .

Transport is a mode of conveyance. It carries people from one place to another. Transport has made life mobile, fast and efficient. In the past people used to ride on animals. Bullock cart is a slow speed transport. The travel from one place to another is not a problem now. There are three types of transport. Water transport consists of boats, ships and tankers. . Q:5 Punctuate the following lines. It provides aid and relief goods to the calamity stricken people in a short time so transport is a companion of good and bad time. Ans: It provides aid and relief goods to the calamity stricken people in a short time. So transport is a companion of good and bad time. Q:6 Use the proper form of the verb given in the bracket. In the past people mostly (walk) to other placed. Ans: In the past people mostly walked to other places. They (use) carts driven by bullocks. Ans: They used carts driven by bullocks. Railway (become) the popular mode of travel. Ans: Railway has became the popular mode of travel. . It (provide) aid and relief goods. Ans: It (provides) aid and relief goods. Q:7 Use the following words in sentences of your own. Conveyance, efficient, invention, environment, development Conveyance I have no conveyance to come to school. . Efficient He is an efficient teacher. Invention Modern inventions have brought revolution in every field of life. Environment It is our responsibility to keep our environment clean. Development People should work hard for development of their country. Q:8 Adverbs can be formed by adding 'ly' to many adjective e.g. Certain + ly = certainly

Write five more adverbs. Ans: happily, swiftly, quickly, efficiently, nicely Q:9 Ask your class fellows five questions about railways. When did railways become the popular mode of travel? Ans: Railways became the popular mode of travel in the mid of the 20th century. What does Railways carry? Ans: It carries and freight. Have you ever travelled by a train? Ans: Yes, I have traveled by a train many times. What is your opinion about journey by a train? Ans: The journey by a train is very comfortable and fast these days. Q:10 Match the opposites. . Central (1) Weakness (5) Modern (2) Rural (4) Cheap (3) Remote (1) Urban (4) Expensive (3) Strength (5) Old (2)

Lesson No. 7 - Human Rights And Madina Charter


HUMAN RIGHTS AND MADINA CHARTER Masjid-e- Nabwi was the meeting place of the Muslims and also the headquarters of the administration. Madina was not an all Muslim town. There were the Jews, too. To create a harmony and mutual cooperation, a just and fair treaty was signed by the two parties, Jews and Muslims. Some of the important clauses of this treaty are: i) Muslims and Jews, the parties of this agreement, shall form one community. ii) The Jews who sign this pact shall be entitled to assistance by the Muslims, if needed and shall enjoy the same rights as the Muslims. iii) Muslims shall join hands with the Jews to fight anyone who rebels or promotes enmity. iv) The Jews shall keep to their own faith and the Muslims to theirs. v) If a common enemy attacks Madina, joint resistance by the Jews and the Muslims shall be put up against the enemy. vi) All disputes shall be referred for decision to God and the Holy Prophet (SAWW). This lslamic Charter goes far beyond granting equal rights to the minority. It not only granted them protection but also ensured complete liberty in observing their religious rites. They were to the equal partners in peace and war and enjoyed all human rights. On August 11, 1947 the address of Quaid-e-Azam to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan also reflected the spirit of the Madina Charter. He declared the granting of equal rights to the communities without any discrimination of caste, colour or religion. The incorporation of the clauses of Madina Charter the Charter in the Charter of the Human Rights of United Nation shows that lslam is the greatest protector of Human Rights. Words Meaning . Treaty An agreement Declare Announce Incorporation United in one group Create Make something new or original Harmony Agreement of opinion and feelings Mutual Shared Just In accordance with what is right Fair Not showing favour to any person Clause Component of a substance or subject Pact Agreement Entitle

Give a right to Rebel Protest strongly Enmity Feelings of hatred or hostility Resistance To oppose Dispute Controversy, argument Decision Decide an act accordingly Refer Turn to/go to for information Ensure Make sure Observe Watch carefully Rite Religious ceremony Reflect Consider / think on Discrimination Ability to treat differently Caste Belonging to a social class/rank . EXERCISES Q:1 Read the lesson and fill in the missing words to complete the sentences. Missing words are in red and bold i) Masjid-e-Nabwi was the meeting place of the Muslims and the headquarters of the administration. ii) The treaty was signed by the Jews and Muslims. iii) The treaty was meant to create harmony and mutual co-operation. iv) The Islamic Charter goes far beyond granting equal rights. v) Quaid-e-Azam delivered his address to the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan August 11, 1947. Q:2 Look up the meaning o f these words in a dictionary. Words Meanings (in Urdu language) . Administration - Intezamia At par with - Musavi/barabar Harmony - Mutabqat Ensure - Yaqeen delana Mutual cooperation - Bahme Ta awan Discrimination - Imtiaz/farq Treaty - Muaaida/mesaq Incorporation - Shamuliat Stress - Zor day na

Resistance - Muzahemat Clause - Shiq Against - Khilaf Establish - Qaim karma Dispute - Jhagra Rites - Mazhabi rasumaat Demonstration - Amle muzahera Observance - Paobandi/lahaz Reflected - Zahir kia Declared - laan Caste - Zaat Q:3 Choose the most appropriate (the best) answer. i) The Holy Prophet (SAWW) was forced to migrate to Madina means. (a) He was asked to shift (b) He was willing to shift (c) He was compelled to shift and (d) He was unwilling to shift ii) Jews of Madina were treated by the Muslims. (a) as outsiders (b) as enemies (c) as equals and (d) as inferiors iii) two main points of the Madina Charter are (a) respect and honour (b) promise and hope (c) equality and fraternity and (d) financial support and help. iv) The main idea of Quaid-e-Azam's address was (a) "Develop Pakistan" (b) "Equal rights for all" (c) "Muslims have more rights" and (d) "Minorities shall not be given preference" v) If an enemy attacks Madina (a) Jews will not be permitted to fight (b) Jews and Muslims shall fight together (c) Muslims will only defend Muslims and (d) Jews will only fight for the Jews. Q:4 Tick (-/) the statements as True or False. i) Masjid-e-Nabvi was the meeting place of the Muslims. (T) ii) Madina was an all Muslim Town. (T) iii) The Treaty was signed by the Jews only. (T) iv) Minorities in Pakistan have to be treated differently. (F) v) 'Fraternity' means freedom. (T) vi) The treaty of Madina demonstrates practical application of the principles of Islam. (T) Q:5 Fill in the blanks with correct prepositions, selecting from these given below. (to, in, into, with, for, by) i) The Holy Prophet (SAWW) was forced to migrate to Madina. ii) This was demonstrated by the treaty. iii) The cases shall be referred for decision to the Holy Prophet (SAWW). iv) Let us begin to work for that spirit. v) The Jews were admitted by the Muslim society as equal partners. Q:6 Use the correct form of the verbs. i) An agreement was (write) down. Ans: An agreement was written down.

ii) The Treaty granted protection and (ensure) equality. Ans: The Treaty granted protection and ensured equality. iii) He has (did) his job to the satisfaction of his superiors. Ans: He has done his job to the satisfaction of his superiors. iv) The agreement (be) between the Muslims and Jews. Ans: The agreement will be between the Muslims and Jews. Q:7 Use the following words in sentences of your own. Enmity He is trying to resolve old enmity. Justice Justice keeps peace and order in a society. Discrimination No discrimination is made between Muslims and non Muslims in an Islamic society. Rights We should be conscious of our rights. Dispute There is no dispute between us. Stress Islam stresses that all are equal in the eyes of God. Prejudice There is no prejudice in Islam. Progress Justice and equality bring peace and progress in a country. Q:8 Answer the following questions. i) How should the enemies be treated according to the Holy Quran? Ans: Islam teaches us to treat our enemies without discrimination. It advises us to treat our enemies humanly and politely as far as it is possible. ii) Mention any two clauses of the Treaty of Madina. Ans: (a) Muslims and Jews the parties of this agreement, shall from one community. (b) The Jews who sign this pact shall be entitled to assistance by the Muslims, if needed and shall enjoy the same rights as the Muslims. iii) What is meant by 'mutual co-operation'? Ans: The act of working together to achieve a common aim is called co-operation. Therefore, the mutual co-operation means to co-operate with one another to get a common aim. Q:9 Punctuate the following. madina was not an all muslim town there were jews too to create a harmony and mutual cooperation a just and fair treaty was sighed by the two parties Jews and Muslims. Ans: Madina was not an all Muslim town. There were the Jews, too. To create a harmony and mutual cooperation, just and fair treaty was signed by the two parties, Jews and Muslims.

Lesson No. 8 - A Nation's Strength

A NATION'S STRENGTH
( Ralph Waldo Strenght (1803- 1882) Not gold, but only men can make, A people great and strong. Men who, for truth and honour's sake. Stand fast and suffer long. Brave men who work while others sleep, Who dare while others fly, They build a nation's pillars deep, And lift them to the sky. Words Meaning Honour Self-respect Stand fast Stand firmly Fly Run in fear Dare Show courage Pillars Foundations EXERCISES Q:1 Answer the following questions. i) Give in your own words the main idea of the poem. Ans: This poem is written by T.W. Emerson. The poet says that it is men not wealth that makes a nation great and strong. Wealth does not make a nation great and powerful. The brave people fight for the cause of honour and truth. They remain firm and face all problems manfully. They make the foundations of their nation very strong. They raise its pillars very high. Their courage and noble deeds glorify their nation. A nation cannot be great without brave men. ii) Write a paragraph on "Charter of a brave man." Use these objectives to describe the character: brave, truthful, honourable, hardworking, strong, great. Ans: I have come across many people in my life, but the character which has impressed me the most is that of Mr. Khan. He is a brave man. He is truthful and steadfast. He is ready to suffer for the cause of honour and truth. He is strong in his beliefs and honourable in his actions. He is really a great man. Q:2 Write down the rhyming words used in the poem. Example: make, sake. Strong - long, sleep-deep, fly-sky Q:3 Add two more rhyming words in each line. i) gold - old, bold ii) stand -, band, rand iii) dare - fare, fair

Q:4 Write down the nouns and verbs used in the poem. Ans: Noun: Gold, men, people, truth, honour, nations, pillars, sky Verbs: Make, stand, suffer, work, sleep, dare, fly, build, lift .

