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Week 1 Grammar

Parts of Sentences Types of Sentences Phrases and Clauses Sentence Structure 8 Parts of Speech - Nouns and Noun Functions

Sentences  A sentence is a group of words with a complete thought. They begin with a capital letter and ends with a punctuation. It can be a statement or a question. The punctuations we use in a complete sentence are period (.), question mark (?) and exclamation points (!). Examples: 1. The child studies English every day. 2. What is the child reading? 3. Thank you! Activity: Look and identify if the sentences are written correctly. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. john is tired today. Stars are visible at night. I am busy. is she busy? Goats eat grass. She cries very loud My father works in his office at night the cup is broken We do not fight often. Are you sick

Subject and Predicate The subject and predicate are often described as a topic and a comment, what is being talked about (the subject) and what is being said about it (the predicate). Subject - is commonly at the beginning of the sentence. - is commonly a noun or a noun phrase - is the topic of the sentence Predicate - follows the subject - starts with a verb that shows action or state - shows thought about the subject Look at these sentences and see the subject and predicate. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. All the children are happy. Some cats are sleeping. The dog is inside the house. My mother is cooking. My father is working.

The words in bold letters are the subjects while the underlined words are the predicate. Look at these complete sentences. To check if the sentence is complete, change it into a yes/no question. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Are all the children happy? Are some cats sleeping? Is the dog inside the house? Is my mother cooking? Is my father working? Does Anne read books? Do my parents travel abroad? Does Sean eat vegetables?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

All the children are happy. Some cats are sleeping. The dog is inside the house. My mother is cooking. My father is working. Anne reads books. My parents travel abroad. Sean eats vegetables.

Identify the subject and predicate of the sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. James plays basketball. Allen is studying his lessons. The children are noisy. My bag is full. The big house is empty. The laptop is new. Most of the visitors are his friends from school. The wedding is simple.

9. We buy groceries at e-mart. 10. They visit Jack every day at the hospital. Are these sentences complete? Change them into questions answerable by yes or no. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The new teacher is kind. My friends are all from Daegu. Kimchi is a healthy food. Junkfood is delicious. The mall is open at 9:30 in the morning.

Types of Sentences a. Declarative - A declarative sentence makes a statement. A declarative sentence ends with a period. Example: The house will be built on a hill. b. Interrogative - An interrogative sentence asks a question. An interrogative sentence ends with a question mark. Example: How did you find the card? c. Exclamatory - An exclamatory sentence shows strong feeling. An exclamatory sentence ends with an exclamation mark. Example: The monster is attacking! d. Imperative - An imperative sentence gives a command. Example: Cheryl, try the other door. Sometimes the subject of an imperative sentence (you) is understood. Example: Look in the closet. (You, look in the closet.) Four Types of Sentences Directions: Identify each type of sentence and explain your answer. Types of Sentences: declarative, imperative, exclamatory, and interrogative. 1. The students wanted to go on a field trip. Type: ________________________ 2. Can we go to the Adventureville Theme Park? Type: ________________________ 3. Be good for the next two weeks. Type: ________________________ 4. The students were rewarded with a fieldtrip. Type: ________________________

5. We are so excited about going to Adventureville! Type: ________________________ 6. How far away is the park from the school and what time do we have to come home? Type: ________________________ 7. But, the park is three hours away from the school and we ll have to be back by 3:00 for the busses! Type: ________________________ 8. Quit asking questions and just be happy. Type: ________________________ 9. What time are we leaving? Type: ________________________ 1. The students wondered why they were going to Adventureville. Type: ________________________ Phrases and Clauses I. Phrases A Phrase is a group of words which has no subject and no predicate of its own but gives some meaning on its own and is a part of a large group of words which is a clause or a sentence. A group of words that is missing either a subject or missing the matching verb or both.

