Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 54

TELUGU LANGUAGE AND

TELUGU LANGUAGE AND


LITERATURE
LITERATURE
Speaker : G. V. R. K. SHARMA M. D. Speaker : G. V. R. K. SHARMA M. D.
Harvard Medical School Harvard Medical School
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 2 2
T E L U G U L A N G U A G E
T E L U G U L A N G U A G E
A classical language of India
A classical language of India
Also called
Also called

Andhra
Andhra
Bhaasha
Bhaasha

Ranked 7th in Asia


Ranked 7th in Asia
14th in the world
14th in the world
Spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh
Spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 3 3
Telugu Language : Demography
Telugu Language : Demography
Also spoken in the adjoining regions of
Also spoken in the adjoining regions of
Tamilnadu
Tamilnadu
, Karnataka and
, Karnataka and
Orissa
Orissa
and in the sizable
and in the sizable
diaspora
diaspora
populations
populations
of Malaysia, Fiji Islands, U.K and U.S
of Malaysia, Fiji Islands, U.K and U.S
Total about 80 million people
Total about 80 million people
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 4 4
Microsoft MapPoint and PlaneMad/Wikipedia
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 5 5
Telugu Language :Unique
Telugu Language :Unique
feature(s
feature(s
)
)
The only Indian language where every word
The only Indian language where every word
ends in a vowel (
ends in a vowel (

AJANTA BHAASHA
AJANTA BHAASHA

)
)
Called
Called

Italian of the East


Italian of the East

by
by
Niccolo
Niccolo
da
da
Conti,
Conti,
a Venetian
a Venetian
traveller
traveller
of the 16
of the 16
th th
century
century
Heavily
Heavily
Sanskritized
Sanskritized
( close to 60%)
( close to 60%)
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 6 6
Telugu Language : Origins
Telugu Language : Origins
An Indo
An Indo

Dravidian off
Dravidian off
-
-
shoot
shoot
Developed after Tamil and Kannada
Developed after Tamil and Kannada
Rock
Rock
-
-
edicts and inscriptions dating back
edicts and inscriptions dating back
to 1
to 1
st st
century A.D.
century A.D.
Present literary form around 900 A.D.
Present literary form around 900 A.D.
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 7 7
Telugu Literature
Telugu Literature
Nannaya
Nannaya
was the first poet (
was the first poet (

Adikavi
Adikavi

)
)
Shaped poetic format (
Shaped poetic format (

vaaganusasana
vaaganusasana

)
)
Wrote the first 3 canto
Wrote the first 3 canto

s of Mahabharata
s of Mahabharata
Trend
Trend
-
-
setter for all subsequent poets
setter for all subsequent poets
Words mainly Sanskrit
Words mainly Sanskrit
-
-
derived (
derived (

tatsama
tatsama

)
)
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 8 8
Telugu Literature
Telugu Literature
An example of
An example of
Nannaya
Nannaya

s
s
poetry :
poetry :
-
-

The moon
The moon
-
-
lit autumn nights were lovely;
lit autumn nights were lovely;
the bright chains of stars in the cloudless
the bright chains of stars in the cloudless
skies made them lovelier. Replete with the
skies made them lovelier. Replete with the
scent of water
scent of water
-
-
lilies wafted by gentle
lilies wafted by gentle
breezes, the nights were luminescent with
breezes, the nights were luminescent with
moonlight scattered like camphor
moonlight scattered like camphor
-
-
dust.
dust.

Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 9 9


Telugu Literature
Telugu Literature
Tikkana
Tikkana
, an administrator, warrior, poet
, an administrator, warrior, poet
Completed Mahabharata(11
Completed Mahabharata(11
th th
century A.D)
century A.D)
Blazed a new trail using a judicious mix of
Blazed a new trail using a judicious mix of
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
-
-
derived and indigenous words
derived and indigenous words
(
(
Accha
Accha
Telugu)
Telugu)
Brought Telugu poetry closer to the public
Brought Telugu poetry closer to the public
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 10 10
Telugu literature :
Telugu literature :
Thikkana
Thikkana
A sample of
A sample of
Thikkana
Thikkana

s
s
poetry:
poetry:
This is a 4
This is a 4
-
-
line verse called
line verse called

kanda
kanda
padyam
padyam

(a meter not borrowed from Sanskrit),


(a meter not borrowed from Sanskrit),
for which
for which
Thikkana
Thikkana
is famous :
is famous :

The arrows that have pierced your body


The arrows that have pierced your body
can be removed and the wounds healed,
can be removed and the wounds healed,
but the words that have caused deep hurt
but the words that have caused deep hurt
cannot be removed by any means
cannot be removed by any means

Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 11 11


Telugu Literature
Telugu Literature
Language of literary
Language of literary
Telugu(Grandhika
Telugu(Grandhika
or
or
Sampradayika
Sampradayika
) has been different from its
) has been different from its
spoken(
spoken(
vyavaharika
vyavaharika
) form
) form
The words, the meter and the contents
The words, the meter and the contents
mostly originated from Sanskrit
mostly originated from Sanskrit
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 12 12
Telugu Literature
Telugu Literature
Other poets followed in the foot
Other poets followed in the foot
-
-
steps of
steps of
Nannaya
Nannaya
and
and
Thikkana
Thikkana
Nanne
Nanne
Choda
Choda
,
,
Yerrapreggada
Yerrapreggada
,
,
Nachana
Nachana
Somana
Somana
,
,
Srinadha
Srinadha
,
,
Gaurana
Gaurana
and
and
Potana
Potana
( 11
( 11
th th
to 15
to 15
th th
century A.D.)
century A.D.)
All outstanding poets, they set the stage
All outstanding poets, they set the stage
for the golden age of Telugu literature
for the golden age of Telugu literature
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 13 13
Telugu Literature : the golden age
Telugu Literature : the golden age
Of Andhra history in general, and the
Of Andhra history in general, and the
literature, in particular (
literature, in particular (
Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
empire of
empire of
Krishnadevaraya
Krishnadevaraya
: 16
: 16
th th
century )
century )
Glowing accounts of Portuguese historians
Glowing accounts of Portuguese historians
Domingo
Domingo
Paes
Paes
and
and
Fernao
Fernao
Nuniz
Nuniz
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 14 14
Telugu Literature : the golden age
Telugu Literature : the golden age
Full flowering of poetry with stalwarts like
Full flowering of poetry with stalwarts like
Peddana
Peddana
, (
, (

Andhra
Andhra
Kavita
Kavita
Pitamaha
Pitamaha

meaning
meaning

Father of Telugu Poetry


Father of Telugu Poetry

),
),
who wrote
who wrote

Manu
Manu
charitra
charitra

Pingali
Pingali
Surana
Surana
(author of the first original
(author of the first original
kavya
kavya
(classic)
(classic)

Kalapoornodayamu
Kalapoornodayamu

) and
) and
Dvyardhi
Dvyardhi
kavya
kavya
,
,

Raghava
Raghava
Pandaveeyamu
Pandaveeyamu

with each poem giving 2


with each poem giving 2
meanings suitable for both Ramayana
meanings suitable for both Ramayana
and Mahabharata
and Mahabharata

a rare scholastic feat


a rare scholastic feat
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 15 15
Telugu literature : golden age
Telugu literature : golden age

It is difficult to compose a poem


It is difficult to compose a poem
with two meanings; if the entire work
with two meanings; if the entire work
is like that, is it not extra
is like that, is it not extra
-
-
ordinary
ordinary
scholarship? That too, in Telugu,
scholarship? That too, in Telugu,
which is wonderful! Who is there
which is wonderful! Who is there
(other than me), that can combine
(other than me), that can combine
Ramayana and Mahabharata (into one)!
Ramayana and Mahabharata (into one)!
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 16 16
Telugu Literature : the golden age
Telugu Literature : the golden age
Other esteemed poets :
Other esteemed poets :
Timmana
Timmana
( author
( author
of
of

Parijatapaharanamu
Parijatapaharanamu

), and
), and
Dhurjati
Dhurjati
(author of
(author of

Kalahasti
Kalahasti
Mahatmyamu
Mahatmyamu

)
)
Emperor
Emperor
Krishnadevaraya
Krishnadevaraya
himself was a
himself was a
great scholar ( author of
great scholar ( author of

Amuktamalyada
Amuktamalyada

,
,
one of 5 best classics,
one of 5 best classics,

Pancha
Pancha
Kavyas
Kavyas

)
)
Considered Telugu as the best of Indian
Considered Telugu as the best of Indian
languages (
languages (

Desa
Desa
Bhaashalandu
Bhaashalandu
..
..
Lessa
Lessa

)
)
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 17 17
Telugu Literature : the golden age
Telugu Literature : the golden age
Bhattu
Bhattu
Moorthy
Moorthy
(
(

Ramaraja
Ramaraja
Bhooshana
Bhooshana

) :
) :
author of
author of

Vasu
Vasu
Charitra
Charitra

,excelled
,excelled
in
in

slesha
slesha

( pun) and metrical composition


( pun) and metrical composition
Tenali
Tenali
Ramakrishna : renowned for his
Ramakrishna : renowned for his
ready wit and choice of words, wrote
ready wit and choice of words, wrote