Lesson No. 9 - A Father's Advise

A Father's Advise
( A Letter) Al Maskan, Ajaf Road , Lahore Jan 16, 1994. My dear son, Let me tell you that you are a part of my body and soul. Whenever I look at you I feel I am looking at my self. Therefore I am committing some pieces of advice to paper and sending them to you since there may be a time in the near future when I will no longer remain with you, for whoever lives must die. My first and foremost advice to you, my son, is to fear Allah. Be His obedient servant. Carefully guard the rope which connects you with Him for no other connection can be stronger and more durable than this to command greater respect. He who is the Mater of death is death is also the Master of life. My dear son, so far as your behaviour with other human beings is concerned, let your "self" act as a scale to help you judge its goodness or wickedness. Do unto others as you wish others to do unto you. Whatever you like for yourself, like it for others. Whatever you dislike for yourself, spare others from it. Do not oppress and tyrannise anybody as you as surely do not wish to the oppressed or tyrannised. Be kind and sympathetic to others as you surely want others to treat you kindly and sympathetically. Whatever habits you find hateful in others, abstain from developing those habits. Do not speak about others in the way you do not like others to speak about you. Remember son, that vanity and conceit will bring you serious harm and will be a constant source of danger to you. Therefore, lead a well-balanced life. Neither be conceited nor suffer from inferiority complex and exert yourself to earn an honest living whenever you achieve the thing you desire, do not feel proud but be humble and bow to Him and realize that your success was due to His mercy and favour. You must also know that you cannot have every wish of yours granted. You cannot expect to escape death nor the Day of Judgement ; and you are passing yours days of life as others have done before you. Therefore control your desires; cravings and expectations. Be moderate in your demands, earn your livelihood through honest means and be contented with it. Go slow and do not let your desires which will lead you towards disappointment and loss. Remember, he who controls his desires has self-respect. He does not beg or pray for things and will not always remain unlucky or disappointed. So do not brings down yourself-respect; do not be mean and submissive. Nothing in this world can compensate for the loss of self-respect, nobleness of mind and honour. Wages earned through hard but respectable and honourable labour are better than the wealth which you may gather through sin and wickedness, and poverty is better than the disgrace and humiliation of begging . Finally, my son, do not make yourself a slave of any body. Allah has created you a free man. Do not sell freedom at any cost or in return for anything. If you can succeed in having no body as your benefactor but Allah, then He will grant you your share. Know it there are two kinds of livelihood;

one which you are searching for and the other which is in search of you. It will reach you even if you do not try to obtain it. I would like to end by saying, do not be like persons on whom advise has no effect and they require punishment to correct them. A sensible and reasonable acquires education and culture through advise, whereas brutes and beasts always accept correction through punishment. With this I entrust you unto Allah and His protection in both this world and the next one. Allah Hafiz. Your affectionate father, Ibne- Adam Words Meanings . Durable like to last for a long time Oppress rule cruelly Abstain hold oneself back; refrain Tyrannise rule cruelly and unjustly Conceit too much pride in oneself Contended satisfied Moderate having reasonably limits Entrust trust somebody to complete/ safeguard something EXERCISES Q:1 Use any five of the words below in sentences of your own. Durable Nothing of this world is durable. Oppress Do not oppress others. Abstain Abstain from back biting. Vanity Allah does not like vanity and conceit. Conceit The word conceit means a high opinion of your own qualities or abilities, especially one that is not justified. Exert Foreign T.V. channels exerting upon people badly. Moderate Islam teaches us to lead a moderate life. Contended

A contended person has the real peace of mind. Entrust I entrust you unto Allah. Q:2 Punctuate the following passage: there are two ways of leading a life one is the way of allah and the prophets the other the way of satan the way of allah is to be honest virtuous pious and sympathetic towards mankind and all living creatures the other way is that of a dishonourable schemer who would not hesitate to follow any evil to gain his selfish ends. Ans: There are two ways of leading a life. One is the way of Allah and the Prophets, the other way of Satan. The way of Allah is to be honest, virtuous, pious and sympathetic towards mankind and all living creatures. The other way is that of a dishonourable schemer who would not hesitate to follow any evil to gain his selfish ends. Q:3 Pronunciation and spelling: The sound of (er) is like a long (r). It is often spelled er. Better - international - longer Other - poorer - greater Rather - person - danger Water - wonderful Easier - serve Center - never Modern - stronger Sometimes the spelling for (er) is or. Visitor - Investor - doctor Creator - benefactor In certain one syllable words the sound is ear or ar. Early - learn - earn Yearn Q:4 Comprehension: i) Give the qualities of Allah as done by the writer of the letter. Ans: Allah is the best companion. He is the Master of Life and Master of Death. He is the creator of everything. He is the Greatest Benefactor. He is the Best Protector. ii) "Do unto others as you wish others to do unto you". What should one do and what should one not do according to the advice give in the letter? Ans: According to this statement one should do good to others. One should be kind and sympathetic to others. One should not oppress and tyrannize others. One should not speak ill of others. iii) What is required by a person who wishes to lead "a well balanced life"? Ans: A person who wishes to lead a well balanced life should control his desires. He should be contented with his honest earning. He should neither be proud nor suffer from inferiority complex. He should have faith in God.

iv) What does a man lose when he tries to attain his heart's desire? Ans: A man loses his self respect and honour in an effort to attain his heart's desires. v) What is the respectful way of earning a livelihood? Ans: the respectable way of earning a livelihood is through honest means. vi) What kind of advice has been given by the father to the son? Ans: The father has given the son advice as to how to live a balanced life full of contentment. Q:5 Match with the opposites as shown in example: Durable (1) Excessive (5) Loathsome (2) Noble (4) Vile (3) Temporary (1) Base (4) Worthy (3) Moderate (5) Lovable (2) Q:6 Match with the word having the same meaning as shown in example. Durable (1) Dishonour (5) Humiliation (2) Disgrace (2) Cravings (3) Longings (3) Abstain (4) Avoid (4) Scandal (5) Lasting (1) Q:7 Make adverbs from the following words. e.g. humble - humbly careful - carefully free - freely slow - slowly honest - honestly kind - Kindly serious - seriously . Q:8 Use the following idiomatic phrases in sentences of your own: a) go slow : move or act carefully. Ans: You will succeed in your aim if you go slow. b) drive one madly : make one act without carefully thinking. Ans: Your desires may drive you madly. c) bring down : lower / destroy. Ans: Government is trying to bring down prices. d) gather around : close by us, around us. Ans: A lot of people gathered around the juggler. e) sell one's freedom : give up your right for money or gifts or position. Ans: Most people sell their freedom to obtain undue benefits.

Q:9 Write a letter to your father thanking him for teaching you so many good things and values of life. (Take help from the letter you have just studied). Show how your good habits have helped you in life and how you have been able to gain respect among friends. Ans: P653, Tariq Abad, Faisalabad city, 26th May 2009 My dear Father, Thank you very much for the letter in which you gave me some pieces of advice a successful and respectable life. You have advised me to remain obedient to Allah; kind to His creatures, abstain from bad habits; speak kindly to others; avoid being proud and conceited; control my desires and demands; to earn an honest living and to safeguard my self respect and freedom. I think, it is the best advice a father could give to his son. You will be glad to know that I have started acting upon your advice with commitment. It has brought a change in my life. It has given me peace of mind and helped me in gaining respect of my friends. Thanking you once again. With respect to mother. Your loving son, Ali Akbar Anjum Q:10 Creative writing What are the duties of parents and teachers towards their children and students? Write in 100 to 150 words. Ans: The duties of parents and teachers towards their children and students are manifold: (a) the parents should provide them with necessities of life. They should keep an eye on their behaviour. They should advise them how to lead a better life. They should arrange for their education. (b) The teacher should not only give them worldly knowledge but also guide them in religious and moral affairs. They should guide the students how to prepare for the life after death. (C) The parents and teachers should advise them to say their prayers regularly. They should give them Quranic education so that they succeed in this world and on the Day of Judgement.

Lesson No. 10 - Hazrat Ali's (R.A) Humanism

HAZRAT ALI'S (R.A) HUMANISM


Hazrat Ali (R.A) was noble, kind hearted and a man of righteousness. He was a man of brave, humble and forgiving spirit. Gentle in behaviour of and affectionate in conduct he set the noblest example of character to the world. Even during his Khilafat he remained simple in living and courteous with the poor. In his early childhood he was blessed by the care of his cousin, the Holy Prophet Hazrat Muhammad (SAWW). To him his cousin was like a guiding star. He followed his actions and deeds and high values of morality. By mind and character he excelled the others and attained a very high place in society. He (R.A.) was married to Hazrat Fatima (R.A.) the daughter of the Holy Prophet (SAWW) . It was a very happy marriage and they led a contented life. They found their only luxury in prayers. They did their best to share the sorrows and sufferings of the poor. They felt pride in serving the humanity. In the battle of Ohad, Hazrat Ali (R.A.) came across his worst enemy, Talha. In hand to hand encounter, Talka was injured and fell down . Hazrat Ali (R.A.)left him like that and walked away. A friend advise Hazrat Ali (R.A.) to finish him. But Hazrat Ali (R.A.) refused to do so and said, "I cannot strike a man who is not in a position to defend himself . If he survives he is welcome to live as long as his life lasts." In another battle his slave brought some sweet syrup saying , "My lord, the sun is very hot and you have been constantly fighting, have a glass of this cold drink to refresh yourself." He (R.A.) looked around and replied, "Shall I refresh myself when hundreds of people around me are lying wounded and dying of thirst? Better give this cold drink to each of these wounded persons." The slave said, "My lord they are all our enemies." Hazrat Ali (R.A.) replied, "They may be, but they are all human beings. Go and attend to them." On another occasion Hazart Ali (R.A.) allowed his enemies to take water from the river. When his officers objected to it, he (R.A.) said, They are human beings first and enemies later. I cannot think of refusing a man food and drink because he is my enemy. I fight for truth and justice and not for my personal motives. Throughout his life he availed every opportunity to serve the human beings without any prejudice. Words Meaning Righteousness Piousness Affectionate Loving Courteous Civil, polite Excelled Surpassed

Luxury Comfort Finish him Kill him Survive Recover EXERCISES Q:1 Tick (-/) the correct answer as in the text. (correct answer in blue) i) Hazrat Ali (RA) was noble, kind hearted and a man of (a) right disposition (b) righteousness (c) sound mine ii) Hazrat Ali (RA) was married to (a) His cousin (b) Hazrat Fatima (RA) and (c) His uncle's relatives iii) Talha was Hazrat Ali (RA)'s (a) friend (b) neighbour (c) enemy and (d) companion Q:2 Answer the following questions. i) Write a paragraph on Hazrat Ali (RA) with special reference to the great qualities he possessed. Ans: Hazrat Ali (R.A.) was a very God fearing man. He was very noble, kind hearted, wise and brave. He remained with the Holy Prophet (SAWW) through thick and thin. He accepted Islam when he was quite a young boy. Due to kind and miraculous training given by the Holy Prophet (SAWW), Hazrat Ali (R.A.) possessed great qualities. He was very brave and courageous. He led a simple life. He always helped the poor and needy. He spent every second of his life in worshipping God and serving the humanity. He fought for truth and justice and not for his personal motives. He was married to Hazrat Fatima (R.A.) the daughter of Holy Prophet (SAWW) and they led a happy and contended life. After the death of Hazrat Usman (R.A.) he became the fourth Caliph of Islam. He served Islam till his death. ii) What kind of life did Hazrat Ali (RA) and Hazrat Bibi Fatima (RA) lead? Ans: Hazrat Ali (R.A.) was married to Hazrat Fatima (R.A.) the daughter of the Holy Prophet (SAWW). It was a very happy marriage and they led a contended life. They remained busy in prayers. They always helped the poor and the needy. They felt pleasure in serving the humanity. iii) Write a few lines to describe Hazrat Ali's (RA) early childhood. Who took care of him? Ans: When Hazrat Ali (R.A.) was a child, the Holy Prophet (SAWW) looked after him. The Holy Prophet (SAWW) taught him all sweet and polite manners. It was the result of the Holy Prophet's training that when he declared that he is the last Prophet of God, Hazrat Ali (R.A.) accepted it at once and promised to stand by the Holy Prophet (SAWW) through thick and thin. iv) How did Hazrat Ali (RA) behave with his enemies?