Example: Jane is standing at the table near the window. at the table = a phrase near the window = a phrase In this sentence at the table is a phrase: it gives us some idea where Jane is standing, but on its own it cannot give us complete sense, in other words, without the other group of words Jane is standing , we cannot understand what this group of words stands for. Examples: - the ancient oak tree (missing a verb) - hitting the window (missing a subject and verb) - on a jet plane (missing a subject and verb) Review Activity Look at these sentences and identify the phrases. 1. 2. 3. 4. Children cry too loud sometimes. My brother keeps talking on the phone when he comes home. I stay in the library to study in silence. My house is near the school I attend to.

5. My table is near my bed. 6. The computer virus destroyed the program. 7. The class starts in the afternoon. 8. There are some rules I need to follow. 9. She lied to her teacher about the homework. 10. I was too busy to finish cleaning my room. II. Clauses

Sentences can be broken down into clauses. For example: The boy is going to the school, and he is going to eat there. y y This is a complete sentence composed of two clauses. There are mainly two types of clauses: independent clauses and subordinate clauses.

Independent clauses act as complete sentences, while subordinate clauses (dependent clauses) cannot stand alone and need another clause to complete their meaning. For example: Independent clause: The boy went to the school. Subordinate clause: After the boy went to the school There are two basic kinds of clauses.
y y

Independent Clauses Dependent Clauses

An independent clause has a subject and a verb and it can stand on its own, serving as a complete sentence. A Dependent Clause has a subject and a verb but it cannot stand on its own. It needs an independent clause. Before I went to school, I ate some breakfast. Dependent clauses often begin with words such as before, after, while, during, when, because, if, etc. Knowing how to use clauses will provide more options for you to express yourself. You can also say.... I ate some breakfast before I went to school. Review Activity 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The class ended after we prayed. Lenny studies English while she eats her snacks. My books are in good condition because I take care of them well. We travel to other places before classes start in March. The workers get tired after working eight hours a day. Food is served while we wait. After we finish doing our homework, we can watch television.

8. Another member can join us but they need to wait. 9. We were late for the show because our car broke down. 10. The new car is expensive because it s a luxury car. Activity 1 Identify the underlined words whether it s a phrase or a clause. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Some children go to school early. The teachers gave tests to check their levels. My mother sent me to school after we ate breakfast. Allen lends me his books when he is done reading them. We visited the park last year. James plays basketball while I play football. The police officer called her parents when they saw him at the mall. There are three chocolate bars in the fridge for you. We booked four tickets and we plan to leave next week. I will spend six months in New York to study film making.

Activity 2 Identify the underlined clause whether it s an independent clause or a dependent clause. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. I plan to go abroad after I finish college. My parents said we need to leave soon after eating breakfast. These bags were stolen while the owners were taking their exams. The child cried because she was hungry. Sad movies make her cry but she feels better after eating chocolates. The lessons are easy after the teacher explain them. Some of my friends buy their things at the mall after they put it on sale. She left the house after we cleaned it. Playing baseball makes me feel good because I can exercise my body. Her stomachache worsened after she ate too much junk food.

Sentence Structure 1. SIMPLE SENTENCE

A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought. In the following simple sentences, subjects are in yellow, and verbs are in green. A. Some students like to study in the mornings. B. Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon. C. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day. The three examples above are all simple sentences. Note that sentence B contains a compound subject, and sentence C contains a compound verb. Simple sentences, therefore, contain a subject and verb and express a complete thought, but they can also contain a compound subjects or verbs.