Panduranga
Panduranga
Mahatmyamu
Mahatmyamu

, a classic
, a classic
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 18 18
After
After
Vijayanagara
Vijayanagara
empire (1336
empire (1336
-
-
1646
1646
a.d
a.d
)
)
patronage shifted to
patronage shifted to
Tanjavur
Tanjavur
(
(
Nayaka
Nayaka

s
s
)
)
Quality declined, most of the output a poor
Quality declined, most of the output a poor
imitation of earlier works
imitation of earlier works
Vemana
Vemana
of 18
of 18
th th
century, a welcome
century, a welcome
change from the tradition
change from the tradition
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 19 19
Telugu literature : break from past
Telugu literature : break from past
Vemana
Vemana
, a social and religious rebel, used
, a social and religious rebel, used
simple poetry to convey his message
simple poetry to convey his message
The meter he chose was
The meter he chose was

AaTaveladi
AaTaveladi

, a
, a
quartet
quartet
-
-
meter he handled with felicity
meter he handled with felicity
No poetic embellishments or scholastic
No poetic embellishments or scholastic
display ; easily understood & remembered
display ; easily understood & remembered
So popular, every Andhra can recite
So popular, every Andhra can recite
at least a few of his hundreds of verses
at least a few of his hundreds of verses
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 20 20
Telugu Literature :
Telugu Literature :
Vemana
Vemana
A sample of
A sample of
Vemana
Vemana

s
s
poetry:
poetry:

People may boast of pedigree or caste,


People may boast of pedigree or caste,
They may be arrogant with education,
They may be arrogant with education,
But all are slaves to the rich
But all are slaves to the rich

Why provide colorful dress to the idol,


Why provide colorful dress to the idol,
Bowlfuls of food and fabulous temples?
Bowlfuls of food and fabulous temples?
Does God want food, clothing and shelter?
Does God want food, clothing and shelter?

Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 21 21


Telugu Literature: break from past
Telugu Literature: break from past
Gurajada
Gurajada
Apparao
Apparao
&
&
Gidugu
Gidugu
Ramamurty
Ramamurty
championed the cause of spoken Telugu
championed the cause of spoken Telugu
Gurajada
Gurajada

s
s

Kanyasulkam
Kanyasulkam

, a play in which
, a play in which
spoken Telugu is used with telling effect
spoken Telugu is used with telling effect
Gidugu
Gidugu
silenced orthodox classicists with
silenced orthodox classicists with
his writings & speeches; made way for
his writings & speeches; made way for
spoken(vyavaharika
spoken(vyavaharika
) Telugu as a valid
) Telugu as a valid
and preferable literary medium
and preferable literary medium
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 22 22
Telugu Literature: break from past
Telugu Literature: break from past
Classical era retreated, but with a flourish.
Classical era retreated, but with a flourish.
Viswanadha
Viswanadha
Satyanarayana
Satyanarayana
, a colossal
, a colossal
literary figure with a wide range of works in
literary figure with a wide range of works in
classical genre, received the
classical genre, received the
Jnanpeeth
Jnanpeeth
award for his
award for his

Ramayana
Ramayana
kalpavrikshamu
kalpavrikshamu

Devulapalli
Devulapalli
Krishnasastry
Krishnasastry

s
s

Krishnapakshamu
Krishnapakshamu
-
-
Urvasi
Urvasi

stands out as
stands out as
lyrical romantic poetry (
lyrical romantic poetry (

Bhavakavitvamu
Bhavakavitvamu

)
)
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 23 23
Telugu Literature: the modern era
Telugu Literature: the modern era
Sri
Sri
Sri
Sri
, short for
, short for
Srirangam
Srirangam
Srinivasa
Srinivasa
Rao
Rao
,
,
hailed as the harbinger of modern poetry
hailed as the harbinger of modern poetry
(
(

Navayugavaitalika
Navayugavaitalika

, 1911
, 1911
-
-
1983)
1983)

Mahaprasthanam
Mahaprasthanam

an anthology in blank
an anthology in blank
and rhythmic verse, employed spoken
and rhythmic verse, employed spoken
Telugu, addressed the plight of the
Telugu, addressed the plight of the
common man and set the tone for all
common man and set the tone for all
modern
modern
telugu
telugu
poetry
poetry
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 24 24
Telugu Literature : poetry of Sri. Sri
Telugu Literature : poetry of Sri. Sri

When you look at the history of nations


When you look at the history of nations
What is there to be proud of ?
What is there to be proud of ?
The entire history of mankind
The entire history of mankind
Is one of oppression and exploitation
Is one of oppression and exploitation

The strong subjugated the weak,


The strong subjugated the weak,
Murderers became emperors
Murderers became emperors
and made a name for themselves;
and made a name for themselves;
No place where a battle hasn
No place where a battle hasn

t been fought
t been fought
The past is drenched in blood or sweat
The past is drenched in blood or sweat

Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 25 25


Telugu literature: Prose
Telugu literature: Prose
Most literature, till the advent of modern era, was
Most literature, till the advent of modern era, was
a combination of poetry & prose (called
a combination of poetry & prose (called

champu
champu

) in classical Telugu
) in classical Telugu

Pure
Pure

prose, in the form of novels, essays or


prose, in the form of novels, essays or
short stories began only in 19
short stories began only in 19
th th
century
century
Gurajada
Gurajada
, the advocate of spoken Telugu, wrote
, the advocate of spoken Telugu, wrote
exemplary short stories ( in addition to the play
exemplary short stories ( in addition to the play

Kanyasulkam
Kanyasulkam

and poems in
and poems in

Matrachandassu
Matrachandassu

)
)
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 26 26
Telugu Literature : Prose
Telugu Literature : Prose
Gudipati
Gudipati
Venkatachalam
Venkatachalam
(
(

Chalam
Chalam

) railed
) railed
against orthodox practices in the society
against orthodox practices in the society
and espoused the cause of women in his
and espoused the cause of women in his
novels and stories
novels and stories
Kodavatiganti
Kodavatiganti
Kutumbarao
Kutumbarao
(
(

ko
ko
.
.
ku
ku

), a
), a
prolific writer whose stories and essays
prolific writer whose stories and essays
gave an expose
gave an expose

of the middle class


of the middle class
Chaganti
Chaganti
Somayajulu
Somayajulu
(
(

Cha. So.
Cha. So.

): master
): master
of the short
of the short
-
-
story with the proper idiom
story with the proper idiom
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 27 27
Telugu Literature : Prose
Telugu Literature : Prose
Rachakonda
Rachakonda
Viswanadha
Viswanadha
( Ra. Vi.)
( Ra. Vi.)
Sastry
Sastry
considered the most powerful writer, both
considered the most powerful writer, both
in terms of the language and the message
in terms of the language and the message
( hence called
( hence called

Sri Sri
Sri Sri

in prose
in prose

)
)
Wrote mostly in the north
Wrote mostly in the north
-
-
eastern dialect
eastern dialect
(
(
Visaakha
Visaakha
MaanDalikam
MaanDalikam
) highlighting the
) highlighting the
plight of the lower classes. His novels :
plight of the lower classes. His novels :
-
-

Alpa
Alpa
jeevi
jeevi

,
,

Rattalu
Rattalu
-
-
Rambabu
Rambabu

& more
& more
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 28 28
Telugu literature : recent celebrities
Telugu literature : recent celebrities
C.Narayana
C.Narayana
Reddy (
Reddy (
ci.na.re
ci.na.re
): writer of wide
): writer of wide
range who balanced the traditional with the
range who balanced the traditional with the
modern; 2
modern; 2
nd nd
Jnaan
Jnaan
Peeth
Peeth
awardee
awardee
Devarakonda
Devarakonda
Balagangadhara
Balagangadhara
Tilak
Tilak
: noted for
: noted for
sensitive lyrical blank verse
sensitive lyrical blank verse
(
(

Amritam
Amritam
kurisina
kurisina
raatri
raatri

, a lovely anthology)
, a lovely anthology)
Other note
Other note
-
-
worthy writers :
worthy writers :
Gunturu
Gunturu
Seshendra
Seshendra
Sarma
Sarma
,
,

Ajanta
Ajanta

(
(
Penumarti
Penumarti
Viswanadha
Viswanadha
Sastry
Sastry
),
),

Digambara
Digambara
poets
poets

,
,
Boyi
Boyi
Bheemanna
Bheemanna
,
,
Mohanaprasad
Mohanaprasad
(
(

Mo
Mo

)
)
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 29 29
Telugu literature : recent trends
Telugu literature : recent trends
Feminist poetry : Problems of women
Feminist poetry : Problems of women
in the society addressed without inhibition
in the society addressed without inhibition
Savitri
Savitri
( 1949
( 1949
-
-

91,
91,

Dacoits
Dacoits

,
,

Housewife
Housewife

)
)
Kondepudi
Kondepudi
Nirmala
Nirmala
,(
,(

Labour
Labour
Room
Room

,
,

Thadisi
Thadisi
Mopedaina
Mopedaina
katha
katha

) describing the
) describing the
travails of women during child
travails of women during child
-
-
birth
birth
Jayaprabha
Jayaprabha
: asking women to rebel against
: asking women to rebel against
conventional morality (
conventional morality (

chintala
chintala
nemali
nemali

,
,

Paita
Paita

)
)
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 30 30
Telugu literature : current trends
Telugu literature : current trends

Dalit
Dalit

: literature of the oppressed


: literature of the oppressed
Addressing
Addressing
untouchability
untouchability
, child labor
, child labor
political exploitation,
political exploitation,
Naxalite
Naxalite
movement
movement
Does not employ classical language or meter
Does not employ classical language or meter
Free use of slang
Free use of slang
Noteworthy writers:
Noteworthy writers:
Endloori
Endloori
Sudhakar
Sudhakar

vartamaanam
vartamaanam

( the present)
( the present)
Sivasagar
Sivasagar
:
:

