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TRAVELS

VARIOUS COUNTRIES

EUROPE ASIA AND AFRICA


E. D.

CLARKE

LL.D.

TART THE SECOND

GREECE EGYPT AND THE HOLY LAND


SECTION THE FIRST

FOURTH EDITION

VOLUME THE THIRD

LONDON:
PRINTED FOR
BY
R.

T.
IN

CADELL AND
THE STRAND

"W.

DA VIES

WATTS CROH N COURT TEMPLE BAR.

MDCCCXVII.

C sst
ADVERTISEMENT
SECOND EDITION OF PART THE SECOND.

In

Edition a few corrections have been made; and the " Jldditional Notes,'" which were
this

before placed at the end of the volume, have

been incorporated with the body of the work.

communication from Mr. Walpole, upon the events which caused a revolution in
valuable
the Turkish Government, and led to the deposition

and
s

death

of

Sultan

Selim,

after

the

author
for

departure from Turkey, came too late


;

insertion in the former edition

but this

article is

now

introduced into the ^ppendix\

(l)

See the Appendix, No.

I.

PREFACE
FIRST SECTION OF PART

THE SECOND

CONTAINING OBSERVATIONS ON THE

GEOGRAPHY OF THE HOLY LAND.

The Geography

of the Country alluded


of Syria,
Palccstine,

to,

by the several names

the

Holy Land, the Land of Canaan, the Land of Judaea, and the Land of Promise, is so exceedingly
perplexed, that a few observations, written with

a view to

its

illustration,

will, it is

hoped, be

considered as an useful introduction to this

Part of the author's Travels,


Its various appellations

in

which the survey


indis-

of that Country occupies a considerable share.

have been used

criminately with reference to the


or they have

same

territory,

been
;

separately applied
neither antient nor
to

to its

different districts
*

modern

geographers being agreed as


limits intended

the precise

by any one of them.

vi

PREFACE TO FIRST SECTION


According to some authors, Syria, Phoenice,

and

Paliestine,

were

three

distinct

regions.

Others include, within the Syrian

frontier, not

only Phcenice and Palcestine, but also Mesopotamia.

Strabo

describes Syria as comprehending

all

the country from

Mount jimanus and

the river

Euphrates to Arabia and io Egypt'.


Palcesiine

The word
all

occurs only once, incidentally, in

his writings \

Yet the name was

in

use above

four centuries anterior to the Christian sera, as

appears by several passages in the text of

Herodotus % who
as far as Phcenice.

describes Palc^stine as that

country which reaches from the borders of Egypt

Pliny

separates the

two
Holy

countries of Phcenice and Palestine in

more than

one instance*.

Phocas, who
it

visited the

Land

in the twelfth

century % and wrote the

account

of

so

highly esteemed

by Leo

(0

Slrahon. Geog. lib.xvi. p. 10G3. ed. Oxo7i. 18071

(2) Lib. xvj. p.

103. ed. Oxon.

It is
I

found

in

the following authors,

according to the references which


Palasline,
Julian, in
c. 7.
lib.

have collected from HelanrTs


Photius in Biblioth. p.\3\].
Aureliani.
Sfatiif.i

Dlo

Oissius,

Uh.21.
Flav.

contra Christian.

Fb/risci^s in P'it.

Si/lv.lib.3. cai-tn. 2.
lib.

Sillies Ital.

lib. 3.

Ovid, in Fastis. Idem, Metain.

4, et 5.

(.3)

Hercdot.
*

Clio, 105.

Thalia,

5.

Poh/hymn.

8.

(4)

Namque

Pal(Fstina voeabatur

qua

contigit Arahus, et Jitdcra,


c.

et Ccele, de'in Fha;nice."


tine.'i

Plin. Hist. Not. 1.5.


raillia

12.

"Finis Pahps:

centum octoginta novem


Ibid.
c.

passuum, a confiuio Arabia

deiuda Phcenice."
(5)

13.

L. Bat. 1635.

A.D.

1185.

OF PART THE SECOND.


ALLATIUS^ evidently
distinguishes
Pakestine

vii

both from Galilee and Samaria''. Brocardus, who


travelled a century after

Phocas, with equal


separates

perspicuity and brevity* extends the boundaries

of Syria from the

Tigris to Egypt;

Phcenice from Palcestiney but considers both these

countries as belonging to Judcea and Samaria,


into

which kingdoms the Holy Land was divided


Considering therePalestine as
it

after the time of Solomon^.

fore

a part of the Holy Land,


;

he divides

into three parts


called,

the

first

being

Palcestine, properly so

whereof Jerusalem

was the metropolis


CiBsarea',

the second, Palcestine of


Palcestine

and the

third,

of

Galilee.

Adrichomius'", who professes

to follow BrocarPalcestine,

dus", considers the Land of Canaan,

and the Holy Land, as names of the same

(6)

'*

Autor elegans et accuratus, prout


h Kdp/i-/i\os xa) h

ilia

ferebant tempora, visus

est."

Leon. Allat. Pr<pfat.%n'2vfife.ixTa.


ji*v Itrriv

Co/om. 1653.

(7) A=|(as

-ra^aXio; "raffuv
t^outi.

tw

TlaXxiimr/is, vu,

is ivuvvfitx, retvTvs Trj"

VuXiXaiuv

xa.)

<r>iv '^a[jt,dpta,))

Urbis dcxterse
Galilcram et

partes

Carmelum

et

Maritimam Palastina oram,


Phocas de Loc.
tlyricE,

siiiistrB

Samariavi
cap. 9,
(8)

liabeiit."

Pftocniciee, et Palcestincf,

Locorum

Terras Sancta; Descriptio. Basil. 1537.

Brocardus
II.

travelled in the year 1283.


p. 236.

See

Egmont and Heyman's

Travels, vol.

Lond. 1759.
Post tempus Salomonis in duo regna excrevit:
alterura vero

(9)

"

t/wrf^ dicebatur

unum regnum regnum Samarice vocabatur."

Ibid.

(JO)

Theatrum Terra: Sancta.


1,

Colon. 1628.

(ll) Ibid, in Prirfat. pp.

et3.

viii

PREFACE TO FIRST SECTION


country \
In this he
is

not accurate

and the

same remark may be applied to the writings of Cellarius, when he uses the expression '' Palcestina, sen Terra Sancta ;' thereby making Palcestine include all Phoenice, which it never did
although Phoenice was
-

comprehended

in the

territory called Terra Sancta, or the


PalcesfAne differed

Holy Land.
Bro-

from the Holy Land, as a part

may be

said to differ from the whole.

CARDUs evidently considers the first as being a part of the second ^ Upon this account the author has preferred the name of Th e Holy Land,
as being the only general appellation which caii

be said classically to comprehend the whole of that


territory, distinguished as the

Land of Promise

to the Israelites,

and by the Passion of Jesus C HRLST*. It has been erroneously supposed that
writings
it

the appellation " the

of Christians;

Terra Sancta" originated in who indefinitely


which had

applied

to that district of Syria

(1)
(2)

Theatrum
Ci?//ar.

Terra- Sancta; p.

1,

Colon. 16^8.
lib. 3.

Geog. Antiq. passim.


Palcestind, quas et

Vid. cap.xii.

" De Si/rid,"

cap.
torn.

xiii.

" De

Chanaan,

et

Terra Sancta; &c."

n.

Lips. 1706.

Bishop Pocoche, in bis Description of the East, considers the two expressions as synonymous. See vol. W.part 1. ch. 1. Lond. 1745.
(3)

(4)
aliter

" Duplici
a Judais,

ratio?ie

nomen Terra- Sancta;


a Otristianis."

iiuic

regioni trihuitur,

aliter

Reland.

De Nomine Terra
Hadriani Relandi

Sancta.

Vid. Thesaur. Jntiq. Ugol. vol.

VL cap. 4.

Palmstina,

Ven. 1746.

OF PART THE SECOND.


been rendered memorable for the sufferings of our Saviour; but the name existed before
the
Christian sera.

ix

The

epithet of Holy

had
their

been apphed to every thing connected with


the Jewish people
;

among whom, not only


and

cities, their priests,

their temple, bore this

epithet,

but their whole territory, by

way
*'

of

eminence, was pecuHarly considered as


Land''

Holy
its

That Fhcenice was included within


is

boundaries,

evident from the book oi Joshua^


tribe of

which extends the borders of the


from Carmel unto Sidon.
judiciously observes ^

Asher

Hence Maundrell
Sidon begin

"Near about

the precincts of the Holy Land, and of that part

of

it

in particular
is

which was

allotted to Asher.'

Phcenice

thus proved to have constituted a

portion of the Holy

Land; and that


is

Palcestine

did not include Phcenice

decidedly manifest
Phoe-

from a passage
nice,

in

HER0D0TUS^ wherein

and the Island of Cyprus, are Cluverius, defining separately enumerated.


PaliPstine,
(5) Joshua, xix. (6)

24 to 31.
p. 45.

Journey from Aleppo to Jerusalem,


"Efl'Ti Se
v

Oxf. 1721.
'Svl/i i HaXaKxr'.vyt

(7)

TM vouM

Tourai <t>amxn rs ^offcc ai


1

icuXiof/Ayti no.) Kv'T^ii;,

Thalia, cap. 9

Reland has cited a passage from a most antient flebrew commentaiy

upon

Genesis, wherein a similar distinction

is,

as decisively,

marked

Et

erat fames in omnibus terris,

sc. in

tribus terris,

Phoenicia [Uajam

turn scribehunt, barbate, 2'o Plucnice), Arabia, et

Palestina." Relandi
yenet.

Pal(Estina, cap. 7. ia Thesaur. Antiq. Sacrar. torn. VI. 33, 34.

1746.

PREFACE TO FIRST SECTION


the boundaries of Palcestine, begins

by marking

a line of separation between that country and


Phoenice
'.

Among

later writers,

some have extended


and others have

the boundaries of Palestine,

circumscribed the limits of Syria.


considers

D'Anville*

the former as including the whole


all

of Phoenice, with

the western side of Anti-

Lihanus and Herman;


of the
j4ntient

and Mentelle, editor


publislied
in

Geography

the

French Encydopedie, confines the


part of Asia which has

latter to that

the Mediterranean
east
;

on

the west;

Mount Taurus, the river EuphrateSy

and a small portion of Arabia, on the


the

and

Land of Judcea, or Palcestine, on the soiuh\ D'Anville had considered Juda-a merely as
a province of Palcestine.

In fact, the several


of observations pub-

additions to the

number

lished concerning this part of Asia

seem rather

to have increased than diminished the uncertainty respecting the geography of the country.
**

Tanta

est,''

says Seldex,
in

''

inter

profanas

et

sacras

liter as

regionum Jinilus discrepantia.

(1) "Palsestina cZ?^f/<7M7- a Septentrione Phcenice."


lib. V. e.

Cluvei: Geog.

20. p. 588.

Amst. 1729.
Pulastine, par

(2)

Voy. Carte

tie la

H' Anville.

Par. 1767. Pr. 17D2.

(3)

EnKvclop. Mt'thodique, Geog. Aik-.

tor.i. III.

'

OF PART THE SECOND.


Neque
in Syrice

xi
et

duntaxat nomine, sed in Judcece


ut

Palcestinte.

Jud(Fos,

par

est,

sen Ehrceos a

Palcestinis ubique separamus, ita et Scriptura.

Sed

Ploleinao, Straboni, Tacito, Syria Palcestina


ipsa
est,

eadem

quce Judcea

aliis diversce

sunt

sic

Ebrcei a

Palcestinis

disterminantur\'"

This discrepancy

characterizes even the writings of the learned

Cellarius, who,
his
treatise

at

an earUer period, opened


with
marlcs

D3

Syria

of

the

indecision perplexing the sources of his infor-

mation \

Dr. Wells,

in

his

" Historical

Geography of the Old and


restricts

New

Testament,"

Syria within

than those assigned

much narrower limits for it by Mentelle;

excluding
*^

all Phoenice and the Holy Land. Although," says he^ " Heathen authors do

sometimes include the


of Syria, yet

Holy Land as a part

used

in

by sacred writers it is always a more restrained sense; and in the


distinct, not

New

Testament, as a country

only

from the Holy Land, but also from Phoenice,

(4)

Seidell

then quotes from Statins, Syl. V.


Palastini simul Ebraiqiie liquores."

id.

Seldeni Prolegomena

ad Syntagina de Diis

Syris.

He is speaking of Pliny. " Almis la.cejines ponit Syrits: sed in hoc Melam suum sequutus erat, qui prope iisdem verbis, lib. i. cap. recitavit. Et ex hac opinione vidctur emanmse, ut multi scriptores
(oj
1 1

Syriam
lib. iii.

et

Assyrium

pertnisceaiit uc confundant."

Cellar.

Geoj. Antiq.

cap. 12. p. 393.

Lips. 1706.

(6) Histor.

Geog. of the Old and

New Tei^,

vol. II. p. 139.

O.if.

801

xii

PREFACE TO FIRST SECTION


and of which the coasts of Tyre and Sidon wer
the southern part;
so that

by

Syria,

the

New

Testament,

is

to

be understood the country

lying to the east and north-east of the Holy Land,


betv.'een Phoenice

and the Mediterranean Sea


east.''

to

the west, and

the river Euphrates to the

Under

all

these circumstances, although there

may

be something more suited to existing pre-

judices in the use of the

word Pal^estineS the


accurate in considering

author believes that he

is

The Holy Land as an appellation of a more extensive,

although not a less definite, signification

He

also believes that

he

is

the

more

justified

in adopting this latter name, as distinguished

from the former, because he thereby adheres


to the clue afforded

by

the

observations

of

Brocardus; an author held in the highest estimation, by men who have written most learn^
edly upon the countr}"- to which these observations refer.

Brocardus was doubly

qualified,

(1)

**

Pal(Estin<E

nomen, quod nobis prs


Illustrata."
'^

reliquis placuit,

quum

hnic

operi tituluni daremus," says Reland, with reference to his inestimable

work, " Palastina


(2) Fullei', la

\m

Pisgah'Sight of Palcestine," perhaps intending


it

a sly satire upon the age (for


reign of

was published
refrains

in

the be^nning of th
it

Charles the Second),


it,

from calling
:

the

Holy Land^

through fear of being thought superstitious


expresseth
stitious."

"

Lest," as he quaintly

"

whilest
I.

I call
c. ii.

the land

holy,

this

age count me super-

See Book

p. 2.

Lond. 1650.

OF PART THE SECOND.


both by the evidences of ocular demonstration in that part of Asia, and a thorough knowledge
of
all

xiii

that sacred or profane writers have said

upon the subject, to ascertain its geography with ability and with precision: " Eum ferh
semper secutus sum, quod persuasissimum haherem,
nonfuisse unquam, qui voluerit magis aut vero etiam
potuerit melius, perfectam et simplicem

quandam ad

hujus rei cognitionem viam sternere^y

The boundaries defined by the face


tion
is,

of Palcestine are physically


of the country
:

the distinc-

to

a certain extent, yet maintained

among

the inhabitants of Syria.

Even
is

at this

hour, the vast plain which extends

westward

from the mountains oi Judcea, and

bounded

by the
cording

sea, bears the

to

name of Phaiastin\ AcVoLNEY*, it ** comprehends the

whole country included between


ranean to the
2uest
;

the Mediterto the south


north.

the chain of mountains to

the east ; and two lines, one

drawn

by Kan

Younes^,

and the other

to the

(3)

Jdrtchomii Eulog. in Brocard.


Cnlon. \6<2S.
is

Vid. Theat. Terr.

Sand,

in

Pra/at.p.3.
(4)

" This

the plain, which, uniler the

name

of Fulastin, or
Volney's

Palestine,

terminates on this side the country of Syria."


321.

Travels,

vol. II. p.

L<md. 1787.

(5) Ibid. p. 328. (6) See Folneu's

Map

of Syria, as published in the English edition

f his Travels,

vol. I. p. 287.

Lmd.

1787.

xiv

PREFACE TO FIRST SECTION


between Kaisaria and the
whole of antient Phoenice
rivulet of Yafa."
is

The
which
bounif

thereby excluded
Paltestine,

from the boundaries of modern


is still

a district independent of every Pachalic'.


its

In the most antient periods of history,


daries

were

equally restricted;

and

we
first

examine those records wherein the name


occurs*,

we

shall

be able

to

define

its
it

limits
is in

with precision.
Genesis^

The
it is

first

mention of

where

stated that Isaac

went unto

Ahimelech {Rex Palcestinorum'^) king of the Philistines,

unto Gerar

and he

is

told not to go

into Egypt, but to sojourn in the land of the


Philistines {Palcrstine),

and he dwelt
in

in

Gerar.

Now

Gerar was situate

the district after-

wards occupied by the

tribe of Judah, not far

(1)

See /'o/wCT/V Map,

ibid.

p.

329.

(2) Tiie St.

word Palastina
often,

signifies

nothinj more than PhUistina.


calls the Philistines Palastlni.

Jerom

and Josephus always,


Esa.

"

PhUhtcoos autem, ut supra diximus, Palastinos significat."


in
l.

Hie-

ronymi Comment,
(3)
(4)

xiv. 29.

Gen. xxvi.

See the Latin Version by


1.

St.

Jerom, as given in the [London


Philisti'im is translated

Polyglott Bible, Gen. xxvi.

where the Hebrew

Palastinm-um

only, in the copy referred to, this

word

is

improperly

nritten Palestinorum, and in some editions of the Vulgate, more erroneously, Palesthinormn.

Reland(.De Nomine Palastince. Fid. Thesaur.

Antiq. Sacrar. UgoUni, v. 6.) says, that the

name

occurs in the oldest


is

Jewish writings, where


always
Tla>.aiffTU-/i,

it is

written

li^tool's].

This in the Greek

and not

TlaXitrrUn.

The Ronans, upon

their medals,
as they

sometimes wrote

this

word Palestina instead of Palaestina,


See Medals nf Vespasian, ^v.

wrote JvDEA instead of Jvdaea.

OF PART THE SECOND.


from Hdrouy and between Hebron and Gaza\
Afterwards, in the book of Joshua^, where mention is

xy

made

of the five cities of Palcesdne, or


the

of the
rated
:

Philistines,

following are

enume-

Gaza, AzoiiLS, Ascalon, Geth or Gath, and


:

Accaron

all

of these were comprehended within

that district

which has Joppa

to the north,

and

Gaza

to the

then writers,

south\ Of the most antient HeaHerodotus expressly states that

country to have been called Palestine which

extended from the boundaries of Egypt to those


oi
Ph(7iice^.

Thus, having

summed

all

the evi-

dence which can be adduced upon


it

this point,

may be

manifest, that the use of the term


as applied to
all

Paleestine,

that country origithe


Israelites,

nally

called

the

Land of

is

(5)

Gerar, or Gerara,
is

is

also

mentioned

in

Genesis \. 15. but


j4ljruha)n,

its

situation

precisely stated in Geiiesis \%.\.


is

where
said to

having

"journeyed towards the south country,"


in Gerar,

have

"

sojourned

between

Kadesh and Shur."

It

formed with Gaza the


belong-ed to

southern frontier of Palastine.


that of
(6)

The Desert of Chdes


\i. 17.

Egypt;

Sur

to

Arabia Pctraa,
In
1

t/oi/j. xiii. 3.

Satnuel,

they are thus enumerated:

jizotus,

Gaza,
c. 1.

Ascalon,

Gath, Accaron.

See also Josephus,

lib. vi.

Antiq.
(")

The boundaries
xiii. 3.

of PhiUstaa, or Palastine, are thus defined by


Sifior, (the river;

Joshia,
is

"From

See Jeremiah

ii.

18.)

which

before Egypt, e\en unto the borders of


(8) Heiodot. in

Polyhymn.

That

is

Ekron (Accaron) northward." to say, from Egypt to Joppa.

The

Avhole country

was maritime.

"

Situs regionis Philistaa est


Cellar,
lib. iii.

ma-

ritimus, ab Joppe ad
/. 595.

Mgypti fines."

cap. 13. torn. II.

Lips. 1706.


xvi

PREFACE TO FIRST SECTION


geographical error
erroneous,
Phoenice
'

that its application is


is

most

when
is

it

made

to

comprehend

and, further, that the proper general

appellation
to
it

The Holy Land


as well as

a name applied

Christian writers^. by Jeivish, Even Re LAND, who preferred the use of the word Palcestina as a more sounding appellation for the title of his book, says that Terra S ancta
is

by

name doubly
illustrates ^

applicable to the region his

work

And

surely, so long

as the

blessings of Religion diffuse their consolatory

balm of hope, and peace, and gladness, this land may be accounted holy" holy, as consecrated by the residence of the Deity through all
the ages of Jewish history

holy, as sanctified

(1)

The

Greeks, after the time of Herodotus, on account of the great


Philistines,

power of the

comprehended under the name of Palcestine


regionibus

the four provinces of Idumcea, Judaa, Samaria, and Galilcca, although

never Phoenice,
aliqud,
lib.
\.

" quia
p. 6.

scepe

tribuuntur jiomina a parte

qwB

vicinas antecellit potentia."


torn. \.
*'

(Juaresmii Elueid. Terr. Sanct,

c. 2.

Anlv. 1639.
scriptoi-iim

(2)

See

Exempla

Judaicornm

et

Christianorum qui

Iwc
'

nomen

tisiirpant," as

they are given by Reland, in his chapter


Vid. Thesaurus Antiq. Sacrar. Ugo-

DE Nomine Terrs Sancts.'

Uni, vol. VI. xvii, xviii.


(3)

"

Duplici ratione nonien Terra Sancta huic region! tribuitur,


aliter a Christianis."

aliter
(4)

a Judteis,

Ibid.

" Quis enim non rapitur in admirationem et stuporem, qui Montem Oliviferum, Mure Tiberiadis, Jordanem, Hierosolymam, et
alia loca, quae

suae praesentem sistit generis

Christum frequentAsse notum est, conspicit, et menti humani sospitatorem, illic ea operantem

aut passum, quae originem dedere sacris Christianorum ejus


confitentium !"

nomen

Thesaur. Antiq. Sac,

Ugolitii, ibid.


OF PART THE SECOND.
by the immediate presence and by the blood of our Redeemer holy, as the habitation of Patriarchs, Prophets,

xvii

and Apostles

" Quam terUrban

RAM,"

to

use the energetic language of


in

THE Second,
MUS, IX QUA

his

eloquent address to the


''

Council of Clermont,

merito sanctam dixi-

XOX EST ETIAM PASSUS PEDIS, QUEM XON ILLUSTRAVERIT ET SAXCTIFICAVERIT VEL CORPUS, VEL UMBRA SaLVATORIS, VEE GLORIOSA PR.ESEXTIA SAXCTE DeI GeXITRICIS, VEL AMPLECTEXDUS ApOSTOLORUM COMMEATUS,
VEL Martvrum SAXGUIS EFFUSUS,"
Yet, while the author
is

ready

to

acknow-

ledge the impression

made upon his mind by the


memorable
to

peculiar sanctity of this


far

region, he is

from being willing

enumerate,

or

to

tolerate, the

degrading superstitions which, like

noxious weeds, have long polluted that land of " milk and honey /' Those who have formed
their notions of the

Holy Land, and particularly

of Jerusalem,

from the observations of Adri-

CHOMius, Sandys,

Doubdan,

Maundrell,

Thevexot, or even from the writings of Pococke, and the recent entertaining pilgrimage of Mons. De Chateaubriand*, will find their
(o)

Published in London,

Oc/ober 1811,

when

this

Volume was

nearly completed.
edition of

The author

has not yet seen the original French

Mons.
III.

De

CMicauhrlancT s work. c

VOL.

XVIU

PREFACE TO FIRST SECTION


prejudices frequently assailed in the following

pages.

The author has ventured

to see the

country with other eyes than those of

Monks

and

to

make the

Scriptures, rather than

Bede

or

Adamnanus,
Places;'

his guide in visiting " the

Holy

to

attend more

to a single chapter,

nay, to a single verse, of the Gospel, than to


all

the legends

and traditions of the Fathers


In perusing the remarks conSion, the

of the Church.

cerning Calvary and Mount

Reader

is

requested

to

observe,

that

such were

the

upon the spot, but after collating and comparing with his own notes the evidences afforded by every writer upon the topography of Jerusalem, to which he
author's observations, not only
lias

subsequently had access.

It is

impossible

to reconcile the history of antient Jerusalem with

the appearance presented

by the modern

city

and

this discordance,
in

rather than any positive

conviction

the

author's

mind, led to the


to

survey he has ventured


notions, after
all,

publish.

If

his

be deemed, by some readers,


it

inadmissible, as

is

very probable they


the

will,

yet even these,

by the suggestion of new


in

documents,
the
.

both

account
to

given

of of
of

inscriptions

he

found

the

south

what is now called Mount the monuments to which


belong,

Sion, as well as

those

inscriptions

may

assist in reconciling a confused

OF PART THE SECOND.


topography ^

xix

Quaresmius,

stating the several


in the

causes of that heretical kind of pilgrimage

Holi/ Land, whichhe describes as "profane, vitious,

and detestable",'^ certainly enumerates

many of the
visit that

motives which induced the author to

country, and therefore classes him among ** NONNULLOS NEBULOXES OCCIDENTALES

the
li^-

RETicos," whose remarks he had heard with so

much
keep,

indignation^

But,

in

doing
is

this,

he

places him in

company which he

proud to

among men, who do

not believe them-

selves

one jot nearer to salvation by their


all

approximation to Mount Calvary, nor by


indulgences,

the

beads,

rosaries,

and

crucifixes,

manufactured and sold by the craftsmen of Jeru-

(l)

The

generality of Readers,

who have perused

the

different

accounts published concerning the Holy Land, have not perhaps

remarked the extent

of the confusion yrevailing in the topographical


;

descriptions of Jerusalem

probably, because they have not compared


city.

those writings with any general plan of the

To

give a single

example

Almost

cverj' traveller,

from the time of Brocardus to that of


According

Mons.

De

Chateaubriand, mentions the "Mountain of Offence," where


to

Solomon sacrificed to strange gods.


Adrichomius, this mountain
Olives,
is

Brocardus and to
the Mount of

the northern point of

{Fid. Brocard. Itin. 6. Adrichom. Theat. Terr. Sonet, p. 171.

Colon. 1G28.)
drell,
(/>.

and therefore to the

east or north-east of the city.


to

Maunalso

102. Journ.

from

Alep.

Jerus.

Oxf. 1721.)

and

Pococke, [Descrip. of the East,

Plan facing

p. 7- vol. 11.

Lond. 1745,)

make
this
(2)

it

the southern point.

Sandi/s {Trav. p. 186. Lond. 1637) places

mountain

to the south-west of the city.