2. COMPOUND SENTENCE A compound sentence contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator. The coordinators are as follows: for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Helpful hint: The first letter of each of the coordinators spells FANBOYS.) Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma. In the following compound sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the coordinators and the commas that precede them are in red. A. I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English. B. Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping. C. Alejandro played football, for Maria went shopping. Activity Review: Identify whether it s a simple or compound sentences. 1. The food was cooked today. 2. We celebrate Christmas together with my family. 3. My name is Andre, and he is called Emilio. 4. Lex and Donna play piano at the music school. 5. I like to study English, but I think Spanish is much easier. 6. The program starts at 10:30 in the morning. 7. The kitchen and the living room are clean. 8. I went to the office with my mother yesterday. 9. She works at home because she doesn t like to go out. 10. The traffic was very heavy today, yet I was not late for school. 11. The new grammar program is difficult but very interesting. 12. Social network may be fun, but I do not find it necessary. 13. I can go to the supermarket or the mall today. 14. She can go to the supermarket, or my mother can. 15. My classmates can come to my house, or her house to study. 16. Do you want me to turn on the television, or we just go to bed early? 17. It was raining, so I stayed in my room and read a novel the whole afternoon. 18. She was too late for school, so she needed to go to the office. 19. The new bicycle is for my brother. 20. He was upset, for his sister forgot the appointment.

3. COMPLEX SENTENCE A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. In the following complex sentences, subjects are in yellow, verbs are in green, and the subordinators and their commas (when required) are in red. A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page. B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error. C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. D. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies. E. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying. When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator such as sentences A and D, a comma is required at the end of the dependent clause. When the independent clause begins the sentence with subordinators in the middle as in sentences B, C, and E, no comma is required. If a comma is placed before the subordinators in sentences B, C, and E, it is wrong. Note that sentences D and E are the same except sentence D begins with the dependent clause which is followed by a comma, and sentence E begins with the independent clause which contains no comma. The comma after the dependent clause in sentence D is required, and experienced listeners of English will often hear a slight pause there. In sentence E, however, there will be no pause when the independent clause begins the sentence. Review Activity Identify the sentences whether it s a complex sentence or not. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Because it was raining so hard, we decided to leave the camp early. Although the tests were very difficult, he managed to perfect everything. Ernesto joined the team, for Sean was annoying him. Since we arrived at the park earlier than planned, we took a walk around it before eating lunch. Shin studied his bachelor s degree in Korea, and he went to New York to study his master s degree. Min composes music, but he does not sing. Lord Voldemort was so evil that he killed a lot of witches and wizards. Harry and his friends tried to stop Lord Voldemort who was spreading evil in the world. My cousin buys Harry Potter book series, but he gives it away when he is done reading it. The baby broke the vase which I bought yesterday. I saw the boy who I spoke with yesterday. They ate the food that I left in the fridge yesterday.



Finally, sentences containing adjective clauses (or dependent clauses) are also complex because they contain an independent clause and a dependent clause. The subjects, verbs, and subordinators are marked the same as in the previous sentences, and in these sentences, the independent clauses are also underlined. A. The woman who(m) my mom talked to sells cosmetics. B. The book that Jonathan read is on the shelf. C. The house which Abraham Lincoln was born in is still standing. D. The town where I grew up is in the United States. Review Activity Let s study these sentences. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. The house which was built after World War I is preserved by the architects. These pets that my grandfather takes care of are exotic. My teacher gave us a lesson that I learned a few years ago. The TOEIC tests which I took two years ago were a requirement for my job. The woman who I accidentally bumped into yesterday is our new class adviser.

Review Activity Let s try matching these sentences. Nouns/Adjective Clause 1. Swimming 2. The dogs 3. These cars 4. The stories 5. The teachers 6. The new movies 7. Countries 8. Singers 9. Baseball players 10. Inventions 11. Scientists 12. Doctors 13. Patients 14. The soldiers 15. The computer programs A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. who fought during the Korea War that he fed tonight which he rented from the video shops that my father created that are dangerous who won the Nobel Prize who died from tuberculosis that are from Hyundai who were introduced to us today who are popular in Korea who treat their patients well which he read to me when I was a child who are professionals which is a good form of exercise which are in the Asia Pacific region