NaDustunna
NaDustunna
charitra
charitra

(the current
(the current
history)
history)
Khader
Khader
Mohiuddin
Mohiuddin
:
:

PuTTu
PuTTu
maccha
maccha

( mole)
( mole)
Darise
Darise
Sesi
Sesi
Nirmala
Nirmala
:
:

Dalituralu
Dalituralu

(the
(the
oppressed woman)
oppressed woman)
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 31 31
Telugu :
Telugu :
Avadhanamu
Avadhanamu
Literary feat known in Sanskrit
Literary feat known in Sanskrit
Currently in Telugu and Kannada
Currently in Telugu and Kannada
A test of the powers of memory, ready
A test of the powers of memory, ready
versification and the ability to perform
versification and the ability to perform
multiple tasks simultaneously
multiple tasks simultaneously
Depending on the number of tasks, it
Depending on the number of tasks, it

s an
s an

Ashtavadhanam
Ashtavadhanam

(eight
(eight
),
),

Satavadhanam
Satavadhanam

(hundred),
(hundred),

Sahasravadhanam
Sahasravadhanam

(thousand)
(thousand)
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 32 32
Telugu :
Telugu :
Avadhanam
Avadhanam
one who performs is
one who performs is

Avadhani
Avadhani

one who tests is


one who tests is

Pricchaka
Pricchaka

(questioner
(questioner
)
)
Questions are literary and demand prompt
Questions are literary and demand prompt
versification observing rules of prosody
versification observing rules of prosody
Restrictions are placed re: use of certain
Restrictions are placed re: use of certain
syllables or letters in specific locations
syllables or letters in specific locations
The topic of the question, the meter and
The topic of the question, the meter and
other constraints may vary for each verse
other constraints may vary for each verse
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 33 33
Telugu :
Telugu :
ashtavadhanamu
ashtavadhanamu
The
The
avadhani
avadhani
is not allowed to versify all
is not allowed to versify all
four lines at a stretch; after the first line is
four lines at a stretch; after the first line is
done, the 2
done, the 2
nd nd
pricchaka
pricchaka
comes up with his
comes up with his
question to which the
question to which the
avadhani
avadhani
responds
responds
in verse with a new line, moves on to the
in verse with a new line, moves on to the
3
3
rd rd
, and so on till all (8) questioners are
, and so on till all (8) questioners are
satisfied. The
satisfied. The
avadhani
avadhani
then recites all the
then recites all the
first lines of the 8, does the 2
first lines of the 8, does the 2
nd nd
line of each
line of each
verse in a similar manner (round
verse in a similar manner (round
-
-
robin) till
robin) till
all four lines of each verse are done.
all four lines of each verse are done.
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 34 34
Telugu :
Telugu :
ashtavadhanamu
ashtavadhanamu
During the versification, which is the main
During the versification, which is the main
test, one of the questioners may keep
test, one of the questioners may keep
ringing a bell and the
ringing a bell and the
avadhani
avadhani
has to
has to
keep track of the number of bell
keep track of the number of bell
-
-
rings
rings
Attention may be diverted by a
Attention may be diverted by a

pricchaka
pricchaka

who intervenes at random with irrelevant


who intervenes at random with irrelevant
(
(

aprastuta
aprastuta

) queries that the


) queries that the
avadhani
avadhani
has
has
to answer with ready wit or repartee
to answer with ready wit or repartee
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 35 35
Telugu :
Telugu :
avadhanamu
avadhanamu
At the end, the
At the end, the
avadhani
avadhani
will have to recite
will have to recite
the 4 lines of the verse intended for each
the 4 lines of the verse intended for each

pricchaka
pricchaka

in proper sequence ( having


in proper sequence ( having
observed all the prescribed restrictions),
observed all the prescribed restrictions),
respond properly to the
respond properly to the

aprastuta
aprastuta

( irrelevant) questions and give an


( irrelevant) questions and give an
accurate tally of the bell
accurate tally of the bell
-
-
rings!
rings!
The more the # questioners, the greater
The more the # questioners, the greater
the challenge and the greater the credit.
the challenge and the greater the credit.
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 36 36
Telugu :
Telugu :
avadhanamu
avadhanamu
In the modern era
In the modern era
Divakarla
Divakarla
Tirupati
Tirupati
Sastri
Sastri
and
and
Chellapilla
Chellapilla
Venkata
Venkata
Sastri
Sastri
(
(