Quaresmius, "

De

externa profand, sed detestahili ac vitiosd pelib.


iii.

regrinatione." Vid. EUuidatio Tenffi 5ancte,


(3)

c.34.

AntvAQZd.

Ibid, lib.v. cap. 14.


XX
salem

PREFACE to flRST SECTION

among

travellers,

who,

in

an age when

feelmgs and opinions upon such subjects were manifestly different from those now maintained,

with great humbleness of spirit, and matchless simplicity of language, " expected remission of
sin

no other ways, but only

in the

name, and
get
to

for the merits, of our

Lord Jesus Christ;"

who undertook
any thing by
visit stone

their pilgrimage, " not to

it,

as

by a good work; nor


to obtain indulgence
;

and wood
to

nor

with

opinion

come

nearer to Christ"
all

by

visiting Jerusalem,

" because

these things
;

are

directly contrary to Scripture but to " increase the general stock of useful know''

ledge,"' to

afford the

Reader both

profit

and

pleasure

that those

to visit foreign

who have no opportunity countries may have them before


map,
to

their eyes, as in a

contemplate

that

others

may be

excited further to inquire into

these things, and induced to travel themselves into those parts ;" that they may be " instructed
in

the customs,
''

laws,

and orders of men;"


situation,

that the

present state, condition,

and manners of the world may be surveyed and


described
;

not by transcribing what


stating

others

have

but by fairly what " they have themselves seen, experienced, and
written,"

handled," so that their " pains and dihgence be

not altogether vain."

OF PART THE SECOND.


Such were the motives, and such was the
lan-

xxi

guage, of a traveller in the Holy Land, so long

ago as the middle of the sixteenth century^;

who, with the


sentiments,
heretics

liberal spirit of

an enlightened and
burning
in this

pious Protestant, thus ventured to express his

when

the

bonfires

for

were as yet hardly extinguished


Writing
live

country.

and

thirty years before

Sandys began

his journey"-,

and two centuries

and a half before Mons.


an

De Chateaubriand
with
the

published his entertaining narrative, he offers

example

singularly contrasted

French authors legendary detaiP; in which the


(1)

See the Travels of L^onhart Rauwolff, a

as published by

Ray,

in 1693.

German physician, The words included by inverted commas


{See the
chap.
iv.

are literally taken

from Ray's translation of that work.


j^ko Trav. Part
3.

Epht.

to

TVidthoUz, Christel, and Bemf.r.

p. 290.)

Rauwolff" was at Jerusalem in 1575.

{See chap.

viii.

p. 315.)

The

religious opinions he professed,

and

his disregard of indulgences,

roused the indignation of the monks, particularly of the learqed


resmius, a Franciscan friar,

Quu-

who wrote
I'his

a most elaborate description of


in 1639,

the Holy Land, already cited.


in

was published at Jnticerp

two large

folio

volumes, with plates.

Referring to the passages

here introduced from Rauwolff's book, Quaresmius exclaims, " Quid

amplius Rauchvvoljius

Ecce

in ipso

Mnnlc Sion derepente


et

in Prcedi-

cayitem transforniatus concionari cwpit,

ne turn insignem concionem


idiomate in
;

ignoraremus

Uteris

earn mandavit

quam ex Germanico

Latinum

transtulit

P. Gretserus, ut ad
j^udianius
;

exteros quoque redimdet

sedne

ohstat, illam etiam rejicit.

Alqni, 6 prwdicantice

Medice! recte
trcisti,

prnj'ectu dicis
>"

nihil penitus peregrinafione tud, avt impelib, iii.

aut meritus es
p. 836.

Quarcsmii Elucid. Terr. Sanct, Journey

cap. 34.

torn.

I.

Antv.\G^d.
his
in 16IO.

(2) Sandys
(3)

began
says

" Here,"

Mons.

De

Chateaubriand,

" / saw,

on the right,
of'

the place where dwelt the indigent Lazarus ; and, on the opposite side

the

xxii

PREFACE TO FIRST SECTION


chivalrous' and bigoted spirit

of the eleventh

century seems singularly associated with the


taste,

the

genius, and

the literature,

of

the

nineteenth.

P.S.
to those

In the Preface to the First

Part

of

these Travels, some acknowledgment

was made

who had

assisted the author in the pro-

gress of his work-. This pleasing duty will

now

be renewed.

The

interestino:

Notices of the
a value to the

Rev. Regixald

Heber

gave
it

former publication, which

could not otherwise

have possessed;

and, in the copious extracts

which the author has here afforded, from the


classical journals of travellers

already conspi-

cuous

in the literary world, a similar

advantage

is

already anticipated.

The Rev. Robert Walpole,

man." Afterwards he proceeds to state, that " St. Chrysostom, St. Ambrose, and St. Cvril, have
the street, the residence of the oldurate rich

looked upon the history of Lazarus aud the rich


parable, but a real and well-known fact.
lie,

man

as

not merely a
says

The Jews themselves,"


man, whom they
II.

" have preserved

the

name of tlie

rich

call

Nuhal."

(See Travels in Greece,

Palestine, &c. vol.

pp. 26, 27.

Land. 1811.
is

Mons.X>(? Chuteauhriand does not seem to be aware, that Nahal


appellation used by the Jews to denote any covetous person.
(1) See the interesting description given

an

of the Monkish

by Mons. De Chdteaulriand ceremony which conferred upon him the order of " a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre." Ibid. pp. 176, 177.
(2) See Preface to Part the First, pp. iv, v.

Octavo Edition.

OF PART THE SECOND.

xxiii

M.A.

of Trinity College, Cambridge', has libe-

rally permitted the use of his written observa-

tions in Greece throughout

tlie

whole, not only

of the present, but also of the subsequent volumes.

Wherever reference has been made


observations, the author,

to those

consistently with his


to

former plan,

has

been careful

give

Mr.

Walpole's intelligence in his own words, exactly


as they have been transcribed from his original

manuscript.

A
J.

similar obligation has

been conferred by
in

B. S. MoRRiTT, Esq.**

the

interesting

account taken from his Journal of the present


state of Halicarnassus and of Cnidus,
in the

and published
;

Notes to the Seventh Chapter

also

by

the plan which accompanies his description of


the Rui7is of Cnidus.
will peculiarly claim

This last communication


regard, in being the
first

(3) Tlie learned author of Essays bearing his


4to.

name in

the Herculanensia.

Land. 1810.

See his former communications to this Yv'ork, Part

the First, vol. II. p. 354.

known

as the editor of

Note (4.) Octavo Edition. IMr. Walpole is also Comicorum Greecorum Fragmenta, and of other
and
classical erudition.

dissertations equally remarkable for their taste

(4) Celebrated for his controversy with the late Jacob Bryant,

on the

subject of
that so

Homer's Poems much of Mr. MorritCs Journals


and the

War

of Troy.

It is to

be regretted,
;

still

remains unpublished

parti-

cularly as they contain observations respecting a very considerable part of

Asia Minor, of which our information

is

remarkably

deficient.

xxiv

PREFACE TO FIRST SECTION


authentic notice which has yet appeared con-

cerning the remains of a city once so renowned,

but whose vestiges have been unregarded by

any former

traveller.

The only

Plants mentioned in the Notes, are

those which have never been described

preceding writer.

Not

less

by any than sixty new-

discovered species will be found added to the


science of Botany, in this and the subsequent
sections of Part the Second
;

with

many
List,

others of

almost equal rarity, in a General

which

is

reserved for the Appendix to the last of these


sections.

In the account given of these plants,

and

in their

arrangement, the obligation due to

A. B. Lambert, Esq. was before acknowledged

but an individual,
tributed, although

now unhappily no more,


unknown to
it

con-

the author at the

time, so essentially to the completion of this

part of the work, that


talents,

as

well

as

to

were injustice to his the encouragement so


his genius

liberally

bestowed upon

by

his

benevolent Patron, not to cherish, even


frail

in this

record, the lamented

memory

of

George

Jackson.

The Appendix
curious
ture; for

to this

Volume

contains

some

documents respecting Eastern Literawhose illustration the author has been

OF PART THE SECOND.


indebted to two very learned Oriental scholars :

XXV

Mr.

Hammer,

Secretary of the German

Em-

bassy at Constantinople\ furnished an interpre-

manuscript copy of The Arabian Nights, which the author obtained in Egypt, and to which allusion
tation of the List of Tales contained in a
is

made

in the Second Chapter*^.

The Rev. George Cecil Renouard, M.A.


Fellow of Sidney College, Cambridge, late Chaplain to the British

Factory at Smyrna, contributed

the translation of a Catalogue of Manuscripts on


daily sale in the cities of the East
;

which was
This Cata-

procured by the author through the friendly


offices of a Dervish in Constantinople.

logue

may be

considered as presenting a better

view o^ Asiatic, than would be afforded oi European, literature, the

by combining two

or three of

common

catalogues published

by

the prin-

cipal booksellers of

London and Paris ; because

less variety characterizes the different catalogues

of the East, than will be found to distinguish

(1)

Mr.

Hammer
Grand
an

accompanied the author


Cairo.

in

Egypt, and resided a

short time in

He

obtained in that city, of the celebrated

Consul

Rosetti,

/^raftic

Manuscript concerning Hieroglyphics, which

was afterwards published in


(2) This beautiful

England by Dr. jnikins.

Manuscript, contained in four quarto portfolios,

was damaged by the wreck of the Princessu merchantman, off Beackz/ Head. It has been sent to Constantinople to be transcribed, but liiLis
liopes are entertained of its entire restoration.

XXVI

PREFACE TO FIRST SECTION


those of diiFerent booksellers in Europe;
the

same books bemg constantly on


tinople,

sale in Constan-

Smyrna, Damascus, Aleppo, and Grarid

Cairo;

whereas

very considerable difference

may be

observed among the collections adver-

tised for sale in London, Paris,

and Vienna.
author, to

Throughout

this

work,

the

the

utmost of his abihty, has derived his information


from original sources.

Upon

this

account he

has extended the references, in almost every


instance, so as to notice the edition cited
;

par-

ticularly where more than one edition has been

used

as in the example of the Pahestina lllus-

Zmia of

Hadrian Reland:
folio

for a short

time he

consulted the
cation,

copy of that valuable publiat Venice in 1/46, in

as

it

was printed

the Thesaurus Antiquitatum Sacrarum of

Ugolini ;

not having the preceding edition, published, in

two small quarto volumes,


This
last,

at

Utrecht in 1714.

being afterwards obtained, was occa-

sionally cited, as

more convenient for


different editions

reference.

Also, in deriving authorities from Josephus, an


allusion to

two

may perhaps
the

be noticed;
1691, which

viz. to

one printed at Cologne in


in preparing

was consulted
;

manuscript for the press


in Holland,

and

to another printed

used subsequently, during a revisal

of the ^vork.

These are observations

in

which

OF PART THE SECOND.


the generality of readers are
little

xxvii

interested
is

but an attention even to such minuteness


requisite in a writer
tion

who

has ventured to ques-

some of the deductions made by former authors. Indeed, few persons are aware, either
all

of

the duties a writer of Travels

must

fulfil,

or of half the difficulties he has to encounter.

ON THE VALUE OF TURKISH MONEY,


MEASURE OF DISTANCE
TURKEY,

IN

By

the Sale Catalogue of Oriental Manuscripts, given in


travellers

No. H. of the Appendix, future


also to avoid imposition,

may be

enabled

not only to collect the Literary productions of the East, but

by knowing beforehand the


Romances,

several
^

prices of
dence.

all

popular writings in Eastern Theology, Jurispru


Biography,
Poetry,

History,

&c. &c.

observing, at the same time, that the price of each Manuscript

depends more upon the merits of the scribe, than of the


author.

Thus, for example, a


for

fair

copy of the Poems of


if

Hafiz

may be purchased

110 Paras ; but

the wTiting be

from the calamus of a celebrated

calligraphist, the price

may

be 300 or 3000 Paras, according to the fame of the scribe, Turkish and Arahic or the beauty of the illuminations.
Manuscripts are rarely illuminated
frequently thus embellished.
:

those of Persia are very

single

copy of a Manuscript
esti-

containing Extracts from the Koran has, however, been

mated

at the rate of a

Venetian sequin for each

letter,

on

account of the extraordinary beauty of the penmanship and


emblazonry.

Such a work was

in the Collection

of the late

Sultan, Selim the Third.

The

prices of

all

the Manuscripts enumerated in the Sale

Catalogue are stated, according to the usual mode of demand,


in Turkish Paras.
It
is

necessary, therefore, to mention the

value of the coin which bears this appellation.

The author

once intended to have prefixed a Table of Turkish

Mea-

sures, Weights, and Money, corresponding with that given


in

the former

part

of

this

work.

The

instabihty of the

coinage, and the various estimates a traveller will meet with in


different parts of an

empire so heterogeneous and extensive as

that of Turkey, have prevented the introduction of any Table

of this description.

of the Piastre, and

payment are

may suffice therefore to say, generally, Para, wherein almost all calculations of made, that fifteen Piastres may be considered as
It

equivalent to our

Pound

Sterling, being the par of

exchange *

and

that forty Paras equal one Piastre.

As

to the

Measure of Distance
will

in

Turkey, computed by
this

Time, (although the Reader

find

stated,
will

perhaps,

more than once

in the following pages,

he

not deem the

repetition superfluous,

when

it

saves

him the trouble of looking

elsewhere,)

it is

estimated according to the

number of hours
in

employed by a Caravan of Camels, preceded by an Ass,

moving from one

station to another

one hour being equiva-

lent to three geographical miles.

* See

Thorntons Present State of Turkey, Vol.11,

p.:}8,

{Xote.)

Lond.

J.S09.

LIST

EMBELLISHMENTS AND MAPS


CONTAINED IN

VOLUME THE THIRD.


TO SERVE AS DIRECTIONS TO THE BINDER.

General Outline of the Author's Route


Plan of Cnidus by
Keele
iVI:-p

to face the Title.

/.

B. S. Morritt, Esq. engraved


to

by

face p. 270

of the Country between Aloukir and Alexandria in

Egypt; shewing the Landing-place of the British


Troops, &c. &c. from an actual Survey
Officer ; engraved

made by an
p.

by Neele
Sir

340

Order of Battle under


to the

Ralph Alercromlie, previous


British

Landing of the

Troops

in 1801;

en-

graved by Neele from an original authentic Document


obtained by the Author in Egypt
Disposition of landing the Subdivision of
p.

342

the Reserve,

or " First Division of Landing,'' under the

Command
p.

of Captain Larmour

346

Map

of the Roselta Branch of the Nile, shewing the

Situatit)n of the

French Forces previous to the Capture

o^Rosetta by the British

Army

in

1801

from an actual
. .

Survey by a British

Officer,

engraved by Neele

p.

362

LIST OF

THE VIGNETTES

JX VOLUME THE THIRD.


THE VIGNETTES ARE EVGRAVED ON WOOD, BY BRANSTONE.

CHAP.
Portrait of

I.
Page

Manuel
;

Palceologus, taken from an antient

manuscript

shewing a similarity between the fashion

observed by the Greek Emperors, and the ordinary

costmne of a Twr^wA Grandee

CHAP.
View of
S'lrJF.Gell

II.

Constantinople, taken from a Palace in Pera.

by
38

CHAP.
The Tmiiulus
of ^'TIsyetes, as
lespont opposite to the

III.
it

appears from the Hel.

Naval Station of the Greeks

77

CHAP.

IV.

Map

of the Simo'isian Plain

as illustrating the Author's

observations upon the Plain of Troy

96

CHAP.
Modern Vehicle used
in Troas;

V.
corresponding with the
its

account given by Homer of tht Antient Car with


wicker chest
a Sketch
;

etched by Mrs. Edward Clarke, from


PrcGzu-

made by

136

,VIGNE-TTES

TO THE THIRD VOLUME.

CHAP.
Drawing by Preaux

VI.

Subterraneous Chambers at Alexandria Troas, from a


.

179

CHAP.
from a Sketch by the Autlior

VII.

Sigean Promontory, with the Tombs mentioned by Strabo,

215
VIII.

CHAP.
Road and Anchorage
actual Survey

Chart of the Gulf of Glaucus in Asia Minor, with the


for Shipping,

from the Author's 277

Doors of the Theatre

at Telmessus in Asia

Minor; pre-

serving a similarity to the Cyclopean Architecture of

Stonehenge in JViltshire

296

CHAP. IX.
Portrait

of General Menou;

taken from Hfe,

by the
329

Author, in Egypt

GENERAL

GENERAL STATEMENT OF CONTENTS


TO PART
II.

SECT.

I.

VOLUME THE THIRD.


PREFACE;
On
containing a Dissertation on the Geography of
the

Holy Land.
the

the Value of Turkish

Money, and
in

Measure of Distance

Turkey,

CHAP.
p.
1.

I.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
Similarity of the Antient and

Vase of the Byzantine Emperors Description of the four Kiosk principal Sultanas Interior of the Seraglio Sultan

Modern City

Imperial Armoury
s

Charem, apartments of women Chamber of AuAssembly Room Baths Chamber of Repose


or

the

dience

Saloon of the

Charem

Garden of Hyacinths Upper Walks


CHAP. H.
P. 38.

of the Seraglio.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
Procession of the

Observations on

Opening of the Bairam Other Mosques of Constantinople Dance of the Dervishes Howling Der^ vlshes Cursory observations Bazar of the Booksellers
at the
St.

Grand Signior

the

Church of

Sophia

Obelisk Delphic
VOL.
III.

Greek Manuscripts

Exercises of
pillar.

the

Hippodrome Athletce

GENERAL STATEMENT OF CONTENTS.


CHAP.
P. 77.

III.

Arrival of an American Frigate


nople

Departure from Constanti Dismissal of Dardanelles Situation of Hellespont Corvette Fisit Pasha Voyage down UdjekTepe Appearance caused by Mender waters of Koum-Kale.
Sestos the
to the

FROM CONSTANTINOPLE TO THE PLAIN OF TROY.

the

the

the

CHAP.
p. 95.
'

IV.

THE PLAIN OF TROY.

General observations on the topography of the Grecian Cities Evidence of the Trojan IVar independent of Homer Identity

of the Plain Importance of the text of Strata Plan of the Tomb of Ajax Ce/J/yer Mender Author's Expedition

ment used in the Aianteum Plants Hul'il Elly Inscription Thymbreck Tchiblack RemarhalleRuins Probable of Pagus Iliensium and of Callicolone Route

site

from the Beyan Mezaley Antient sepulchre, and natural mound Opinion concerning Sivwis Prevalent errors with

regard

to

Scamander

Inscriptions

Village of

Ruins

i?/

Callifat

Callifat Osmack Medals Remains of Neiv


^Ae

Ilium.

CHAP.
p. 136.

V,

Ford of the Mender


ture

Fountains of Bonarbashy tempera' Possible HomerAntiquities of them Bonarbashy Heights the Acropolis Antient Tumuli Probable supposed Acropolis Observations of Polar Star Journey source of by Mender TEneia Remarkable tomb Plain of BeyBasalt ramitch Turkmanle Bonarbashy of Beyramitch IVarm Springs Beyramitch Antiquities Kuchunla Tepe Temple and Summit of Jupiter Evgillar Ascent highest of Gargar us Oratories of Hermits View from point of mountain Errors geography of counAppearance of Idxsan Chain towards Ledum
their

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
in

allusion to

called

origin

the

the

to the

the

pillars

altars

to the

the

the

in the

the

try

the

Dangerous

situation

of the Author.


GENERAL STATEMENT OF CONTENTS.
CHAP.
VI.
p. 179.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

Second excursion upon Gnrgarus Greek chapels Source of Journey to Alexandria Troas Bergas the Scamander

Splendid remains of public Balnea Other Votive Drusus Ccesar Udjek Tomiof ^syeles Erkessy Interesting Inscription Sigeum Antiquities Mount Athos Tombs mentioned by Strabo Return the Dardanelles Summary of Observations made
Troas
vestige;

Chemali Decomposition of Granite Stupendous column Hot laths Form of the Sepulchre called Soros Alexandria

of the city

tablet to

to

in

Troas.

CHAP. vn.
p.

215.

Transactions at the Dardanelles


the

Public Sports Voyage down Hellespont Tenedos Ledum Promon Lesbos Erythrcean Chios of Samos Burning Vapour View of Patmos and Cyclades Fountain of HipPirates Cos Plane Tree pocrates Greek Manuscripts Beautiful of Antient Sculpture Voyage from Cos Rhodes Ruins of Cnidus by Morrilt, and by IValpole Carpathian
Inscriptions
tory

FROM THE HELLESPONT TO RHODES.

Straits

Straits
the

Inscriptions

piece

to

visited

Isles

R hodes.
CHAP. VHI.
P. 277.

FROM RHODES, TO THE GULPH OF GLAUCUS,


ASIA MINOR.
Rhodes
Inscriptions

IN

ClimateAntiquities Lindus Pagan Divers of Syme and Nisyrus Gulph of Glaucus Grandeur of Scenery Malaria Island mentioned by Pliny Ruins of Telmessus Theatre Oracular Cave Sepulchres of Telmessensians Tomb of Helen, daughter Other Soroi MausoleumMonolithal Sepulchres of Jason Ruins Koynucky Turbulent country of New-discovered Conduct of natives upon Plants of Ahercromlie.
Ceremony
the the

at

state

the

the

the

coa^t

Isle

GENERAL STATEMENT OF CONTENTS.


CHAP.
FROM
The Taurida
ASIA
IX.

P. 329.

Extraordinary

sails for

Egypt

Vigilance of

MINOR TO EGYPT.
the English Cruizers

instance of the propagation of

Sound

Astonishing appearance presented

State of Obstacles encountered by the Exupon the Author's arrival


Spectacle caused by the ravages of IVar

ly the

British Fleet

affairs

pedition under Sir

Ralph Abercrornbie

Sir Sidney Smith

Affair of theTwelfthAction of Thirteenth Battle of Sensation caused by Twenty death of Aber Measures pursued by Successor Fiew of Country Journey Rosetta Mirage.
the the
-first

Account of the Campaign^ Cause of the delay in landing the troops Death of Major M^ Arras Descent of the army Battle and victory of the Eighth of March General Menou

the

crornbie

his

the

to

Appendix, No.
p. 375.

I.

An

authentic Account of the Revolution which took place at


1

Constantinople in the Year

807

o.nd

ivhich ended in the

Deposition of the Emperor Selim the Third.

No.
Extract

II.

P. 381.

from

the Letter of Cardinal Isidore, concerjiing the Capture of Constantinople, A. D. 1452.

No.

III.

P. 385.

Catalogue of Manuscripts upon daily sale in the Cities of


the East.

No. IV.
P. 446.

List of

One Hundred and Seventy-two

Tales, contained in
Lilin,

Manuscript

Copy of the Alif Lila va Nights, as it was procured by the /Author

or

Arabian

in

Egypt.

Manuel

Pala-ologus,

from an

Antient

MS.

CHAP.

I.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
Similarity of the antient and modern

Armoury
tion

Vase of

City

the Byzantine

Emperors

the

Sultans Kiosk Charem^ Apartments of Women Chamber of AudienceAssembly Room Baths Chamber of Repose Saloon of Charem Garden of Hyacinths Upper Walks of
Seraglio
or
the

of the four principal Sultanas

Imperial Descrip-

Interior of the

the Seraglio.

HERE

are
in

many

interesting

sources

of

CHAP.
I.

reflection,
stantinople,

the present

appearance of Con-

unnoticed by any author.

To

these

our attention was early directed,

and

will

be

2
^^T^^'
'

CONSTANTINOPLE.

principally confined.
'

The Reader would not

Similarity

of the antient

^ratified by an elaborate or even an be much ^ abridged detail from the volumes which have
''

and

modem
^"
'

becu writtcu upon

this

remarkable

city,

re sum-

cient alone to constitute a library.

Historically

considered, the epocha


tropolis of the

when

the Eastern

me-

Roman Empire

ceased to exist

as a seat of letters and refinement seems, from

the fulness and freshness of intellioence, to be

almost within our recollection.


of printing,

taking place at
it

The discovery the same precise


infor-

period, brought with

such a tide of

mation, that, in the very instant

when

Literature

seemed
steady

to

be upon the eve of expiring. Science


Thus, in the fourth century that

and Philosophy beamed a brighter and a more


light.

has elapsed since Constantinople was captured

by

the

Turks,

we

are

carried

back
if

to

the

circumstances of their conquest, as

we had
all

been actual witnesses of the victory.


tions

Descriptheir

have been transmitted


energy;
and,
in

to

us in

original

the

perusal

of the

different narratives,

we

feel as

spectators of

the scene of action


(1)

The account given by Cardinal

Isidore,

who
The

weis

an eye-witness

of the horrible scene which ensued at the capture of Constantinojyle by


the Turkish army, affords a striking example.
art of printing has
it,

been scarcely adequate to

its

preservation

and, without

every syllable

had perished.

It is

only rescued by a very rare work of Bernard de


Brer/dcnhach,

CONSTANTINOPLE.
But, although

Time have had such incon-

siderable influence in weakening impressions of


this kind,
it

is

believed the case would be far

otherwise, viewing the spot

where those events

occurred.
stantinople,

The

literary traveller, visiting Con-

expects to behold but faint vestiges

of the imperial city, and believes that he shall


find little to

remind him of " the everlasting

foundations" of the master of the

Roman

world-

The
that

opinion, however,

may be

as erroneous as

upon which

it

was founded.

After the

imagination has

been dazzled with pompous


of palaces, baths,

and imposing
plain matter

descriptions

porticoes, temples, circuses,

and gardens, the

of fact

may

prove, that in the


Constantinople^',
;

obscure and dirty lanes of


its

in

small and unglazed shops

in the style of
;

architecture observed in the dwellings

in the

long covered walks,

now

serving as bazars^; in

Breydenbach of Mayence

printed in the black

letter, at Spire, in

1490, by
at Basil

FcUr Drach
ixx

and since copied into a volume of Tracts, published

1556.

This document seems to have escaped not only the researches of

Gibbon, but of every other author


siege.

who has

written upon the subject of the

The

insertion of Isidore's account of transactions in

which he was

spectator,

may

gratify

tlie

Reader's curiosity, and

is

therefore added, ia
II.
its

the Appendix, in his


(2) Athens itself
if

own

words.

See Appendix,

No.

was not very unlike Constantinople in

present state,

we may

credit the statistical testimony of Diccearchus, v.ho

mentions

the irregularity of the streets, and the poverty and meanness of the

houses. Vide
(3)

Stat. Greecice Geogr.

Minor. Hudsoni.
all

Bazar

is

the appellation used to signify a market,

over the East.

VOL.

III.