Definition of A Noun Nouns are words that name a person, things, animals, places and situations. Examples: bag Luis Vuitton shirt Nike Noun-Gender 1. Masculine gender: A noun is said to be in the Masculine gender if it refers to a male character or member of a species. Man, lion, hero, boy, king, horse and actor are nouns of masculine gender. Example: A boy is playing in the play-ground. Hero of the movie is not a native of this country. In these sentences the words boy and hero are masculine-gender nouns. 2. Feminine gender: A noun is said to be in the feminine gender if it refers to a female member of a species. Woman, lioness, heroine, girl, mare, niece, empress, cow and actress are few of the feminine-gender nouns that we use. Example: A girl is playing in the play-ground. Heroine of the movie is not a native of this country. In these sentences the words girl and heroine are feminine-gender nouns. 3. Common gender: A noun is said to be in Common gender if it refers to a member of species which can be a male or a female. Child, student, friend, applicant, candidate, servant, member, parliamentarian, and leader are few of the common-gender nouns. Example: A child is playing in the play-ground. A Parliamentarian should have command over his language. In these sentences the words, child and parliamentarian are nouns of common gender. 4. Neuter gender: A noun is said to be in the neuter gender if it refers to a member of a species which is neither a male nor a female. Normally nouns referring to lifeless objects are in neuter nouns. Chair, table, tree, star, mountain, street, book, car, school, paper, pencil and computer are few of the neuter nouns which we use regularly. country Thailand girl Maria man Mr. Shin books The Prophet school Harvard University hospital Samsung Hospital

Example: Computer has brought about drastic changes in our lives. Tree is cleansing the air. Stars are not visible in the day-time. Books are our best friends. In these sentences the words, computer , tree , stars and books are the neuter-gender nouns.

Types of Nouns
Common Nouns and Proper Noun Proper nouns are words that name a specific person, place, thing or idea. Proper nouns are capitalized so the reader can tell them apart from common nouns. Common nouns do not name a specific person, place, thing or idea. Common nouns are not capitalized unless they are at the beginning of a sentence or part of a title.

Countable Nouns and Uncountable Nouns/Mass Nouns Countable nouns are easy to recognize. They are things that we can count. For example: "pen". We can count pens. We can have one, two, three or more pens. Here are some more countable nouns:
y y y y y

dog, cat, animal, man, person bottle, box, litre coin, note, dollar cup, plate, fork table, chair, suitcase, bag

Countable nouns can be singular or plural:

y y

My dog is playing. My dogs are hungry.

We can use the indefinite article a/an with countable nouns:


A dog is an animal.

When a countable noun is singular, we must use a word like a/the/my/this with it:
y y

I want an orange. (not I want orange.) Where is my bottle? (not Where is bottle?)

When a countable noun is plural, we can use it alone:

y y

I like oranges. Bottles can break.

We can use some and any with countable nouns:

y y

I've got some dollars. Have you got any pens?

We can use a few and many with countable nouns:

y y

I've got a few dollars. I haven't got many pens.

Uncountable nouns are substances, concepts, feelings, and etc, that we cannot divide into separate elements. We cannot "count" them. For example, we cannot count "milk". We can count "bottles of milk" or "litres of milk", but we cannot count "milk" itself. Here are some more uncountable nouns:
y y y y y y

music, art, love, happiness advice, information, news furniture, luggage rice, sugar, butter, water electricity, gas, power money, currency

We usually treat uncountable nouns as singular. We use a singular verb. For example:
y y

This news is very important. Your luggage looks heavy.

We do not usually use the indefinite article a/an with uncountable nouns. We cannot say "an information" or "a music". But we can say a something of:
y y y

a piece of news a bottle of water a grain of rice

We can use some and any with uncountable nouns:

y y

I've got some money. Have you got any rice?

We can use a little and much with uncountable nouns:

y y

I've got a little money. I haven't got much rice.