Ans: Hazrat Ali (R.A.) was very kind to his enemies. In the battle of Ohad Hazrat Ali (R.A.) defeated his worst enemy, Talha. was injured and fell down. Hazrat Ali (R.A.) left him and walked away saying this, "I cannot strike a man who is not in a position to defend himself. If he survives he is welcome to live as long as his life lasts." Q:3 Punctuate the following lines. i cannot strike a man who is not in a position to defend himself if he survives he is welcome to live as long as his life lasts. Ans: I cannot strike a man who is not in a position to defend himself. If he survives, he is welcome to live as long as his life lasts." Q:4 Use the following words in sentences of your own. Kindhearted Everyone likes kindhearted, polite and brave people. Humble Allah Almighty likes the humble people. Contended How blessed is he, who leads a contended life. Sorrows He who shares the others sorrows, the sorrows live away from him. Survive The word "survive" means to manage to stay alive or continue to exist, especially in difficult situations. Attend Hundreds attended the wedding. Object He objected on his going there. Refuse He refused to help me in my difficult times. Avail Avail every opportunity to serve the human beings.

Lesson No. 11 - Handicraft in Pakistan

HANDICRAFTS IN PAKISTAN
Every country has its own local crafts, which exhibit the taste and colour of its region. Pakistan is a country rich in culture They were the main source of livelihood for the people of the region, and were handed down from father to son. With the passage of time, the crafts had access to bigger markets and became more profitable trades. Some areas have specialized in different crafts, which are supplied to other regions. With the province of Punjab, different cities have their own specialties. Faisalabad specializes in cotton and hand woven fabrics. Lahore has brass items. In Gujranwala potter and hand made items are produced. Sialkot specializes in cutlery, surgical, sports and stainless steel items. These are exported, and have a growing market abroad. Gujrat produces pottery and electrical fans. Murree produces basketry and walnut wooden items. Ghakkar Specializes in bed sheets, durries and khais. Baluchistan produces carpets and jackets and garments with glass work. In NWFP the city of Peshawar produces pottery. Dera Ismail Khan and Chiniot produce wood carvings, decoration pieces and furniture. Abbotabad and Dasu produce jeweellery and warm clothing and Chitral is famous for woolen overcoats and caps. Azad Kashmir produces basketry, carpets and walnut furniture. "Ajrak" and caps with silver and embroidery are made in Sindh. It is owing to the skills and hard work of our people that these crafts have been preserved over the years. They have utilized the resources of their regions and by acquiring special skills have managed to produce goods, which have developed our cottage industry. Despite the availability of imported goods in the markets our goods have managed to retain a special place. Even the people of medium income, group have established small businesses and are country. These people are quite self sufficient and do not get any aid from the agencies. Handicrafts are also a part of the cultural heritage of a country. They represent the culture and traditions of the people. Old skills which have survived and developed, are the backbone of the cottage industry. These handicrafts, special in kind and unique in shape, are really the pride of a country! Words Meaning Exhibit Display Preserve To keep things in good condition Heritage Things that have been passed on from earlier generation Unique Special traditions Beliefs, customs, habits

EXERCISES Q:1 Answer the following question. i) What do crafts exhibit about its region? Ans: Crafts exhibit the taste and colour of its region. ii) What does Faisalabad specialize in? Ans: Faisalabad specialiozes in cotton and hand woven fabricis. iii) Name a few of the crafts in various cities of the Province of Punjab? Ans: Names of a few crafts in various cities of the Province of Punjab are as follow: City Crafts Faisalabad - Cotton, hand woven fabrics Lahore - Brass items Gujranwala - Pottery, hand made items Sialkot - Cutlery, surgical, sports, stainless steel items Gujrat - Pottery, electrical goods, sports goods Murree - Basketry, walnut wooden items Ghakar - Bedsheets, durries, khais Chiniot - Wood carvings, decoration pieces, furniture iv) Which handicrafts are produced in Baluchistan? Ans: Baluchistan produces carpets, jackets and garments with glass work. v) What do the crafts of a country represent? Ans: They represent the culture and traditions of the people. vi) Write an account of any of the Pakistani crafts that you might have seen in an industrial exhibition. (not more than 50 words). Ans: In Lahore an industrial exhibition is organized near Fortress Stadium every year. Once I went to see this exhibition with some of my friends. Many industrial parties had arranged their products in big stalls. These stalls included textiles and ready made garments, electrical goods, household items, handicrafts, glassware, furniture, stainless steel, sports goods etc. There was also a stall of pottery of Gujranwala, Gujrat and Peshawar. Q:2 Choose the correct answer. i) Cutlery is a special item of a) Peshawar (b) Abbottabad (c) Sialkot and (d) Gujrat ii) The word specialized means a) expert (b) research (c) struggle and (d) display iii) The crafts are limited to specific area because of the unavailability of the

(a) resources of their region (b) climate of their region (c) number of craftsmen in their region and (d) popularity of their region Q:3 Write the name of the city where these items are found. i) Faisalabad specializes in cotton and hand woven fabrics. ii) In Gujranwala pottery and hand made items are produced. iii) Cutlery, surgical tools, sports and stainless steel items are produced in Sialkot. iv) Gujrat produces pottery, electrical good and sport items. v) Basketry and walnuts wood items are produced in Murree. vi) Dera Ismail Khan produces wooden carvings, decoration pieces and furniture. vii) Carpets, jackets and garments with glass work are produced in Baluchistan. viii) Chitral is famous for woolen overcoats and caps. ix) The province of Azad Kashmir produces basketry, carpets and walnut furniture. x) Ghakkar specializes in bed sheets, durries and khais. Q:4 Fill in the blanks with who, when, from, where, what, for, to. When Pakistan was created, people who decided to live in Pakistan migrated from India to Pakistan. Most families did not knowwhere to settle and what to do for and living. But as the days passed, everybody who became a Pakistani, found a place to live and some job for his livelihood. Q:5 Make pairs of the opposite. Example: foreign, local Past, foreign, profitable, similar, despite, backward, attractive, inspite, different, developed, local, unprofitable, present, unattractive

Words - Opposite
. Past - Present Foreign - Local Profitable - Unprofitable Similar - Different Despite - Inspite Backward - Developed Attractive - Unattractive Inspite - Despite Different - Similar Developed - Backward Local - Foreign

Unprofitable - Profitable Present - Past Unattractive - Attractive Q:6 Look up in a dictionary the meaning of the following words: Use five of them in your own sentences. Exhibit She decided it was a good time to exhibit her skill as a solver of business disputes. Source What is your source of income? Livelihood Find honest means to earn your livelihood. Access I have no access to the Principal. Specialize I would like to specialize in computer science. Utilize Man is utilizing natural resources without thinking about consequences. Acquire Acquire some skill to make your future bright. Manage I finally managed to open the door. Despite He reached school today despite bad weather. Handicrafts Different cities of province of Punjab are famous for their special handicrafts. Traditions We should follow the Islamic traditions.. Q:7 These words are in singular form. Write the plural form of them.

Singular - Plural
. Country - Countries City - Cities Quality - Qualities

Embroidery - Embroideries Century - Centuries Supply - Supplies Pottery - Potteries Cutlery - Cutlery Carving - Carvings Furniture - Furniture Resource - Resources Q:8 Write a letter to your friend giving account of any craft of your choice that you have seen in the market. Example: You may have seen the woolen caps and walnut decoration pieces in Abbottabad, Murree or in an exhibition. Ans: Examination Hall, City A.B.C, January 27, 2008 My dear Asif, How are you? What are you doing these days? How did you pass your winter holidays? I enjoyed these holidays very much. I finished my homework in few days. After it I went to Karachi with my parents to visit my relatives. We stayed there for ten days. During this period, I got a chance to visit an industrial exhibition. There were different handicrafts of Pakistan exhibited there. These handicrafts were master pieces of skill and hard work. I have special interest in textile industry. Therefore, I visited the textile stalls with keen interest. The cloth of different qualities, design and colours was exhibited there. Fine cotton cloth, hand woven fabrics and silken cloth attracted the visitors' attention. I bought a few suits for my parents and relatives. After it returned home. Every one liked and appreciated my choice of cloth. Write me about y our activities of these holidays. I am waiting for your reply anxiously! Yours sincerely, (Ahmad Ali Anjum)

Lesson No. 12 - The Menace of Drugs

THE MENACE OF DRUGS


What are drugs? Why is there so much talk on them? Why do the people fall prey to them? Are narcotics called drugs? These are some of the questions which are asked by many of us. The elders try to answer them, but not satisfactorily. Inspite of the warning of the dangers and the effects of these drugs the number of addicts is going on increasing. About 1.5 million people are said to be the addicts of drugs, and have ruined their lives. It is an alarming situation. The drug addicted looks pale and intoxicated living in the fantasies, forgetting every other thing. The drugs make him sleepish and woeful. His condition becomes miserable and unfit for all types of healthy activities. Opium, heroin, marijuana, hashish are the drugs that make the addict doleful. Marijuana and hashish are dried leaves and flowers of a plant called hemp. The leaves, flowers and even stalks of this plant are smoked and sometime chewed. Heroin is a refined form of opium, fifty times more potent than the latter. All these intoxicants have proved damaging for health. Heroin affects the brain and damages the nerve cells. A person addicted to it can neither think clearly nor work actively. A state of drowsiness takes hold of him. He takes drug as the reliever of his tension, worries, anxiety and frustration. How are we caught in the net of drugs? Usually friends of bad company may offer their fellow mates or a drug pusher may give it free of cost in the beginning. Sometimes it is available in the form of chewable stuff like "chalia" or sonf sapari". Once one falls a victim, it is difficult for him to shake it off. The bright students are reduced to zero. Sole bread earners of a family are ruined, unable to work and support their families. Therefore something needs to be done for the survival and rehabilitation of the wretched wreck living in hopelessness, dirty sack. Though there appears no hope of his survival but we must try our best to get him back to normal living. Government has set up rehabilitation centres in the big hospitals in almost all big cities for the treatment and rehabilitation of the addicts. Cultivation of poppy has been banned. Heroin laboratories in tribal areas have been closed down. The smuggling of drugs has to be checked with an iron hand to save the lives of innocent people. We have to make people aware of the dangers of drugs by arranging seminars, speeches and walks in all cities and towns. WE have to be strong enough to refuse the offer of a stranger and stop smoking. Like other country the advertisements of cigarette on electronic media and newspapers have to be banned to save the children from this temptation.