4
CHAP,
'

CONSTANTINOPLE.
the loose flowing habits with long sleeves,

worn
and,

by

the natives the


all,

* ;

even

in the practice of con-

cealing

features

of

the

women*;

above

in

the remarkable ceremonies and


;

observances of the public baths

we behold
Such,
is

those customs and appearances which characterized the antient cities of the Greeks.

as far as inanimate objects are concerned,

the picture presented

by the
and

interesting ruins
Slahice \

of Herculaneum, Pompeii,

With

(1) Herndotus, speaking of the Persians, mentions their garments with

long sleeves

and we learn from Xenophon, that Cyrus ordered two

persons to be put to death,

who

appeared in his presence with their hands

uncovered.
(2)

" Dicaarchus, describing the dress of the


:

women
Journal.

of Thebes, says,

that their eyes only are seen their garments."


(3)
B/j

tlie

other parts of their faces are covered by


IVa/pole's
its

"EXXS;.

MS.

" Tlie city of Constantinople, in


art,

existing state, presents


it

some

of those monuments and works of


fourteenth centurj'.

which adorned

at the

end of the

They

are alluded to in one of the epistles of

Manuel
In

Chrysoloras
the
'

from which

I have extracted the following passages.

first,

we have
and

the veiy form of the

modem

bazar.

'

omit,' says he,

the covered

inclosed walks,, formerly seen traversing the lohole city,


that

tn suck a

manner

yon night pass through


'Ea

it

luithoiit

being inconxai (p^Krtiuf

venienced by the mud, or rays of the sun.'


^l^ifiovi
oia,

Ti trxi'^Tac-ous

rartt;

veaTi T-J;

"ffiXna; 'Biixvv/u.inav;,

u(m

\%%7vxt

avtv ttiXoZ Kail

axTTvof trairav ^iiuxt.


still

In the second, he mentions the

cisterns,

which are

to be seen, supported by granite


built

columns and marble


'

pillars.

They

were
'

by Constantine and Philoxenus.


in the cisterns.'

/ omit

also the
iv

number of
y.iitot

pillars

and arches

Kai to vXriim tZv

avTuTi

xa)

a-^i^av.

In the next, the baths are described, which appear to have been
in Constantinople, as

as
'

numerous then

now.

'

ut why should I speak

concerning the baths ; the nutaber of which, were


incredible s" T/
oe srsg)

to relate

it,

would be
ytnafcii

'

XoutoZii av Xiyot/ii' a ro Irvootu/iivtt

s> euirr,

fr?,r.hc

amtnlrat

;"

Walpols's

MS.

Journal.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
regard to the costume of
its

inhabitants,

we

chap.
.

have

only to

view the dresses worn by the


as

Greeks

themselves,

they

are

frequently

represented upon the gems and coins of the


country, as well as those used in

much

earlier

ages\
the

There

is

every reason to believe, that


at

Turks

themselves,

the

conquest

of

Constantinople,

adopted many of the customs,


the refinements,

and

embraced

of a people

they had subdued.

Their former habits had


tribes;
;

been those of Nomade

their dwellings

were principally tents and the camp, rather than the city, had distinguished their abode. Hence it followed, that, with the houses, the furniture and even the garb of the Greeks would
necessarily be associated
;

neither do the divans

of Turkish apartments differ from those luxurious couches, on which the Greeks and

were

wont

to

repose.

Romans At the capture of

(4)

The

dress

wen
tlie

by the Popes of Rome, upon solemn occasions,


habits of
tlie

corresponds with

Roman Emperors

in the lower ages

and from a representation of the

portrait of

Manuel Palaologus (Seethe

Vignette to this Chapter), as taken from an antient manuscript, and pre-

served in Bandurius, (Vid.

Impermm
is little

Orientale, torn. II. p. 991.

ed.

Par. 1711,)

it

appears that there

difierence between

the costume

of a Greek Emperor in the ffteenlli century, and a Grand Signior in the


nineleenlh.
Sultans,

The mark of
is

distinction

worn upon the head of the Turkish

and other grandees of the Empire, of which the calalkus was an


also another

archetype,
antient and

remarkable circumstance in the identity of

modern customs.

B2

CONSTANTINOPLE.
CHAP.

was still retained, in undisturbed possession, by those Grecian families whose services to the conqueror obtained for them privileges which
Constantinople, a certain portion of the city

their descendants enjoy


in

even at

this hour': yet, in


all

their

domestic habits,

and

things,
is

except in their religious ceremonies, there


fellow-citizens the
citizens,

nothing which distinguishes them from their


Turks.

The temples

of the

to the

we further know, were appropriated new religion*. The sumptuous baths of


were not
less prized

the vanquished
victor.

by the

Few,

if
;

any, of the public buildings and, from the characteristic

were destroyed
as they are,

disposition of Oriental nations to preserve things

we may

reasonably conclude, with


edifices

the

exception of those

which have

yielded to the attacks of time, of earthquakes,

and of
least,

fire,

that Constantinople exhibits one, at


cities

of

the

of

the Antients,

almost
tra-

unaltered.
veller

Passing thence into Asia, the

may

be directed to other examples of the


in

same nature,

which the

similarity of the

(1)

They

live in

a part of the city which, from

its

proximity to

tlie.

Light-house, goes by the

name of

Plianar.

it

(2) Of which tlie Church of St. Sophia is a particular instance: and may be added, that the crescent, which blazons the Turkish banner, is tlie
antieiit

most

symbol of lij/zunUum, as appears by

tlie

medals of the

city.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
aiitient

and the modern appearance


:

is

even more

char

striking
Scutarif

and perhaps the howling dervishes of


preserve in their frantic orgies the

who

BaaP, accommodated the mercenary exhibition of their pretended miracles


rites of the priests of

to a

new

superstition pervading the temples of


;

Chalcedon

exactly as Pagan miracles, recorded


to the

and derided by Horace, were adapted


Psylli of Egypt,
still

ceremonies of the Roman- Catholic religion*. found

The

mentioned by Herodotus, are


ages,

in the serpent-eaters of

Rosetta:
craft,

and
to

in all

Cairo and of where a successful

under the name

of miracle, has been

employed

delude and to subdue the

human
religion
it

understanding, the introducers of a

new

have, with considerable policy, appropriated


to the

same purpose

for

which

it

was employed

by

their predecessors.

The prejudices of
come, that while

the Christians against their

Turkish conquerors were so difficult to be over-

we lament

a want of truth, in

every account which they have given of their


invaders,

we

cannot wonder at the falsehood

(3) "

And

they cried aloud, and cut themselves, after their manner,


1

with knives and lancets."


(4)

Kings,

xviii.

28.
is

The miracle of the

liquefaction of St. Jantiarius's blood

alluded
Ilor.

to by Horace, as practised, in his time,


Sal. lib.
I,

under a diiferent name.

5.

8
CHAP,
I

CONSTANTINOPLE.
but, in this distant period, viewing the events

of those times without passion or prejudice,

it

may

become a question, whether, at the capture


people.
It
is

of Constantinople, the victors or the vanquished

were the most poUshed


of those

not

necessary to paint the vices and the barbarism

degenerated

representatives

of the

antient Romans,

who
it

then possessed the imperial

city; nor to contrast them with those of the

Turks: but

when

is

urged, that

Mohammad

and

his followers,

Constantinople,

upon taking possession of were busied only in works of


evidence to the

destruction',

we may adduce

contrary,

derived even from the writings of

those
I

by whom they were thus calumniated.


and Bandurius have permitted observato escape them, which have a remarkable
:

Gyllius

tions
I

tendency to establish a contrary opinion

they

acknowledge, that certain magnificent palaces, temples, baths, and caravanserais % were allowed

and the Temple of St. Sophia being of the number, as well as the antiquities in the
to

remain

(1)

" Capta a Turcis Constantinopoli, antiqua ilia ac veneranda


variis

mouu-

menta olim a

Imperatoribus Christianis magnificentissime conilli

structa, quae Barbari

adhuc Integra in regU urbe repererant,


ornameaitis reliquerunt,

alia solo

aequarunt, alia spoliata suis


in
ed.

I'onec sic neglects


torn. II.

ruinam

diffluerent."

Bandurii Imperium Orientals,

p. 1007.

Par. 1711.
(2) " Quae magnifice exstnicta visuntur."
Ibid.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
Hippodrome, the public
cisterns,

the sarcophagi, &c.

we may

form a tolerable estimate of the taste


It

of the Turks in this respect.


afterwards, that the
regalia,

will

appear

the

imperial ar-

moury, and

many
of a

other works of magnificence

and of
to

utility,

were likewise preserved.


city,

In
are

the sacking
left

when

all

things

promiscuous

pillage,

a scene of ruin
;

and desolation must necessarily ensue


vocation
is

and,

under similar circumstances of previous proand


of

subsequent opportunity,
Greeks

it

not to be believed that the

would

have been more


querors.

scrupulous than their con-

The

first

when

those disorders had subsided,

employment of Mohammed, was not

merely the preservation, but the actual improve-

ment of the city of this a striking example is related by Gijllius, who, speaking of the Forum of Taurus, says, that owing to its being grown
:

over with wood,


thieves,

and affording a shelter

for

Mohammed granted
willing to build

the spot to those

who were

author also mentions, that,

upon it^ The same among other instances


one for the use
it

of Mohammed's munificence, the largest baths in


the city were

by him erected

of men, and the other for women'': neither is

(S) (4)

Gyllius de Topog. Constant,


Ibid. lib.
iv.
c.

lib. in.

o.

fi.

2.

10 CHAP,
V,.
i..y-

CONSTANTINOPLE.
necessary to seek for information further than

..'

documents which he has afforded, to prove that Christians, and not Turks, have been
in the

the principal agents in destroying the statues

and the pubhc buildings with which Constan-

was adorned'. The havoc was begun by the Romans themselves,


tinople,

in different ages,

even so early as the time of Constantine


Great: and
it

the

was renewed,

at

intervals,

in

consequence of the frequent factions and dissentions of the inhabitants'.


it

The

city,

such as

was,

Turks,

came into the possession of the has been by them preserved, with fewej
it

when

alterations than took place while

it

continued in
It

the hands of their predecessors.

does not

however appear, that the changes produced,


either

by the one
it

or

by the

other,

have

in

any degree affected that striking resemblance

which

still

bears to the

antient

cities

of

the Greeks.

(0
(2)

See the curious extract from Nicetas the Chonial, in the Appendix

to the last Section of Part II. of these Travels.

Prjmum

Imperatores dissentientes, deinde incendia creberrini4,

non moJo

fortuita, sed

etiam ab hostibus tarn externis,


jacta,

Tariarum fictionum partibus

&c

quam dissidentibus Neque

modo

ab hostibus antiqua

monumenta

eversa sunt, sed etiam ab Impeja-

toribus etiam Constantinopoli amicissimis, inter quos primus Constantinus

Magnus, quem Eusebius


tasse, tecta detraxisse,

scribit

templa deorum

dirais:>e,

vestiUuM vas-

eorura statuas aereas sustulisse, quibus tot saeculis


ed,

gloriabantur."

Ibid tom.l. p. 427.

Far. 1711.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
Under these impressions, we eagerly sought
an opportunity to examine the interior of the

chap.
\

Seraglio:

and, difficult as

the

undertakins:
iti-j

may

seem,

we

soon found the means of

accomplishment.

The harmony
Porte,

existing be-

tween England and the


juncture

at that critical

when Egypt was to be restored to the Turks by the valour of our troops, greatly faci-

litated the enterprise.

We

felt

convinced, that,

within the walls of the Seraglio,


antiquities

many interesting

were concealed from observation; and we were not disappointed.

The

first

place, to

which our observations

imperial

Armoury.

were directed, was the Imperial Armoury : and


here, to our

high gratification,

we

beheld the

weapons, the shields, and the military engines


of the Greek emperors, exactly corresponding

with those represented on antient medals and


bas-reliefs,

suspended as trophies of the capture


It is true,

of the city by the Turks.

our stay
to

was not of sufficient duration to enable us bring away any other than this brief notice what we saw a Bostanghy soon put a stop
:

of
to

the gratification of our curiosity, and

we were

compelled to retreat; but even the transient


view, thus obtained, was sufficient to excite a
belief,

that

other interesting remains of

the

Palace of the C^sars might also be similarly

12

CONSTANTINOPLE.
preserved.
/

CHAP,
N

This conjecture was not without


is it

.y

foundation: nor
a lapse

at all remarkable, that, in

of time which

does not exceed the

period that has intervened since the armour of

Henry

the Sixth

London, the

was deposited in the Tower of relics of Roman power should be


It
is

thus discovered.

only

singular,

that,

during

all

the inquiries which have taken place

respecting this remarkable city, such remains

should have been so long unnoticed.


a few moments, to
examination,
it

In answer

to our earnest entreaties for the indulgence of

be

employed
to

in

further
that, if

was explained
full

us,

the old armour v/ere an object of our curiosity,

we might have

leisure to survey

it,

when

carried on sumpter-horses, in the great annual

procession of the Grand Signior, at the opening


of the Bairam, which

was

shortly to take pace,


it

and where we afterwards saw


Vase of the
Emperors.

exhibited.

Soon

after this,

some Pages belonging

to the

SeragUo brouglit from the Sultans apartments


the fragments of a magnificent vase of jasperagate,

which,

they

said,

his

Highness
of anger.

had

dashed

to pieces in

moment

As

these fragments had been cast away, and dis-

regarded, the Pages had sold them to a poor


lapidary,

who earned
and
pohshing

a scanty- livelihood

by

cutting

stones

for

the

signet

CONSTANTINOPLE.
riiifrs

i;j

of the Turks\

In one of our miiieralogi-

chap.
,-

cal excursions,

the merchants of the bezesten,

where jewels are sold, directed us to the laboratory of this man, to obtain the precious
stones of the country in their natural
state.

He was then employed upon the fragments of this vase, and very gladly spared the labour
which he would otherwise have bestowed, by consigning, for a small sum, the whole of them
into our hands.
It
is

hardly possible to con-

ceive a

more extraordinary proof of the genius and industry of Grecian artists, than was presented by this vase. Its fragments are still in the author's possession; and have been reserved
for annual exhibition, during a course of public

Lectures in the University of Cambridge.


it is

When

considered, that the treasury of Mithradales

contained four thousand specimens of a similar

manufacture

and that the , whole

collection

came

into

the hands of the Romans;

that the

Turks, moreover, are

unable to execute any


;

thing of the

same nature

it is

highly probable

that this curious relic, after passing into the

possession of the Moslems at the conquest of the


cit}^

had continued
yhe Turks rarely

to

adorn the palace of their


they employ scribes,

(1)

write themselves

who stand

ready for hire in the streets ; and afterwards apply a signets which has

been previously rubbed over with Indian ink, by way of voucher


manuscript.

for th

14
CHAP,
sovereigns.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
Neither
is

this conjecture

unsup-

ported by the mythological figure which is represented, in exquisite sculpture, upon the
exterior surface of the vase
itself.

It consists

of an entire mass of green jasper-agate, beautifully

variegated with veins

and spots of a
it

vermilion colour; so that one part of

exhibits

the ribbon-jasper, and another the blood-stone.

The handle
head of a

is

so formed as to represent the

griffin

(carved in

all

the perfection of

the finest cam^o),

whose extended wings and The claws cover the outside of the vase.
of cutting a siliceous

difficulty

concretion of

such extraordinary durability needs not to be


specified
life
:

it

may be presumed,

that the entire


it

of the antient lapidary,

by whom

was

wrought, was barely adequate to the undertaking; nor do

we know

in

what manner such

works were

effected.

Yet there are parts of the

sculpture where the sides of the vase remain as


thin as the finest porcelain
(1)
I
'.

have seen similar instances of sculpture, executed even in harder

substances; and the Chinese possess the art of perfecting such works.

There

exists

a very remarkable manufactory of

this

kind at Cambai/, in

the Guzerat, in India.

The author
tlieir

lately

saw some beautiful models of

pieces of artillery, which, with

carriages

and wheels, had been exe-

cuted, each out of one entire mass of red Carneliaii stone, by the natives

of Camhay.

Tlie English Resident,

Mr,

Shrine,

who

presided over the

-manufactory, and to
lians

whom

these models belong, affirms, that the Carnefire

undergo the action of

before they are worked.

It is probable

that

CONSTANTINOPLE.

second

visit

which we made
but, as

to the interior

of the Seraglio

was not attended by any very


;

interesting discovery

it

enabled us to

describe, with minuteness, scenes hitherto imper-

vious to Christian eyes, the Reader


tified

may be

gra-

with our observations within those walls.


is

Every one

curious to

know what

exists___,

withnTrecesses which have been long concealed.


In vain does the eye, roaming from the towers
of Galata, Pera, and Constantinople, attempt to

penetrate

the

thick

gloom

of cypresses, and

domes, which distinguishes the most beautiful


part of the city.

Imagination magnifies things


in addition to

unknown
sity

and when,

the curiois

always excited by mystery, the reflection


a thirst of inquiry

suggested, that antient Byzantium occupied the


site of the Sultans palace,
is

proportionably augmented.

We promise
itself,

to con-

duct our readers not only within the retirement


of the Seraglio, but into the Charem

and the

most secluded haunts of the Turkish sovereign.


that Jade, with whose natural history

we

are

little

acquainted, hardens by

exposure to the atmosphere; and that the Chinese,


various shapes, avail themselves of
to manufacture
it.

who

give

it

such

its

softness,

when

fresh dug, in order


lately ascer-

The chemical
Silex,

analysis of Jade

was only
its

tained:

it is

an alkaliferous

containing also Lime:

proper place,

therefore, in a mineralogical system,


stone.

ought to be with Obsidian and Pitchis

A vase

of one entire piece of jade

in the collection of
s

Mr.

Ferguson; and a patera, exactly answering Mr. Ferguson


lately

vase, was.

exposed for

i,alc,

in

tlip

window of

a bhop in the Strand.

1
It

CONSTANTINOPLE.
so happened, that the

gardener of the

Grand
tinople,

Signior, during our residence in Constan-

was a German.

This person used to

mix with the


in

society in Pera, and often joined

the evening parties given

foreign ministers.

In

by the different this. manner we became


Seraglio,

acquainted with him; and were invited to his

apartments M^ithin the walls of the

close to the gates of the Sultans garden.

We
his

were accompanied, during our


intimate friend,

first visit,

by

the secretary and chaplain of

the Swedish mission;


before,

who, but a short time


in obtaining a sight of

had succeeded

the four principal Sidtanas and the Sultan Mother^


in

consequence of his frequent

visits

to

the

gardener.
sitting

The secretary and his friend were together one morning, when the cries of
opening the door of the

the black eunuchs,

Charem, which communicated with the Seraglio


gardens,

announced
air.

that

these

ladies

were

going to take the

In order to do

this, it

was necessary

to pass the gates adjoining the


' ;

where an arahat was stationed to receive them, in which it was usual for them to drive round the walks of the Seraglio,
gardener's lodge

(1)
sides,

covered

waggon upon four

wheels, with latticed


are witliin.

windows

at the

formed

to conceal those

who

It is almost the only

species of carriage in use

among

the Turks,

CONSTANTINOPLE.
within the walls of the palace.
occasions,

17

Upon

those

the black

eunuchs examine every

part of the garden, and run before the

women,

calling out to all persons to avoid approaching

or beholding them, under pain of death.

The

gardener, and his friend the Swede,


closed
all

instantly

the shutter.-, and locked the doors.


arriving soon after,

The black eunuchs,


to be absent.
.

and
Description of the four
principal

finding the lodge shut, supposed the gardener

Presently followed the Sultan


'
,

Mother, with the four prmcipal Sultanas,

who

were

in high glee,

romping and laughing with

each other.
gate, through

small scullery window, of the

gardener's lodge, looked directly towards the

which these ladies were to pass was separated from it only by a few yards. and Here, through two small gimlet-holes, bored
for the purpose,

they beheld very distinctly the

features of the

women, whom they described

as possessing extraordinary beauty.


the
four

Three of were Georgians, having dark complexions, and very long dark hair; but the fourth was remarkably fair, and her hair, also
of singular length and thickness, colour
:

was of a flaxen dyed black, as those of Turkish females generally are. The Swedish gentleman said, he was almost sure that these women suspected they were seen, from
neither were their teeth

the address they manifested in displaying their

18

CONSTANTINOPLE.
charms, and
^

CHAP,
''
'

in loitering at the gate.

This gavc^

him and
as they
their

his friend

no small degree of terror

into

would have paid for their curiosity with lives, if any such suspicion had entered the minds of the black eunuchs. He
all

described their dresses as being rich beyond


that can be imagined.

Long spangled

robes,
in

open

in front,

with pantaloons embroidered

gold and silver,

and covered by a profusion


but were so heavy,

of pearls and precious stones, displayed their

persons to great advantage


as actually to
to

encumber

their motion,

and almost

loose

impede their walking. Their hair hung in and very thick tresses, on each side
cheeks; falling

of their

down

to

the waist,

and entirely covering


tresses

their shoulders. Those were quite powdered with diamonds,

not displayed according to any studied arrange-

ment, but as

if

carelessly scattered,

by

handfuls,

among
heads,

their flowing locks.

On
to

the top of their

and rather leaning

one

side,

they

wore, each of them, a small circular patch or

diadem.
breasts,

Their faces, necks,

^nd even

their

were quite exposed; not one of them


veil.

having any

The German gardener, who had


to
different

daily access
offered
to

parts

of the Seraglio,
the

conduct us not only over

gardens,

but

CONSTANTINOPLE*
pTomised,
if

19

we would come
night,

singly, during the

CHAP.
I.

season of the Ramadan', (when the

guards,

>-

being up

all

would be stupefied during


of shewing to

the day with sleep and intoxication,) to under-

take the

greater

risk

us the

interior of the

Charem,
is

or the apartments of

the

women;

that

to say, of that part of it

which they were

they inhabit during the


still

summer;

for

in their winter
this

chambers.
the

We

readily accepted
solicited the

offer:

author only

further

indulgence of being ac-

companied by a French artist of the name of Preaux, whose extraordinary promptitude in design would enable him to bring away sketches
of any thing

we might

find interesting, either in

the Charem, or gardens of the Seraglio.

The appre-

hensions of Monsieur Preaux were, however, so


great, that
it

was with

the greatest difficulty

we

could prevail upon him to venture into the

(1)

The Ramadan of

tlie

Txrhs answers

to

our Lent, as their Bai'r am

does to Easter.

During the month of the Ilamadnn, they impose upon


avoiding even the use of tohacco, from

themselves the

strictest privation,

sun-rise to sun-set.

They

feast all night

during
it

this season,

and

are,

therefore, generally asleep during the day; nor is


at
tliis

easy to

awaken them
This was

time, for they are frequently intoxicated with opium.

the season in which Pitts,

who

publislied a faithful account of the

Moham-

medans, endeavoured to
he,

effect his escape

from slavery.
cat

" It was," says

"in the time of Ramadan, wlien they

meat only by night; and


asleep."

therefore in the

moaning wotdd have been

all fast

Account of

the Religion and

Manners of

the

Mahometans, p.

7.

Lond, 1738.

VOL.

III.

20
CHAP.
'

CONSTANTINOPLE.
Seraglio
^

and
the

he afterwards either
only
to

lost,

or

-y-

secreted,

would allow him

drawmgs which make while he was

his

fears

there.

We left Pera,
in

in a gondola,
;

about seven o'clock


at

the morning

embarking

Tophana,

and

steering towards that gate of the Seraglio

which

faces the Bosporus on the south-eastern side,

v/here the entrance to the Seraglio


the gardener's lodge are situate.
3s a sort of porter,
Interior of

garden^and

A Bostanghy,
Upon
entering

is

usually seated, with his

attendants, within the portal.

the Seraglio, the spectator

is

struck by a wild
inter-

and confused assemblage of great and


esting objects
:

among

the

first

of these are,

enormous cypresses, massive and lofty masonry, neglected and broken soroi, high rising mounds,
and a long gloomy avenue, leading from the
gates of the garden between the double walls

of the Seraglio.

This gate

is

the
for

same by
the
airing
is

which the

Sultanas
;

came out
it.

before alluded to

and the gardener's lodge

on the ri^ht hand of


from
it,

The avenue
offers a

extending;

towards the west,

broad and
to

beautiful,

although solitary, walk,

a A^ery

considerable extent, shut in by high walls on

both sides.
of the

Directly opposite to this entrance


is

Seraglio

very lofty mound,

or

bank, covered by large trees, and traversed by

;;

CONSTANTINOPLE.
terraces, over which,
turrets.

21

on the top, are walls with

chap.
I.

On
to

the right hand, are the large

wooden

folding doors of the

Grand Signiors gardens;

and near

them

lie

many fragments

of antient

marbles, appropriated to the vilest purposes

mass of marble, covered with a simple, although unmeaning bas-relief. Entering the gardens by the folding doors, a pleasing coup deceit of trellis-work and covered walks is displayed, more after the taste of the natives of Holland, than of those of any Various and very despicable other country.
others, a soros of one
jets d^eau,

among

straight

gravel-walks, and borders

disposed into parallelograms, with the addition


of a long green-house
filled

with orange-trees,

compose

all

that appears within the small spot

which bears the name of the Seraidio Gardens. The view, on entering, is down the principal
gravel-walk; and
point, beneath a
all

the walks meet at a central

dome

of the same trellis-work

by which they

are covered.

Small fountains

spout a few quarts of water into large shells,


or form parachutes over burning bougies,
the sides of the walks.

by

The

trellis-work is of

wood, painted white, and covered by jasmine and this, as it does not conceal the artificial frame by which it is supported, produces a wretched
effect.

On

the outside of the trellis-

work appear small

parterres,
c 2

edged with box,

2%
CHAP,

CONSTANTINOPLE.
containing very

common

flowers,

and adorned

with fountains.

On the
s>

right hand, after entering

the garden, appears the magnificent hiosk, which


constitutes the Sultan
farther on
is

summer

residence

and

the orangery before mentioned,

occupying the whole extent of the wall on that


side*

Exactly opposite to the garden gates

is

the door of the Charem, or palace of the

women

belonging to the Grand Signior ; a building not


unlike one of the small colleges in Cambridge,

and inclosing the same sort of cloistered court.

One

side of this building extends

across the
that

upper extremity of the garden,

so

the

windows look into it. Below these windows are two small green-houses, filled with very common plants, and a number of Canary-birds.
Before the Charem windows, on the right hand,
is

a ponderous, gloomy,
its

wooden door

and

this,

creaking on
quadrangle,
itself.

massive hinges, opens to the


interior

or

court of the

Charem

Still

facing the Charem, on the left hand,

is

a paved ascent, leading through a handsome

gilded iron gate, from the lower to the upper garden.