Singular and Plural Nouns (Countable Nouns) Let s use this website to study singular and plural nouns, and the rules we use to change them. Concrete Nouns and Abstract Nouns Abstract Nouns - One class of nouns is abstract. Your five senses cannot detect this group of nouns. You cannot see them, hear them, smell them, taste them, or feel them. Concrete Nouns - Many nouns are concrete, not abstract. Concrete nouns register on your five senses. Abstract Nouns Concrete Nouns
deceit dedication curiosity trust relaxation the President teacher cat airplane bubble bath


Compound Nouns A compound noun is a noun that is made with two or more words. A compound noun is usually [noun + noun] or [adjective + noun], but there are other combinations (see below). It is important to understand and recognize compound nouns. Each compound noun acts as a single unit and can be modified by adjectives and other nouns. There are three forms for compound nouns: 1. open or spaced - space between words (tennis shoe) 2. hyphenated - hyphen between words (six-pack) 3. closed or solid - no space or hyphen between words (bedroom) Here are some examples of compound nouns: noun + noun bus stop fire-fly football adjective + noun full moon blackboard software verb(-ing) + noun breakfast swimming pool noun + verb(-ing) sunrise haircut train-spotting Is this the bus stop for the number 12 bus? In the tropics you can see fire-flies at night. Shall we play football today? I always feel crazy at full moon. Clean the blackboard please. I can't install this software on my PC. We always eat breakfast at 8am. What a beautiful swimming pool! I like to get up at sunrise. You need a haircut. His hobby is train-spotting.

washing machine Put the clothes in the red washing machine.

Noun Phrases A noun phrase is a word or group of words in a sentence that act like a noun. For example: I met Joan. - Joan is a noun. You could replace Joan with a group of words (a phrase) your sister." I met your sister. So we call it a noun phrase.

Additional noun phrases examples (the noun phrase is underlined): y All the kids were sleeping. y The boy in the blue jeans says he'll do it. y He bought her a beautiful red dress. y Mom baked tasty chocolate cookies. y Julia was thinking about her friends back home. y Will you talk with these rude people? y You are a true hero. y My dog is my best friend.

Noun Clauses A Noun-Clause is a group of words which contains a Subject and a Predicate of its own and does the work of a noun. Look at the following sentences. He expected to get a prize. He expected that he would get a prize. In the first sentence the group of words to get a prize does not have a subject and a predicate. This group of word does the work of a noun. Whereas in the second sentence, the group of words that he would get a prize , it has both a subject and a predicate. Here this group of words does the work of a noun. This is a clause. Since this group of words does the works of both a noun and a clause, it is calledNOUN-CLAUSE. How to make noun clauses:
There are three types of common noun clauses, which I'll eventually cover.

y That- clauses
He told me that they will study English. The parents agreed that English should be a part of their classes.

y If/whether clauses:
I don't know whether/if my students have studied English before. The teacher must determine if they are ready to study advance English.

y Wh- clauses that begin with words like who, what, how, whenever, which, etc?/font>
I don't know which pizza to order. He explained what dishes are available. Then, he explained how they made the pizza. He knows who cooked the pizza. Examples: I often wonder how you are getting on with him. He feared that he would fail. They replied that they would come to this town. Do you know who stole the watch? I thought that it would be a fine day. No one knows who he is. I did not know what he would do next. How the budget got in is a mystery. Pay careful attention to what I am going to say. I do not understand how it all happened. The Noun-Clauses can be replaced with suitable Nouns or with suitable Noun-Phrases. No one knows when he will come. (Noun-Clauses) No one knows the time of his coming. (Noun-Phrases) I heard that he had succeeded. (Noun-Clauses) I heard of his success. (Noun-Phrases) We will never know why he failed. (Noun-Clauses) We will never know the reason for his failure. (Noun-Phrases) The law will punish whosoever is guilty. (Noun-Clause) The law will punish the guilty. (Noun) The police want to know where he is living. (Noun-Clauses) The police want to know his residence. (Noun)

Review Activity 1 : Find the nouns in the sentences. A. Instructions: Circle the nouns in these sentences. Hint: there are 20. 1. The cat and the dog were playing in the park. 2. Misha plays the piano and the drums. 3. David said to take the cake, cookies, and cups to the picnic. 4.Danielle went to see the Avatar at the theater.