Tirupati
Tirupati
Venkata
Venkata
Kavulu
Kavulu

), in addition to being well


), in addition to being well
-
-
known play
known play
-
-
wrights, are the most famous
wrights, are the most famous
avadhanis
avadhanis
whose
whose
prowess is legendary
prowess is legendary
Current
Current
avadhanis
avadhanis
are many:
are many:
Madugula
Madugula
Nagaphani
Nagaphani
Sarma
Sarma
,
,
Medasani
Medasani
Mohan,
Mohan,
Garikipati
Garikipati
Narasimharao
Narasimharao
,
,
Rallabandi
Rallabandi
Kavitaprasad
Kavitaprasad
and
and
many others who have performed
many others who have performed
ashta
ashta
,
,
sata
sata
,
,
sahasra
sahasra
, and
, and
dvisahasra
dvisahasra
avadhanams
avadhanams
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 37 37
Telugu script, grammar and
Telugu script, grammar and
prosody
prosody
The script is close to Kannada
The script is close to Kannada
Vowels (
Vowels (

Acchulu
Acchulu

):
):
c
c
c
c
=
=
e
e
e
e
e
e
c
c
c
c
J
J
L
L

e
e
L
L
l
l
coc
coc
.
.
Consonants(
Consonants(

Hallulu
Hallulu

) :
) :
s
s

n
n
;
;

c
c
c
c

o
o
=
=
e
e
o
o
c
c
c
c
c
c
o
o
c
c
c
c
c
c
<
<
.
.
;
;
c
c
c
c
c
c
o
o
o
o
c
c
L
L

c
c
^
^
o
o
v
v
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 38 38
Telugu Grammar
Telugu Grammar
Derived from Sanskrit (
Derived from Sanskrit (

Tatsama
Tatsama

)
)
e.g.
e.g.

simha
simha

Modified (
Modified (

Tadbhava
Tadbhava

)
)
e.g.
e.g.

singamu
singamu

Desya
Desya

: regional (
: regional (

Accha
Accha
Telugu
Telugu

)
)

Gramya
Gramya

: also regional, but slang


: also regional, but slang
Case of the nouns by adding suffix or prefix
Case of the nouns by adding suffix or prefix
c:
c:
c:
c:
Ly
Ly
c:
c:
etc. according to the case
etc. according to the case
e.g.,
e.g.,

nannu
nannu

,
,

neetho
neetho

,
,

meeku
meeku

etc.
etc.
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 39 39
Telugu Grammar
Telugu Grammar
Gender(
Gender(

linga
linga

)
)

Mahat(
Mahat(

pum
pum

) : male;
) : male;

Mahati
Mahati

(
(

stree
stree

): female;
): female;

amahat
amahat

(
(

napumsaka
napumsaka

): neuter
): neuter
Number(
Number(

vachana
vachana
) :
) :
Singular(
Singular(

Eka
Eka

)
)
Plural(
Plural(

Bahu
Bahu

)
)
Tense(
Tense(

kaala
kaala

): as in English
): as in English

Sandhi
Sandhi

: joining 2 words
: joining 2 words
e.g.,
e.g.,

meeru
meeru

+
+

evaru
evaru

=
=

meerevaru
meerevaru

(
(

who are you?


who are you?

)
)
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 40 40
Telugu Prosody(
Telugu Prosody(

chandassu
chandassu

)
)
Meters from Sanskrit with minor changes
Meters from Sanskrit with minor changes
Utpalamala
Utpalamala
,
,
champakamala
champakamala
,
,
mattebha
mattebha
,
,
Sardoola
Sardoola
,
,
sragdhara
sragdhara
,
,
bhujangaprayata
bhujangaprayata
etc.
etc.
Meters indigenous:
Meters indigenous:
Seesa
Seesa
,
,
kanda
kanda
,
,
aaTaveladi
aaTaveladi
,
,
ThETageethi
ThETageethi
etc
etc
The rules require arrangement of letters in a
The rules require arrangement of letters in a
uniform manner with rhyming of the 1
uniform manner with rhyming of the 1
st st
letter
letter
of each line with another letter of specific location
of each line with another letter of specific location
(
(
yati
yati
and
and
praasa
praasa
)
)
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 41 41
Telugu
Telugu

Chandassu
Chandassu

(
(

Desi
Desi

)
)
Meters constructed, not based on letters
Meters constructed, not based on letters
but on groups of syllables; verses are not
but on groups of syllables; verses are not
as rigid as the Sanskrit
as rigid as the Sanskrit
-
-
derived meters
derived meters
-
-

ShaTpadi
ShaTpadi
(from Kannada),
(from Kannada),
RagaDa
RagaDa
,
,
Mutyaalasaram
Mutyaalasaram
( popularized by
( popularized by
Gurazada
Gurazada
,
,
Rayaprolu
Rayaprolu
Subbarao
Subbarao
and Sri. Sri.), e.g.,
and Sri. Sri.), e.g.,