Here

is

kiosk,

which

will presently

be described.
the door

Returning from the Charem to

by which we first entered, a lofty wall on the right hand supports a terrace with a few
small parterres
:

these, at a considerable height

above the lower garden, constitute

what

is

now

CONSTANTINOPLE.
called the
till

23
chap.
<

Upper Garden of the Seraglio ; and, within these few years, it was the only one.
this small

y
Suitan's

Having thus completed the tour of


and
insignificant

spot of ground,

let

us

now

enter the kiosk, which


the Sultans

was

first

mentioned as
It
is

summer

residence.

situate

on the sea-shore, and commands one of the


finest

views the eye ever beheld, of Scutary and

of the adjoining j4siatic coast, the


Canaly
dolas,

mouth

of the

and a moving picture of ships and gonwith


all

the floating pageantry of this

vast metropolis, such as no

other capital in

the world can pretend to exhibit.


itself,

The

kiosk

fashioned after the airy fantastic style of

Easteiii architecture, presents a spacious

cham-

ber, covered

by a dome

from which, towards


diva!i\

the sea, advances a raised platform surrounded

by windows, and terminated hy ^


the right and
left

On
of

are the private apartments of


Fron:i the centre

the Sultan and his ladies. the

dome

is

suspended a large

lustre,

presented
raised
size,

by the English ambassador.

Above the

platform hangs another lustre of smaller

(1) Tlie divan

is

a sort of couch, or sofa,

common

over

all

the Levant,

surrounding every side of a room, except that which contains the entrance.
It is raised about
it

sixteen inches from the floor.


that the

'When a Divan
it

is

held,

means nothing more, than

persons composing

are

thus

seated.

24
CHAP,

CONSTANTINOPLE.
but more elegant.

Immediately over the sofas

of the divmi are mirrors engraved with Turkish


inscriptions

poetry,

and

passages from

the

Koran.

The

sofas are of white satin, beautifully

embroidered by the

women

of the Seraglio.

Leaving the platform, on the


Sultans private

left

hand

is

the

chamber of repose, the

floor of

which is surrounded by couches of very costly workmanship. Opposite to this chamber, on


the other side of the kiosk, a door opens to the

apartment

in

which are placed the attendant


Sultan

Sultanas, the

Mother, or any ladies

in

residence with the sovereign.

This room cor-

responds exactly with the Sultans chamber,


except that the couches are more magnificently
embroidered.

small

staircase leads

from these apart-

ments, to two

chambers below, paved with Here a marble, and as cold as any cellar. more numerous assemblage of women are buried, as it were, during the heat of summer.

The first is a sort of antechamber to the other by the door of which, in a nook of the wall,
are placed the
Sultanas

slippers,

of

common

yellow

morocco,

and

coarse

workmanship.

Havinof entered the marble chamber immediately

below the

kiosk,

a marble bason presents

CONSTANTINOPLE.
itself,

25

with a fountain
to the

in the centre, containing

water

depth of about three inches, and a


fishes.

few very small


form mentioned
is

Answering

to

the plat-

in the description of the MosJc,

another, exactly of a similar nature, closely

latticed,

where the

ladies sit durino- the season


this

of their residence in

place.

We

were

pleased with observing a few things they had


carelessly left

upon the

sofas,

and which cha-

racterized

their

mode

of

life.

Among

these

was an

English writing-box, of black varnished


sliding cover,

wood, with a

and drawers; the


bags made of

drawers containing coloured writing paper, reed


pens, perfumed wax, and
little

embroidered
are sent,

satin,

in

which

their billets-doux

by negro

slaves,

who

are both mutes

and eunuchs.

That

liqueurs are
is

drunk
for

in these

secluded chambers

evident;

we

found

labels for bottles, neatly cut out with scissars,

bearing Turkish inscriptions, with the words


*'

Rosoglio,'"

" Golden

JVater,''

and " JVater of


our

Life''

These we carried

off as trophies of

visit to the place,

and distributed them among

our friends'.

Having now seen every part of


upon the
were translated by the principal

(1)

The

inscriptions

labels

Dragoman
It

of the Austrian Ambassador: but they have been since

shewn

to other Oriental scholars, all of

whom

afforded the

same

interpretation.

matters not whetlier


:

tlie

liqueurs were drunk by the Sultan, or his

ladies

the fact

must speak

for itself.

26

CONSTANTINOPLE.
this building,

V
s
Charem,
or Apart-

CHAP,

we

returned to the garden,


to the kiosk.

by

'

the entrance which admitted us

q^j. YiQxi principal object J i c

was

the examination

mentsof theWomen.

of

tlic

Charem; and
was
;

as the undertaking

was

attended with danger,


that the garden

we

first

took care to see

cleared of Bo.stanghies, and


if

other attendants

as our curiosity,

detected,

would, beyond

all

doubt, have cost us our lives

upon the

spot.

catastrophe of this nature

has been already related by Le Bruyn.

An

European was put to death


using

who was
the

detected
Seraglio

telescope

to

examine

Gardens from the


city'.

window

of his house in the

(I) Tlie Reader will judge,

from the following

extract,

what the

fate

of any person would


within the Charem.

be.

Christian or Moslem,

who

should be detected
Interprete de

"

en coAta cher au

S'.

Grellot,

Venise

comme
les

il

etoit loge

a Constantinople, dans une maison qui avoit


et regardant

vue sur

Jardins du

Serail,

un jour

le

Grand Seigneur

et ses Sultanes avec


le trou

une lunette de longue


;

vue, qu'll avoit fait passer par

d'un chassis

ce Prince, s'en etant appcr^ft,

donna ordre qu'on

alia pendre sur-le-champ, a la


il

meme

fenclre, ce curieux quel qu'il fut, et


fut faite.

ne

sortit

point

du jardin que I'execution ne

Les Bostangis

sont obliges de sortir lors qu'on sonne une cloche, pour avertir que Sa

Hautesse va

se

promener avec quelque Sultane


Sultan
lit

et

ii

iroit

de la vie a

y demeurer.

Un

ineme un jour mcurir un de ces Bostangis


quoiqu'il
n'efit

qu'on trouva endorrai sous un arbre,


signal qui I'obligeoit
a,

pas entcndu

le

sortir," C.

Voyage au Levant par

Le Bruyn,

torn. I.

p^ i4I.

Paris, 1725.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
Having inspected every
the garden,
alley

27

and corner of chap.

we
to

advanced, half-breathless, and


the great vi^ooden door of the

on

tip-toe,

passage

leading to
edifice.

the

inner

court of this

mysterious

We We
filled

succeeded
its

forcing

this open; but the noise of

grating hinges,

amidst the profound silence of the place, went


to our very hearts.

then entered a small


that

-quadrangle,

much resembling

of Queens
It

College, Cambridge,

with weeds.

was

divided into two parts, one raised above the


other
;

the principal side of the court containing


cloister,

an open

supported

by small white

marble columns.
neglected state.

Every thing appeared in a The women reside here on|y


Their winter apartments

during summer.

may
and
even

be compared
the

to the late Bastille of France;

decoration

of these

apartments

is

inferior to that

we

are about to describe.

From

this court, forcing

open a small window near

the ground, and having climbed into the building,

we

arrived upon along range of wooden beds, or

couches, covered with mats, prepared for the


reception of a hundred slaves, which reached
the whole

extent

of

a very long

corridor.

Hence, passing through some narrow passages,


the floors of which were also matted,
to a staircase leading to the

we came
it

upper apartments.

Of such

irregular

and confused architecture,

28
is difficult to

CONSTANTINOPLE.
give any perspicuous description.

We
into

went from the lower dormitory of the


two
tiers ;
it

slaves to another above

attendants

was divided so that one half of the numerous was designed to accommodate
it:

this

slept over the other,

upon a

sort of shelf or
this

scaffold near to the ceiling.

From

second

corridor

we
:

entered into a third, a long matted


left

were small apartments for slaves of higher rank and upon the risfht, a series of rooms lookino; towards the
passage

upon the

of this

sea.
Cliainber

By

continuing along this corridor,

we

at
\i\

last entered the great

Chamber of Audience,

of Audience.

which the Sultan Mother receives visits of ceremony from the Sultanas, and other distinguished
ladies of the Charem.

Nothing can be imagined


exactly such an apartment

better suited to theatrical representation than


this

chamber.

It

is

as the best painters of scenic decoration

would

have selected,

to afford a striking idea of the

pomp, the
its

seclusion,

and the magnificence, of


stage
is

the Ottoman court.


representation
;

The

best suited for


is

and therefore the reader


It

requested to have the stage in his imagination while


it

is

described.

was surrounded
styled

with enormous mirrors, the costly donations


of Infidel
kings,

as

they are

by the
in

present possessors.
of the
Seraglio

These mirrors the women


break,
their

sometimes

CONSTANTINOPLE.
frolics'.

29

sort of

cage, in

At the upper end is the throne, a which the Sultana sits, sur;

rounded by latticed blinds


person
the
is

for

even here her

held too

sacred

to

be exposed to
broad steps,
to
in

common

observation of slaves and females

of the Charem.

lofty flight of
cloth,

covered
cage,

with

crimson

leads

this

as to a throne.

Immediately

front
state,

of the cage are

two burnished chairs of

covered with crimson velvet and gold,

one

To the right on each side of the entrance. and the left of the throne, and upon a level
with
it,

are the

sleeping apartments

of the
in

Sultan Mother,

and her principal females


external

waiting.

The

windows

of the throne

are

all

latticed:

on one side they look towards

the sea, and on the other into the quadrangle


of the

Charem; the cham1)er

itself

occupying

the whole breadth of the buildino^, on the side

(1)

The mischief done


they

in this way,

by

tlie

Grand

Sigm'or's

women,

is

so great, that

some of the most

costly articles

of furniture are removed,

when

come from

their winter apartments into this palace.

Among
:

the number, was the large coloured lustre given by the Earl of Elgin
this

was only suspended during

their absence

and even then by a common


ladies,
it

rope.

We

saw

it

in this

state.

The offending
eunuchs,

when
is

detected,

are actually

whipped by the black


to

whom

their

chief

amusement

elude and to ridicule.

As

this

mode of punishment has

been doubted by certain advocates for Turfcish refinement, the author


has taken some pains to ascertain the fact; and
eracity.
is

responsible for

its

30
CHAP,
of the

CONSTANTINOPLE.
quadrangle into which
it

looks.

The

area below the latticed throne, or the front of


the stage (according to
posed),
is

the idea before proattendants,


for

set

apart for

the
is

dancers, for actors, music, and whatsoever

brought into the Charem for the amusement of the court. This place is covered with Persian
mats; but these are removed
is

when

the Sultana

here, and the richest carpets are then sub-

stituted in their place.

Assembly

Chamber of Audience is Room of the Sultan, when he is in Here we observed the magnificent the Charem. The Sultan sometimes lustre before mentioned.
Bevoud
the
o:reat

the Assembly

visits this

chamber during the winter,

to

hear

music, and to amuse himself with his favourites.


It is

surrounded by mirrors.

The other orna-

ments display
all

that strange mixture of magni-

ficence and wretchedness,

which characterize
Turkish

the

state-chambers of

grandees.

Leaving the Assembly Room by the same door


through which
the sea-shore,

we

entered, and continuing along

the passage, as before, which runs parallel to

we

at

length

reached,

what
this

might be termed the Sanctum Sanctorum of


Baths.
'

Paphian temple, the Baths of the Sultan Mother

and the four principal

Sultanas.

These are

small,

but very elegant, constructed of white marble,

CONSTANTINOPLE.
and lighted by ground glass above. At the upper end is a raised sudatory and bath for the Sultan Mother, concealed by lattice-work from
the
rest

31

chap.
<

of the

apartment.

Fountains play
all

constantly into the floor of this hath, from


its

sides;

and every degree of refined luxury


in

has been added to the work, which a people, of


all

others best versed

the ceremonies of

the hath, have


requiring.

been capable of inventing or

Leaving the
1
1

hath,
1

and returning along the

passage by which
is

we came, we

11 entered what
forms a

chamberof
Repose.

called the Chamber of Repose;

the

commanding most extensive view, anywhere afforded


this point,

from

of the

Seraglio.

It

part of the building well

known
its

to strangers,

from the circumstance of


towards
beautiful

being supported,
of that
antico,

the sea,

by twelve columns
by Pliny'.

and rare breccia, the verde


extolled

Here the other ladies of the Charem entertain themselves, bv hearing and seeing comedies, farcical representations, dances, and music. We found it to be
which
is

Saioonof
theCVjarem.

in

the

state of

an old lurtiber-room.

Large

(1) " Pretiosissimi qukleiT) generis, cunctisqnc hilarius."


lib.

Nnt. Hist.
v

xxxvi.

7.

32
CHAP,
1.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
heavy gilded frames, neglected and broken, had been left, leaning against
dusty pier-glasses,
in

the wall, the whole length

of one side of the

room.

Old furniture; shabby bureaus of the


inlaid cabinets

worst English work, made of oak, walnut, or

mahogany;

scattered fragments

of chandeliers; scraps of paper, silk rags, and

empty confectionary

boxes;

were

the

only

objects in this part of the palace.

From
by a

this

room we descended

into the court


it,

of the CAare; ; and, having crossed


flight

ascended,

of steps, to an upper terrace, for the

purpose of examining a part of the building


appropriated to the inferior ladies of the Seraglio.

Finding

it

exactly upon the plan of the rest,

only worse furnished, and in a more wretched


state,

we

returned to quit the Charem entirely,

and

to effect

our retreat into the garden.

Reader may imagine our consternation, finding that the great door was shut, and

The upon
that
if

we

v/ere locked in.

Listening, to ascertain

any one were

stirring,

we

discovered that a

slave had entered to feed

some turkeys, who

were gobbling and making a great noise at a We profited by their tumult, small distance. to force back the huge lock of the gate with a large stone and this fortunately yielding to our
;

blows,

we made our

escape.

'

CONSTANTINOPLE.

33
Garden of the
to

We

now

quitted ^

the Lower

chap.

Seraglio,

and ascended, by a paved way,

I.

wards the Chamber of the Garden of Hyacinths. This promised to be curious, as we were told
the Sultan passed almost all his private hours in
that apartment; and the

fJardcn of

view of

it

might make

us acquainted with occupations and amusements, which characterize the man, divested of
the outward

parade of the Sultan.

We

pre-

sently turned from the paved ascent, towards the right


into
;

and entered a small garden,


neat oblong
borders,

laid out

very

porcelain or
suffered
to

Dutch
grow,

tiles.

edged with Here no plant is


the

excepting

Hyacinth;

whence the name


ber
it

of this garden, and the

chamSultans

contains.

We

examined the

apartment, by looking through a window.


thing of
it

No-

can be more magnificent.

Three sides

were surrounded by a divan, the cushions and pillows of which were of black embroidered
satin.

Opposite to the windows of the chama fire-place,


;

ber was

constructed

after

the

European fashion

and on each side of

this,

door covered with hangings of crimson cloth.

Between each of these doors and the


private
script;

fire-place

appeared a glass-case, containing the Sultans


library:

every volume was in manushelves, one


title

they were placed upon

book lying upon another, and the

of each

34
GiiAP.

CONSTANTINOPLE.

^as written upon

the

edges of

its

leaves.

From

the ceiUng of the room, which

was of

burnished gold, opposite to each of the doors,

and also opposite

to the fire-place,

were sus-

pended three
of
artificial

gilt

cages, containing small figures

birds;

which sung by mechanism.


in

In the centre of the room stood an enormous


gilt

brasier,

supported,

an ewer, by four

massive claws,

like the vessels for containing

water which
England.
side

are

seen
to

under
the

sideboards in

Opposite

entrance,

on one

of the apartment,
;

crossing a door

was a raised bench, and upon this were placed

an embroidered napkin, a vase, and bason, for

Over the bench, was suspended the large embroidered porte-feuille, worked with silver thread
washing the beard and hands.

upon the
in

wall,

yellow leather, which

is

carried in procession

when

the Sultan goes to mosque, or elsewhere

in public, to contain the petitions

presented by
to the

his subjects.

Within a small nook close


;

door was also a pair of yellow boots


the bench, the

and upon
at the

by the ewer, a
materials.

pair of slippers of

same

These are placed

entrance of every apartment frequented by the


Sultan.

The

floor

was covered with

Gobelins

tapestry; and the ceiling, as before stated,

was

magnificently gilded and burnished.

Groupes

of arms, such as pistols, sabres, and poignards.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
were disposed, with very singular taste and effect, over the different compartments of the walls; their handles and scabbards being
covered with diamonds
of

35
chap.
*

very large

size,

which, as they glittered around, produced a


splendid effect in this most sumptuous chamber.

We
to

had scarcely ended our survey, when,

our great dismay, a Bostanghy

made

his

appearance within the apartment:


for us, his

fortunately

head was turned from the ^vindow


it,

and we immediately sunk below

creeping
got clear

upon our hands and knees,


of the Garden of Hyacinths.

until

we

Thence, ascend-

ing to the upper walks,


nightingales.

we

passed an aviary of

The walks
small, in

in

the

upper garden are very


laid out

Upper

wretched condition, and


suburbs of the Hague.

the^emg-

worse
house

taste than the fore court of a Diitchmans


in the

Small as
lately,

they are,

they constituted, until

the

whole of the Seraglio Gardens near the sea;

and from them may be seen the whole prospect


of the entrance to the

Canal, and
in

the opposite

coast of Scutary.

Here,

an old

kiosk,

we saw
preIt is

a very ordinary marble slab, supported upon


iron cramps, which, nevertheless,

was a

sent from Charles the Twelfth of Sweden.

VOL.

III.

36
CHAP,
>

CONSTANTINOPLE.
precisely the
sort of

sideboard seen in the


and, while
it

poorest inns of England;

may

pay half the amount of its freight to send it back again, it shews the nature of the presents that were
be said that no person would
then

made

to the

Porte

by
left

foreign Princes.

From

these formal terraces

we descended
the gardens

to

the Gardener's lodge, and


the gate through which

by

we

entered.

This copious description of the interior of the


Seraglio
in the

would not have been introduced, but

hope that an account of it might afford amusement, owing to the secluded nature of the
objects to which
it

refers,

and the

little

proba-

bility there is of so

favourable an opportunity

being again granted, to any traveller, for a


similar investigation'.

(l)

This

visit

of the author to the interior of the Sultans palace, as

it

has excited more of sensation than the subject merits, so has the account of it been also liable to misrepresentation and to reproof.
urged, that the
lication
;

It has beers
its

German

gardener's safety

may

be endangered by
to

pub-

although this gentleman had

left Constantinople,

reside at

Vienna,

when

the Jirsl edition of

tliis

Work
first

appeared.

It has

been more-

over

said, that the

author was not the


;

Christian traveller

who had
All

explored the interior of the Seraglio


that he maintains
is this
;

which, perhaps,

may be

true.

that no Christian traveller ever

before ven-

tured to examine the whole of the interior of the Charem, whatever

may
en-

have happened since the time when

this visit

was made.

Many were

couraged, by his example, to oblain admission afterwards into the Seraglio

Gardens;

CONSTANTINOPLE.
Gardens.- but a sight of those gardens does not necessarily imply that of
the Charem, which
ctanced; and
it

37

CHAP
^*

is

a part of the Sultan's palace very differently circum-

is

from confounding these together,

that the author's

observations with regard to the


the Seraglio in general.

Charem

in particular have

been applied to

De La Motraye

indeed, by

means of a French

watch-maker, was enabled to see a part of the women's apartments in the

Winter Palace

but this

is

a very different part of the Seraglio, as appears


it

from his account of a descent from


case, {See Vol. \.p. 173.

into the gardens,

by means of

a stair-

Lond. 1732,) which the author also ascended, in


after

going from the Gardtn of Hyacinths,

he had quitted the Charem.

Constantinople, from the British

UTinister'.'i

Palace.

CHAP.

11.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
Procession of the

Grand

Signior, at the Opening of the

tlie

Bairam

Observations on
of the
of the

Church of

St.

Sophia-
of the

Other Mosques of
Dervishes Howling

Constantinople

Dance

Bazar
Exercises

Dervishes Cursory Observations Booksellers Greek Manuscripts Hippodrome


Athletse

Obelisk

Delphic Pillar.

CHAP.

IJ N E
'

of the great sights in

Constantinople is

the Procession of the Grand Signior,

when he

CONSTANTINOPLE.
goes from the
Sei-aglio

39
chap.
>

to

one of the principal

mosques of the city. At the opening of the Bairam, this ceremony is attended with more than ordinary magnificence. We were present
Upon that occasion; and although a detail of the procession would occupy too much space
,

Procession

Grand
ttior,

sig-

at the

-1-1
it

opening of thc^aiVam.

in the text,

may

be deemed unobtrusive, and

perhaps interesting, as a note.

Our ambassador
rise

invited us, on the preceding

evening, to be at the British palace before sun;

as the procession

was

to take place the

moment

the sun appeared.


;

We

were punctual
family,

in our attendance

and being conveyed, with


ambassador's

the ladies of

the

and

many
in

other persons attached to the embassy,

the

small boats which ply at Tophana,


in Constantinople;
stall

we

landed

and were

all

stationed

within the

of a blacksmith's shop,

which

opened

into

one of the dirty narrow streets

near the Hippodrome;


the procession

and through
It

this street

was

to pass.

to see the Representative of the


Britain,

was amusing King of Great


squatted
anvils,
first

with his family and friends,


stools,

upon

little

among

horse-shoes,

old iron,
arrival,

and

horse-dung.

Upon

his

some

cats, taking alarm,

brought down

a considerable portion of the tiUng from the


roof;

and

this,

as

it

embarrassed his party.

40
CHAP,
s

CONSTANTINOPLE.
excited the lauo^hter of the Turks in the neio^h^

..y-

bourhood,

who seemed much amused with


the smithy.

the

humihating figure presented by the groupe of


Infidels in

We had

not been long in this situation, be-

fore the Janissaries, with their large felt caps

and

white staves, ranged themselves on each side


of the street leading to the

mosque

forming an
as

extensive line

of

sallow-looking objects,

novel to an Englishman's eye as any in the


Turkish empire.

About a quarter of an hour before the procession began, the Imam, or High-Priest, passed,
.

with his attendants, to the mosque, to receive


the Sultan.

They were in
;

four covered waggons,

followed by twenty priests on horseback.

The
it

procession then began

and continued, accordAfterwards,

ing to the order given below \

(l)

Procession of the

Grand
1.

Signior, at the Opening

of the Bairam.

BosTANGHY*, ou

foot, bearing a
3.

wand.

FourBALTAGiiiES, or Cooks of the Seraglio.


3.

Fifteen Za'Im, or Messengers of State.


4.

ThirSttlttxi

The

body

Bostanghies were originally gardeners of the Seraglio, but are guard. Their number amounts to several thousands.

now

the

CONSTANTINOPLE.
returned in the same manner, although not with
the
II.

41
chap.

same degree of

res^ularity.

4.

Thirteen of the Chiaoux, or Constables, with embroidered turbans.


5.

A party of Servants
6.

of the Seraglio.

Thirty Capighy Bashtes, or Porters of the Seraglio, in high white


caps,

and robes of flowered satin


on each
side,

flanked byBaltaghies, or Cooks,

who were on horseback, with wands.


7.

Baltagiiies, on foot, with caps of a conical form, and white wands.


8,

Fourteen

ditto,

more

richly dressed,
9.

and mounted on superb horses.


foot.

Other Baltaghies, on
10,

Ten

of the

High Constables on
.

horseback.

IIfoot.

Forty Servants on
12.-

The Teftirdagh,

or Financier of the Realm, on horseback, most

magnificently caparisoned.
13.

Forty Servants on
14.

foot.

The REIS EFFENDY,

or Prime Minister, in a rich green pelisse,

on a magnificent charger with most sumptuous housings, &c.


15.

Twenty

Servants.

16.

The

great body of the Chiaoux, or Constables, with magnificent


dresses,

and plumes on their heads.


17.

The Colonel

of the Janissaries, with a helmet covered

by enormous

plumes.
18.

party of Fifty Constables

t)f

the

Army,

in full

uniform, with

embroidered turbans.
19.

Tea

42
CHAP.
V

CONSTANTINOPLE.

When
>

the ceremony concluded,

the Grand
officers

^.

Signior,

accompanied by the principal

19.

Ten

beautiful Arabian

Led Horses, covered with the most


trappings.
20.

costly

The

CAPUDAN PASHA,

on one of the

finest horses

covered with

jewelled housing's, in a rich green pelisse lined with dark fur,

and a white turban.


21.

BoSTANGHiES, on

foot, with

white wands.

22.

Ten

Porters belonging to the


23.

Grand

Vizier.

The Kaimakan, on horseback,


in a rich

as Representative of the

Grand Vhier,

crimson pelisse lined with dark fur, and accompanied by the

appendages of
24.

oflRce.

Twenty
Twenty
of the

Servants, on foot, bearing different articles.


25.

Grooms

of State, on horseback, followed by slaves.


26.

The Master

of the Horse, in embroidered satin robes.

27.

Servants on foot.
28.

The Deputy Master

of the Horse, in robes of embroidered satin.


29.

Servants on foot.
30. inferior Chamberlains of the Seraglio, on horseback.

31.

BosTANGHiES, with white wands, on


32.

foot.

The Sumpter-Horses

of the Sultan,

laden with the (indent

Armour

taken from the Church of St. Irene in the Seraglio; among' which

were antient Grecian bucklers, and


embossed,

shields,

ir.agni/icentli/

and studded with gems.


33. Forty

CONSTANTINOPLE.
kiosk,

43
or

of State, went to exhibit himself in a


tent,

chap.
^.

near to the Seraglio Point, sitting on a

33.

Forty BoSTANGHiES, bearing two turbans of State, flanked, on each


side,

by Porters.
84.

An

officer,

with a bottle of water.


35.

Fifteen Bostanghies, in burnished helmets, bearing

two

stools of State,

flanked on each side by Porters.


36.

The Grand Chamberlain, most sumptuously mounted.


37.

Bostanghies, in burnished helmets covered by very high plumes.


38.

Lofty waving plumes, supported by Chamberlains on foot.


39.

The

Si s

a beautiful managed Arabian horse covered with jewels and embroidery, in a scarlet pelisse lined with dark fur, and a white turban ; flanked, on each side, by tall Plumes, supported by Chamberlains.
40.

grand

5/GiV/O^, on

'

II

Lofty waving Plumes, supported by Chamberlains on


41.

foot.

Slaves of the Seraglio, in black satin, having poignards in their girdles,

the handles being studded with pearls.


42.

Bostanghies, on
43.

foot.

The Seliktar Agha,

or Sword-bearer of State, carrying a magnificent


sabre.

44.

party of Attendants, on foot.


45.

The Agnator Agha,

or

High Chamberlain, on horseback,

scattering /?ar<i5, the small coin of the empire,


46.

among

the people.

