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Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Marrakesh, Morocco, Mar.

2023, 2011 569

Performance Characteristics of a Dual-sense Helical-beam Antenna


S. A. Adekola1, 2 , A. Ike Mowete1 , and A. A. Ayorinde1
1

Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria 2 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Niger Delta University Wilberforce Island, Yenegoa, Nigeria

Abstract Several years ago, Coleman and Wright [1], experimentally demonstrated the feasibility of exciting a dual-sense circularly polarized eld, using a single-element helical antenna. The results obtained and described by [1] suggest that good on-axis axial ratios then become available, and that the o-axis axial ratios may be rated reasonable. It was discovered [1], in particular, that the o-axis axial ratio for the added port of the antennas feed arrangement was signicantly worse on account of an imbalance in the feed as well as currents excited along the axially located outer coaxial conductor. This paper, using a moment-method analytical approach earlier developed for elliptical cylindrical thin-wire helical antenna [2], investigates the possibility of improving o-axis ratios for the dualsense helical antenna through an informed location of the added port and choice of amplitude and relative phase of feed point excitation voltage. Computational results obtained suggest that both choice of location and magnitude and relative phase of feed point excitation voltage can lead to signicant improvements in both on-axis and o-axis axial ratios for the dual-sense helical antenna. In addition to oering possibilities for compensating for the imbalance in the feed and eects of currents excited in the outer coaxial conductor alluded to in [1], the proposals described in this paper indicate such other antenna parameters as polarization sense of radiated eld, of interest to optimum energy transfer can be controlled through the use of the dual-feed arrangement of the type proposed in [1].

1. INTRODUCTION

For the axial-mode helical antenna situated above a ground plane and fed from the end closest to the ground plane, the radiated eld is circularly polarized [5]. Several other methods of feeding the helical beam antenna, have been developed since its introduction by Kraus in 1947, and most of these feed arrangements involve feeding the antenna at one point only; at either ends, or at its geometrical center [3, 4]. A few years ago, Coleman and Wright [1], suggested that when the axialmode helical antenna is fed from the end remotely located from the ground plane, the radiated eld should have a circular polarization of sense opposite to that of the conventionally fed axial-mode antenna. And based on that observation [1] experimentally explored the feasibility of designing a dual (polarization) sense or orthogonal mode helical antenna through the incorporation of an additional port. They modied an existing helicone antenna to experimentally demonstrate the possibility, in practice, of such an antenna, and obtained measurement data that indicated that the so-modied antennas performance is promising. The experiment results described in [1], however suggested that o-axis axial ratios performance was poor for the orthogonal mode antenna; and although the authors suggested that this performance index could be improved by correcting an imbalance in feed and excitation currents, they did not qualify or quantify the nature of this predicted improvement. It is, in that connection, the main objective of this paper, to investigate how feed location and excitation specication for the added port of the orthogonal-mode helical antenna, aects o-axis and on-axis axial ratio. Computational results obtained from a modication of a compact theory earlier proposed [2], reveals that of-axis axial ratio performance can indeed be improved through an informed choice of feed location and specication of excitation voltage, in magnitude and relative phase.

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PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh, MOROCCO, March 2023, 2011

(a)

(b)

Figure 1: Physical model. (a) Axial-mode helix mounted on a large ground plane. (b) Image theory model.

2. THEORY

For the physical antenna model displayed in Figure 1, it has been shown elsewhere [2], that the radiation elds may be described by the integral expressions given as jo aejko r E (, 0 ) = 4r
2N

I p ( )[ cos sin sin tan ]ejko a sin d


0 2N

jo aejko r + 4r and

I k ( ) [ cos sin sin tan ]ejko a sin d ,


0

(1a)

2N jo aejko r E (, 0 ) = I p cos ejko a sin (cos( )+(tan cot ) ) d 4r 0 2N + I k cos ejko a sin (cos( )(tan cot ) ) d ,
0

(1b)

provided that = cos + (tan cot ) , and that the symbols (a, , N ) stand for the helix radius, pitch angle and number of helix turns, respectively, with all other symbols assuming their conventional meanings. On-axis components of the radiated eld are specied by the choice of = 0 in (1a) and (1b), whilst non-zero values of in the same expressions give the o-axis radiated eld components. As explained in [2], numerical values for the radiated elds are readily obtained through a method-ofmoments solution, and with the availability of numerical values, axial ratio of the radiated elds (E , E ) both on- and o-axis, can be computed. When, for the general case, it may not be assumed that E and E are in time-phase quadrature, axial ratio (AR) is given by the following expression [7]: AR(dB) = 10 log10 |E |2 + |E |2 + [|E |4 + |E |4 + 2|E |2 |E |2 cos(2)]1/2 , |E |2 + |E |2 [|E |4 + |E |4 + 2|E |2 |E |2 cos(2)]1/2 (1c)

in which denotes the time-phase dierence between the eld components.

Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium Proceedings, Marrakesh, Morocco, Mar. 2023, 2011 571 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

As earlier remarked, the dual-sense helical antenna is obtained by adding a second feed point to the conventional helix, already excited at the end close to the ground plane. Our interest in this presentation is to explore the inuence of choice of added the ports location and excitation (magnitude and relative phase) on both the on-axis as well as the o-axis axial ratio performance. And to that end, three port locations and three excitation models (delta-gap feed voltages) of the added port were considered as follows: Added port locations (i) open end of the helix; (ii) geometrical centre of the helix; (ii) beginning of the seventh turn of the helix; Excitation arrangement (i) in-phase, same magnitude; (ii) in-phase half magnitude; (iii) 90 out-of-phase, half magnitude; with a delta-gap model of gap voltage 1 V utilized for the feed at end close to the ground plane. Figure 2(a) displays the AR proles of the dual-sense helix when the added port is located at the open end of the helix, and for the dierent feed models listed in the foregoing.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Figure 2: (a) Variations of the axial ratio as a function of the elevation angle () when the added port is at the open end with feed arrangement modeled by the gap voltages Vap = 1.0 V, 0.5 V and j0.5 V. (b) Variations of the axial ratio as a function of the elevation angle () when the added port is at the geometrical center with feed arrangement modeled by the gap voltages Vap = 1.0 V, 0.5 V and j0.5 V. (c) Variations of the axial ratio as a function of the elevation angle () when the added port is at the beginning of the 7th turn with feed arrangement modeled by the gap voltages Vap = 1.0 V, 0.5 V and j0.5 V.

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PIERS Proceedings, Marrakesh, MOROCCO, March 2023, 2011

On the basis of the 3 dB condition, the dual-sense helices with added port voltages of 1 V and j0.5 V have unsatisfactory values of axial ratio. However, when a feed voltage of 0.5 V is employed, the performance is much better. Computational results generated for the case when the added port is at the geometrical centre of the helix are displayed in Figure 2(b). And it is Interesting to observe that for all the three feed models specied, the dual-sense helical antenna appears to have satisfactory on-axis AR as well as o-axis AR over a reasonable range of the elevation angle (0 25 ). The variations of the axial ratio when the added port is located at the beginning of the seventh turn of the helix are graphically illustrated in Figure 2(c). Again, if the design goal is the 3 dB axial ratio, the dual-sense helix with added port voltage of j0.5 V appears to be the most promising in comparison with the dual-sense helix of added port voltages of 1.0 V and 0.5 V. We may therefore conclude that o-axis axial ratio performance can be controlled through an informed choice of excitation location and/or relative magnitude and phase, for the added port of the orthogonalmode helix.
4. CONLUSIONS

We have in this presentation, investigated a proposal earlier suggested by Coleman and Wright that the performance of a dual sense (orthogonal mode) helical antenna, assessed in terms of the onand o-axis axial ratios, can be improved through the correction of an inherent imbalance in the feeding arrangement. Computational results obtained from a method of moments implementation of a model developed for the antenna indicate that choice of feed location and relative magnitude and phase of excitation for the added port has signicant inuence on the values of axial ratio.
REFERENCES

1. Coleman, H. P. and B. D. Wright, An orthogonal mode (dual-sense) helical antenna, IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, Vol. 32, No. 4, 414415, April 1984. 2. Adekola, S. A., A. I. Mowete, and A. A. Ayorinde, Compact theory of the broadband elliptical helical antenna, European Journal of Scientic Research, Vol. 31, No. 3, 446490, 2009. 3. Nakano, H., Y. Samada, and J. Yamauchi, Axial mode helical antennas, IEEE Trans. Ant. & Prop., Vol. 34, No. 9, 11431148, 1986. 4. Kraus, J. D., Antennas, 2nd Edition, 185, 265339, 388408, McGraw-Hill, Inc., USA, 1988. 5. Kraus, J. D., Helical beam antenna, Electronics, Vol. 20, 109111, April 1947.