Words - Meanings
Addict - A person who is habitually given to something especially harmful. Latter - Something mentioned after the first one Woeful - Painful Doleful - Grieved Narcotics - Any drug that induces sound sleep or laziness Intoxicant - A drug that excites so much that one loses control over oneself Drug pushers - Those who deal in drugs Potent - Effective Drowsiness - Sleepiness Reliever - Put at ease Frustration - Disappointment Menace - Threatening, harmful

EXERCISES Q:1 Choose the most appropriate answer. i) One of the drugs mentioned in the lesson is (a) toffee (b) maize (c) hashish and (d) flower ii) Drug pushers are those (a) Who work at drug stores (b) who deal in drugs (c) who make drugs and (d) who hate drugs. iii) 'Sole bread earners of family' means one who (a) feeds the families (b) buys bread for the family (c) is the only earning member and (d) makes bread for the family iv) The effects of drugs are (a) encouraging (b) soothing (c) pleasing (d) damaging and (e) deadly Q:3 Tick (-/) the right answer. (right answer in bold) i) The drugs are used for curing /securing diseases. ii) Flowers and stalks of hemp are smoked /stroked. iii) Drug users live in a world of fantasies /realities. iv) Bright students are reduced to zero /hero by using drugs. v) The hold of drug is so weak/ strong that one cannot get out of it. vi) The number of addict is decreasing/ increasing in Pakistan. vii) If some body offers us a cigarette we should / should not accept it. viii) Man is an honourable creation /discovery of this universe. Q:4 Fill in the blanks with correct prepositions selecting from those given below:(to, into, for, over, of) i) He was reluctant to leaving smoking. ii) Repeated requests forced him to try the new experiment. iii) He died of a certain unknown disease. iv) We feel pity for the drug users. v) We should ponder over the effects of using drugs. vi) People become victims of dangerous drugs. vii) Craze of fashion should not make us smokers. viii) For over a hundred years has this skeleton been preserved. ix) He fell into a deep ditch and broke his knee. Q:5 Use the correct form of the verbs. i) The school (is) closed that week for winter holidays. Ans: The school was closed last week for winter holidays. ii) He (offer) help to his friend but was refused politely. Ans: He offered help to his friend but was refused politely. iii) Drug users are (call) addicts. Ans: Drug users are called addicts.

iv) He was (catch) by the police. Ans: He was catched by the police. v) Good students are (like) by teachers and friends. Ans: Good students are liked by teachers and friends. vi) The students have (finish) their painting. Ans: The students have finished their painting. vii) People in the northern areas had (grew) fruit plants. Ans: People in the northern areas had grown fruit plants. viii) He came to school but (forget) to bring his books. Ans: He came to school but forgot to bring his books. ix) I (see) an owl in the dark night. Ans: I saw an owl in the dark night. x) Have you (do) your home work. Ans: Have you done your home work.

USE OF VERB enter


Q:6 Use the following words / phases in sentences of your own. Free of cost Our institution provides education free of cost. Bright students Bright students bring credit to their institution. Inspite of, He could not pass the examination inspite of his intelligence. Sometimes Sometimes, we go to the theater. Neither nor Neither Asif nor Rizwan came to school. Q:7 Answer the following questions. i) Name three drugs or narcotics which are generally used. Ans: Three commonly used drugs are opium, heroion and marijuana. ii) Write a paragraph explaining "effects of using drugs". Ans: "Effects of Using Drugs" A 'drug' is a natural or artificial substance that is given to treat, prevent, or diagnose a disease or to lesson pain. Some people use few drugs without a doctor's prescription to get joy and peace of mind. Such drugs are called narcotics. These addictive substances cause changes in behaviour. These drugs have bad effects on minds and bodies of the addicted persons. 1. 2. 3. 4. A drug addicted person looks pale and intoxicated. He lives in the fantasies and forgets every other thing. His condition becomes miserable and unfit for all types of healthy activities. His brain is affected and nerve cells are damaged.

5. A state of drowsiness takes hold of him. 6. It is difficult for him to shake it off. 7. He cannot get education and earn livelihood. 8. He tries to get money from unreasonable sources. In this way he becomes a burden on his parents and proves a dangerous person for the society. iii) What advice does the writer give at the end of the lesson? Ans: He advises us to refuse the offer of a stranger and stop smoking. Q:8 Punctuate the following. What are the drugs why is there so much talk on them why do the people fall prey to them are narcotics called drugs. Ans: What are the drugs? Why is there so much talk on them? Why do the people fall prey to them? Are narcotics called drugs? Q:9 Complete the sentences. Note:- Colour matches the correct answer The drug addicted looks (1) sleepish and woeful. (3) Hashish is made from the (2) pale and intoxicated. (1) The drugs make a person (3) dried leaves and flowers of a plant called "hemp". (2) Heroin is a refined form of (4) damaging for health. (5) All these intoxicants are (5) heroin. (6) The brain and nerve cells are damaged by (6) chewable stuff. (7) Drugs are also available as (7) opium. (4) Government has set up (8) banned. (9) Cultivation of poppy has been (9) than health (10).

Lesson No. 13 - The Character of a Happy Life

THE CHARACTER OF A HAPPY LIFE


(HENRY WOTTON *1568-1639) How happy is he born and taught That serveth not another's will; Whose armour is his honest thought, And simple truth his utmost skill! Whose passions not his masters are; Whose soul is still prepared for death, United unto the world by care Of public fame of private breath; Who envies none that chance doth raise, Nor vice; who never understood How deepest wounds are given by praise; Nor rules of state, but rules of good; Who hath his life from rumours freed; Whose conscience is his strong retreat; Whose state can neither flatterers feed, Nor ruin make oppressors great; Who god doth late and early pray More of His grace than gifts to lend; And entertains the harmless day With a religious book or friend; This man is freed from servile bands Of hope to rise or fear to fail: Lord of himself, though not of lamb, And having nothing, yet hath all Words - Meaning Armour - steal covering for the body Envy - feeling of disappointment at another's success Humour - having or showing a sense of amusement Conscience - one's inner sense of right and wrong Flatterer - one who flatters Oppressor - cruel person Servile - slave like EXERCISE Theme of the poem. Happy is a person who is born and educated, and does not become a slave of others. His strength is his honest thought and remains truthful in his conduct and behaviour.

Q:1 Answer the following questions. i) What is the main idea of the poem? Ans: Happy is a person who is born and educated, and does not become a slave of others. His strength is his honest thought and remains truthful in his conduct and behaviour. ii) Underline the nouns in the poem. Ans: The following nouns have been used in this poem. Will, armour, thought, truth, skill, passions, masters, soul, death, world, care, fame, breath, raise, vice, wounds, praise, rules, state, good, life, rumours, conscience, retreat, flatterers, feed, oppressors, God, pray, grace, gifts, day, book, friend, man, bands, fear, Lord, lamb iii) Make a list of the rhyming words in the poem. Example: taught, thought Ans: (taught, thought), (will, skill), (are, care), (death, breath), (raise, praise), (understood, good), (freed, feed), (retreat, great), (pray, day), (lend, friend), (bands, lamb), (fall, all) Add two more rhyming words in each line. i) born, corn, torn. ii) soul, foul, bowl iii) vice, rice, dice Q:3 Paraphrase the second stanza in the poem. Ans: Whose passions not his masters are; Whose soul is still prepared for death, United unto the world by care Of public fame of private breath; Reference: These lines have been taken from the poem, "The Character of a Happy Life" written by Henry Wotton. Context: In this poem the poet describes the traits of a happy liofe He says that the man is really happy who is educated, truthful, honest in his thought and has no fear of death. He I s not jealous and flatterer. He enjoys the company of a religious book or good friends. He is not owner of any thing but has every thing. Q:4 Explain the stanza. This man is freed from servile bands Of hope to rise or fear to fall: Lord of himself, though not of lamb, And having nothing, yet hath all Reference: These lines have been taken from the poem, "The Character of a Happy Life" written by Henry Wotton. Context: In this poem the poet describes the traits of a happy life. He ssays that the man is really happy

who is educated, truthful, honest in his thought and has no fear of death. He is not jealous and flatterer. He enjoys the company of a religious book or good friends. He is not owner of any thing but has every thing. Explanation: The poet says that this happy man has no hope to rise or fear to fall. He is not the owner of even a lamb but is lord of himself. He is not owner of any thing yet has everything

Lesson No. 14 - Simplicity

SIMPLICITY
Once upon a time there was a Khalifah whose rule was known for his beneficent administration. He worked for the prosperity and well being of the people. But there were some distinguished people belonging to the house of Ummyads, who were a cause of constant worry for him. They had shunned the ways of God. They enjoyed life at the expense of the common man and indulged in merrymaking. The Khalifah thought of teaching them a lesson. He invited some prominent people to a dinner. Since the dinner was from none other than the ruling Khalifah, they readily accepted the invitation. The Khalifah ordered his cook to serve the meal late. On the appointed day, they dressed well, and proudly came to the house of the Khaliofah in time. He greeted them well and made them sit in a comfortable environment. The guests felt exalted and honoured. They started chatting merrily while waiting for the dinner. But it never was served. The guests looked towards one another but could not say anything. They became restless and hungry. Looking at their condition the Khalifah shouted to his cook to hurry up. At the same time he ordered some parched grams to be served which he and his guests ate to their fill. A few minutes later the cook brought steaming hot food. Had it been served earlier the guests would have finished the last remains of the food but it came at an hour when they had already eaten grams and did not feel hungry anymore. The guests refused to eat, saying that they were full. Thereupon the pious Khalifah spoke out, "Brothers when you can satisfy your appetite with so simple a diet, then why do you play with fire and snatch the properties and rights of others." These words deeply moved the guests of the house of Ummyads who burst into tears. They never tried to be extravagant in future. This is how the pious Khalifah taught a lesson to those who had forgotten the teachings of the Holy Prophet (SAWW). The Khalifah was none other than Hazrat Umer bin Abdul Aziz (R.A.), whose life was full of such incidents. He himself led a life of simplicity and honesty. His truthfulness and integrity has few parallels in the history of Islam. That is why he is considered to be the fifth pious Khalifah of Islam. Words - Meaning . Prosperity - state of being rich or successful Indulge - allow oneself the pleasure of Serve - work of somebody Prominent - important Exalted - Dignified Restless - impatience Refuse - Deny Pious - having deep devotion to religion Extravagant - Wasteful Appetite - physical desire for food Incident - event Integrity - quality of being honest.