5. Love and peace are better than hate and war. 6.My family plays as a team. B. Instructions: Circle the proper nouns and underline the common nouns. . 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. To make cookies, mother need eggs, flour, sugar, and butter. Jose read The Giving Tree last week. Every Tuesday in June, my team goes to Sonic. Spongebob is my favorite show on television. Disneyland is a fun place to be with my friends and parents.

Answers A. cat, dog, park, Misha, piano, drums, David, cake, cookies, cups, picnic, Danielle, Avatar, theater, love, peace, hate, war, family, team. B. common nouns: cookies, eggs, flour, sugar, butter, week, team, show, television, place, friends, parents proper nouns: Mother, Jose, The Giving Tree, Tuesday, June, Sonic, Spongebob, Disneyland

C. Instructions: In each sentence a noun is underlined. Put A if it is abstract, and C if it is concrete. 1. ___ Democracy is the best kind of government. 2. ___ The baby beluga whale was just born. 3. ___ Curiosity killed the cat. 4. ___ Patience is a virtue. 5. ___ The school needed new desks. 6. ___ There is nothing to fear but fear itself. 7. ___ The Chinese culture is ancient. 8. ___ Yesterday, I saw a good movie. 9. ___ Trust is a two-way street. 10. ___ Eat your vegetables to stay healthy. D. Instructions: In each sentence a noun is underlined. Put C if it is a countable noun, U if it is uncountable. 1. ___ I really love chocolate! 2. ___ She has coffee every morning. 3. ___ My dog had five puppies. 4. ___ You need to change the oil in the car. 5. ___ I have three final tests tomorrow.

Functions of A Noun
Nouns including pronouns and noun phrases perform ten main grammatical functions within sentences in the English language. Both native speakers and ESL students must learn the ten functions to fully and correctly use nouns and noun phrases in spoken and written English. The ten functions of nouns and noun phrases are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Subject Predicate nominative Direct object Object complement Indirect object Prepositional complement Noun phrase modifier Possessive modifier Appositive Adverbial

Nouns as Subjects The first grammatical function that nouns and noun phrases can perform is the subject of clauses. A clause is defined as consisting of a subject and predicate. For example, the following italicized nouns and noun phrases function as subjects:
y y y y y

The baby cried. Dogs and cats make excellent pets. I will have extensively studied English grammar. These phones are new models from Apple. The can has been opened.

Try these: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ______________ studies at night. ______________ goes to school early. ______________ and _____________ visit their grandparents every summer. ______________ play games together. ______________ composed music for the film.

Nouns as Predicate Nominatives The second grammatical function that nouns and noun phrases can perform is the predicate nominative. Predicate nominatives are defined as nouns and noun phrases that follow a linking verb such as be and become and refer back to the subject. For example, the following italicized nouns and noun phrases function as predicate nominatives:
y y y y

My grandfather is a farmer. Our favorite pets are dogs. The woman whom you are looking for is she. My teacher is also our neighbor.

Try these: 1. My favorite food chain is ____________________. 2. My aunt is a/an __________________. 3. They said he is a/an _______________. 4. Someday, he will be a/an ______________. 5. After graduation, he wants to become a/an _____________________. Nouns as Direct Objects The third grammatical function that nouns and noun phrases can perform is the direct object. For example, the following italicized nouns and noun phrases function as direct objects:
y y y y y

The children ate all the cookies. My professor recommended an extremely captivating book. The woman has always hated mice. She cooks spaghetti so well. The doctors treated my friends.

Try these: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. We watched ___________________. She eats _______________________. The children sang ___________________ last Christmas. My parents bought __________________ for us. Elders give ________________ to their nieces and nephews during Lunar New Year.