DesamanTe
DesamanTe
maTTikaadoy
maTTikaadoy
( A country is not a piece of land)
( A country is not a piece of land)
DesamanTe
DesamanTe
manushuloy
manushuloy

( A country is its people)


( A country is its people)
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 42 42
Telugu prosody : current status
Telugu prosody : current status
Most of the current poetry is
Most of the current poetry is

Free Verse
Free Verse

(
(

vachana
vachana
Kavita
Kavita

), feasible for anyone, or


), feasible for anyone, or
Blank Verse(
Blank Verse(

geya
geya
kavita
kavita

) which requires
) which requires
some command of the language
some command of the language
Very little is in the form of
Very little is in the form of

Desi
Desi
chandassu
chandassu

)
)
and even less in the form of rigid meters
and even less in the form of rigid meters
because they require sound knowledge of
because they require sound knowledge of
the language, the grammar and prosody
the language, the grammar and prosody
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 43 43
Telugu : contribution to music
Telugu : contribution to music
In
In
Karnatic
Karnatic
( South Indian classical) music
( South Indian classical) music
a vast majority of compositions
a vast majority of compositions

kirtanas
kirtanas
,
,
varnams
varnams
,
,
padams
padams
,
,
javalis
javalis
,
,
thillanas
thillanas

are
are
in Telugu. Many
in Telugu. Many
vaggeyakaras
vaggeyakaras
(composers)
(composers)
enriched the
enriched the
Sastra
Sastra
(science),
(science),
sampradaya
sampradaya
(tradition) and
(tradition) and
Sahitya
Sahitya
(literature) of music
(literature) of music
(already in vogue) by their devotional and
(already in vogue) by their devotional and
romantic compositions suitable for
romantic compositions suitable for
gana
gana
(song)
(song)
and
and
abhinaya
abhinaya
(dance)
(dance)
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 44 44
Telugu : contribution to music
Telugu : contribution to music
Foremost among them is
Foremost among them is
Tallapaka
Tallapaka
Annamacharya
Annamacharya
(15
(15
th th
Century A.D.)
Century A.D.)
who composed over 30,000
who composed over 30,000
kirtanas
kirtanas
in praise of Lord
in praise of Lord
Tirupati
Tirupati
Venkateswara
Venkateswara
( of these only about 8,000 are available
( of these only about 8,000 are available
and only a few hundred are set to tune).
and only a few hundred are set to tune).
The compositions are outstanding both
The compositions are outstanding both
for their literary merit and devotion
for their literary merit and devotion
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 45 45
Telugu : contribution to music
Telugu : contribution to music
-
-
Many great
Many great
vaggeyakaras
vaggeyakaras
followed
followed
Annamaya
Annamaya
;
;
well
well
-
-
known among them are
known among them are
Tyagaraja
Tyagaraja
and
and
Syama
Syama
Sastri
Sastri
(
(
Dikshitar
Dikshitar
mostly used Sanskrit) of
mostly used Sanskrit) of
the 19
the 19
th th
Century, who, till the discovery of
Century, who, till the discovery of
Annamaya
Annamaya

s
s
works, were considered to be the
works, were considered to be the
most important contributors to the
most important contributors to the
Sahitya
Sahitya
of
of
Karnatic
Karnatic
music.
music.
-
-
Kshetrayya
Kshetrayya

s
s
and
and
Sarangapani
Sarangapani

s
s
padams
padams
,
,
rich in Telugu idiom, are used for
rich in Telugu idiom, are used for
Abhinaya
Abhinaya
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 46 46
Telugu literature :
Telugu literature :

Sataka
Sataka
Sahitya
Sahitya

Sataka
Sataka
( A hundred verses)
( A hundred verses)
First
First
Satakas
Satakas
in Sanskrit (
in Sanskrit (

Amaru
Amaru

Sataka
Sataka
and
and

Subhashita
Subhashita
Trisati
Trisati

(
(

good words in three


good words in three
hundred verses
hundred verses

) by
) by
Bhartrihari
Bhartrihari
; later in
; later in
Kannada and Telugu
Kannada and Telugu
Verses, by definition, are in one meter
Verses, by definition, are in one meter
Last lines or
Last lines or
words(
words(

makuta
makuta

)) are the same and


)) are the same and
usually dedicated to a favorite deity (
usually dedicated to a favorite deity (
ishta
ishta
daiva
daiva
)
)
Unlike
Unlike

kavyas
kavyas

( classics), they address social,


( classics), they address social,
political, or personal issues
political, or personal issues
Over 300
Over 300
Satakas
Satakas
in Telugu
in Telugu
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 47 47
Telugu literature :
Telugu literature :
Sataka
Sataka
Sahitya
Sahitya
Of the 300
Of the 300
satakas
satakas
, a couple of examples:
, a couple of examples:
-
-
From
From