Party of Attendants, on foot.


47.

The

44
CHAP,
II.
V

CONSTANTINOPLE.
sofa of silver.
''

We

were enabled
and,

to

view

this

.y

singular instance of parade, from a boat sta-

tioned near the place;

after

the Sultan

retired, were permitted to examine the splendid

47.

The KiSLAR Agha,


making
his

or Chief of the Black Eunuchs, on horseback,

salaams to the people, and flanked, on each side, hy a party of Bostanghies.


48.

Other

Ollicers of the Seraglio,

on horseback.

49.

The Secretary

of State, on horseback, bearing the Grand-Signwr's

embroidered leathern
50.

imrte-feidlle.

A
The Channator Agha,

Party of Attendants.
51.

or Second of the Black EunuchSj on horseback.

52.

Party of Attendants.
53.

The

inferior

Black Eunuchs of the Seraglio.


54.

Attendants.
55.

The Treasurer
56.

of State.

Black Eunuchs.
57.

The Caiveghy

Basiiy, or Coffee-bearer of the


58.

Grand

Signior.

Two Turbans

of State, on Sumpter-Horses.
59.

Party of Black Eunuchs, in very magnificent dresses,


60.
Officers of the Seraglio; followed

by a numerous suite of Attendants, some of whom were leading painted Mules, carrying carpets

and various

utensils.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
pageant brought out for the occasion. It was a very large wooden couch, covered with thick
plates

45
chap.
.

of

massive
it,

silver,

highly

burnished.

From
in

the form of
it

as well as from the style

which

was ornamented,

there

is

little

doubt that

this also

constituted a part of the

treasury of the Greek Emperors,


tinople

when

Conslan-

was taken by the


the

Turks.

Among
strangers
that
it is

misrepresentations
visit Constantinople,

made

to

who

they are told

necessary to be attended by a Janissary


In the
first
it

in the streets of the city.


is

place, this

not

true

in

the

second,

is

the
It

most

imprudent plan a traveller can adopt.


people

makes

a public display of want of confidence in the


;

and, moreover, gives rise to continual

dispute,

when any

thing

is

to

be purchased of

the Turks; besides augmenting the price of any


article required,

exactly in the proportion of

the

sum

privately exacted

his share of the profit. tation


is,

by the Janissary, as Another misrepresenGrand Signior

that a Jirman from the


to gain

is requisite
St.

admission to the Mosque of

Sophia; whereas,

by giving
it

eight piastres to
is

the person
building,
(l)

whose business

to

shew the

it

may be
as a

seen at any time'.


Firman
it
is

At the same time

necessary, in order to see the


to add, that having

other mosques of the city,

may be proper

obtained

;; ;

46
CHAP.
u-^
tionrmuhe
s!^Zt'n"a.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
Tlie architectural
St.

merits of

St.

Sophia and

Peters have been often relatively discussed

jst thcy rcasonablj enter into no comparison.

^^

accounts have been more exaggerated than

those which refer to the former, whose gloomy

appearance
entertain
state.

is

well

suited to

the

ideas

we

of

its

present abject and depraved


its

In the time oiProcopius,

dome might
of a

have seemed suspended by a chain from heaven


but at present,
subterraneous,
neither does
it
it

exhibits

much more
aerial

than

of

an

character

seem

consistent with the perto

fection of an edifice intended

elevate the

mind, that the entrance to


descent, as into a cellar.

it

should be by a
to the

The approach
is

Pantheon at Rome, as well as to the spacious


aisle

and dome of
in

St.

Peters,

by ascending

but

order

to

get beneath the

dome

of
it is

obtained one for the purpose of gaining admission to St. Sophia,


also a passport to all the others.

The words

of the

Firmdn

for seeing

the mosques, when

literally translated, are as follow.

" To " " " " "

the Keepers

and

Priests of the

Great St. Sophia, and

"
the

other

Holy Mosques of the Sultans.


to

It heivg customary

grant

to

the subjects of powerful yillies permisthis

ition to visit

Holy Mosques; and at

time, having taken into

our consideration an application made by certain JEitglish Gentlemen


travelling in these Countries, to enter the Mosques of this City,

we

hereby consent
the
:

to

their request

granting

to

them our permission


other

"to view

holy tern pie

of St. Sophia,

and

Mosques of the

" Sultans also ordaining, upon their coming, accompanied by the " respective guards appointed for that purpose, that you do conduct them " everywhere, and allow them free observation of all things, according
"
to established

usage."

CONSTANTINOPLE.
Si. Sophia,

47
chap.
, .

the spectator

is

conducted down a
visited
it

long

flight

of stairs.

We

several

^1

times, and always with the same impression. There is, moreover, a littleness and confused

Gothic barbarism in the disposition of the parts

which connect the dome with the foundation


and
in its present state it is bolstered

on the

outside with heavy buttresses, like those of a


bridge.

Mosaic work remains very entire in

many
to

parts of the interior.

The dome seems

have been adorned with an uniform coating


for sale

of gilded tessera, which the Turhs are constantly

removing

attaching superstitious vir-

tues to those loose fragments of Mosaic, from


the eagerness of strangers to

procure them.
the principal

In the

great

arch,

opposite to
is

entrance, the Mosaic

coloured, and represents

the figures of Saints, of the Virgin, and groupes

of enormous wings without bodies.

We

copied
part of

a few letters of an Inscription


the building,

in that

which were, beyond all doubt, coeval with the edifice itself; and therefore,
although they ofier a very imperfect legend,
it is

proper they should be preserved

nothing of the

kind having hitherto been noticed in St. Sophia.

O C K A X PYCOY HE NTHKONTA
I . .

TAAANTA0EOK
N
.
.
.

O CN
I

E K E

48
CHAP.

CONSTANTINOPLE.

The engravings published by Banduri\ from


<

'

y.

drawings by

Grelot,

connected with his

own
it

description, afford so accurate a representation

of this building, that any further account of

would be superfluous.

Many

absurd stories
as oratories, the

have been circulated concerning the contents of

some small chapels once used


galleries.

doors of which are seen in the wails of the

Great interest was making, while


in

we
all

remained
the locks

Constantinople,

to

have these

chambers examined.
;

little

gold soon opened

and we scrutinized not only the


apartments,
building.

interior of these

but also every

other part of the

They were
for

all

empty, and only remarkable

the

Mosaic

work covering

the ceilings.

Some

of the doors

were merely openings to passages, conducting to the leads and to the upper parts of the building these were also either empty, or filled with mortar, dust, and rubbish. Still more
;

absurd

is

the pretended phosphoric light, said

to issue from a

mass of

lapis lazuli in

one of

the gallery walls.

This marvellous phsenomenon


guide,

was pointed out by our


for a

who

consented,

small bribe,
It is

to

have the whole trick

exposed.

nothing more than a

common

slab of marble, which, being thin

and almost

(l)

Imperium

Orienta^le, torn. II.

Pam,

IT 11.

CONSTANTINOPLE.

49
chap.
v
,

worn through, transmits

a feeble light, from

By the exterior, to a spectator in the gallery. to the outside, and placing a hat over the going
place, the light immediately disappears.

>

The other mosques


been
built
after the

of

Constantinople
St.

have

other

plan of

Sophia;

and
is

conuanunople.

particularly that of Sultan Solyman,

which

superb

edifice,

and may be said


It contains

to offer a mini-

ature representation of the model

whence

it

was

derived.

twenty-four columns

of granite and of Cipolino marble, together with

ome very
Four
near
granite

large

circular

slabs

of porphyry.

columns within the building are

five feet in diameter,

and from
also

thirty-five

to forty in height.
pillars of

There are

two superb

porphyry at the entrance of the court.


of Saltan Bajazet
is

The Mosque
columns of

rich in antient

granite, porphyry, verde antico, and two of them, within the mosque, are marble: thirty feet high, and five feet in diameter. In

the

mosque

called Osmania, are pillars of

Egyp-

tian granite,

twenty-two feet high, and three


;

feet in diameter
soros of
stantine,

and near

it is

the celebrated

red poi-phyry, called the To?nb of Connine feet long, seven feet wide, and five

feet thick, of one entire mass.

This mosque

is

also

famous

for its painted glass,

and

is

paved

with marble.

In the

Mosque

of Sultan

Achmed

; ,

50
CHAP,
^
I

CONSTANTINOPLE.
are columns of verde antico,

Egyptian

granite,

I,.

^1

and white marhle.


glass,

Several antique vases of


are also there suspended

and of terra

cotta,

as perhaps similar vessels

were

in the

temples

of the Antients, with the other votive offerings.

Dance of
ushes^."

lu a mosquc at Tophana was exhibited the

Dance
Scutari/,

of the Dervishes;

and

in

another,

at

the exhibition of the Howling Priests;


it is

ceremonies so extraordinary, that

necessary

to see them, in order to believe that they are really practised

by human beings, as acts of We saw them both and first, were devotion. conducted to behold the Dance at Tophana.
:

As we

entered the mosque,

we

observed

twelve or fourteen Dervishes walking slowly


round, before a superior, in a small space sur-

rounded with a balustrade, beneath the dome Several spectators were staof the building.
tioned on the outside of the railing
;

and being,

as usual, ordered to take off our shoes,

we

joined the party.

In a gallery over the entrance

were stationed two or three performers on the tambourine and Turkish pipes. Presently the Dervishes, crossing their arms over their breasts,
and with each of
shoulders,
their

hands grasping their


to

began obeisance

the Superior,

who

stood v/ith his back against the wall, facing

CONSTANTINOPLE.
the door of the mosque.
cession, finished

51
each, in sue-

Then

chap.
<

as
his

he

passed the Superior,

having
first

^-

<

bow, began

to turn round,

slowly, but afterwards with such velocity, that


his long

garments flying out in the rotatory

motion, the whole party appeared spinning like


so

many umbrellas upon

their

handles.

As
their

they began, their hands were disengaged from


their shoulders,

and raised gradually above

heads.

At

length, as the velocity of the whirl

increased, they

were

all

seen, with their

arms

extended horizontally, and their eyes closed,


turning with inconceivable rapidity.

The music,

accompanied by voices, served


continued to walk

to

animate them;

while a steady old fellow, in a green pelisse,

countenance, and expressing as watchfulness as


the
slightest
if

among them, with a fixed much care and


life

his

would expire with


ceremony.
all

failure

in

the

We

noticed a method which they


the exhibition
;

observed in

it

was

that of turning one of

their feet, with the

toes as

much inward
The

as

possible, at every whirl of the body, while the

other foot kept

its

natural position.

elder

of these Dervishes appeared to perform the task

with so
their

little

labour or exertion, that, although


their

bodies were in violent agitation,

countenances resembled those of persons in an

easy sleep.

The younger

part of the dancers

52
CHAP,

CONSTANTINOPLE.

moved with no
but
it

less velocity than the others;


in

seemed

them a

less

mechanical ope-

ration.

This extraordinary exercise continued


of fifteen minutes
;

for the space

a length of

time,
life

it

might be supposed,

sufficient to
;

exhaust

itself

during such an exertion


to

and our

eyes began
objects
signal
all

ache with the sight of so

many
dance,
all

turning one way.


directors

Suddenly, on a
of the

given by the

unobserved by the spectators, the Dervishes


stopped at the same instant,
a machine, and, what
is

like the

wheels of
all

more extraordinary,

in one circle, with their faces invariably

towards

the centre, crossing their arms on their breasts,

and grasping
instant,

their shoulders as before,

together with the utmost regularity, at

bowing the same

almost to the ground.

We

regarded

them with astonishment, not one of them being


in the slightest

degree out of breath, heated, or


After
fol-

havins: his countenance at all chans^ed.


this,

they began to walk, as at

first

each

lowing the other within the balustrade, and


passing the

Superior as before.

As soon as

their obeisance

had been made, they began to


and was similarly concluded.
to

turn again.

This second exhibition lasted as


first,

long as the

They then began

turn for the third time;

and, as the dance lengthened, the music

grew

louder and more animating

perspiration

now

CONSTANTINOPLE.'

53
^^^^*
v

became evident upon the features of the Dervkhes ; the extended garments of some among them began to droop and little accidents oc;

>*

'

curred, such as their striking against each other

they nevertheless persevered, until large drops


of sweat falling from their bodies upon the floor,

such a degree of

friction

was thereby occasioned,

that the noise of their feet rubbing the floor

was heard by the


third

spectators.

Upon
for

this,

the

and

last signal

was made

them

to haJt,

and the dance ended.


This extraordinary performance
miraculous by the Turks.
species of dancing
is

is

considered

By

their law,
;

every

prohibited

and

yet, in

such veneration

is

this
it

ceremony

held, that an

attempt to abolish

would excite insurrection

among

the people.

There
in the

is

still

another instance of the most

extraordinary superstition perhaps ever


history of mankind,
full

known
most
the
in
is,

of the
:

shameless and impudent imposture


exhibition of pretended miracles,

it

wrought

consequence of the supposed power of

faith,
^"""**"*

by a
to,

sect

who

are called the Hoivling Dervishes HowUng

of Scutary.

Their orgies were before alluded

as being similar to those practised,

accordmg

to

Sacred Scripture, by the priests of


VOL.
III.
,

Baal

64
CHAP,

CONSTANTINOPLE.
and
they
are

probably

remnant of the

most antient heathen


nations.

ceremonies of Eastern
this sect in greater

The Turks hold


than
they

veneration
Dervishes.

do

even

the Dancing

We

passed over to Scutary, from Pera, ac-

companied by a Janissary, and arrived at the The place where this exhibition is made. Turks called it a mosque but it more resem;

bled a barn, and reminded us of the sort of

booth

fitted

up with loose planks by mendicant


fair.

conjurers at an English

This resemblance
finding at the

was

further increased,

by our
if

entrance two strange figures, who, learning the

cause of our

visit,

asked

we wished
replied,

to

have

the "Jire and dagger business" introduced


the other performances.

We

among by exof their

pressing our inclination to see as

much

rites as they might think proper to exhibit

upon

this,

we were

told

that

we must pay

something more than usual,

for the miracles.

A bargain was
that

therefore made,
all

we

should see

the miracles.

then

permitted to

enter

upon condition We were the mosque, and


Close to one

directed to place ourselves in a small gallery,


raised two steps from the floor.

extremity of this gallery, certain of the Dervishes

were employed

in boiling coffee

upon two

CCfNSTANTINOPLE.
brasiers of lighted charcoal
:

65

this

was brought
stools for

to us in small cups, with pipes,


seats.

and

At the other extremity of the gallery, a party of Turks were also smoking, and drinkUpon the walls of the mosque were ing coffee.
suspended
pincers,

daggers,

skewers,

wire scourges,

and many other dreadful instruments of torture and penance. It might have been
supposed a chamber of the Inquisition,
the air of a conjurer's booth.
It
if

the

ludicrous mummery around had not rather given


to
it

long time before the


length,

was a At ceremony began.


putting on his

the principal Dervish,


state,

robe of

which consisted of a greasy


fur,

green pelisse with half-worn


business of the exhibition.

opened the
they re-

At
after

first,

peated the ordinary prayers of the Turks; in

which our Janissary joined,


his head, feet,

having washed

and hands.

All strangers after-

wards withdrawing
and
filthy set
floor,

to the gallery, a

most ragged

of Dervishes seated themselves

upon the
Superior.

forming

a circle round their

These men began to repeat a series of words, as if they were uttering sounds by rote smil;

ing, at the

same time, with great complacency


their smiles

upon each other: presently,


E 2

were

converted to a laugh, seemingly so unaffected"

56

CONSTANTINOPLE.
and so hearty, that
in their

we

sympathetically joined
this,

mirth.

Upon
;

our Janissary and


to

Interpreter

became alarmed, and desired us


as the laughter

use more caution

we

noticed
arising

was the

result

of religious

emotion,
in

from the delight experienced


the attributes of the Deity.

pronouncing
full

During a

hour

the Dervishes continued laughing and repeating the

same words, inclining their heads and bodies backwards and forwards. They then all rose, and were joined by others, who were to act a very conspicuous part in the ceremony. These were some time in placing
;

themselves

and frequently,

after

they had

taken a station, they changed their post again,


for

purposes to us unknown.

Finally, they all

stood in a semicircle before the Superior, and

then a dance began

this,

without any motion

of the feet or hands, consisted of moving in a

mass from

side to

side,

against each other's

shoulders, repeating rapidly and continually the

words
it

Ullah, hoo Ullah!

and laughing as before,

but no longer with any expression of mirth;

seemed rather the horrid and intimidating


In the

grimace of madness.
Superior

mean
until

time,

the

moved slowly forward,

he stood in

the midst of them, repeating the same words, and

marking the measure of utterance, by beating


his haofis,

accompanied with a motion of

his

CONSTANTINOPLE.
head.

57

At

this

time another figure

made

his

^n^^'

appearance, an old man, very Hke the representations

which Spagnolet painted of Diogenes, and


Placing himself on the
left

quite as ragged.

of the semicircle, with his face towards the


Dervishes, he

began

to

howl the same words,


all

much

louder, and with greater animation than


;

the rest

and, beating time with

the force

of his arm, encouraged

them

to exertions they

were almost incapable of

sustaining.

Many

of

them appeared
their

to

be almost exhausted, tossing

heads about, while their laugh presented


capable of assuming.

one of the most horrible convulsions of features


the

human countenance
the
oscillatory

is

Still

motion and the howling

continued, becoming every instant

more

violent;

and the sound of

their voices
;

resembled the

grunting of dying hogs

until

at length one of
floor,

them gave a convulsive spring from the


" Mohammed!''

and, as he leaped, called loudly and vehemently

No

sooner was this perceived,

than one of the attendants taking him in his

arms, raised him from the

floor,

and turned
hissing

him three times round.


noise, as

Then a loud

of

fire,

proceeded from his mouth,


his

which ceased on the Superior placing

hand

upon

his lips.

The same person then taking


it

the skin of his throat between the finger and

thumb

of his left hand, pierced

thrpugl^ >yitb

58
CHAP,
'

CONSTANTINOPLE.
an iron skewer he held in his
right,

and

left

i.,y...i.'

him standing exposed to view in caUing loudly upon Mohammed.

that situation,

By

this time,

some

of the others, apparently

exhausted, aiFected to be seized in the same

way, and they were turned round as their comrade had been before. The person who
turned them supported them afterwards in his
arms, while they reclined their faces upon his
right shoulder, and evidently

were occupied

in

rinsing their

beneath his
place

mouths with something concealed garments. The same process took


their

respecting

hands,

secretly fortified in a similar

which were way, by some


fire

substance used to prevent the effect of

upon the skin\

We now observed

the attendants busied, on


gallery, heating irons

our right hand, below the

in the brasiers used for boiling the coffee.

As
the

soon as the irons were made red

hot, they

were taken
Dervishes,

in

a glowing state
seizing

among

who,

them with

violence.

(l) It

is

the same used by conjurers in Eiiglaiid,

who pretend
is

to be

fiie-eaters.

In the selections which have appeared from the Gentlethis

man's Magazine,
sulphur.

nostrum

is

made pubhc.

It

prepared from

CONSTANTINOPLE.
began
to lick

59

them with
our

their tongues.

While
extra-

we were
ordinary

occupied in
sight,

beholding

this

attention

was

suddenly

called off to one of the performers,

who was
This

stamping in a distant part of the mosque, with

one of the

irons

between
into

his

teeth.

was
sions,

snatched

from him
falling

by
an

the

Superior;
convul-

and the man

apparent

was

caught

by

attendant,
face to

and
the

placed upon the


earth.

floor,

with his

Some

of the rest then

jumped about*

stabbing themselves in different parts of their


bodies.

A noise

of loud sobbing and of lamentation

was now heard in a latticed gallery above, where some women were stationed, who being completely duped by the artifices which had been practised, became sufficiently alarmed. As we were already disgusted with such outrages upon religion, under any name, we
descended from the gallery, and prepared to walk out; when the Superior, fearing that
his

company might
end

give
to

him the
this

slip,

in-

stantly put an

the leger-de-main,

and

demanded payment. While it was highly amusing to see


and the
their fainting

took place,

all i\\Qjire-eatrs,

dagger-hearers, recover

at

once from

and convulsions, and walk about.

60
CHAP,
'

CONSTANTINOPLE.
talking with
indifference'.

each other

in perfect

ease and

If

what has been here stated

is

not enough

to prove the contemptible imposture practised

upon these occasions, a circumstance that occurred afterwards will put the matter beyond
all

doubt.

Swiss gentleman, acting as goldsmith

and

jeweller to the Grand Signior, invited us, with

a large party of other Englishmen, to dine at


his

house

in Constantinople.

When

dinner

was was

ended, one

of the Hoiuling Dervishes, the


for

most

renowned
brought

his

miraculous

powers,

in, to

amuse the company as a common

conjurer. Taking his seat on a divan at the upper end of the room, he practised all the tricks we had seen at the mosque, with the

exception of the hot

irons,

for

which he con-

fessed he was not prepared.

He

affected to

stab himself, in the eyes and the cheeks, with


large poignards; but,

upon examination, we soon

(l) It
it

has heen deemed proper to insert this circumstance, because

has been stated, that,


fall

"

totally

exhausted by paio and fatigue, they


;

"
*' *'

to the

ground

in a senseless trance

uhen

tliey are

removed

to

their

chambers, and nursed with the greatest care, until their

recovery enables them to repeat so severe a proof of their devotion.''

S.GE Constantinople, Antient

and Modern,

Sfc.

by Dallaway,

p.

1Q.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
discovered that the blades of the weapons were

61

admitted by springs into their handles,

like

those used upon the stage in our theatres. There was one trick which he performed with extraordinary skill and address it was that of drawing a sabre across his naked body, after
;

having caused the skin of the abdomen to lapse

over the blade.

As soon
told

as this exhibition ended,

by our host

that the Dervish should


:

we were now
and,

bear testimony to a miracle on our part

as he had no conception of the manner in which

was brought about, it was probably never afterwards forgotten by him. A large electrical
it

apparatus stood within an adjoining apartment;


the conductors from which, passing into

the

room,

as

common

bell-wires,

had been con-

tinued along the seat occupied

by the

Dervish^

reaching the whole length of the divan.

As

soon as he began to take breath, and to repose


himself from the fatigue of his tricks, a shock

from the
that

electrical

machine was communicated,


higher than ever he had
of Mohammed.

made him leap done for the name


pany

Seeing no

person near, and every individual of the comaffecting tranquillity

and unconcern, he

was

perfectly panic-struck.

Ashamed, however,

that an inspired priest, and one of the guardians

62
CHAP,
'

CONSTANTINOPLE.
of the miracles of Idam, should betray causeless
'

alarm, he ventured once


seat; whence, as

more

to

resume his
a second
;

he sat trembling-,
fairly

shock sent him

out of the house

nor

could any persuasion, accompanied by a promise


of explaining the whole that had happened to

him, prevail upon him to return, even for the

payment which was due


Cursory Observations.

to him.

fg^ cursorv obscrvatious


"^

almost

all

that remains of the


first

now include Notes made during


will

the author's

residence in Constantinople.

Every thing

is

exaggerated that has been

said of the riches and magnificence of this city.


Its inhabitants are ages

behind the rest of the

world.

The apartments in their houses are always small. The use of coloured glass in the windows of the mosques, and in some of the it was introduced palaces, is of remote date mto England, with other refinements, by the
:

Crusaders

and perhaps

we may

attribute to the

same people the style of building observed in many of our most antient dwelling-houses
where,
in

the

diminutive pannelling of the


the windows,
is

wainscot, and the form of

an

evident similarity appears to what

common
pubUc

Turkey.

The
to

lihans for the

bankers seem to
the

rank next

the mosques,

among

CONSTANTINOPLE.
edifices of

63
"r

shewn to chap. II. strangers is the most filthy hole in Europe, and The pomp of it is chiefly tenanted by rats
any note.
Menas:erie

The

>

a Turk may be said


his horse:

to consist in his pipe

and

the

first will

cost from twenty to

twenty thousand

piastres.

Pasha had a spiral

That of the Capudan ornament of diamonds from


it

one end to the other; and


length.

was

six feet in

Coffee-cups are adorned in the same

costly

manner.

saddle-cloth

embroidered
silver,

and covered with jewels, stirrups of


other rich trappings, are used

and

by their grandees The boasted illumito adorn their horses nations of the Ramadan would scarcely be perceived, if they were not pointed out. The suburbs of London are more brilliant every night
in the year.

As

to the antiquities of Constantinople, those

"which are generally

shewn

to

strangers have

been often and ably described.

There
this

is

method of

obtainino-

medals and g-ems which


is,

has not, however, been noticed;


application to the persons

by

who

contract for the

product of the

common

sewers, and are emfilth

ployed

in

washing the

mud and

of the city.

In this manner

we

obtained, for a

mere
;

trifle,

some

interesting remains of antiquity

among
medal

which may be mentioned, a superb

silver

64
CHAP,
V

CONSTANTINOPLE.
oi Antliony and
>

Cleopatra;

a silver medal of

Chalcedon of
intaglio

the

highest antiquity;

and an

onyx, representing the Flight of jEneas from Troy. There is every reason to believe,
that, within the precincts of this vast city,
fine

many
be

remains of antient art

may

hereafter

discovered.

The courts
soroi,

of Turkish houses are

closed from observation; and in


are

some of these
from view,
In the
in
all

magnificent

concealed

serving as cisterns to their fountains.


floors of the

different

baths are also,

probability,

many inscribed

marbles; the charac-

ters of which, being turned

downwards, escape

even the observation of the Turhs.

No monuto

ment was perhaps ever more calculated


than the Column of Arcadius, as
in the
it

exhibit the surprising talents of antient sculptors,

formerly stood

Forum of that Emperor.


its

According to
bas-reliefs,
for the

the fine representations of

en-

graved from
Banduri,
Russians
figures

Bellini s

drawings

work of
of

the

characteristic

features

the

were so admirably delineated


of
Scythian
captives,

in the

that

they

are

evident upon the slightest inspection'.

(l)

Imperium
is

Orientale,

torn.

II.

p. 521.

The Reader,
nobles,
in

referring

to the work,

requested to attend particularly to the portraits of

the Scythian monarch and of


plate.

one of his

the third

CONSTANTINOPLE.
It
is

65
chap.
11.

somewhat

singular, that, amons^st all

the literary travellers

who have

described the
Greek Manuscriiils.

curiosities of Constantinople,

no one has hitherto

noticed the market for Manuscripts ; yet it would

be

difficult to select

an object more worthy of

examination.
not contain
kelot
;

all

The lazar of the booksellers does the works enumerated by DHeris

but there
writings,
;

hardly any Oriental author,

whose
sale

if

demanded,

may

not be

procured

although every volume offered for

be manuscript.