Nouns as Object Complements The fourth grammatical function that nouns and noun phrases can perform is the object complement. Object complements are defined as nouns, pronouns, noun phrases, adjectives, and adjective phrases that directly follow and modify the direct object. For example, the following italicized nouns and noun phrases function as object complements:
y y y y y

We consider our puppy our baby. My aunt calls my uncle sweetheart. America recently elected Barack Obama president. They named the child Elize. They promoted Alex CEO this year.

Try these: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. They call him _____________. She named the doll ______________. The class appointed Bill ____________________. After the soccer game, the judges awarded Tommy ________________. They awarded Lester ____________________.

Nouns as Indirect Objects The fifth grammatical function that nouns and noun phrases can perform is the indirect object. For example, the following italicized nouns and noun phrases function as indirect objects:
y y y y y

John wrote his mother a letter. (John wrote a letter for his mother.) My husband bought our children toys. (My husband bought toys for our children) The child drew his mother a picture. (The child drew a picture for his mother.) The salesman sold the company new computers. (The salesman sold new computers.) Min baked his wife some bread. (Min baked some bread for his wife.)

Try these: his girlfriend 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. the people the professor Mr. Smith my mother

Mark buys _________________ flowers every Valentine s Day. My father cooks _____________________ special dishes on Sundays. The artists showed ___________________ his paintings at the gallery. These are the students who wrote ________________ letters of appreciation before he left. The manager gave ____________________ a raise last month.

Nouns as Prepositional Complements The sixth grammatical function that nouns and noun phrases can perform is the prepositional complement. Prepositional complements are defined as the word or phrase that functions as the object of a preposition. For example, the following italicized nouns and noun phrases function as prepositional complements:

My husband bought flowers for Mrs. Clark. For Mrs. Clark is the prepositional phrase, for is the preposition, Mrs. Clark, a noun, is the object of the preposition.

y y y y

The students studied during their spring break. Because of the lengthy delay, we missed our flight. The bathroom is behind that room. After the meeting, we will meet Mr. Jones.

Try these: before Christmas - We met before Christmas. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________ ______________________________________________

Nouns as Noun Phrase Modifiers The seventh grammatical function that nouns and noun phrases can perform is the noun phrase modifier. Noun phrase modifiers are defined as words and phrases that describe a noun or noun phrase.
y y y y y

The child actor won an award. The carpenter fixed the broken table leg. We reserved twenty hotel rooms. She prepared chicken soup for the children last winter. The nurse at the nurse station is very kind.

Try these: Class 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. governement hospital police Science

The ___________ officer caught the robbers who stole the Picasso prints. She is the ___________________ manager for this school year. They ordered five ___________ beds for the children s ward. Some ________________ officials corrupt the people s money. Did he take the ___________________ book with him to school?

Nouns as Possessive Modifiers The eighth grammatical function that nouns and noun phrases can perform is the possessive modifier. Possessive modifiers consist of a noun or noun phrase and the possessive clitic (apostrophe s or s apostrophe) and describe another noun or noun phrase. For example, the following italicized nouns and noun phrases function as possessive modifiers:
y y y y y

My brother's apartment is small. The food I spilled is the dog's. The librarians' report was informative. My parent s car is brand new. The children s shoes are arranged on that shelf.

Try these: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________ ____________________________________________

Nouns as Appositives The ninth grammatical function that nouns and noun phrases can perform is the appositive. Appositives are defined as nouns and noun phrases that modify or explain another noun or noun phrase. For example, the following italicized nouns and noun phrases function as appositives:
y y y y y y y

My grandfather, the farmer, bought more farm land. The teacher, my uncle, assigns a lot of homework. The musician, Stevie Nicks, is a singer in Fleetwood Mac. The Koean singer, Sandara Park, was an actress in the Philippines. They already sent a message to the Secretary-General, Ban Ki Moon. The woman s sharp eyes, a beautiful portal to her mysterios soul, marked his memory. Drinking coffee, a ritual in the morning, is one thing she needs to avoid according to the doctor.