EXERCISES Q:1 Answer the following questions. i) How did the Khalifah teach the distinguished guests to live a life simplicity? Ans: When the distinguished guests felt very hungry, the Khalifah ordered some parched grams to be served which he and his guests ate to their fill. A few minutes later the guests were served hot food but they did not feel hungry anymore. Therefore, the guest refused to eat, saying that they were full. Thereupon the pious Khalifah spoke out, "Brothers when you can satisfy your appetite with so simple a diet, then why do you play with fire and snatch the properties and rights of others." These words deeply moved the guests of the house of Ummyads who burst into tears. They never tried to be extravagant in future. This is how the pious Khalifah taught a lesson to those who had forgotten the teachings of the Holy Prophet (SAWW). ii) Write down the chief characteristics of the personality of Umer bin Abdul Aziz (R.A). Ans: Hazrat Umer bin Abdul Aziz (R.A) was a very wise, true, honest, God fearing, kind, just and pious Khalifah. He served the people by acting upon this saying that, "The ruler of a nation is a servant of the nation." Q:2 Tick (-/) the right answer. (correct answer is highlighted in blue and bold) i) The guests invited by the Khalifah belonged to the house of (a) Ummyads (b) Quresh and (c) Abbasids ii) The Khalifah asked his cook to (a) bring the food quickly (b) delay the preparation of food and (c) serve the meal late. iii) The guests ate (a) roasted nuts (b) parched grams and (c) steaming hot food iv) The guests (a) tasted the food when it was served (b) didn't eat the food and (c) served it to others. v) The Khalifah's words (a) moved the guests (b) had enraged the guests and (c) pleased them. Q:3 Fill in the blanks. i) The Khalifah's rule was known for his beneficent administration. ii) He invited some prominent people to a dinner. iii) /the Khalifah ordered his cook to serve the meal late. iv) The Khalifah was none other than Hazrat Umer Bin Abdul Aziz (R.A). v) He is considered to be the fifth pious Khalifah of Islam. Q:4 Match part of the sentence in column I with the relevant part in column II Note:- Colour matches the correct sentence. He worked for the prosperity and (1) expense of the common man. (2) They enjoyed life at the (2) parched grams (4) The Khalifah thought of (3) exalted and honoured. (5) To satisfy the hunger he ordered some (4) well being of the people (1) The guests felt (5) teaching them a lesson. (3)

Q:5 Answer the following questions. i) Why did Khalifah invite certain people to dinner? Ans: Khalifah invited them to dinner to teach them a lesson. ii) Why did he order his cook to serve the meal late? Ans: He ordered his cook to serve the meal late because he wanted to make his guests conscious of their wrong ways. iii) What did he serve when his guests were hungry? Ans: When his guests were hungry, he served them parched grams. iv) Why did the guests refuse to eat the dinner? Ans: The guests refused to eat the dinner because it came at an hour when they had already eaten grams and did not feel hungry anymore. v) What was the lesson taught by the Khalifah? Ans: When the guest refused to eat, saying that they were full, the pious Khalifah spoke out, "Brothers when you can satisfy your appetite with so simple a diet, then why do you play with fire and snatch the properties and rights of others? These words changed their lives and they became pious and gentle.

Lesson No. 15 - Traffic Education

TRAFFIC EDUCATION
A taxi driver, going form the Rawalpindi to Islamabad was rashly driving the taxi. He went zigzagging through the heavy traffic. Sometimes he turned to the right and then suddenly turned to the left, squeezing through the traffic. But the same driver, entering Islamabad was a changed person. Why so? Observance of traffic rules by the others and Enforcement of them by the Islamabad police changed him. Why is it that the traffic on the Motor Way is so orderly? Two factors are responsible for it i.e. examples set by the others and the observance of rules for fear of being caught and fined heavily by the Motor Way Police. So we learn the rules by imitating the other or for fear of being caught or for violation of the rules and being punished. Thus police too can do so in the city of Lahore, where the traffic has become wild for not observing the traffic rules. The donkey carts, rickshaws, wagon and motorists have no sense of rules at all. The cases cited above emphasize the importance of traffic education, which is badly needed for the orderly and smooth flow of traffic in the cities. But from where to get such an education? There are institutions that a train you in driving. They teach the traffic rules and how to avoid the accidents. If you are driving a motor cycle or a car, do get the driving license after proper training and test. Learn the rules but the most important thing is to observe them. But what about those who are walking on foot? Must they also know the rules? Yes, for a safe walk on the road side. Some of the rules are as under: 1. If you are driving a vehicle, keep to the left. However, if there are lanes, leave the right most lane for the fast traffic or for the over taking of vehicles. 2. If you are walking on the right side of the road so that traffic coming from opposite side may not disturb your walk. 3. While going form one side to the other side of the road use the zebra crossing. Cross the road when the traffic is stopped on red signal. If there is no zebra crossing or traffic signal then look on both sides and wait till the traffic becomes thin. 4. All traffic including the cycles, must stop behind the lane in front of the signal. 5. Observe the speed limits-not more than 60 kilometer per hour in the city. 6. While entering the main road stop to look to the right and left and then go, making sure that there is no approaching traffic. 7. Yellow light of the signal is a warning. It requires you to slow down and stop on the red light. 8. Try to follow the road signs displayed by the traffic police. 9. The lights of your vehicle, through it may be a bicycle, must be on at right. 10. Consider the traffic constable your well-wisher who performs his duty adverse environment. EXERCISE

Q: 1 Choose the most appropriate answer. I) the taxi mentioned in the lesson. (a) Went smoothly through the lesson (b) was stuck in the traffic (c) passed with difficulty through the traffic and (d) passed easily through the traffic ii) The taxi squeezed through the traffic (a) was caught in the traffic (b) managed to pass through the traffic (c) rushed swiftly through the traffic and (d) was pressed in the traffic iii) We learn the rules by imitating means (a) by copying others (b) from high schools (c) by meeting people and talking to others iv) To develop the traffic sense means to (a) observes traffic rules (b) go on full speed (c) walk on the road and (d) be challenged Q: 2 Tick (-/) the true or false statements. i) The taxi driver was a rash driver. (-/) T ii) The taxi passed straight through the traffic. (-/) T iii) Islamabad traffic had a negative effect on the driver. (-/) F iv) The traffic on Motor Way is very orderly. (-/) F v) The police play no role in traffic education. (-/) T vi) We need no training for getting driving license. (-/) F vii) Cyclists should not follow the traffic rules. (-/) F viii) Pedestrians should walk when the light turns green. (-/) T ix) We can go on driving at the yellow. (-/) F Q: 3 Fill in the blanks with correct prepositions given below. (to, on, into, at, by, of) i) The driver was in the habit of driving fast. ii) The man was walking on the wrong side of the road. iii) He went to school on a bicycle. iv) We learn the rules by imitating others. v) He jumped into the river. vi) The traffic rules help us to drive safely. vii) While driving keep to the left. viii) Yellow light is a sign to slow down. ix) All of us should understand the meaning of the traffic signs. Q: 4 Use the following words in sentences of your own. Zigzag, slow down, instruct, hurriedly, pedestrian, imitate, emphasize, pavement, vehicle Zigzag The driver was going zigzagging through the heavy traffic. Slow down When the traffic light turns yellow slow down. Instruct

The word 'instruct' means to teach somebody a subject or how to do something. Hurriedly I saw a man walking hurriedly through the street. Pedestrian Pedestrians should also observe the traffic rules. Imitate The monkey was imitating an angry man. Emphasize The President of Pakistan emphasized the importance of unity. Pavement The pedestrians should walk on pavement. Vehicle If you are driving a vehicle, keep to the left. Q: 5 Answer the following questions. i) How was the taxi driver driving in Rawalpindi? Ans: The taxi driver was rashly driving the taxi. He was going zigzagging through the heavy traffic. ii) While entering Islamabad the taxi driver was a changed person. How? Ans: When the taxi driver entered Islamabad, he saw observance of traffic rules by the others and enforcement of them by the Islamabad Police. Therefore, he gave up reckless driving and became a good driver. iii) How can police give us traffic education? Ans: Police can give us education by punishing the drivers for violation of the rules. Police can also give traffic education using different media of communication like posters, banners, radio and TV etc. iv) What is zebra crossing and what for? Ans: Straight lines (IIIIII) on road are called 'zebra crossing'. It is a path reserved for pedestrians to cross the road. v) Mention any two traffic rules. Ans: 1. All traffic, including the cycles, must stop behind the lane in front of the signal. 2. Observe the speed limits not more than 60 kilometers per hour in the city. Q: 6 Punctuate the following. A taxi driver going from Rawalpindi to Islamabad was rashly driving the taxi he went zigzagging through the heavy traffic. Ans: A taxi driver, going from Rawalpindi to Islamabad was rashly driving the taxi He went zigzagging through the heavy traffic.

Lesson No. 16 - Letter Writing

LETTER WRITING
A letter is a conversation by post. We write letters to communicate with our friends and families living away from us. We write to express our feelings, to get information, to invite others on weddings, to request some one to get our job done. There are three main classes of letters are of two types; 1. Formal 2. informal FORMAL LETTERS Formal letters consist of business letters, letters to the editor / press, application, notices, complaints and invitations etc. The language of such letters is formal and precise. They deal only with the subject in question and unnecessary details are avoided. INFORMAL LETTERS They are written to the relatives and friends. They may contain many details other than the specific matter for which they are written. The language of such letters simple and casual. One may introduce sentiments and emotions according to the mood. Now let's see, what the requisites of letter writing are, or what the proper format of a letter is. Every letter, whether formal or informal, must have these parts; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Your address Date Address to whom the letter is written Salutation The body Complementary close Signature

Now study the following letter carefully to see how and where each of the above part is placed in the letter. An application of a father to the Headmaster / Headmistress of his son / daughter requesting him to grant leave for one week. 15-Sarwar Road, Lahore Cant. August 5, 2003. The Headmaster, Central Model School Lahore Dear Sir, This is to inform you that my son, Salim, a student of 10th-A has fallen seriously ill. The doctor has advised him to take rest for one week as he is unable to attend school. I should be grateful if you could grant him leave form August 8 to August 14. The doctor's medical certificate is attached for your information please. I assure you that I, on his recovery, will personally make arrangements to get his missing lessons

prepared. Yours truly Muhammad Aamir A letter to father telling him about the performance in the paper of English. 2, New Hostel Lower Mall, Lahore. August 8, 2003. My dear father, I feel very happy to inform you that my performance in the paper of English was very good. I attempted all the questions and was able to finish writing the paper in time. The questions on grammar and composition were easy to attempt. The poetry section was a bit difficult, but any way I managed to do the required questions. I was left with no time to revise and correct the mistakes, which I might have made in a hurry to write more. However, I am satisfied with my performance on the whole. It is really a reward of the blessings of God, your prayers and my hard work that I am hopeful of getting good marks. I am sure you will remember me in your best prayers for my success in the examination. Regards and love to mother, sisters and brothers. Yours affectionately, (Saba Batool) In both these letters the address is given on the top and then the date which can also be written as 8th August 2003 or August 8, 2003. In the second letter no address of the person to who it is written is given because in an informal letter a son or daughter knows the address of his her father. The following table shows the relevant salutations and complimentary close, which are used in letters. Addresses - To the relatives Salutation Dear father/My dear father, Dear mother/ My dear mother, Dear sister, Dear uncle, Dear cousin etc Complimentary Close Yours affectionately, or Your affectionate or loving son,

daughter, niece etc Addresses - To friends Dear friend, Salutation Dear Saba. My dear Saba etc Complimentary Close Yours sincerely Or Your sincere friend or Yours Addresses - Business letter Salutation Dear Sir/ Dear Madam Complimentary Close Yours faithfully Yours sincerely Yours truly Addresses - Editor of a newspaper/ Headmaster Salutation (Dear) Sir / Madam Complimentry Close Yours truly or Yours faithfully Addresses - Teachers, Professor, or Principal/Headmaster (Letters/Applications) Salutation Sir / Madam Complimentry Close Yours obediently Note: The teacher should tell the students to write to their family members, relatives and friends to practice letter writing. Students can be asked to write letters of good wishes, invitations, thanks etc. and formal letters to convey acceptance or refusal to an invitation to a party. EXERCISES Q: 1 Tick (-/) the right answer. i) You are writing a letter to a friend. How would you salute him? (a) Dear Friend (b) Dear Madam (c) Respected Friend ii) You are writing an application to the Headmaster requesting for leave. Would you start as (a) How are you? (b) My application will find you in the best of health (c) It is to inform you that I am not well. iii) You are writing a letter to your father thanking him for the gift. Your first sentence would be (a) I miss you (ii) I see you and (c) I feel very pleased. iv) You have written a formal letter. How would you write the complimentary close? (a) Yours sincerely (b) Yours loving and (c) Yours loving son Ali

v) Where will you write your address? (a) In the middle of the page (b) On the left side of the page and (c) On the right side of the page. .

