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Operating Instructions for Ultrasonic Testing Software K-SCAN Ver.: 4.2.3.

Teach and Learn Module



Operating Instructions

Software Version September 2005

In this version the "Teach and Learn" module is operationally matched to the ultrasonic system instrument USIP 40. This is a passive system for recording C-scans and D-scans which is controlled via the hardware existing in the USIP 40.

Scanner connections

K-Scan receives path generator pulses from a cartesian manipulator via the encoder inputs X and Y. The path generator pulses are taken over by a quadrature encoder (2 square wave pulses offset by 90) or a step motor control (pulse and direction signal). The encoder inputs are feed via an optocoupler and are designed for an input voltage of 3.5V to 28V. Note: each encoder input requires its own ground connection due to the optocoupler! A supply voltage of 5V/500mA is available at the sync connection for the TTL phase generator. Note: Scanning axis always is the X-axis! This is important for multi channel applications and backlash compensation!

Path pulse resolution is matched to the mechanics using the menu "Scan axes" in the USIP 40. Any further information can be obtained from the USIP 40 operating manual.

Selection of the ultrasonic signals K-Scan can record 1 4 gates in 1 10 channels. Selection is also made via the menus in the USIP 40. The values to be transferred are selected in the menu "Measurements". In the adjacent example, Amplitude and Time of Flight are recorded parallel within one cycle.

The number of the cycles to be recorded are selected in the menu "Global". In the given example, the presentation of 5 tracks is made in one C-scan when this is selected in the menu "Measurements".

The following parameters are determined in the window "Teach and Learn": Delta X the length of the scan axis. It is important that the test movement be allocated to this axis otherwise the multi-channel presentation and the compensation for mechanical play will not function correctly. Delta Y the length of the index axis. For example, with immersion testing devices a clear differentiation is made the allocation with scanners guided manually is not quite clear because the probe can be guided at random, as seen in the following picture:

Resolution test and index. The resolution must correspond to that of the scanner in order to obtain an optimum C-scan. The data enables calculation of the pixel size. Speed. Of course as a passive system, the speed of the manipulator cannot be set here! The data only enables calculation of the required pulse repetition frequency as displayed in the lower window. The ultrasonic instrument must at least be able to operate with this frequency in order to guarantee interruption-free recording. Ultrasonic settings. An USIP 40 parameter file can be selected which can be loaded together with the learning process file during data recording.

Data Acquisition Module



Operating Instructions Software Version September 2005

The "Data Acquisition" module carries out a manual or semi-automatic test and evaluation using predefined adjustment parameters. The following describes the required settings: The display on the right appears after the module has been recalled. The following data must be entered before testing starts:

The Teach and Learn file

The file created with the " Teach and Learn " module is linked with the data acquisition. A window appears with the corresponding files after the field " Teach and Learn " has been clicked. After selection of the suitable file has been made this can be checked or changed as required. By clicking the field "Edit" the " Teach and Learn " module can be opened.

The Display configuration determines a series of data for the display format:

The pallet to be used for data recording (only the amplitude and time-of-flight pallet can be used in this program version). The pixel density. If there is more data than pixels, the maximum or minimum amplitude is taken over from the data matrix depending on the selection. Standardization of the axes is made isometrically in the correct side ratio when selected or non-isometrically to maximum display size when selected. The orientation enables the image to adjust to the actual test object.

Data recording can be started after the required entries have been made.

Recording starts with the window on the right in which the C-scan / D-scan is made by on-line synchronization with the test mechanics. Recording is terminated with the "ESC" key. The data is stored and can be immediately evaluated in the "Analysis" mode.

Analysis Module



Operating Instructions Software Version 1.0 June 2002

The "Analysis" module is used for processing the recorded data. In the above, the "Data Acquisition" module records C-scans of the echo amplitudes and feeds them to the "Analysis" module. A-scans and B-scans can also be processed depending on the design. If the "Analysis" module is directly recalled then the adjacent display will appear. However, if the recall is made from the "Data Acquisition" module then the C-scan is automatically loaded. Manual loading is made via "File Open". In doing this, the path "D:\KSCAN\Files\Acquisitions" is preset. Of course, any other directory can selected similar to that of the Windows-Explorer. If the configuration on the Analysis PC is different than the Data Recording PC then, under certain conditions, the colour pallet used for the recording may not be available. In this case an error message will appear and the display will be linked to an existing pallet. Basically, the functions in the Analysis program can be recalled in various ways. For example, the measurement cursor is either activated by clicking the icon or by recalling the function field using the right mouse key.