Sumati
Sumati

(
(

good mind
good mind

): by
): by
Baddena
Baddena
(12
(12
th th
century A.D.)
century A.D.)

one
one

s ire is one
s ire is one

s enemy
s enemy
one
one

s patience is an armor, one


s patience is an armor, one

s compassion
s compassion
a friend,
a friend,
one
one

s happiness is a heaven
s happiness is a heaven
one
one

s sorrow is a hell for certain! ( O ! one


s sorrow is a hell for certain! ( O ! one
with good mind!)
with good mind!)
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 48 48
Telugu Literature :
Telugu Literature :
Sataka
Sataka
Sahitya
Sahitya
Kalahastiswara Kalahastiswara Sataka Sataka ( ( Dhurjati Dhurjati) :16 ) :16
th th
century A.D.) : century A.D.) :
The poems contain a scathing criticism of the society, The poems contain a scathing criticism of the society,
the ruling class, his own failings or even God himself, the ruling class, his own failings or even God himself,
with a deep yearning for peace and divine help. with a deep yearning for peace and divine help.
Why do some people think of killing others Why do some people think of killing others
and taking over their thrones? and taking over their thrones?
Don Don t they die themselves, doesn t they die themselves, doesn t their t their
wealth leave them? wealth leave them?
Do they live for ever with their wives, sons and friends? Do they live for ever with their wives, sons and friends?
Doesn Doesn t Death come some day, O God of t Death come some day, O God of Kalahasti Kalahasti? ?
(from the translation by (from the translation by Heifetz Heifetz, H and , H and Narayana Narayana Rao,V Rao,V) )
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 49 49
Telugu literature : main references
Telugu literature : main references
:
:
Samagra
Samagra
Andhra
Andhra
Sahityamu
Sahityamu
by
by
Arudra
Arudra
-
-
14
14
vols
vols
Modern Telugu poetry:
Modern Telugu poetry:
A review in English by
A review in English by
V.Mandeswararao
V.Mandeswararao
Kavya
Kavya
Mala
Mala
: Anthology of Telugu poetry
: Anthology of Telugu poetry
editor:
editor:
Katuri
Katuri
Venkateswara
Venkateswara
Rao
Rao
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 50 50
Telugu poetry : from the
Telugu poetry : from the
diaspora
diaspora

An immigrant
An immigrant

s angst
s angst

What a trip on the U.S. highway


What a trip on the U.S. highway
Like an aimless castaway!
Like an aimless castaway!
Amidst
Amidst

plenty
plenty

are problems galore


are problems galore
Endless is this head
Endless is this head
-
-
banging chore!
banging chore!
What are our roots, where are we headed
What are our roots, where are we headed
In all directions scattered;
In all directions scattered;
Never in our dreams did we imagine
Never in our dreams did we imagine
This forlorn exile foreign!
This forlorn exile foreign!
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 51 51

An immigrant
An immigrant

s angst
s angst

We plunged headlong into life western


We plunged headlong into life western
Tasted luxury stem to stern;
Tasted luxury stem to stern;
But moral strife between East and West
But moral strife between East and West
Hardly gives us an iota of rest
Hardly gives us an iota of rest
Our heart is in India, let
Our heart is in India, let

s admit
s admit
Though we lack the courage to quit
Though we lack the courage to quit

Thoughts of our young ones always haunt us


Thoughts of our young ones always haunt us
And advancing years frighten us
And advancing years frighten us
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 52 52

An immigrant
An immigrant

s angst
s angst

The passing away we periodically hear


The passing away we periodically hear
Of the few that are near and dear,
Of the few that are near and dear,
From stroke, heart attack, by
From stroke, heart attack, by
-
-
pass surgery
pass surgery
Or a cancer case in every family
Or a cancer case in every family
Alas! who is there to care for us?
Alas! who is there to care for us?
-
-
Children? Their priorities aren
Children? Their priorities aren

t ours;
t ours;
Left with social (
Left with social (
in)security
in)security
are we
are we
Nursing home residents
Nursing home residents
-
-
to
to
-
-
be
be
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 53 53

An immigrant
An immigrant

s angst
s angst

The brighter half of our life is over


The brighter half of our life is over
The darker phase has begun, moreover
The darker phase has begun, moreover
What is the point in brooding now
What is the point in brooding now
Knowing we reap what we sow?
Knowing we reap what we sow?
Life may be cozy in the U.S. mansion
Life may be cozy in the U.S. mansion
But uncertain the long
But uncertain the long
-
-
term prognostication
term prognostication
Amidst
Amidst

plenty
plenty

are problems galore!


are problems galore!
Useless is this head
Useless is this head
-
-
banging chore!!
banging chore!!
Harvard Outreach Harvard Outreach - - Telugu Telugu 54 54
Telugu Language & Literature
Telugu Language & Literature
End
End
of
of
Presentation
Presentation