Lesson No. 17 - A Fragment

A Fragment
(Henry Wadsworth Longfellow) Awake! Arise! The hour is late! Angles are knocking at the door! They are in haste and cannot wait, And once departed come no more. Awake! Arise! the athlete's arm Loses its strength by too much rest; The fallow land, the untilled farm, Produces only weeds at best. Words - Meaning fragment - piece, portion haste - speed, swiftness depart - to leave, here it means not living, one who has left. fallow - barren, unplanted Paraphrase Awake and rise from your bed. It's too late now. The angels are knocking at your door. They are in hurry and cannot wait for you any more. Once they go away, they won't come back. Awake and rise up without any delay. If you continue taking rest you will lose your strength and become unless like a barren land and uncultivated farm that produces nothing but the weeds only. EXERCISES Q: 1 i) Write down the rhyming words used in the poem. (late, wait), (door, more), (arm, farm), (rest, best) ii) Write two more rhyming words in each line. (a) arise, wise, disguise. (b) knock, Shock, rock weed, reed, deed Q: 2 Answer the following questions. i) What does the poet advice to the late riser? Ans: The poet advises the late riser to rise up without any delay. He tells him that if he continues taking rest he will lose his strength and become useless like a barren land and uncultivated farm that produces nothing but the weeds only. ii) What is the benefit of early rising? Ans: An early riser gets blessings of God. iii) What is meant by fallow land? Ans: "Fallow land" means barren and unplanted land. In this poem it means who does not make the best use of his abilities and remains idle.

iv) What is the theme of the poem? Ans: We should get up early in the morning to get blessings of God. Too much rest wastes our abilities. v) Explain the last two lines of the poem. Ans: Same as above (iv) Q: 3 Use the following words in sentences of your own. Awake, wait, departed, strength, produce. Awake Awake and rise from your bed early in the morning. Wait Time and tide wait for none. Departed We should pray for our departed friends and relatives. Strength Union is strength. Produce A barren land produces nothing. Q: 4 Fill in the blanks. i) Angels are knocking at your door. ii) They cannot wait for you. iii) They will not come back after their departure. iv) The athlete loses his strength by taking too much rest. v) Fragment means separate or in a part. Q: 5 Ask five advantages from your class fellow about early rising Ans: 1. It is said that early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. 2. An early riser has the best time to pray to God and he is blessed with His blessings. 3. He can enjoy a morning walk. 4. He can make a preparation for his daylong activities at proper time. 5. He has enough time to do all his work of the day in time and properly. .

Lesson No. 17 - A Fragment

A Fragment
(Henry Wadsworth Longfellow) Awake! Arise! The hour is late! Angles are knocking at the door! They are in haste and cannot wait, And once departed come no more. Awake! Arise! the athlete's arm Loses its strength by too much rest; The fallow land, the untilled farm, Produces only weeds at best. Words - Meaning fragment - piece, portion haste - speed, swiftness depart - to leave, here it means not living, one who has left. fallow - barren, unplanted Paraphrase Awake and rise from your bed. It's too late now. The angels are knocking at your door. They are in hurry and cannot wait for you any more. Once they go away, they won't come back. Awake and rise up without any delay. If you continue taking rest you will lose your strength and become unless like a barren land and uncultivated farm that produces nothing but the weeds only. EXERCISES Q: 1 i) Write down the rhyming words used in the poem. (late, wait), (door, more), (arm, farm), (rest, best) ii) Write two more rhyming words in each line. (a) arise, wise, disguise. (b) knock, Shock, rock weed, reed, deed Q: 2 Answer the following questions. i) What does the poet advice to the late riser? Ans: The poet advises the late riser to rise up without any delay. He tells him that if he continues taking rest he will lose his strength and become useless like a barren land and uncultivated farm that produces nothing but the weeds only. ii) What is the benefit of early rising? Ans: An early riser gets blessings of God. iii) What is meant by fallow land? Ans: "Fallow land" means barren and unplanted land. In this poem it means who does not make the best use of his abilities and remains idle.

iv) What is the theme of the poem? Ans: We should get up early in the morning to get blessings of God. Too much rest wastes our abilities. v) Explain the last two lines of the poem. Ans: Same as above (iv) Q: 3 Use the following words in sentences of your own. Awake, wait, departed, strength, produce. Awake Awake and rise from your bed early in the morning. Wait Time and tide wait for none. Departed We should pray for our departed friends and relatives. Strength Union is strength. Produce A barren land produces nothing. Q: 4 Fill in the blanks. i) Angels are knocking at your door. ii) They cannot wait for you. iii) They will not come back after their departure. iv) The athlete loses his strength by taking too much rest. v) Fragment means separate or in a part. Q: 5 Ask five advantages from your class fellow about early rising Ans: 1. It is said that early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise. 2. An early riser has the best time to pray to God and he is blessed with His blessings. 3. He can enjoy a morning walk. 4. He can make a preparation for his daylong activities at proper time. 5. He has enough time to do all his work of the day in time and properly. .

Lesson No. 19 - Two Wedding Ceremonies

Two Wedding Ceremonies


Farah looked out of the car window. The entire front of the house was illuminated with colourful lights and tube lights were erected all along the pathway. Rows of Cars on both sides of the road, extending a furlong away form the main gate, made it much easier to find the house, and Farah's father did not lose his way at all. After alighting from the car, they walked down the road and reached the gate. The male hosts were standing ready to receive their guests. The Barat had not yet arrived and young men with garlands and flowers were lining the pathway on both sides. Near the house itself, rows of young girls dressed in gold and solver and bright eye catching colours, holding flower petals in 0baskets, were waiting for the Barat. Soon the Barat arrived. Each woman was loaded with Jewellery around her neck, on her head, in her ears, on forearms and fingers. Farah started feeling uncomfortable. She looked around to find a quit corner but all the seats except the one next to her had been taken. There were over five hundred men, women and children gathered for that wedding. She saw a young woman coming to sit next to her. The women was dressed simply. She instantly began taking to Farah and asked her where she had come from. Farah told her that she was born and brought up abroad come to Pakistan for the first time in her life. Her mother had died when she was three and her father had sent her to a private residential School. He had however taken the responsibility of her religious education himself. On completing, High School, she had decided to visit Pakistan, the birth place of her father. The young lady inquired whether she had seen display of the dowry. Farah said that she hadnt." Tell me what is given as dowry and why? Farah asked the lady. "Oh well Said the woman, Silk dresses, sets of jeweler, pairs of shoes and sets of bed linen and a fully furnished house with a car." The lady explained the dowry items that had just been display. "Has the groom so much money to be able to buy all this?"Farah asked No! No! You've got it all wrong," The lady clarified." The bride's parent have given their daughter all this so that she might live comfortably and have no financial problems after marriage.Farah was surprised. It took her sometime to compose herself. Then she asked very quietly, "Is this what all parents of the bride have to give to their daughters? The young woman told her that only rich people could give all these to their daughters. Farah shut her eyes and rested her head on the back of the chair, "Alas! If people {SAWW} married his daughter Hazrat Fatima {RA} to Hazrat Ali {RA}.How simple, sacred and holy the ceremony must have looked, she thought to herself. The gathering must have consisted of only close relatives and dear friends. She had read in her Islamic history that the groom had sold his armor to purchase some essentials of daily use, like a prayer mat, a grinding stone, a sleeping mat, a pitcher for water, some cooking utensils and a pair of clothes for the bride. The Holy Prophet (SAWW) had entertained his guests with dates and milk. After the Nikah Ceremony, the Holy Prophet (SAWW) had addressed his daughter thus, "Fatima, remember, never leave the house without your husband's consent". And to Hazrat Ali (RA) he said, "treat your wife with love and care and be not harsh, for harshness destroys matrimonial bliss". Saying this, he had allowed them to go their home.

Farah was not happy at all on this grand show. She wished that instead of wasting it on pomp and show, the Muslims would spend their money for the benefit of the poor and the needy. They should take steps to spread knowledge and wipe out ignorance and do something to relieve the pain of the ailing and the disables. They should support the orphans, widows and prisoners of war with the wealth that Allah had made them guardians of. Farah was convinced that if all the Muslims followed the model presented by the Holy Prophet (SAWW) and spent their wealth in doing good to the cause of humanity and Islam; this land could progress and prosper well. Words - Meaning Illuminate - throw light on Inquire - as to be told Compose - put ideas in literary form Convince - realize Display - Show Dowry - property/money brought by a bride Bliss - great joy Consent - give agreement Ail - trouble EXERCISES Q: 1 Use these words in your own sentences. Illuminated, extending, inquired, compose, convinced, display, dowry, consent, bliss Illuminated The house was illuminated with lights. Extending Rows of cars on both sides of the road, extending a furlong away from the main gate. Inquired They inquired about his patient's health. Compose He is composing a new message in a word processor. Convinced We are convinced of his guilt. Display Do not display your weaknesses on others. Dowry Dowry is an amount of money or property given in some societies by a bride's family to her bridegroom or his family when she marries. Consent As soon as they met Ali, the girls parents consented to the marriage. Ail The government is trying to recover the ailing industry of the country. Bliss It was bliss to have a day at home. Q: 2 Pronunciations and Spelling: In some words is pronounced as (k) before a/o/u

Can, come, congregation, consent, Cot, country, consistency, camp, Cut, community, complex, confide, Cultivate, contact, car, compose, Consult, curtain, candle, commodities In other words is pronounced (s) City, cereal, cylinder, Cycle, celebrate, cyclone, Century, cell, cynic Q: 3 Answer the following questions: i) Where was Farah born and bred? Ans: Farah was born and bred abroad. ii) Who took the responsibility of her religious education? Ans: Her father took the responsibility of her religious education. iii) Why was she surprised and displeased with the ceremony? Ans: She was surprised to see the display of wealth and displeased to see how it was against the Islamic values. iv) Compare and contrast the two wedding ceremonies described? Ans: The present marriage ceremony was a show of wealth and monetary values whereas the other ceremony was simple, sacred and holy. Q: 4(a) Give the contracted forms of the following words e.g. I am, I'm. i) I am, I was not, I did not I'm, I wasn't, I didn't ii) You are, You could not, You must not You're, You couldn't, You mustn't iii) We are, We will not, We have not We're, We won't, We haven't iv) They are, They should not, They ought not They're, They shouldn't, They oughtn't Q: 4(b) Construct sentences with the following expressions: Hard and fast This school has hard and fast rules to govern the behaviour of its students. By and large He is by and large a thorough gentleman. Ups and downs I have seen many ups and downs in life. Heaven and earth I shall move heaven and earth to help you. Black and white He gave his explanation in black and white. Q:5 Choose one word from the list and fill in the blanks. Heir, graduate, catastrophe, charwoman, guest, acquaintance, play, draper, astrologer, geologist i) A scene or even performed on a stage is a play. ii) A person who succeeds another in the possession of title or property is an heir.