The following describes the functions in the "Analysis" module: The measurement cursor Presentation of the amplitude values in the Cscan is made with randomly determined colour allocations. If the exact height of the amplitude is required to be known, then this can be displayed by enabling the measurement cursor (icon or right mouse key). The measurement cursor displays colour, amplitude height and point coordinates in the area of the C-scan and is situated under the left lower corner of the field. A small measurement window appears. The function is disabled by clicking the icon once again. The Zoom K-Scan offers a series of possibilities to optimally present the required display section. The recalled data can, depending on the setting, either be displayed in a format filled mode (Option non-isometric) or with the correct side ratio (Option isometric). The changes can be carried out as follows: After the icon has been clicked, a window can be dragged by the mouse with the left mouse key pressed. When the mouse key is released the display goes to full size. The adjacent numerical field shows the magnification in %. If this window is clicked, an entry (in %) can be carried out.

The display above shows the contents of the zoom window at maximum display format

Output display The icons horizontal bring the complete C-scan to maximum display format, and or vertical to maximum display format.

The amplitude histogram The amplitude histogram gives more exact information about the echo heights, similar to the measurement cursor. However, not only one point is displayed from the C-scan but a horizontal section and a vertical section: Histogram icon

3D Presentation A click on the "3D Display" icon produces a pseudo 3D display in which the amplitude curve is presented as an angled high line as seen from above. This display mode is recommended only when there are not too many high amplitude values in the C-scan.

Flaw evaluation Icon for flaw evaluation

In the above example the amplitudes are evaluated which exceed a threshold value of 62%. Connected ranges are added and entered into a report giving data about the flaw area and the location coordinates. The allocation between flaw list and C-scan can be made by clicking the flaw in the report. For example: Flaw No. 2 is selected , an arrow shows the corresponding area in the C-scan.

Evaluation criteria The evaluation criteria is described as follows using an example:

A test object having artificial reflectors (flat bottom holes and grooves) is meander scanned. The maximum amplitude in the area to be tested, determined by setting an evaluation gate, is recorded synchronous with the position of the probe. A C-scan is produced in which the different amplitude heights are presented in different colours. The colour pallet used for this display is shown on the upper right. The amplitude curve can be presented in the "Analysis Program" module. If the threshold is set to 50% then this means that only amplitudes greater than 50% will be evaluated. In order to carry out an automatic evaluation, an evaluation threshold must firstly be set. All the other related areas which exceed the threshold are added and given in a report. The following result shows that additional adjustment parameters are required in order to filter unwanted effects.

In addition to the correctly displayed drilled holes, a groove is displayed split into a number of sections. The groove histogram with superimposed evaluation threshold shows that this is split into a number of small flaws by a brief over- threshold state although it is a continuous indication. This can be avoided by adjustment of the "Closeness" parameter. An entry value of 2 means that for two memory points there can be an under-threshold state in the display area in order to still indicate a flaw.

While the left-hand evaluation is split into 5 areas, the evaluation is made correctly after the " Closeness " parameter has been adjusted and only one indication area is detected, as seen on the right. A second influence can, amongst other factors, be caused by electrical interference. Very small indication areas appear, in addition to the correctly displayed test reflectors, which are produced by brief over-threshold states of the evaluation threshold. This can be counteracted by defining a minimum flaw area which enables the display to suppress extremely small flaws. Evaluation can be made for three different types of flaw after correct adjustment of the above parameters has been made:

1. Single flaws All connected display areas are indicated with position data, flaw area and maximum echo amplitude. 2. Additive flaws (total flaw areas) All connected display areas are added 3. Number of flaws (flaw no.) The number of connected display areas is indicated
Total flaw area: 25.16 mm2 No. 1 X= 41.54mm Y= -170.45mm Z= -103.80mm Area= 15.72mm2 Value= 80.00% No. 2 X= 3.74mm Y= -170.25mm Z= -103.80mm Area= 5.00mm2 Value= 74.50% No. 3 X= 1.14mm Y= -173.65mm Z= -103.80mm Area= 4.44mm2 Value= 91.00%

Definition of the working area With icons enlarge it. a section can be selected for further processing without having to

Changing the gain K-Scan enables off-line changes to gain. To do this the icon is required gain change selected in the displayed table: clicked and the

The adjacent example shows the effect of a 5 dB gain change. It should be noted here that only one change takes place with respect to the colour pallet; the dynamic range of the amplitudes remain unchanged.