The number of shops

employed in this way, in that market and elsewhere, amounts to a hundred each of these contain, upon an average, five hundred volumes
:

so that no less a

number than

fifty

thousand
endea-

manuscripts, Arabic, Persian, and Turkish, are


daily exposed for sale.

One

of our

first

vours was to procure a general catalogue of the


writings most in request throughout the empire;
that
is to

say, of those

works which are contheir

stantly

upon

sale in the cities of Constantinople,

Aleppo, and

Cairo;

and also of
the

prices.

This

we procured through
The whole
Appendix ; and

medium

of a

Dervish.
in the

of this Catalosfue

is griven

offering a tolerable
Oriental literature
;

it may be considered as view of the general state of

such, for example, as might

be obtained of the literature of Britain, by the catalogues of any of the principal booksellers of

66
CHAP.
>

CONSTANTINOPLE.
London and Edinburgh.
pointment,

The causes of

disap-

which has so often attended the

search after manuscripts by literary persons sent

out from the Academies of Europe,


easily explained.

may be
resi-

These men have their


it is

dence

in Pera,

whence

necessary to go by
is

water to Constantinople.
destination
their

The day
arrived,

generally

far spent before they reach the place of their


;

and,

when

they

appearance followed by a Janissary.

make The
Infidel

venders of manuscripts,

who

are often Emirs,

and sometimes
to

Dervishes,

beholding an

thus accompanied, gratifying what they consider

be an impertinent, and even a sacrilegious

curiosity,

among volumes
any part of
to

of their religion and


sell*

law, take offence, and refuse not only to

but

to exhibit

their collection.

The
in

best method

is,

employ a Dervish, marking

the catalogue such books as he


to purchase
;

may be

required

or to go alone,

unless an interdifficulty in

preter be necessary.
obtaining any

We

found no

work
**

that

we

could afford to buy.

Tlie manuscript of
easily

The Arabian Nights^" is not procured, and for this reason; it is a

(1)
title

As there have been

different statements

made

respecting the

of this

Compilation in the East, we shall write the

name

of

it

exactly as
tliose of

it is

pronounced by the booksellers of Turkey, and especially


Cairo,

Grand

who

call this

work

*'

Alf Leela o Lila."

CONSTANTINOPLE.
compilation,

67
and
chap.
II.

made according
scribes;
it

to the taste

opportunity of the writer, or the person


orders
it

who

of the
;

is

found only in

private hands
it

and there are not two copies of

which contain the same Tales.

We
but
in
it

could
after-

not obtain this

work

in Constantinople,
fine

wards we bought a very


Cairo.
It

copy of

Grand

was not

until the

second winter of
succeeded, by

our residence in Pera, that

we

means
shops.

of a Dervish of our acquaintance, in pro-

curing a Catalogue from one of the principal

The master of

it

was an Emir, a man

of considerable attainment in Oriental literature,

from

whom we had
which are now

purchased several manuin the Bodleian

scripts,

Library at

Oxford.

Whenever we applied
to

to this

man
;

for

works

relating to poetry or to history,

he was
but
if

very willing

supply what was wanted

we

ventured only to touch a Koran, or any


Turkish estima-

other volume held sacred in


tion,

our

business

terminated

abruptly for

that day.
in
all

There are similar manuscript markets


Turkish
cities,

the

particularly

tliose

of Aleppo

and of
Cairo,

Cairo.

Many
have

works, com-

mon

in

are

not to be met with in

Constantinople.
for literature

more taste than the Turks; and the women,


Beys
pass

The

shut up in the Charems of Egypt,

many

of their solitary hours in listening to persons

gg
cfiAP.
-

CONSTANTINOPLE.

who

are

employed

to read to

them

for their

amusement.

Nor

is

the search after Greek manuscripts so


as persons

unsuccessful

are apt to

imagine.

By

employing, an intelligent Greek priest,

we

had an opportunity of examining a great variety


of volumes, brought irom the Isle of Princes,

and from the private

libraries of

Greek princes

resident at the Phcmar\

It is true,

many

of

(i)
*^

Greeks cf

the

Phanar.
rest,

There are

six

Greek families of inore note than the

who

live at

Phandr, a

distrirt in the nortlicrn part of the city,

near the

ieay their names are, Ipsilandi,


Vzerli,

JMoroozi, Cairiindchi, Soozo,


liave either aspired to, or

Hand-

and Mavroeordato.

These

obtained

in their turns,

the situation of Hospodar, or Prince, of Walaehia,


In 1806, the Porte \vas persuaded, by the French, to

and Moldavia. were

believe that Ipsilandi and Moroozi, the Hospodars of the


vinces,
in the interest of Russia
; ;

two pro-

and

in

the month of September

of

that year,

they

were

removed

Soozo and CallimAchi being;

appointed in their room, by the interference of Sebastiaui, the French

ambassador.
but Ipsilandi

Moroozi, on his recal, came back to Constantinople

went

to Russia,

and thus brought on

his family the

vengeance of the Porte.


while

His

fatl)er,

aged seventy-four, who had been

four times Prince of Walaehia, was beheaded January the 25tb, 1807,
I

was at Constantinople.
it

Among

the articles of

accusation

brought against him,


rebellion

was alleged,

that he had fomented the

of the Servians;

and that, at the time when the troops of


against the Janissaries of
this,

the Nizam Jedit were about to march


Adrianople,

he bad given intimation of

through Mustapha

Bairactar, a chief in the northern provinces of Turkey, to the Janissaries,

who had

accordingly prepared themselves for the designs of

the Porte.
*

The

only persons in the Turkish empire w ho could in any

way

promote

CONSTANTINOPLE.
tliem were of
little

69

and some others, of chap. iJMlmore importance, the owners were unwillmg to
value
;

promote the cultivation of antient literature, and excite the Greeks


to shake off that ignorance in

which they are plunged, are the Greek


in

Nobles of the Phaiiar.

But, instead of using their influence with the

Government, to enable them to encourage and patronize schools


intrigue,

parts of the Levant, they are only pacing in the trammels of political

and, actuated by the


to obtain

'

lust

of

lucre,'

or

of

power, are

doing what they can


or of Patriarch
;

the offices of Interpreter to the Porte,

or to succeed as Princes of Walachia and Moldavia.

Exce]>ting a Dictionary of

modern Greek, which was published under


;

the patronage of one of the Mavrocordato family

and a

(^poyrKrrr.oicv,

or school, the expenses of wiiich were defrayed by one of the Aforoozi


family;
all

that has been done,

to increase a knowledge of their lanliberal

guage among the Greeks, has been effected by the


exertions of

and patriotic

Greek merchants,

living at Venice, Trieste, or Vienna.

An
had

undertaking, which would have been attended with great advantage,


it

not been frustrated by political interference, was a Translation

of the Travels of Anacharsis into

modern Greek, accompanied ith


;

proper maps.
it

This was only begun


:

the Greek

who was employed


Works

in

was put to death by the Porte


I

another Greek, of Yanina, called


of this kind

Sakellaris, has,

believe, translated the whole.


utility to

would be productive of greater


.

the mass of the reading and

industrious Greeks, than such performances as a translation of Virgil's

^neid
*

into
bj'

Greek Hexameters,

which

saw

at

Constantinople,

published

the Greek bishop, Bulgari,

who

resided in Russia.

The Greeks

of the Phanitr are themselves very conversant with

the authors of antient Greece,

and well understand most of the


There

is an affectation of using words and phrases of old Greek, instead of the modern, even among the

modern languages of Europe.


servants and

inferior people at the

Phanar.

The

learned Coray
to

is

exciting his countrymen, by his writings


their antient language;
visit

and example,

a study of

and the Greek merchants, who are led to


gradually diffused

the different cities of the Continent, return to thtir country with


is

information and useful knowledge, which


the Greeks connected with tlicm.

among
at

The

following Advertisement, of an Exhibition of

Wax-work

VOL.

III.

Pera,

70
CHAP.
II.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
sell.

The
want.

fact

is,

it is

not

money which such


their

men

They
for

will

often exchange

manuscripts

good printed editions of the


particularly

Greek Classics,

of

the

Orators.

Prince Alexander Bano Hantzerli had a magnificent collection of Greek manuscripts, and he long

corresponded with the author after his return

Pcra,

may

give the Reader a notion of the

common Greek

used at

that place.

EIAHSir.
'O Kv^ios
KaivoT>ira,
Tiooiv
'jtoWtiiv

KafiViiiir,i

J^afcfiatU
fil
ivoc

Twv
fiiyec
fii^o;

Tifirtv

va

tloaife'irsffi^

Trio

ivyniffrKTit*
xcti

o~i

viXhv

loa

auWoytv nffffa^axeira
raJv
iv
eis

vnoiiffo-

a,yaXiJt,u,Tuit,

to

"prXittrrov

Mova^^ciJ
ih^iffKirai

tyi;

EueM-rn;,
fit'a

xai

aXXwi
ti;

'!ri^t^n(i,at

ii-roxiifiivcov,

xcei

'Af^eoiTVfia^/iiy

"OXas
Tti;

ituroi

fi'iyJo;

(fuffixh,

xcci

hiiSvfiiva

ixaaTov

xara

to

a,%lecs

rou.

Aura
easy

<ra

uyaX/iurit ^ecfpt^fid^etrai xa$'


t?s vuxtos,
lis

ixafT'/iv
'ivhov

uto ra ^tv^ve
iffftnTicu
rris

lais

tJ;

^ivn

to ffrav^oiocfAi,
'E^yafTri^i

tou

Ku^icts
tivoxli-

Tofia^Isas,
ftivcc

ivava tU

tI

ho;

Kovipirii^fi.

Ta

slyivn

hXii ^Xn^imu)!
Tifih

xarx rhv
sva
il;

i^Xovfwtd^ap^av

aurSt

"x'^oxi^to'iy,

'H

Ss

futn^ns

wai

y^oti

xih

a^i^waot.

Translation.

'NOTICE.
'

Mr. Campioni has

the honour to iriform the Nobility

and Gentry,

that

arrived here, with a large collection offorty and more Figures; the greater part, of the Kings of Europe, and many other illustrious peris

he

sonages.

Jtnong them

is

a Venus.

All these are of the size of nature;

and

dressed, each according to the quality of the person.

These Figures are exhibited every day, from the morning


Confectioner's shop.

to

eleven at

night, in the Staurodromo, in the house of Mrs. Thoniasina, above a

The

Nobility

and Gentry
is

will pay according to their

liberal dispositions ; hut the

customary price

a piastre a head.'

" To confirm what I have said above, relating: to the knowledge which some of the noble Greeks possess of their antient language, I refer the Reader to the elaborate performance of Nicolas Mavrocordato, who was Prince of Walachia, written in antient Greek the title of
;

which

CONSTANTINOPLE.
to

71
JParis,

England'.

We

sent

to liim, from

chap.

the original edition of the French Encydopedie;

and no contemptible idea may be formed of the taste of men, who, situate as the Greek families
are in Constantinople, earnestly endeavour,

by

such publications, to multiply their sources of


information.

Some

of

the

Greek manuscripts

which
1719:

is,

jrsjJ Ka(nr.ovrco)).

This work was printed

at

Bucharest, in

it

contains nineteen chapters, and embraces a variety of moral


'

and

religious topics, relating-, as its title imports, to the

Duties of

Man.'

The

following paragraph
:

is

taken at random from the work,

as a specimen of the language

aX\
<rZv

ivif^v^o;

tirriv

al^^tui

xcei lis (pZs

aura v^eayayuv' xai

tou;

xav ihfuui

*/t?> '"^^

i%uhv fiivmi yi a^ila; aftei^wa;, 5 oXa; Iffrti^wrai ^po; Ivi^ynav


y.ou

xaXuv, xa& lavTov c^yuv


fi'/in rwrovfjiivos ti; x^lffiv

ff^aSa^aiv,

uxoXatfraUii,

f/.n

ctailaywyov-

fiivoi,
'

xa)

a'l^ifiv a^irris.

Nam

et terra,

cum non

rigatur,

continet

quldem sinu

siio,

iit

ita

dicnm, semina,sed adea vegetanda,

et in luceni

edcnda, itivalida est; et

mens quamvis

habilis, si destituatur irrigatione,

aut plane stenlescit ad

bonos actus, aut per se turgens et lasciviens prolene agit,


tuitur etformatur

dum

noti insti-

ad discerncndam

et

eligendam virtutem.'

" The

library of Nicolas

Mavrocordato was stored with manuscripts

procured from the different monasteries in Greece, and the islands of


the Archipelago
;

and so valuable was


in a Letter

it

in every respect, that Sevin,


to collect

who had been

sent,

by the Government of France,


*

manu-

scripts in the Levant,

from Constantinople to Maurepas,

dated Dec. 22, 1728, thus expresses himself:


et depuis deux ans

La

bibliotheque du

Prince du Valacbie peut aller de pair avec cellcs des plus grands
princes
;

il

a employ^ deux cents mille ecus en achats


Wiilpole's

des manuscrits Turcs, Arabes, et Persans.' "


(l) It

MS.

Journal.

was through his means that the author procured for Mr.

Cripps, at the particular instigation of the late Professor Parson, the

superb copy of the Orators, now in the possession of Dr, liumey.

V o

72
GHAr.

CONSTANTINOPLE.

now
the

in the Bodleian

were

originally in his pos-

session; particularly a

most exquisite copy of


or

Four Gospels,

of the tenth

eleventh

century, written throughout, upon vellum, in

the same minute and beautiful characters.

Athieicv.

The exercises of the Athletce, whether derived or not by the Turhs from the subjugated Greeks, are still preserved, and often exhibited, in different towns of the empire'. The combatants

(l)

" The combats

of wrestling,
as those

which

have witnessed near


;

Smyrna, are the 5ame


and nothins^

which the antient writers describe

strikes a traveller in the

East more than the evident

adherence to customs of remote ages.

'The
this

habit
it is

of

'girding
in

the

loins'

was

not

formerly

more

general than

now,

the countries of the Levant.


fail

The

effect of

on the form of the body cannot

of being observed at the baths,

in

which the waists of the persons employed there are remarkable for

their smallness.

The long

sleeve

worn

at this
lib. vii.

time in

all

the East

is

mentioned by Strabo, and Herodotus,


formerly, as

The head was shorn


is

now

and the persons of common rank wore a lower sort


;

of turban, and those of dignity a high one


in

as

the case to this day

Turkey.

{Salm. Plin. Exc. 393.)

The

following passage in
is

Plutarch {Vit. Themist.) describes a custom with which every one


acquainted:

The Persians carefully watch not only their wives, but their slaves and concubines ; so that they are seen hy no one at home, they live shut up ; and ivhen on a journey, they ride in chariots covered
:

in on all sides'
is

We

find that antimony, the stibium of Pliny,

wLich

now employed by
in it

the

women

in the East,

who draw

a small wire

dipped

between the two


(2 Kings,

eye-lids,

and give the eye an expression


Jezabel
calls this,
'

much admired by them, was


eyes in paint,'
v7ra'Y^a(pr,.

used in former times.

put her
oip^dX/aav

ix. 30.)

and Xenophon
is

(f)e Cyri Jnst.)

The corn

horses, in an open area, as in the time of

now trodden out by oxen or Homer (//. T. v. 4D5.)


;

and a passage of that poet, relating

to fishing,

would have been understood,

'

CONSTANTINOPLE.
appear with their bodies
oiled,

73
chap.
<

having no other

clothing than a tight pair of leathern breeches

covered also with

oil.

So much has been

already written upon these subjects, that any


further detail
his

would be superfluous. Belon, in interesting work, composed near three cen-

turies ago, appropriated an entire chapter to a

description of the Turkish wrestling-matches \

The same observation


Hippodrome;

is

not applicable to the mppoilrome>

now

called j^tmeidan,

which

also

signifies the Horse-course;

because

many

erro-

neous statements have appeared with regard


to the antiquities
it

contains, particularly the

absurd story, generally propagated, concerning


the blow given by
battle-axe, to the

Mohammed
it

the Second,

with his

famous Delphic
is

Pillar of three

brazen serpents

said he smote off the

head of one of the serpents. This place preserves nearly the state in which it was left by
the Greeks.

The mosque

in

front,

near the

stood,

if

the commentators had

known, that the Greeks,


hcct

in fishing',

let the line

with the lead at the end run over a piece of horn fixed on
;

the side of the boat


tfi^ificcvTcc.

this

is

the meaning of

ay^avXaio

fioo;

xi^as

{II.

n.

V. 81.)

taste a resemblance to

The flesh of the camel, which bears in veal, is now eaten by the Turks, as also by the
it

Arabians, on days of festivity, as

was by the Persians

in the

time of

Herodotus. (Clio.)"
(2)

Walpolt's

MS.

Journal.
liv. iii.

De

la

Luicte de Turquie, chap, xxxviii.

des Singular,

observies par Belon, p. 201.

/'w. 1555.

74
CHAP.
11.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
Obelisk, is that o^ Sultan
'

^^

distant one, that of

St.

Achmed; and the more Not a single Sophia.


dehneation
it

object has been either added or removed, to


interfere with the fideUty of the

every thing

is

represented exactly as

appeared

to us at the time; although

some apprehension from the


suffer nothing of this

we were under Turks, who will


made with

kind to be

their consent.

Obelisk.

A representation of the Hippodrome is


bas-relief

given in

by this it appears, that there were originally two obelisks, one at either extremity of the course. That which remains is about fifty feet in height,
upon the base of the
Obelisk
:

according to

Tournefort^

it

is

of one entire
in

block of Egyptian granite.

The manner

which

this
its

upon
is

immense mass was raised, and placed pedestal, by the Emperor Theodosius,

represented also, in a series of bas-reliefs


its

upon

The workmen appear employed with a number of windlasses, all brought, by means of ropes and pulleys, to act at once upon
base.

the stoned

(1) Tournefortf lett. 12.

According to Bondelmord,
equal to sixty.

its

heis^ht is

fifty-eight feet;

and

this

nearly coincides with the statement of


it

Mr. Dallaway, who makes


(2) See the

See Dull. Constant, p. 67.


ii.

engraving in JVhelcr's Travels, [Book

p. 183.

Land.

1G82.) which gives a faithful representation of these has-reliefs.

CONSTANTINOPLE.
There
is

75
chap.
II.

nothing- either grand or beautiful in ^

the remains of the Brazen Column, before men- v..v


tioned, consisting of the bodies of three serpents mxaxT

twisted spirally together.


feet in height:
filled
it

It is

about twelve

being hollow, the Turks have


tiles,

with broken

stones,

and other
its

rubbish.
tory,

But
relic

in the

circumstances of

his-

no

of

antient times can

be more

interesting.

It

once supported the golden tripod


Greeks, after the battle of
in the

at Delphi,
Platcea,

which the

found

camp

of Mardonius.
it

This
will

fact has

been so well ascertained, that


''

probably never be disputed.


*' *' *'

The guardians
would

of the most holy relics," says Gibbon^, "


rejoice, if

they were able to produce such a

chain of evidence as
Its

may be

alleged upon this


in

" occasion."

original consecration
is

the

temple of Delphi

proved from Herodotus


its

and Pausanias; and tinople, by ZosiMus,


EccLESiASTicus,

removal to Constan-

EusEBius,

Socrates
Thevenot

and

Sozomen*.

relates the story of the injury

done to the head


the battle-axe of

of one of the serpents

by

(3) Vol. II. c. 17. (4)

NoteW.
c.

See Cyllius
in his

{lib. ii.
;

13.

Topog. Co7ist)

The

three

heads

remaiued
Mus,

time

for

he describes them
tlie

as placed in a triangular

form, rising high upon the shaft of


it

column.

According to Euse-

was a representation of the serpent Python.

76
CHAP.
II

CONSTANTINOPLE.
Mohammed.
" second
*'

The
is

history of the subsequent loss


related

v..

of these heads

by
is
;

ChishulP.

"

The

pillar/'

says he, "

of wreathed brass,
lately terminated

not above twelve feet high

"
^'

at the top with figures of three serpents, rising

from the pillar, and with necks arid heads forming " a beautiful triangle. But this monument v/as " rudely broken from the top of the pillar, by
"
so?ne

attendants of the late Polish ambassador

" whose lodgings were appointed


*'

in the Cirque,

opposite to the said pillar."

An

absurd notion

has prevailed, that the present mutilated state


of the column originated in the blow
it

received

from the axe of Mohammed.

(1)

Travels in Turkey,

p. 40.

Lond. 1747.
first

(2)

After the publication of the

edition of this

Part of the

author's Travels, one of the Reviewers contradicted this observation of

OtishuU; saying, " not of the Polish, but of the Imperial ambassador ;"
citing

Dc La

Motruye's Travels in support of the objection.


to

It

is

however founded upon one of those errors


as

which Reviewers

as well
t!;at

Authors may be

liable

for

De La

Motraye distinctly

states,

the ambassador was Count Lisinslty, Palatine oi Posen,

" who came

to

Constantinople in quality of Ambassador Extraordinary from the

King
vol.\.

and Republic of Poland."


p. 205.

See

De La

Motraye' s Travels,

Lond. 1732.

J'umulus

(-;/

-l^syctt-t, unci

Naval Station of tht Greeks

CHAP.

III.

FROM CONSTANTINOPLE TO THE PLAIN OF


TROY.
Arrival

of

an

American

Frigate

Departure
to

frcnn

Constantinople

Dismissal

Dardanelles Corvette of
the

Situation of Sestos
the

Visit

Pasha

Voyage doivn the Hellespont


the

Appearance caused by

Waters of the Mender

Udjek Tepe Koum-kaU.


frigate,

J.

HE

arrival of an

American

for the

first

time, at Constantinople, caused considerable

sensation^ not only

among

the Turks, but also

7S

FROM CONSTANTINOPLE
throughout the whole diplomatic corps stationed
in

Pera.

This ship,

commanded by Captain
Algiers,

Bainbridge,

came from

with a letter

and presents from the


Capudan Pasha.
tigers

De]/ to the Sultan

and

The presents consisted of

and other animals, sent with a view to conciliate the Turkish Government, whom the

Dey had

offended.

When
was

the frigate

came

to

an anchor, and a message went to the Porte


that an jimerican ship
in the harbour, the

Turks were

altogether unable to

where the country was situate they were to salute. A great deal of time was
therefore lost in settling this important point,

comprehend whose flag

and

in considering

In the

mean
a

time,

how to receive the stranger. we went on board, to visit the


sitting

captain.

We were

with him in his cabin,

when

messenger

came from the Turkish


and, being

Government, to ask whether America were not


otherwise called the Neiu World;

answered
that he

in the affirmative,

assured the captain


that he

was welcome, and


De7/

would be

treated with the utmost cordiality and respect.

The messengers from the


ceiving

were then or/dered


;

on board the Capudan Pasha's ship


the letter from their
first spat,

wh6, re-

sovereign with

great rage,
it
;

and then stamped upon

telling

them

to go

back to

their master,

and

inform him, that be would be served after the

TO THE PLAIN OF TROY.

79

same manner, whenever the Turkish admiral chap. Captain Bainhridge was, however, met him. received with every mark of respect and attention, and he was rewarded with magnificent presents. The fine order of his ship, and the healtliy state of her crew, became topics of general conversation in Pera; and the different
ministers strove
in their palaces.

who

should

first

receive

him

We

accompanied him
6'ea,'uas

in his

long-boat to the Black

he was desirous

of hoisting there, for the


flag
;

first

time, the American

and, upon his return, were

amused by a

very singular entertainment at his table during


dinner.

Upon

the four corners were as many,

decanters, containing fresh water from the four

quarters of the globe.

The

natives of Europe,

Asia, Africa, and America, sat

down
;

together to

the same table, and were regaled with flesh,


fruit,

bread, and other viands

while, of every

article,

a sample from each quarter of the globe


at the

was presented
frigate's

same

time.

The means of

accomplishing this are easily explained, by the

having touched at Algiers, in her pas-

sage from America, and being at anchor so near


to the shores both of

Europe and Asia.

About
Sir

this

time,

news arrived
and

in Constanti-

nople of the expedition to Egypt, under General

Ralph Ahercromhie ;

intelligence

was

80
CHAP,
V

FROM CONSTANTINOPLE
received of the safe arrival of the British
'

fleet,

-y

with Our army, in the Bay of Marmorice. The Capudan Pasha, on board of whose magnificent
ship,

the Sultan Selim,

we had been with


to

our

ambassador,

previous

the

saiHng of the

Turkish squadron for Egypt, ordered a corvette


to be left for us to follow

him; having heard

that the author's brother. Captain George Clarke,

of the Braakel,
to

was with

the fleet in Marmorice,

whom

he expressed a desire of being after-

wards introduced.
casion.

Nothing could exceed the

liberality of the Turkish admiral

upon

this oc-

He

sent for the captain of the corvette,


it

and, in our presence, gave orders to have

stored with

all
;

sorts of provisions,
also,

and even

with wines
chairs,

adding

that knives, forks,

and other conveniences, which Turks do

not use, would be found on board.


Departure

irom Constantinople.

^^^ sailcd

iu this vcsscl

ou thc sccoud of

March ; and,

saluting the Seraglio as

we passed
all

with twenty-one guns, the shock broke


glass in our cabin

the

windows.

Our

Turlcish crew,

quite ignorant of marine

afl'airs,

ran back at the

report of their
to a

own cannon;

trusting entirely

few Greeks and some French prisoners, to


all

manaQ:e

the concerns of the vessel.

We

were not sorry to get away from the unwholesome place in which we had lived, and to view

TO THE PLAIN OF TROY.


the

81

mosques and minarets of


steered with a
fair

Constantinople,

chap.
/

disappearing in the mists of the Sea of Marmora,


as

we

wind

for the Hellespont^

(1)

"I

quitted Constantinople at the end of autumn, 180G, for the


it

purpose of visiting the Troad a second time, and examining


accuracy tlian in the spring of the year.

with

more

The Greek

vessel in

which I

embarked was bound

to Tricchiri, a little

town on the coast of

ITiessaly.
all

The Greek
of

vessels are in general filled with great

numbers of Greeks,
and
its

whom

have a share, large or small, in the

ship,

merchandise.

The

vast profits

which the Greeks reaped about ten years

past,

when they
of

carried corn to the ports of France

and Spain, from the Black Sea and


spirit

Greece, particularly Thessaly, and from Caramania, excited a

adventure and enterprise, which soon shewed

itself in the

building of

many hundred

vessels,

belonging chiefly to the two barren islands of


Vessels
:

Spezzla and Hydra, situate on the eastern side of the Morca.


are to be seen navigated by Greeks, carrying twenty-two guns
this size I

one of

met
;

in the Archipelago, off Audros, in


all sailing

company with other

smaller ships

before the wind, with large extended sails of

white cotton, forming a beautiful ajjpearance.