iii) A great and sudden misfortune is a catastrophe. iv) A person who is entertained at one's home is a guest. v) A person whom one knows casually is a acquaintance. vi) A person who holds a university degree is a graduate. vii) A person who studies the influence of stars on human beings is an astrologer. viii) A woman employed to clean out offices or houses is a cleaver-women. ix) A person who deals in clothes and other fashions is a draper. x) A person who studies rocks is a geologist. Q:6(a) Re-write each sentence inserting an adverbs in the appropriate position. Example: He could (hardly) keep awake. i) He could complete his work. (hardly) Ans: He could hardly complete his work. ii) They are a snobbish couple. (very) Ans: They are a very snobbish couple. iii) His father lost his temper. (almost) Ans: His father almost lost his temper. iv) The test must have been very easy, the weakest students passed. (even) Ans: The test must have been very easy, even the weakest students passed. v) I think he is frightened, not hurt. (only) Ans: I think he is only frightened, not hurt. Q:6(b) Supply the correct tense (Present, Past, or Past Pe,fect): Example: She (go) away every week-end. She goes away every week end. i) He (go) abroad last week. Ans: He went abroad last week. ii) No, he isn't here. He just (go) out. Ans: No, he isn't here. He has just went out. iii) He (go) downstairs when I (meet) him. Ans: He was going downstairs when I met him. iv) The boy never (see) the sea. Ans: The boy has never seen the sea. v) He has already (write) a lot of letters, but his sister not (write) any. Ans: He has already written a lot of letters, but his sister has not written any. vi) I (hope) he (get better now, I (hear) he (have) a bad cold all week. Ans: I hope he will get better now, I heard he had a bad cold all the week. vii) He (live) in England since 1938. Ans: He has been living in England since 1938. viii) When I last (see) him, he (live) in London. Ans: When I last saw him, he was living in London. ix) He (sit) in the garden when the storm (break). Ans: He was sitting in the garden, when the storm broke. x) I (hear) the news last night, but I (not hear) it today. Ans: I heard the news last night, but I have not heard it today. xi) "You (read) that book yet? "No, I only just (begin) it". Ans: "Have you read the book yet?" No, I have only begun it now. xii) I (see) that you (buy) a new hat. How much you (pay) for it? Ans: I see that you have bought a new hat. How much have you paid for it. xiii) My elder brother (join) the army when he (be) seventeen. Ans: My elder brother joined the army when he was only seventeen.

xiv) He (continue) his training there for a time, and soon (become) an officer. Ans: He continued his training there for a time and soon became an officer. Q:6 Make sentences with the following idiomatic phrases. Bombarded her Many questions bombarded Farah's mind. A quiet corner She sat in a quiet corner. Had been taken Every seat had been taken in the cinema hall. Born and bred Farah was born and bred abroad. Knitted his brows My friend knitted his brows at my answer. Q:7 Answer the following question. Should a lot of money be spent on pomp and show at a wedding ceremony or should it be solemnized in a simple way? Write your views. Ans: Lot of money should not be spent on pomp and show at a wedding ceremony. The wedding ceremony should be solemnized in a simple way. The pomp and show is hated in society of European, Easter or Western. In Europe wedding ceremony is so simple. The girl has a ring from her husband as a gift and the priest performs this ceremony. In Iran and as well as such countries the wedding ceremony is so simple. Everyone has a cup of tea or cold drink only at the ceremony spot. In Islam the wedding ceremony should be simple such as our Holy Prophet (SAWW) started this ceremony in a simple and solemnized manner of his loving daughter Hazrat Fatima (R.A.). Only milk, dates were delivered to the guests which were few in number. If we have a pomp and show in wedding ceremony we shall be burdened with loans. The anxiety will occur and the mind will indulge in tensions. Rich people also like solemnized wedding ceremony but they cannot get rid from affections. They will not show to others but internally, they like solemnized wedding events. .

Lesson No. 20 - My Mother

My Mother
(Ann Taylor) Who sat and watched my infant head, When sleeping on my cradle bed And tears of sweet affection shed? My Mother. Who dressed me in clothes nice and gay And fondly taught me how to play And minded all I had to say? My Mother Who ran to help me when I feel, And would some pretty story tell, Or kiss my head to make me well My Mother And can I ever cease to be Affectionate and kind to thee, Who was so very kind to me, My Mother When thou art feeble, old and grey My healthy arm shall be thy stay And I will soothe thy pains away My Mother Word Meanings . Cradle An infant's bed esp. on rockers Affection Love, good feelings Fondly Caress Minded Inclined to do or heed to Cease Come or bring to an end, to stop Feeble Weak, lacking energy Stay Support Soothe To comfort, calm

Notes: The poetess expresses her deep love for her mother. She is telling herself that it was her mother who was always with her and who watched her when as a child she dozed off to sleep in her cradle. The mother dressed her up in nice and gay clothes and played with her when the poetess was a small child. The mother attentively listened to all that she talked and had to say to her. The mother told her a nice story and kissed her forehead when the chilled fell and hurt herself. There is no end to the love and care that the mother has given to her when she was small and was growing up. She says she can never think of being less affectionate and kind to her mother. When her mother is old, feeble and weak, the poetess feels that it is her duty to look after her and comfort her in her healthy strong arms. Thee, thou, thy are poetic expression, used in old English for second persons. Thee ) you Thou ) you Thou are : you are Thy : your Thine : yours Questions 1. What are poetess feelings about her mother as a small child? Ans: When she was a small child, her mother loved her dearly. When she was an infant and slept soundly in a cradle, her mother sat near the cradle and watched her. She kissed her forehead and shed the tears of love. 2. What all does she remember about her mother's care when she fell? Ans: The poetess ever remember about her mother's care when she fell. She ran and lifted her. She loved her and encouraged her. She told her a beautiful story. She kissed her forehead to make her well. 3. How is the poetess planning to treat her mother in her old age? Ans: Her mother brought her up very dearly and kindly. She looked after her carefully. Now she is old, feeble and weak. The poetess feels that it is her duty to serve her mother carefully. She loved her mother dearly and wants to comfort her. She wants to support her weak body with her strong arms. 4. Express your feelings about your mother or father in a short essay of 200 words. Double negatives: Ans: My Mother The word "Mother" means her, affection, sympathy, devotion and an unselfish companion, a soothing figure, a consoling body. My mother, my dear mother is the symbol of all these qualities. When I was a small child she loved me dearly. She protected me against every harmful thing or action. She taught me how to walk and talk. Whenever I bean to weep due to any reason she loved me, kissed my forehead and did every thing to comfort me till I stopped weeping. Once I fell ill

and could not sleep for three nights, she passed those three sleep9less and restless nights with me. She looked after and nursed me till I recovered. She prayed to God for my recovery. She told me beautiful stories to comfort me in my trouble. She gave me delicious and nourishing food to eat. She dressed me up in nice and gay clothes. There is no end to the love and care that the mother had given to me when I was a small child. She brought me up lovely and kindly. She taught me good manners of life. Now I am a grown up school going boy. She wakes me up early in the morning. She sends me to the mosque for Fajir prayers. She prepares my breakfast and I reach school in time. She helps me in doing my homework. She does my many works. I love my dear mother very much. I have determined that when my mother will be old, I will serve her whole heartedly and I will obey her every order. May my mother live long! Double Negatives: Words containing NO or NOT are called negatives. Example: No, not, nobody, nothing, nowhere, none, none, not ever. Note: Two negatives should never be used together in the same sentence. Examples: Wrong: He did not tell me nothing about her. Right: He did not tell me anything about her. Or He told me nothing about her. EXERCISES Q:1 Choose the correct word from the pair given below to complete each sentence. Example: 1. nothing, anything (a) Javed did not tell his father anything about it. (b) Javed told his father nothing about it. 2. Nowhere, anywhere (a) We could not find the book anywhere. (b) The book was nowhere to be found. 3. nothing, anything (a) The passenger did not pay the coolie anything for his help. (b) The passenger paid the coolie nothing for his help. 4. Never, ever. (a) Don't you ever get tired of sewing clothes? (b) Do you never get tired of sewing clothes? 5. No, any (a) There is't any food left on the table. (b) There is no food left on the table.

6. Nobody, anybody (a) We did't see anybody in the house. (b) We saw nobody in the house. 7. None, any (a) I asked Rafia for five rupees but she had none. (b) I asked Rafia for five rupees but she hadn't any. 8. no one, anyone (a) We can't trust anyone these days. (b) We can trust no one these days. 9. no, any (a) I looked every where but could't find any book stall. (b) I looked every where but could find no book stall. Proverb: A short condensed saying in general use person or thing that is widely known. Learn these proverbs and their meanings. Charity begins at home - Be kind to relatives before showing kindness to strangers. What is sauce for the goose is sauce for the gander - One person should be entitled to the same treatment as another person. It is never too late to mend - However old a person is, it is not too late for him to reform. Every cloud has a silver lining - However dark the present may seem the future holds something brighter. A bird in hand is worth two in the bush It is wiser to accept an offer now than to depend on a better offer you may have in the future. Answer the following questions. Q:1 What has every clod got? What does this proverb mean? Ans: Every cloud has a silver lining. The proverb means, however dark the present may seem, the future holds something brighter. Q:2 Where does charity begin? Ans: Charity begins at home. Q:3 What is worth two in the bush? Ans: One in hand is worth two in the bush. .