Options Options icon

Various settings can be carried out for display of the C-scan using the Options function. These are: Entry of the default values for the colour pallet Load pallet which was used for scanning When more data than pixels are available, output of the maximum or minimum amplitude value C-Scan compensation of gear play (only with meander scanning) Orientation of the C-scan with this, the image can be turned and reflected in order to display the position in which the test object is located.

Isometrical display maintains the side ratio of the test object, non-isometrical display presents the maximum display size.

Information Information icon

A window is opened, containing data concerning the adjustment parameter for data recording, when the "Information" icon is clicked.

Palette Editor Module



Operating Instructions Software Version September 2005

Colour pallets are used in K-scans in order to display amplitudes or time-of-flight curves as C-scans. The program module "Palette Editor" is a tool for producing or changing colour pallets. If the program is recalled then a empty pallet appears according to the following figure: The following functions are recalled by clicking the icons: Creating a new palette Working with an existing palette Storing the created palette The colour palette shows the actual setting The colour for "no recording" marks undefined areas in the Cscan Creation of a new amplitude palette Colours should be selected with the presentation of the amplitude curve which optically clarify the contents. With many applications the "traffic light effect" is the most common, i.e. areas without flaw indications are green, areas with small flaw indications are yellow and areas with high flaw indications are red. The three areas are defined in the first step.

The cursor is at 63% The areas between 63% and 127% are divided into three equal areas by entering 3 additional levels.

The selection window is opened by clicking the colour fields.

The areas are coloured green, yellow and red. Corresponding threshold values can be determined by selection of the adjacent level window. In this example the display height is divided into 3 areas. The threshold values are set to 33%, 66% and 100% SH (Screen Height) by clicking the corresponding window. The A/D converter operates with 8 Bit resolution. This means that at a resolution of 0.5% there will be a maximum dynamic range of 127%. Therefore even amplitudes greater than 100% SH will be displayed. The USIP 40 generates amplitude values up to a value of 102% SH The colour for the lowest threshold is always black. In order that the presentation starts with a green tone, the lowest threshold is also to be displayed in green from 0% to 1%. Additional colour levels are to be defined in order to present colour progression.

To insert a colour progression in 10 steps from green to yellow, the 1% threshold field is clicked and then the function "Insert level" is selected. By entering the number 10 for the level number, the colour progression is created into 10 steps. Thresholds 66% and 100% are done in the same way to obtain the adjacent colour progression. The palette

created is then to be stored under a new file name. Creation of a time-of-flight (wall thickness) palette The creation of a wall thickness pallet is principally made similar to the amplitude pallet. The general difference can be mainly found in the larger dynamic range and in the smaller visual range. The time-of-flight value is transferred from the USIP 40 in s. Therefore the entry of the sound velocity of the test object is to be entered for correct display. The time-of-flight range is given with a resolution of maximum 10 ns and 15 Bit. This is why the maximum range is always 10 ns x 2 15 or 327 s or 969 mm at a sound velocity of 5920 m/s. Normally during the wall thickness measurement, small changes to large ranges are normally monitored. For example, a component having a thickness of 30 mm is to be monitored for changes of 5 mm. Colour distribution, as is the case with amplitude presentation, does not produce a satisfactory result because the area of interest is presented in one colour and therefore cannot be evaluated. A useable result can only be achieved when, similar to the recording of wall thickness progressions, an offset and a widened presentation range is used. As can be seen from the following example, the offset is put at 25 mm and the range to 10 mm. This means that only wall thicknesses between 25 mm and 35 mm can be displayed. In doing this it should be noted that colour pallets not adjusted to the object to be tested will produce unusable results!
The settings for the adjacent pallet were made as follows

Pallet type for TOF measurement Sound velocity 5920 m/s Pos. tolerance field blue 31-35 mm Accept field green 29-31 mm Neg. tolerance field red 25-29 mm The required measurement range can hardly be recognized with presentation of the total display range!

Presentation of the defined range is widened by the zoom function. The millimetre scale shows the range to be be displayed (to scale).

A colour progression can be made by insertion of additional levels the same as the amplitude palette.