Triccliiriote vessel

The Greeks on board

the

were not very numerous.


to

My fellow conipauions
to a village near

were

three Turks

one was going

Euhoca ; another

nier-

mopyla;; and the third was a Tahtar,


that
sat

who

profited

by the northerly wind


sun-set, the Greeks

was blowing, and was going

to the

Morea.

At

on the deck, round


;

their supper of olives, anchovies,

and

biscuits,

with
to

wine

and

in the cabin, a

lamp was lighted

to a tutelar saint,

who was

give us favourable weatlier.

The wind

that bore us

along was from the N. E.


is

to which, as well as the East, the

name of

the Levanter

given.
'

This
violensailing,

vr'md

is

generally very strong

and the

epithet applied by Virgil,


little

tior Eurus,' is strictly appropriate.

After a

more than a day's

we found
computed

ourselves opposite to a village on the


Peristasis.

European coast of the Sea


Constantinople

pf Marmora called
to

The

distance from

we

be about forty leagues.

I was informed that a Greek church

at this place

was dedicated to

St.

George.
is

This explains the reason


called the

why
of

that part of the Propontis, which


Gallipoli,

now

Bay and
St.

Strait

was formerly designated by the appellation of

George's

Channel.

At

the distance of eighteen or twenty miles to the south of


Gallipoli,

82
CHAP.

FllOiM

CONSTANTINOPLE
and lay

Towards evening, the wind strengthening, the


crew lowered
all

the

sails,

to all night.

In the morning, having again hoisted them,


fomid, at nine o'clock a.m.
tliat

we
left

we had

Marmora, a high mountain, far behind us.


Isle

The
strata,

of Princes,

from the position of the

as they appeared throagh a telescope, v/liich

was the nearest view we had of the island, seemed to consist wholly of limestone. We
wished much
near
to

to

have visited the ruins oiCyzicum,

but had not opportunity.

The

small isthmus,

which they are

situate, is said to

have

accumulated in consequence of the ruins of two antient bridges, which formerly connected

Gallipoli,

are the remains of a fort,

Xoipiotx.a.ffrpa

(Pigs-fort),
it is

which a

Turkish
first

vessel, as it

tacked near us, saluted; for here,

said, the

Turks

landed,

when they came under Soliman

into Europe.

"
side,

The

ship anchored off the castle of the Dardanelles,

on the Asiatic
excepting

according to the custom enforced by the Turks on

all ships,

those of war. which pass southward.

At

this time,

and ever since the

MamlCiks had shewn dispositions


established in Egypt,

hostile to the

Ottoman Government
all

under Maliomcd AH, the actual viceroy,

ships

and

vessels, particularly

Greek, wlilch might be supposed to be the means

of conveying supplies of Circassians to the MamlCiks, to increase their

numbers, were
"

strictly searched.

The

po])ulation of the town, Cltannlc kalcsi,

on the Hellespont, where


;

I landed, consists of

Mohammedans, Jews, and


It derives its

a few Greeks

amounting,

in

all, to
;

about 3000.

name from

a manufactory of earthenare mean,


sailed

ware

dianak signifying a plate or


of wood.

dish.

The houses

and built

chiefly

From

this place I took a boat,

and

down

the

Hellespont, to

Koum-kale

(the Sand-castle), situate

between the mouth

of the

Simo'i.-)

ar.d the

Sigean pronioatory."

Walpoles MS. Journai.


TO THE PLAIN OF TROY.
an island with the main land. Parium
in Mysia,

83
chap.
'^

Recently, above

a thousand coins had been found on the site of

>

and sold by the peasants to


:

the master of an English merchant vessel

Ave

saw

the greater part of

them

they were

much
all

injured,

and of no remote date, being

of

copper, and chiefly of the age of the later


perors.

Emside,

Between Marmora and the


to the latter,

Dardanelles,

and nearer

on the European

appears a remarkable tumulus, on the top of a


hill

near the shore.

The place

is

called Hexamil;

and, according to the

map

of

De

Lisle,

was

once the

site

of Lysimachia,

The entrance

to the

Canal of the Hellespont,

the Thracian Bosporus, has not the

from the Sea of Marmora, although broader than same degree


Its sides are

of grandeur.
bold,

more uniform,

less

and they are not so richly decorated.

The only picturesque appearance is presented by the European and Asiatic castles, as the straits become narrower. Before coming in
sight of these,

the eye notices a few houses and windmills, belonging to the present village of Lamsaque which are all that remains of the antient Lampsacus.

The wine

of the place no

longer retains

its

antient celebrity.

Having anchored about three miles above the

^'"''""
neUci.

84
CHAP,
castles,

FROM CONSTANTINOPLE
we
landed, and walked to the

town of
the

the Dardanelles.

In our way,

we observed

shafts of several pillars of granite;

some of these

had been placed upright in the earth, as posts, by means of which to fasten cables for vessels
others were dispersed and neglected.

In the

recess of a small bay, before reaching the town,


is

the best

situation
strait,

for viewino;

the narrow

part of the

have passed with

where Xerxes is believed to his army; and here the


to

two

castles

have a very striking appearance.


objects

Tournefort

the

story of Leanders

enterprise, reasoning
sibility of

upon the supposed imposswimming so great a distance as that which separated Abydos from Sestos. The
a man's
servant of the Imperial Consul at the Dardanelles

performed

this feat,

more than once,


straits,

in

much
the

wider part of the


Asiatic side of the

passing from
castle
;

European

whence,

after resting himself a

few minutes, he

swam

back again '.

When we
shut.

arrived,

we

found

all

the shops

The

Turkish fleet had passed the day

(l)

Lord Eyron,

in

Salsette frigate,

swam

across the Hellespont,


five

company with Lieutenant Ekenhead of the upon the third of May


minutes
in

1810.

They were only an hour and


See Lord Byron's

completing the

passage.

own

narrative of the event, and the


the occasion.
Childe Harold's

exquisite little

poem he composed upon


L>ond. 1812.

Pi/grhmicfe, y. 17B.

TO THE PLAIN OF TROY.


before

85
chap.
'

and the greatest terror prevailed among the inhabitants, who upon these occasions are exposed to plunder from the promiscuous mul;

titude of barbarians, drained from the provinces

of Anatolia to
that these

man the fleet. men have never

It often

happens
the fleet

seen the sea, until

they are sent on board.

Whenever

comes to anchor, they are permitted to land, and then they are guilty of the greatest dis-

The Capudan Pasha himself told us that it was in his power to bring them to order, by hanging some ten, or a dozen, a day; "but then,'' said he, ** how am I to spare
orders.
so

many

menf
of the Dardanelles
is

The wine
England..

sent to Con-

stantinople, to

S7nyrna, to Aleppo,

and even

to

It will

keep

to a great age, and, if


is

the vintage be favourable,


Tenedos.

preferable to that of

Both

sorts are of a red colour.


it

That

of the Dardanelles, after or thirty years, loses


strength. It
is

has been kept twenty


colour, but not its

its

made

chiefly

by

Jeius,

and

called,

in Italian (the language

spoken throughout the


;

Levant), F'ino della Legge

because
their

it is

preare

tended,

that

the

Jews,

by

law,

prohibited the adulteration of wine.

Its price,

when
oke
;

of a good quality, equals eight paras the

about two-pence a bottle.

86
CHAP.
^

FROM CONSTANTINOPLE

On

the European side of the straits, precisely


it it is

on the spot where


situate,

is

beheved

Sestos

was
silly

and where
Tumuli.

laid

down by D'Anville,

are

three

Concerning these a

fable is related

they v/ere
the corn,

by the Turhs, which affirms that formed by the straw, the chaff, and of a Dervish, winnowing his grain.
is

The
the
to

largest

called Ses{ Tepe.


;

Sest, in Turkish,

signifies

an echo

but there
it
;

is

no echo, either
it is

at

tomb or near
this

whence

not too

much
site

conclude that Sestus afforded the original

etymology of
of
it

name, and perhaps the

may be
is

tomb

said to

Near to this a place called Ahhash, where there are be Ruins, and where a Dervish resides,
thus ascertained.

who

has frequently brought medals and other


found
there,
straits,

antiquities,

to

the

Dardanelles.

Farther up the

towards

the

Sea of

Marmora, at about the distance of three English


miles from Akhash, and on the same side, are
the remains of a Mole, having the remarkable
appellation of Gaziler Eschielesy,

the

Pier

or

Strand of the Conquerors

whether

in allusion to

the passage of the Getcv,

who from Phrygia and


first

Mysia,

crossing the

Hellespont,

peopled

Thrace, Macedonia, and Greece; or to the Persic


invasion, m.any ages after
;

or to the conquest

of

\\\e,

Turks themselves;

cannot

now be

de-

termined.

That

this

people have retained in

TO THE PLAIN OF TROY.


their

7
of

language the

original

interpretation

chap.
'

many
places.

antient appellations,

may be proved by
rivers

>

various examples, in the

names of

and

Having procured
persons to attend

at the Dardanelles proper

us as guides, during our

intended expedition to the Plain of Troy, and a four-oared boat to conduct us thither by day-

break on the following morning, vjq returned on board the corvette. We informed the captain,
as well as the crew, that
sible for us, consistently
it

with the plan

would not be poswe had

in contemplation, to sail for the Mediterranean


in less than a fortnight.

sent his
;

Our ambassador had cook on board, with money for the


the impropriety

army and had previously urged


of

delaying the
all

vessel

during her voyage

seemed desirous to overtake the Turkish fleet, which we were informed had not passed Tenedos, we resolved to send an express by land to Constantinople, to ensure a passage, upon our return from Troas, in a
therefore, as

small merchant vessel, belonging to an English-

man

of the

name

of Castle.

This

we had

left

lading with stores for the troops destined to

Egypt.

It

had been,

originally, nothing

more

than a bomb-boat, captured by Sir Sidney Smith

from the French


VOL.
III.

yet the desire of gratifying our

88
CHAP,
v ..

FROM CONSTANTINOPLE
curiosity with the sight of the highly classical
'

territory then within our reach,

subdued

all

our

fears of venturing across the Mediterranean in


this little

bean-cod
with

and we resolved

to dismiss

the

corvette^

all

the Capudan Pashas in-

tended
appear.

liberality, as

soon as day-light should

Visit to the

In the morning, therefore,


the crew, and landed again.

we

took leave of
the shore

Upon

the Dardanelles,

we were met by messengers from the Pasha of who desired to see us. Being
conducted to his palace, and through an ante-

chamber

filled

with

guards,

v/e

entered

an

apartment

in

which we found him seated on a

very superb divan.

He

placed us opposite to

him;
in the

and the Russian Consul, being on his

knees, acted as our interpreter.

The attendants

mean time

supplied us with coffee, con-

serves,

and rich pipes of jasmine.

The Pasha

w^as dressed in a robe of green embroidered

was going to Esky Stamhoul (Alexandria Troas), and would take us with him in his boat, in order to entertain us
satin.

He

told us he

there.

Fearing the interruption

this
:

occasion,

we begged

to

be excused

might upon this

he added, that he had an estate


of Mount Ida, and begged
there.

in the recesses
visit

we would

him

This

we

also declined,

and afterv/ards

;:

TO THE PLAIN OF TROY.


had reason
his services
to reorret that

89
so
:

we had done

for
^

chap.
III.

would have materially assisted our researches in the country. We then had some
further conversation,
in

^'

>

which he mentioned

the

names of Englishmen
to

whom

he had seen

and expressed a wish


pistols, for

procure some English


all

which he said he would give


Troas.

the

antiquities in

After this

we

retired.

The Pasha went on board his boat, and, followed him in ours, the guns of the
fired a salute.

as

we

castle

The day was most serene not a breath of wind was stirring, nor was there a cloud to be seen in the sky. No spectacle could be more grand than the opening to the jEgean Sea. The mountainous Island of Imhros, backed by
^

; '

down

7^*^.? the
Hellespont.

the

loftier

snow-clad summits of Samothrace,


Hellespont,

extended before the


north-west.

towards

the

Next, as

we

advanced,

appeared
Isles

Tenedos upon the

luest,

and those small


to

which form a groupe opposed


Promontory.
our boat, ruffled the

the

Sigean

Nothing, excepting the oars of


still

surface of the water

no other sound was heard.


of the jEgean appeared as
surface of a vast mirror.

The
if

distant Islands

placed upon the

In this manner

we
the

passed the Rhostean Promontory upon our

left,

and beheld, upon the sloping side of G 2

it,

90
CHAP.
HI.
v

FROM CONSTANTINOPLE
Tumulus, considered, and with reason, as the
'

.^

Tomb of Jljax. Coming opposite to a sandybay, which Pliny, speaking of that tomb, exphcitly

mentions

as

the naval station


at

of the

Greehs\

we

beheld,

a distance, upon the

Sigean Promontory, those other Tumuli, which

have been called the Tombs of Achilles and


Patroclus.

Upon

a sand bank, advanced into

the Hellespont,

the principal
for

and formed by the deposit of river here disembogued, which

the

present

may be

designated

by

its

modern appellation of Mender, appeared the town of Koum-kale.


Appearance caused by the Waters of the Mender,

^
the

vcrv singular appearance takes place at o i j ri


of this river
:

mouth
tlic
it

as

if it

refused to mix

with
pont,

broad and rapid current of the Hellesexhibits


its

an

extensive

circular
:

line,

bounding
is

pale and yellow water

this line

so strongly traced, and the contrast of colour


salt

between the

and the fresh water so

strik-

ing, that at first

we

believed the difference to

originate in the shallowness of the current, at

the

river's

mouth, imperfectly concealing

its

(1)

How

exactly does this position of the Partus Ach<E<yrum coincide

with the remark, made by Pliny in the following passage:


ihi sepulto

" Ajace

xxx stud, mtervallo a Sigeo,

et

ipso (sic)
I.

in statione classis

sucer

Plin. Hist. Nat. lib. v. cap. 30. torn.

p. 278.

L. Bat. 1635.

TO THE PLAIN OF TROY.


sandy bottom; but, upon sounding,
not found to be the case.
this

91

was

chap.

An

appearance so

remarkable, characterizing these waters, would


not escape, an allusion at least, in the writings
of a Poet

who was

lavish in the epithets

he

bestowed upon the Scamander and the


It

Hellespont.

has been reserved

for the

learning and in-

genuity of Mr. IValpole, to shew that the whole


controversy, as far as
the expression
it

has been affected by

nAATVS 'EAAHSnONTOI, may be


;

founded
*

in

misconstruction

that

instead

of

broad Hellespont,' the true reading should be


salt

Hellespont.
:

It is

used

in this

jithen^us

but Casaid'on, in his

by Commentary
sense

upon the passage,


Aristotle,

after citing Hesychius

and

who have

given the same meaning to

(2) " It has been objected, that


epithet vrXetru; to the Hellespont.

Homer would

not have applied the

Commentators have anticipated the


Hellespont,

objection; and urged,

that although the

near Sestus and


its
it

Abydus,

is

not vXutvs, but only a mile in breadth, yet that in

opening
is

towards the JEgean, at the embouchure of the Scamander,


Tiip) TO.; iK^oa;

broad.

rod

'Sxccftd.v'^pou,

are the words of the Venetian


;

Scholiast.

See also the Lexicon of Apollonius


objection, if
it

and Eustathius,

p.

4',i'2.

But the

be one, should have been answered at once, by saying


is

that aXxTvs 'EkX'/Kr-rovTo;


is

the

'

salt Hellespont.^
lib.
ii.

Tlkarlsy in this sense,


;

used three times by Aristotle, in Metereol.


It
it

and Hesychius gives

the same meaning.

may be

observed, that

Damm

and Stephanas

have not mentioned

in their Dictionaries."

Walpole's

MS.

Journal.

92
CHAP.
III.
'

FROM CONSTANTINOPLE
TXecTug,

observes

that

it

is

not

counte-

-y,-

nanced by
scholiasts '.

Eustathius,

nor by any of the old

which has been considered as the naval station used by the Greeks during the war of Troy, and which is situate on the eastern side of the embouchure
to the bay,

Coming opposite

of the Mender,
attracted

the

eye of the spectator

is

by an object predominating over every other, and admirably adapted, by the singularity of its form, as well as by the peculiarity
of
its

situation,

to

overlook that station,

to-

gether with the whole of the low coast near the

mouth of the river. This object is a conical mound, rising upon a line of elevated territory, behind the bay and the mouth of the river. It has therefore been pointed out as the Tomb of
j^syetes,

and

it is

now called

Ucljek Tepe'^.

If

we

had never heard or read a single syllable concerning the war of Troy, or the works of HomerJ it would have been impossible not to

(1)

nXaru

xiita^

est

aqua

salsa,

Atlieriteus, 'iiaa<TtXXit
lib.ii.

Ss

xai yXvKU

vSu^

^XxtU;. (Vid. Animad Casaub. in

cap. iv. Athen. Deipn.)


lib. ii.)

Then he

quotes Hcsychius and Aristotle, (Meteorol.


crXariij

and

adds,

" Fortasse usus hie vocis

ab eorum interpretatione ortus est qui


:

apud Ilomerum
hie Athena>us
:

-rXarvv 'EXXw-jroirot exponebant salsum

quos sequitur

non

ita

Eustathius, nee grammaticorura cohorg tola."

(2) See the Vignelle to this Chapter.

TO THE PLAIN OF TROY.


notice the remarkable appearance presented
this Tumulus, so peculiarly

93

by

placed as a post of

observation

commanding
river ^
it

all

approach to the
afterwards oball

harbour and the


served that

We

afforded a

survey of

the

(3) "
great.
soil

The
This

difficulty
is

of disposing exactly the Grecian

camp

is

very

owing

to the

changes on the

coast,

and the accretion of

mentioned by Strabo, which, however, the stream of the Hellespont


augmented.
If,

will prevent being

as
sea,

Herodotus
(lib.
ii.

asserts, the

country

about Troy was once a bay of the

c.

]0.) the difficulties of

determining the precise extent and form of coast are considerable.

In
soil

examining the country at the embouchure of the Meander, where the


has increased to the distance of
six

miles since the days of Strabo, I was


it

struck with the difficulty of determining the direction of the coast as

was to be seen
Strabo,

in the days

of Darius, and Alexander

in the time of

and Pliny; and the Emperor Manuel, who encamped there in


Yet
this difficulty does not lead

866.

me

to

doubt the events that took


I should doubt the encamp-

place there and at Miletus, any

more than

ment of the Greeks


"
to.

at Troy, because I could not arrange it in

agreement

with the present face of the coast.

The

situation of the Grecian


is

camp by a marsh, has been


says, the illness

objected

But what

the fact?

Homer

and

disease,

which

destroyed the Greeks, were inflicted by Apollo (the Sun).

They were,

without doubt, the same with the putrid exhalations which

now arise from


fevers to

marshes on each side of the river

and which bring with them

the present inhabitants of the coast,

when

the N. N. E, wind blows in

Summer, and the South


" It
is to

in the beginning of
tliat

autumn.
is

be regretted,

the

Empress Eudocia

so concise in

what

she says about Troy, and the plain which she visited in the eleventh
century.

She

says,

'

the foundation stones of the city are not leftj' but,

as she adds, in an expression

from the Gospels,

iupxxvTa

fii/^aprvptixtv,

she was able probably to give some particulars which would have been

now

interesting.

See Villoison Anec. Grecc.

torn. I."

Wulpole's MFl. Jou7-nal.

94
CHAP.

FROM CONSTANTINOPLE
Trojan Plain; and that, from whatsoever spot
it

was regarded, this cone, the most conspicuous object

as a beacon,
in the view.

was

After these few observations, concluding this


short chapter,

the

Reader

is

perhaps better

prepared

for the inquiry

which may now be


the

introduced.

Notwithstanding

numerous

remarks which have appeared upon the subject, that our local it is our wish to assure him,

knowledge of the country


fect
;

is

still

very imper-

that the survey carried on

by

travellers

has always, unfortunately, been confined to the


western side of the river; that our researches
will

add but
that,

little

to his stock of information


to

but

while
for

much remains
him
to

be done,

it is

something
exists

be informed, there

still

sufficient

evidence of Homers frequent

allusion to this particular territory, to remove,

from the mind of any friend

to truth, all

doubt

upon the
Koumkaii.

subject.

j^^ landed at Koum-kale,


Sand-castle;

literally signifying

and hired horses for our expedition. The neck of land on which this place has been
built is usually considered of recent formation,

and

it

is

true that no soil has been yet accuits


;

mulated.
pHes,

The castle stands, as upon a foundation of sand

name imit

but

may

SKETCH OF THE SIMOISIAN PLAIN,


shewing the Situation of the Tlirosmos
arui of

New

Uiunn.

-V^-

Tombof/lu.'!?

^y

y^

vTvtO

*7:iml/s monli by S/rcr&o

vi!?,if^^^

h((^lMr

^^

,jj^Tnmh

thc/UycanXca

on i/ic

sli/e of

X-.V-yr-

CHAP.

lY.

THE PLAIN OF TROY.


General Observations
Cities

on

the

Topography

Evidence

of Grecian

ofStrabo

Plan of Author's Expedition Mender Tomb of Ajax Cement used AjiANTEUM Plants Halil Elly Thymhreck Tchiblack Remarkable Ruins Probable of Pagus Iliensium and of Callicolone Route from Beyan MezaleyAntient Sepulchre,
the
in

Homer

Identity of the Plain

of the Trojan War, independent of Importance of the Text

Rivei-

the

Inscription

Site

the

and

TO THE PLAIN OF TROY.


be noticed, that the rapidity with which the
waters of the Hellespont pass these Straits must
prevent any considerable deposit from the river
near to
its

95
^!l^^-

mouth.


PLAIN OF TROY.
and Natural

Mound Opinion

97
Simois

concerning

Prevalent Errors with regard to Scamander


the
Inscriptions

Callifat

Village Callifat Osmack Medals Remains of New Ilium.


cities of Antient Greece;

Ruins hy

of

A. PECULIAR
this

circumstance characterized the

chap.
1 V
,
' '

topography of the
really was.

and

perhaps has not been considered so general

phy of
citiS!"

Every metropolis possessed its CITADEL and its plain; the Citadel as a place of refuge during war; the Plain as a
as
it

source of agriculture in peace.


existed
.

To

this there

some exceptions as in the instance of Delphi, whose celebrity originated in secondary causes but the exceptions were few, and may
;
;

therefore

be

omitted.

In

the

provinces

of

Greece, the appearance caused

by a
its

plain, flat

as the surface of the ocean, and surrounded

by

mountains, or having lofty rocks in


sides, is at this

centre or

day the general indication of

Ruins which denote the locality of some antient


capital.

Many
to

of those plains border the sea,

and seem
of
its

have been formed by the retiring


Cities

waters.
:

so

situate

were the

most antient Argos, Sicyon, and Corinth, are of the number. The vicinity of fertile plains to
the coast offered
colonies,

settlements to the
the
interior

earliest

before

of

the

country

became known.

As

population increased, or

98
CHAP,
>

PLAIN OF TROY.

were driven inward by new adventurers, cities more mediterranean were established; but all of them possessed their respective plains. The physical phsenomena
the
first

settlers

of Greece, differing from those


country,

of any other

present a series of beautiful plains,

successively surrounded
stone
scale,
;

resembling',

and rarely

by mountains of limealthough upon a larger accompanied by volcanic

products, the craters of the Phlegrcean Fields.

Everywhere their level surfaces seem to have been deposited by water, gradually retired or evaporated they consist, for the most part, of the richest soil, and their produce is yet pro;

verbially abundant.

In this manner stood the


Sicyon, Corinth,

cities

of jirgos,
Thehes,

Megara,

Eleusis, Athens,

jimphissa,
rissa,

Orchomenos, Chceronea, Lehadea,

La-

Fella,

and many
all

other.

Pursuing the

inquiry over

the countries bordering the

jEgean,

we

find

every spacious plain accomcity,

panied by the rem.ains of some


celebrity

whose
of
its

was proportioned
or

either to the fertility

of

its

territory,

to the advantages

maritime position.

Such, according to Homer,

were the circumstances of association which characterized that district of Asia Minor, where Troy was situate.

PLAIN OF TROY.
With these
every
facts
in

99
it

contemplation,

is

chap.

unreasonable to suppose, that a plain, boasting

advantage
offer

that

Nature
-'

could

afford,

f/^g"^^^.

would

an extraordinary exception to cusi


amoner antient nations
;

^^^
-^'"J

indepen'^*^"* *"

toms so

o-eneral

that

it

should have remained untenanted and desolate

and that no adventurers should have occupied


its

fertile

believe,

more difficult to when the monuments of a numerous


soil.

It

is

still

people, and the ruins of


reference,

many

cities, (all

having

by indisputable
plain, that the

record, to one

more

antient, as their oncigna parens,)


in

have been found

such a

compositions of any

Bard, however celebrated, should have afforded


the sole foundation of a belief that such a people

and

city did really exist.

Among

the gem.s, the

vaseSj the marbles, and the medals, found in

other countries, representing subjects connected

with the Trojan

tvar,

yet

destitute

of

any
with

reference to the works of Homer,

we meet

documents proving the existence of traditions


independent of his writings
" That
is
'

and

in these

we

(1)

the Antieiits differed as to tbe circumstances of the

Trojan war,

well

accounts of those

known and tliat some who were actors in that


;

variations, even in the

scene,

left

the Poet at
is

liberty to adopt or reject facts, as

it

best suited his purpose,

highly

probable

Eurijiides chose a subject fur one of his Plays,


;

which supposes that Helun never was at Troy


suppose that he would have deserted

yet

we cannot
authority.

Homer without any

As the

first

Poets differed with regard to the Trojan war,

so their brother Artists adopted variations

Polygnotus did not

always follow Homer."

Wood's Essay on Homer, pp. 183, 184.

100
CHAP,
IV.
-^

PLAIN OF TROY.
have evidence of the truth of the war,
.

v^^hich

cannot be imputed to his invention'.

With

regard to other antiquities where coincidence

may be
Poem,
not
all

discerned between the representation

of the Artist and the


it

circumstances of the

may

also

be urged, that they could


in a single fiction,

have originated

what-

soever might have been the degree of popularity

which that

fiction

had obtained.

Every sculp-

tured onyx, and every pictured patera, found


in sepulchres of

most remote antiquity and in distant parts of all the Isles and Continents of
Greece, cannot

owe

the subjects they represent

to the writings of an individual.