Lesson No. 21 - The Great Leader

THE GREAT LEADER QUAID-E-AZAM MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH


The 20th century has seen a number of great personalities on the international political scene. None of them is equal to Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah in intellect and honesty of purpose. It was by sheer force of his personality, his firm determination and solid resolution that Quaid-eAzam was able to carve out Pakistan on the map of the world. Nothing could keep back our Quaid from his resolve to transform the thought of Iqbal into reality, for every body knew that the Quaid always meant what he said. Muhammad Ali Jinnah entered polities when he was made the Secretary of Dadabhai Naoroji in the annual session of the All India Congress which was presided over by Dadabhai himself. His reputation as an outstanding lawyer had been fully established when he became a Presidency Magistrate in 1900. When in England studying for law, Muhammad Ali Jinnah never wasted any spare time he had. Instead he spent his time reading books on law and others subjects. He led a life of diligence, discipline and deep study. He particularly studied the lives of great men. He listened attentively and with a receptive mind the political debates and proceedings whenever the Parliament was in session. The Quaid was a man of great and rare qualities of head and heart. He was a symbol of integrity and honesty. Even his worst enemies admitted that the Quaid was unpurchaseable. This quality not only endeared him to his own people but also won him the respect and admiration of his opponents. Our great lender had great qualities. He was fearless and courageous. Everybody knew that he always meant what he said. Once he took a decision, he stood by it, no matter whatever the difficulties in the way. The creation of Pakistan is a testimony to his courage of his conviction. The Quaid never compromised over principles. The motto of the Quaid, "Unity, Faith, Discipline" enabled the Muslims to achieve their goal against the combined and staunch opposition of the British Rule and the Hindu Majority. The scheme of a separate Muslim state in the Indian sub-continent appeared not only to be a dream but a vague idea. It was also bitterly opposed. But it was Quaid-e- Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah who translated the dream of Allama Iqbal in to reality by his strong determination. With every day passing in the struggle for Pakistan, the Quaid rose in the estimation of his people. It was the magic spell of his personality that he emerged as the most powerful and undisputed leader of the Muslims of the subcontinent. To free the Muslims form the British and Hindu rule, he worked hard day and night, despite of his failing health. But he abundant wealth of confidence and will-power. He was an excellent orator who could keep his audience spellbound for hours together. He argued his case for an independent state for the Muslims with such mastery of language that even the opponents were convinced by his forceful arguments. The demand for a separate homeland for the Muslims was a expression of the deepest emotions of their political and cultural identity whose roots lie embedded in the state of Madina founded by

Prophet Muhammad {SAWW). The Quaid had a clear concept of Islam as a code of life. He said in an interview to a British journalist, Beverley Nicholas, Islam is not a religious doctrine, but a realistic code of conduct in term of every day and everything important in life; our history, our laws and our jurisprudence. In all these things our outlook is not only fundamentally different but it is opposed to the Hindus. There is nothing in life that links us together. Our names, our clothes, our food, our festivals, our rituals, they are all different. Our economic life, our educational ideas, our treatment of women, our attitude to animals, our humanitarian consideration are very different''. Addressing a Muslims League Convention, the Quaid said, ''What are we fighting for? What are aiming at? It is not a theocracy-nor a theocratic state. Religion is there and it is dear to us. There are other things which are very vital; our social life, our economic life and without political power, how can you defend your faith and your economic life? "Pakistan should be based on sure foundations of social justice and Islamic socialism which emphasizes equality and brother hood of man," the Quaid said on an occasion when he was delivering a speech in Chittagong in March ,1948. Quaid-e-Azam took great interest in the formation and progress of the Muslims Students Federation. His advice to the students after Pakistan came into being was, Now that you have achieved your goal, you have a Government of your own and country which belongs to you and in which you can live as free men. Your responsibilities and your approach to the political, social and economic problems must also change. The duties required of you are; develop a sound sense of discipline, character, initiative and a solid academic background. You must devote yourself wholeheartedly to your studies, for that is your first obligation to yourself, your parents and to the State." In his address to the students of Islamia College Peshawar in April,1948 he said" Remember that your Government is like your garden which flourishes by the way you look after it and the efforts you put toward for its improvement. Similarly your Governments can only flourish by your patriotic, honest and constructive efforts to improve it .." "You must learn to distinguish between your love for your Province and your love and duty to the State as a whole. Our duty to the State takes us a stage beyond provincialism. It demands a broader sense of vision and greater sense of patriotism. Our duty to the state often demands that we must be ready to submerge our individual and provincial interests into the common case for common good. Our duty to the state comes first and our duty to our province, our district, our town and to our village and to ourselves comes next.'' Remember we are building up a state which is going to play its full part in the destinies of the whole Islamic World. We, therefore, need a wider out look which will cross the provincial boundaries, limited nationalism and racialism. We must develop a sense of patriotism which should bind us all into one united and strong nation". "That is the only way in which we can achieve our goal: the goal of our struggle, the goal for which millions of Mussulmans have lost their all and laid down their lives for the cause of Islam and Pakistan." Quaid's motto, "Work, Work, and Work" is a call to wake us up from slumber and work hard to achieve national goals. It is the earnest desire of every Pakistani to see Pakistan attaining the stature visualized by our great leader, Quaid-e-Azam. Each one of us should try and act upon the golden principles the Quaid gave to the nation and follow him in his footsteps and thus obtain for Pakistan a respectable and dignified place in the comity of nations.

EXERCISES
. Q:1 Answer the following questions. . i) What is the meaning of the Quaid's motto? Ans: The meaning of Quaid's motto is that we should be united, have faith in our God and be a disciplined. . ii) What did the Quaid say in an interview to Beverley Nicholas? Ans: In his interview the Quaid said, "Islam is not only a religious doctrine but also a complete code of conduct in life." . iii) What did he say while addressing a Muslim League Convention? Ans: While addressing a Muslim League Convention he said, "We are not fighting for theocracy. In addition to religion we want better, social and economic life. . iv) How can we make Pakistan great? Ans: We can make Pakistan great by forging national unity and by overcoming individual and provincial differences. . v) What is the role of the students in the progress of our country? Ans: The duties of the students are that they should develop a sound sense of discipline, character with a solid academic background. . i) What advice did the Quaid give to the Muslim Students Federation? Ans: His advice to students was, "You are free now, so you should change your approach to political and economic problems. . ii) Give a sketch of Quaid-e-Azam's character. Ans: The Quaid-e-Azam was one of th e greatest leaders of the 20th century. He had no equal in intellect and honesty of purpose. He had a forceful personality. He was a man of dogged determination. He meant whatever he said. He was a man of rare qualities of head and heart. He was fearless and courageous. Once he took a decision he stood by it whatever the difficulties in the way. He was a symbol of integrity and honesty. He was unpurchaseable. His motto was, "Unity, Faith and Discipline." He believed in work, work and more work. . Q:2 Change the following passage into the present tense. . The Quaid was a man of great and rare qualities of head and heart. He was a symbol of integrity and honesty. Even his worst enemies admitted that the Quaid was unpurchaseable. This quality not only endeared him to his own people but also won him the respect and admiration of his opponents. . Ans: The Quaid is a man of great and rare qualities of head and heart. He is a symbol of integrity and honesty. Even his worst enemies admits that the Quaid is unpurchaseable. This quality not only endears him to his own people but also wins him the respect and admiration of his opponents. . Q:3 Make Nouns from the following words: Example: achieve achievement .

Words ........................................... Noun Develop .......................................... Development Create .................................................. Creation Youthful ...................................Youth/Youthfulness Destroy ............................................. Destruction Advise ...................................................... Advice Strong .................................................... Strength Happy .................................................. Happiness Provincial .......................................... Provincialism Live ............................................................. Life Political .................................................... Politics Social .................................................... Socialism Q:4 Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions: For, to, with, up and into. . i) Even a child knows that a Muslim stand for Pakistan. . ii) You will agree with me. . iii) You must devote yourself to your studies. . iv) We have to mould our people into a well organized and solid nation. . v) If you want to build up yourself into a nation, for God's sake give up this provincialism. . Q:5 For each word in list 'A' choose a word similar in meaning from list 'B'. For example separate apart, are similar in meaning: . List 'A' ........................................... List 'B' ................................................ List 'C' Create ........................................ Liberty ........................... Make something new Separate ................................ Make something new ........................ Apart Fundamental ........................ Energetic ................................... Basic High ...................................... Respect ...................................... Tall Active ............................................. Tall ............................................. Energetic Freedom ..................................... Basic ........................................... Liberty Famous ................................... Well known ................................. Well known Honour .................................. Apart ................................... Respect . Q:6 Punctuation: . Its, It's 'its' means belonging to it. Example: The baby has lost its doll. The cat is eating its dinner. "It's" is short for 'it is' or 'it has' Example: It's a long way from here. (It is a long way) It's been a very hot summer. (It has been) . Now, rewrite the following passages by putting in apostrophe (') where necessary. "Hello, Saleem, its nice to see you again. Its been a long time since we last met. How are you"?

Im very well. Thank you, Akmal, But my dog isn't very well. Its burnt its foot and I am taking it to the veterinary hospital. "Yes, I can see that its limping. Look, its holding u its paw for me to see!" "Where is the veterinary hospital, Saleem? I knows its somewhere near here". "Yes, its just in the next street. Come on, Ill take you". "Thank you, Saleem: Its very kind of you. . Ans: 'Hello, Saleem, it's nice to see you again. It's been a long time since we last met. How are you"? I'm very well. Thank you, Akmal. But my dog isn't very well. It's burnt its foot and I am taking it to the veterinary hospital. "Yes, I can see that it's limping. Look, it's holding up its paw for me to see!" "Where is the veterinary hospital, Saleem? I know it's somewhere near here". "Yes, it's just in the next street. Come on, I'll take you". "Thank you, Saleem. It's very kind of you. . Consult your dictionary to find out meanings of these words: . Words ..................................... Meanings (In Urdu) ... Resolution ......................................... Irada, Qarardar Carve ................................................. Kuraidna, kandah karna Transform ......................................... Tabdeel ho jana ya karna Diligence ............................................ Mehnat Rare ................................................... Kamyab Endear ............................................... Pasand Karna Opponents ........................................ Mukhalfeen Testimony ......................................... Saboot, Shahadat Compromise ...................................... Soday bazi karna, man jana Convictions ........................................ Yaqeen, Irada, qanooni saza Concept .............................................. Nazarya, Mafhoom Initiative ............................................

Koi kam ibtada karnay ki salahyet Emphasis ........................................... Zor, dabao Patriotism .......................................... Hubbulwatni Visualize ............................................. Sochna, Zehen mai khaka tayar karma Comity ................................................ Majlis, Jamat, Giroh .

Creative writing:

. Q:8 "Write a essay on "A Great Leader:. . Ans: A Great Leader Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah is the founder of Pakistan. He was a great leader and undaunting politician. He was born in Karachi on December 25, 1876. After his early education in Karachi and Bombay, he went to England for higher education. He distinguished himself over there and returned to India as a barrister. He started law practice in Bombay. In a short time, he became one of the best lawyers of India. He joined Congress and worked for Hindu Muslim unity. Later on, when he came to know that Hindu leaders were narrow minder, he left Congress and joined Muslim League. He worked hard for the good of the Muslims and organized them. On March 23, 1940 the Muslim League passed a resolution demanding separate homeland for the Muslims of India. It is known as Pakistan Resolution. As a result of his struggle, Pakistan appeared on the map of the world on August 14, 1947. He took oath as the first Governor General of Pakistan. His health went down day by day due to his overwork. He died on September 11, 1948. May God shower his blessings upon him (Amen). . Q:9 Read the text rapidly to look for particular items of information as asked below. . After a long struggle under the banner of the All India Muslim League, Pakistan became an independent state on 14th August 1947 with Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah as the leader. Pakistan became Sovereign Republic on March 23, 1956. Muslims, Hindu, Christians, Buddhists and people of Scheduled castes live in Pakistan. Majority are Muslims. The National language of Pakistan is Urdu. The official language is, however, English. In addition, a number of regional languages are spoken, e.g. Punjabi, Pushto, Sindhi, Balochi and Saraiki. . Answer Orally: i) When did Pakistan become a Sovereign Republic? Ans: Pakistan became a sovereign republic on March 23, 1956.

. ii) What religions do the majority of people follow? Ans: The majority of people follow 'Islam'. . iii) What is the official language of Pakistan? Ans: The official language of Pakistan is, 'English'. . iv) Name a few regional languages spoken in Pakistan. Ans: Punjabi, Pushto, Sindhi, Balochi and Saraiki. . v) Give a suitable title to the passage. Ans: The suitable title to the passage is, "Pakistan".

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