This were to

contradict

all

our knowledge of antient history


It is

and of mankind.

more

rational to con-

clude, that both the Artist and the Poet bor-

rowed the incidents they pourtray from the that even the Bard traditions of their country
;

himself found, in the remains of former ages,

many
from
and,
art

of the subjects afterwards introduced by him among his writings. This seems to be evident
his description of the Shield of jichilles
if it

should be remarked, that works of

cannot be considered as having afforded

(0 When

the Persians, laying claim to

all

Asia, alleged, as the

occasion of their emnity to the Greeks, the hostile invasion of Priam,

and the destruction of Troy by Agamemnon,

it

cannot be said they


P
id.

borrowed the charge from the Poems of Homer.

Herodot.

lib. i.

PLAIN OF TROY.
representations of this nature in the early period
to

101

chap.

which allusion

is

made,

it

would be expeof

dient to

dwell upon this

particular part

Homers Poem,

and, from the minuteness of

the detail, derive, not only internal evidence of

an exemplar whence the imagery was derived, but also of the perfection attained by the arts
of Greece in the period

when

the description

was
and
their

given-.

Later poets, particularly Firgil

Ovid, evidently

borrowed the machinery of poems from specimens of antient art which

even their commentators are allowed to contemplate^; and in the practice existing at this

day among

itinerant bards of Italy,

who

recite

long poems upon

the antiquities of the country,

we may
himself

observ^e

customs
the

of which

Homer
These

afforded

prototype'.

(2) See also the remarkable description of Nestor's Cup^ in th eleventh book of the Iliad i and the observations relating to it, in the Work by the author's Grandfather upon Roman and Saxon Coins.

Cou'per acknowledged himself indebted to the learning

and ingenuity

of the author's Ancestor for the

new

version introduced by

him

of a

long-mistaken passage in Homer's description of that cup.


(3)

Witness the discovery of the

"

cajmt acris equi" at the building

of Carthage, and the death of Laocoon, as described by Virgil; as well as the Metamorphoses of Ovid, whose archetypes are
nible
(4)
still

discer-

upon the gems of Greece, These men, called improvisatoii, are seen in the public streets A crowd collects around them, when they begin to a long poem upon a cameo or an intaglio put into their hands.
one, in the principal square at Milan,

of cities in Italy.
recite

The author saw

who thus

descanted for au hour upon the loves of Cupid and Psyche.

102
CHAP,
^..^.J._^

PLAIN OF TROY.
observations are applicable only to the qnestion of the

war
is

of Troy, so far as

the truth

of the story

implicated.

The

identity of the

place where that

war was

carried 0n, so

many

ages ago, involves argument which can be supported only by practical observation, and the

evidence of our senses.

It will

be separately

and

distinctly determined, either

by the agreeartificial

ment

of natural pheenomena with the locality

assigned them by Homer, or of existing

monuments with the manners of the people whose history has been by him illustrated. To
this part of the inquiry

the attention of the

Reader
Tdcniityof
the riaiii.
jj-

is

therefore

now

particularly requested.

geems hardly ^

to

admit of doubt, that the

by the Mender, and backed by a mountainous ridge, of which Kazdaghy is the summit, offers the identical The long territory alluded to by the Poet. excited by Mr. Bryants publicacontroversy,
Plain of Anatolia, watered
tion,

and since so vehemently agitated, would


it

probably never have existed, had


for the erroneous
this

not been

maps

of the country, which,

even to knowledge of that part of Asia.

hour, disgrace our geographical

According to Homers description of the Trojan


territory,
it

combined certain prominent and

PLAIN OF TROY.
remarkable features, not likely to be affected

103

by any
itself;

lapse of time.

Of

this nature

was
it

the

Hellespont;

the Island of

Tenedos

the

Plain

the River

by whose inundations
;

was

occasionally

overflowed

and
If

the

Mountain

whence
all

that river issued.

any one of these


appellation,

be found retaining

its original

and

other circumstances of association charac-

terize its vicinity,


is

our knowledge of the country

placed beyond dispute.

But the Island of


all

Tenedos, corresponding in
position assigned to
it

respects with the


still

by Homer,
;

retains its

antient

name unaltered

and the

Inscriptions,

found upon the Dardanelles, prove those


to

straits

have been the

Hellespont. to

The discovery of

Ruins, which seem

have been those of the


serve not only to guide

Ilium of
tify

Straho,

may

us in our search after objects necessary to identhe locality alluded to


illustrate,

by Homer, but perhaps


even the
concerning

to

in

a certain degree,
itself;

position
situation,

of

Troy

whose
has yet
^

no

satisfactory

evidence

modern investis^ation. That it was not altogether unknown in the time of n a Augustus, is proved by the writings of Straho, who, more than once, expressly assigns to the antient city the place then occupied by the Fillage of the Iliensians. The text of this author
resulted from any

tanccofthe Text of
sirau>.

may now

be considered as affording a safer clue

104
CHAP,
IV,
ill

PLAIN OF TROY.
reconciling the description of Troas given

by

Homer with the existing realities of the country,


than the poems of the Bard himself; because
the

comment

afforded

by

Straho combines

all

the advantages of observation

made

eighteen

centuries ago, both with regard to the country

and the reference borne


documents, written
in a

to its antiquities,

by

language which

may

be considered as

his

own.

The

traditions of

the country concerning the Trojan

war were not

then more remote from their origin, than are at


this

hour the oral records of England with


its

regard to

first

invasion

by
site

the Danes
of

or

Normans.
called

Comparing the
in his time,

the place

H'mm
Straho
it

Troy,

says, {Ilus)
is,

with that of antient " did not build the


tkirty stadia fartlter

city luhere

now

but nearly

eastward, towards

Ida and Dardania, where


is

the Iliensian Village

now situated

If,

there-

fore,

we

can ascertain precisely the locality of

the Ilium of Slraho,

by

the discovery of Ruins

which bear evidence of


of
that
city,

their being the remains

a beacon will

be established,

whence,

with his bearings and distances,

we

may search with

reasonable expectation of being

able to point out

some even

of the artificial

monuments belonging
if,

to the Plain.

But

further,
itself,

with reference to the situation of Troy

having pursued the clue thus afforded,

we

find

PLAIN OF TROY.

105

any thing to indicate the site of the Village, where it was believed, in the time of Strabo, ahd where he maintains, that antient Ilium
stood,

we

cannot be very far from the truth.


Plan of the Author a
Expedition.

Previously, however, to the introduction of ' J '


^

observations relating rather to the conclusion of

our examination of the country, the Reader


feel his curiosity gratified

may

by an account of our
to penetrate

expedition, from the


at Koum-kale.

moment when we landed

We

had resolved

those recesses of the mountains, whence the


principal river derives its origin
;

a region then

unexplored by any traveller:

and afterwards,
of

by ascending Kazdaghy,
the whole
chain,

the loftiest ridge

at that time

covered with

snow, to ascertain, from the appearance of the

and from the objects connected with it, whether its summit might be deemed the GarPlain,

garus of

Homer ; described as being upon the during its march left of the army of Xerxes, But as the Thymfrom Antandros to Ahjdos\
hrius,

a river

still

retaining

its

antient name, in

the

appellation

Thymhreck,

and which

here

disembogues

itself

near the embouchure of the

Mender, has been confounded by Dr. Chandler

with the SiMois of Homer,

we

determined

first

(l)

Herodot.

lib. vii.

VOL.

III.

106
CHAP,
>

PLAIN OF TROY.

upon an excursion, along


situate
at

its

banks, to the Ruins


called
Hal'il

place

now

Elly;

and

to

Thymhreck Keuy,

or

the

Village of.

Thymhra.

We

crossed the Mender by a wooden bridge,


;

immediately after leaving Koum-kale


certained
its

and

as-

breadth,

in that

part, to

equal

one hundred and thirty yards. an immense


plain, in

We

then entered

which some Turks were


Peasants were
soil

engaged hunting wild boars.


also

employed

in

ploughing a deep and rich

of vegetable earth.
east,

Proceeding towards the

and round the bay distinctly pointed out by Straho\ as the harbour where the Grecian
Tomb
of

fleet

was

stationed,

we arrived

at the Sepulchre

of Ajax,

upon the antient Rhoetean Promontory.


this tumulus there is

Concerning

every reason to
If

believe our information to be correct.

we

had only the text of Straho for our guidance,


there would be
little

uncertainty

and,

evidence afforded in a view of the


itself,

by the monument
his

we have
It
is

the

best

comment upon

accuracy.

one of the most interesting

objects to which the attention of the literary


traveller can possibly

be directed.

Instead of

(1) bi^ab.

Geogr.

lib. xvii.

p. 859.

Ed. Ox.

PLAIN OF TROY.
the simple
Stl-lc,

107
chap.

usually employed to decorate


antient

the

summit of the most


all

sepulchral
the

mounds,

Writers,

who have mentioned


of the

Tomb of Ajax, relate, that it by a Shrine, in which a statue


preserved-.

was surmounted
Hero was

Religious regard for this hallowed'

spot continued through so


to the

many

ages, that even'

time in which Christianity decreed the

destruction of the Pagan idols, the sanctity of

A'iANTEUM was maintained and venerated^ Such importance was annexed to the inviola-bility of the monument, that after Antony had' carried into Egypt the consecrated image, it was again recovered by Augustus, and restored to it& These facts may possibly serve pristine shrine^.
the
to account for the present

appearance of the
itself,

Tomb, upon whose summit the shrine concealed from external view only by a
coverino;

slight

of

earth,

remains unto this hour.


of the

Pliny mentions the situation

Tomb

as

being

in

the very station of the Grecian fleet;

(2) Diodorus Siculus, descrihin;^

the

visit

paid by /llcxander ike

Great to the

Tomh of Achilles
riYf,^

says be anointed the St^li with perfumes,

and ran naked round


he performed
Stele.
(.3)

it with his companions. At the Tomh of /Jj'u.r and made offerings; hut no mention occurs of the

Diodor. Sir.

lib. xvii.

See the proofs adduced, in a regular series, by Chandhr, in bis

History of Ilium.

Loud. ^^02.
Ed. Or.

(4) Sfrab. Geoer. lib. xvii. p. 858.

n 2

PLAIN OF TROY.
and,

by giving

its

exact distance from Sigeum,


its identity,

not only adds to our conviction of

but marks at the same time, most decisively,


the position of the
Portus jichcEorum'.

In

all

that remains of former ages, there are few

more powerfully calculated to affect the mind by local enthusiasm than this most inr It is impossible to view its teresting Tomb.
objects

sublime and simple form,

without reflecting
it

upon the veneration


held; successive

in

which

was

so long

without picturing to the imagination a


series of mariners,

of Kings and

Heroes,

who from
itself,

the Hellespont, or
or

shores of Troas and Chersonesus,


Sepulchre

by the upon the

poured forth the tribute of their


finally,

homage; and
traveller,
in

without representing to
a native, or of
after

the mind the feelings of

those times, who,

viewing

the existing

monument,

and witnessing the


should have been

instances of public and of private regard so

constantly bestowed upon


told

it,

that

the
of

age was to arrive


itself,

when

the

existence

Troy

and of the mighty

dead entombed upon its Plain, would be considered as having no foundation in truth.

(!)

" Fuit

et

Aeantium, a Rkodiis condihim in altera cornu {Rfutfn)

/Ijace ibi scpulto,


classis sueE."

xxx. sladiorum intervallo

tt

Sigeo, et
c.

ijisa

in staHone

Sic. leg. Casauh. in Plln.

lib. v.

30.

'

PLAIN OF TROY.

109
Shrine does

The present appearance of the


than the age
of

chap.
',

not seem to indicate a higher degree of antiquity


the

^.

Romans.

Some have
mistaking the
situation near

beheved, from the circumstance of its disclosure,


that the

Tomb

itself

was opened
its

shrine for a vault, although

the summit might have controverted the opinion.


It

was

perhaps

constructed

when Augustus
Cement
used in the -4Va/em.

restored the image which Antony had taken from

the

AiANTEUM.
in

ployed

cement was certainly emand the remains of it the work


;

to this day offer an opportunity of confuting a

very prevailing error concerning the buildings of


the Antients.

The Greeks erected many

of their

most stupendous edifices without cementation hence it has been supposed that the appearance of mortar in any building is a proof against its
antiquity.

This notion

is

however

set aside at

once, by reference to the Pyramids of Egypt; for


in these

structures mortar

was undoubtedly

used\

The view here


of
the

afforded of the Hellespont and


is

Plain of Troy

remarkably

striking.
visit'.

Several plants, during the season of our

(2)

The author brought specimens, from the


March
3d.

spot, of the wortai

u^ed in building the greater Pyramid,


(3)

1 i(J

PLAIN OF TROY.

CHAP,
,'

were blooming upon the


itself

soil.

Upon

the

Tomb

we

noticed the silvery Mezereon, the Poppy,

the beardless Hypecoum,


,Betlilehem\

and the Field Star of

Ham Eihj.

From
hrius, in

the Aianieuni

we

passed over a healthy

.country to

Hald Elly, a village near the Thymwhose vicinity we had been instructed
once sacred
j4pollo.

to seek for the remains of a Temple


to the

Thymhrean

The

ruins

were con-

spicuous enough, and they seemed to be rather


the remains of ten temples than of one^.

The

earth to a very considerable extent

was covered
of marble and

by subverted and broken columns


visible
in

of granite, and every order of architecture


their

was
and

remains.

Doric,
all

Ionic,

Corinthian capitals lay dispersed in

directions,

and some of these were of great beauty.


observed a
bas-relief representing a

We
also a

person on
;

horseback pursued by a winged figure


beautiful

representation,

sculptured after the

same manner, of

Ceres in her car

drawn by two

(1)

Daphne urge idea. Anemone Our


artist,

coronaria, Hi/pccoum imberle, Orni-

tkogalum arvense.
(2)

Monsieur Preaux, as well as another of our com-

pany,

Don Tda

Lusieri, of Naples, then

employed

in

making drawings

for the British

Ambassador, although both accustomed to the view of


remains, declared, they could reconcile the Ruins at

architectural

HaUl Elhj

to

no account yet given of the country, antieut or modern.


PLAIN OF TROY.
i-caly serpents.
1 1

Of

three Inscriptions which

we
en*^

ghap.
IV.
>r-

copied among these Ruins,

the

first

was

graven upon the shaft of a marble

pillar.

This
is

Inscriptions.

we removed, and brought to England. It now in the Vestibule of the Public Library
Cambridge; and
it

at

commemorates
to

the

public

services of a Phrontistes of Drusus Ccesar'.

The
of

names of persons belonging


Germanicus occur frequently
tions

the family

among

the Inscrip-

found

in

and near Troas.


in the
district.

Drums, the

son of Germanicus, was himself appointed to


a government
Inscription

The

second
but

has been once before printed,


it

most erroneously:
Whatsoever tends
Ruins in which
it
;

will

therefore

now be

offered to the Public, in a

more accurate form*.


will

to illustrate the origin of the

was discovered,
although, after

be con-

sidered valuable
in

all,

we remain

state

of

the greatest uncertainty with


city

regard to the

alluded to in either of these


it

documents.
dria
;

Possibly

may have been

Scaman-

but

in the

multitude of cities belonging to

Troas, a

mere
is

conjecture, without any positive

evidence,

only less pardonable than silence.

(3)

This Inscription has been ah-eady published

in

the account given

of the Greek Marbles at Cambridge.

See

p. 43.

No. XXI. of that

Work.
(-^
)

It

was also since copied by Mr. Watpole, from whose copy


See the following page.

it is

here given, accompanied by his Notes.

112

PLAIN OF TROY.
This Inscription sets forth that the tribe
Attalis

CHAP.
>

commemorated
of the
city,

Sextus Julius Festus, a magistrate


praefect of the Flavian cohort,

and

who had been


to
all citizens,

Gymnasiarch,

and had given

magnificently and largely, to the senators and


oil

and ointment for some public

festival,

HATTAAIS

<|)YAH

ZEETONIOYAION<l>.

.TONKOZMONTHZn
OAenzinAPxoNznEiPHz; 4^AABIANHZrYMNAZIAP

XHZANTAAAMnPnZKAKH
AOTEIMnZKAinPilTON

TnNAnAIHNOZKAl MEXPINYNMONONEAAI

OMETPHZANTATOYZ TEBOYAEYTAZKAinO
AEITAZRANTAZKAIAA
liliS'ANTAEKAOYTHPHN AH ME(
Notes on the Upper Inscription.
Line
5.

The word
In an

Flaiian shews the inscription to he of the time of

yespasian or Domitian.
I

8.

Itiscription

found at Delphi we have the same expression,

" Primum
632. 2.
I

inter eos qui

unquam fuerunt."

Murat.

Inscript.

13.

"

Jntelligi iXt/tptiv debere de publico

quodam

festo quo cites


est pretiosn

laute exeipiehantur, quibus in occasionihus

notum

uuguenta

PLAIN OF TROY.

113
chap.
^-

The

third

Inscription,

and perhaps the most


i

important, has these remarkable words

-y.-^^

Ol

El

TONHATPIONOEON
Al N EI

AN

**THE ILIEANS TO THEIR COUNTRY'S GOD iENEA^."

If this

had been found by a


it

late respectable

and learned author',

might have confirmed

him

in the notion

that the Thijmbrius

was

in

fact the Simo'is^ as he believed;

and perhaps

have suggested,
place,

in
(or,

the present
as

name

of the

Halil Hi,

Haiti Elly, to

we have written it, conform to the mode of pro-

nunciation,) an etymology^ from lAION.

From

the Ruins at Halil Elly


full

we proceeded
of vineyards,

through a delightful valley,

and almond-trees

in

full

bloom, intending to

pass the night at the village of Thymbreck.

We
portion
olearia.

unguenta vulgo adhiberi."


of
oil

(Misc. Obs. 1733.)

The
mensa

generally given to each

man was

called

puis, in voce.
{])
(2)

The Author

of the History of Ilium, &c. &c.

%,

in the

language of the country,

signifies

District

so

that the
*'

name

of this place admits a literal interpretatiyi, signifying

T/te District of

Halil;" which

maybe

further interpreted,
jipolloy

" The

District of the

San," from one of the names of

AIL or AE.\I02.

14

PLAIN OF TROY.
found no antiquities, nor did
'

CHAP,

we

hear of any in

The next day returning towards Halil Elly, we left it upon our right, and crossed the Thymhrius by a ford. In summer this river becomes almost dry; but
the neighbourhood.

during

winter

it

often

presents
it.

a powerful

torrent, carrying all before

Not one of the


its

maps,
Troas,

or of the works

yet published upon


of

has

informed
it

us

termination:

according to some,

empties
;

itself into

the

Mender near
it

to its

embouchure

others describe
Tchiblack;
;

as

forming

a junction near

circumstance of considerable importance


this last position

for if

be

true, the ruins at Tchiblack

may

be those of the Temple of the TnYMBRiEAN


Straho expressly states the situation

Apollo.

of the temple to be near the place

where the

Thymhrius discharges
der'.
After

i^tself

into the

we had passed
hills,

the

Scamanford, we

ascended a ridge of
the towu or rather

and found the remains

of a very antient paved-way.


Tckibiacic.

We

then came to

villasfe

of Tchiblack, where

we
and

noticed very considerable remains

of antient

sculpture, but in such a state of disorder


ruin, that

no precise description of them can be


are

given.

The most remarkable

upon the top

(1) Sirab.

Gcosv.

lib. xiii.

p.

8Gl.

ed. Ox.

PLAIN OF TROY.

115
<^hap.
^

Beyan Mezaley, near the town, in the midst of a beautiful grove of oak trees,
of a
hill

called

-^-'

,'

Here the Ruins ^^^r^ Callifat. Temple of white marble lay heaped in the most striking manner, mixed with broken Slela', Cippiy Sarcophagi, Cornices and Capitals of very enormous size, entablatures, and pillars. All of these have reference to some peculiar sanctity by which this hill was antiently characterized.
towards the village of
of a Doric
It is

of a conical form, and stands above the

village of Tchihlach,

seeming

to

be as large as
first

the Castle Hill at Cambridge. that suggests


itself,

The

inquiry

in a

view of

this extraor-

dinary scene,

naturally involves

the original

cause of the veneration in which the place was


antientlv ^
held.

Pagus
Troy^f

Iliensium,

Does it denote the site of whose inhabitants believed

...
;

Pi-obai.ie

Site of

Pagus

that their village stood on the site of Antient

This place was distant thirty stadia^

from the New Ilium of Strabo


Hill

and the distance

corresponds with the relative situation of this

and

Palaio-Callifat, or
;

Old

Callifat,

where

Neiv Ilium stood

as will hereafter appear.


^

may it be

considered as the eminence

called

Or by

(2) Ibid.
(3)

Three English miles and

six furlongs.

llf,

PLAIN OF TROY.
Straho the beautiful Colone, five stadia
'

in cir;

cumference, near to which Simois flowed

and

consequently Tchibhck, as the Pagus Uiensium ?

The

Callicolojie

was rather more than a mile


hill is

distant* from the F'illage of the Ilieans, and stood

above

it;

exactly as this

situate

with

regard to Tchiblack^.

now be curious to observe, whether an Inscription we discovered here does not


It will

connect

itself

with

these

inquiries.

It

was

found upon the fluted marble shaft of a Doric


pillar,

two

feet in diameter;

so

constructed,
slab,

as

to

contain

Cippus,

or inscribed

upon one
characters

side of

it*;

exhibiting the following

(1)

Rather more than half a mile.

(2)

Ten
is

stadia,

(3) It

a feature of

Nature so remarkable, and o

artificially

characterized at this hour, that future travellers will do well to give


it

due attention.

In our present state of ignorance concerning TroaSy

we must
where
tiated.
all

proceed with diffidence and

caution;

nothing has been


hill

decided concerning the side of the Plain on which this

stands,

and
have

the objects most worthy of attention seem to be concenis

The author

convinced, that

when the country

shall

he&a properly examined on


instead of the south-western,

the

north-eastern side of the

Mender

many

of the difficulties which

now impede

a reconciliation of Homer's Poems with the geography of the county


will

be done away.

This has not yet been attempted.

(4)

The

Cippus, or inscribed part of the pillar, was

two

feet eleven

inches long, and two feet four inches wide.

PLAIN OF TROY.

'

'

H/
chap.
.

TIBJiPiniKAAYAiniKAIZAPI

rEPMANIKniKAIIOYAiArXEBA ZTHIArPinnEINHKAITO:ZT>K

'
.

^J-

NOIZAYTONKAITHZYI KAITHIAOHNATHI lAIAd lAHMn^TIBEPIOZKAl


. .

<t>ANOYZYIOZ4>IAOKAfr.APKA
.

IHTYNHAYTOYKAAYA INOZOYrATHPHAPMEN

THNZTOANKAITAENAYTHiriA NTAKATAZKEYAZANTrIXE
KTI2NIAII2NANEOHKAN
Tbis Inscription records the consecration of a
STOA, and
all

things belonging to

it,

to Tiberius

Claudius Ccesar Germanicusy the emperor,


Julia

and to

Augusta Agrippina, his wife,

and their

children,

and to Minerva of Ilium.

why
>'ius

the

Emperor

Claudius
Ilienses,

honoured by the

The reason and his children were is given by Suetoas having

and by Tacitus*.

Eckhel mentions a fane

consecrated to the Iliean Minerva,


existed in the Pagus Iliensium,

which Alexander

adorned after his victory at Granicus^.


states

Arrian

merely the offerings to Minerva of Ilium,

(o)

"

Iliensibus

Imperator Claudius tributa in perpetuum


EckJtel,

reraisit,

oratore Nerone Caesare."


KiiHlob. 1794.

Doctrma Num.

Vet. vol. II. p. 483.

(G) Eckhel. ibid.

18 CHAP,
IV.

PLAIN OF TROY.
makinof no mention of the "^ fane; but Strabo,
>

v_-v

who

expressly alludes to the temple, places

it

in the Iliensian city'.

But whence

originated
still

the sanctity of this

remarkable spot,

shaded

by a grove of venerable
entirely
inscription

oaks, beneath

whose

branches a multitude of votive offerings yet


cover the

summit of the commemorating the pious


and
to the to
Iliean

hill?

An

tribute of

a people

in erecting a portico to the family of

Claudius Ccesar

Minerva, can
of that

only be referred
district of

the inhabitants

Troas who were styled Ilienses. It has been shewn that Claudius, after the example of Alexander"^, had perpetually exempted them In their from the payment of any tribute.
district stood the

Pagus

Iliensium,

with the (Calthirty stadia^

licolone) beautiful hill;

and nearly

farther towards the

ivest,

reversing the order of


the Iliensium

the bearing given


'Civitas.
Caiiicoione.

by Strabo'*,
hill,

If therefore this

so preeminently

entitled to the appellation of Callicolone,

from

the regularity of

its

form, and the groves

by

which

it

seems

for

ages to have been adorned.

(1)
cd. Or.

T^v

oi

ruv

'lX/u>

voXiv r^v

vuv.

Slruh, Geogr.

.ib. xiii.

p.

S55.

(2) Arrian. Expedit.


(3)

lib.

i.

Three miles and three quarters.

(4) Strah, Geosrr. lib. xiii.

PLAIN OF TROY.
be further considered, on account of
quities, as an indication of the
its

119
anti-

former vicinity

of the Iliensian tillage,

it

should follow, that


the distance of

observing a weshvard course,

three miles and three quarters, or nearly so,

would terminate

in the site

of the Iliensian City

and any discovery ascertaining either of these places would infallibly identify the position of the
other.

This line of direction

we observed

in

our

route, advancing

by a cross road
Inscriptions,

into the Plain.

There were other


the good offices

commemorating of Roman Emperors but these


:

were so much mutilated, that no decisive


mation could be obtained from them.
one

infor-

Upon

we

read

HAAEEANAPIZ1>YAH ^iEHTONIOYAlO N ATO N KOS M O N T H 'E n o A Enz En A pxo n 2: n ei


. . .

PHZ<I>AABIANH^:
"

THE ALEXANDRIAN TRIBE HONOUR SEXTUS JULIUS, THE MAGISTRATE OF THE CITY, PREFECT OF THE FLAVIAN COHORT," &c.
Another, inscribed upon the cover of a large

marble
ter of

Soros, mentioned a portico, and the daughsome person for whom both the ITOA and the I0P02 had been constructed.

120

PLAIN OF TROY.

As we journeyed from
in a

this place,
hill,

we

founds

com

field below the

a large mass of

inscribed marble; but owing to the

manner
soil,

in

which the stone was concealed by the


could only discern the
in

as

well as the illegibility of the inscription,


following

we

characters,

which the name of Julim again occurs

lOYAlOY

APXON

KOtMON
sustaining

what was before advanced concern-

ing the prevalence of names belonging to the


family of Germanicus, or of persons
rished about his time.

who

flou-

Upon a medal

of Claudius,

described by
the words

Faillant\ belonging to Coty^ium, a

city of Pkrygia, bordering

upon TROAs^ we read


towards
it,

EHI

lOYAlOY YIOY KOTIAEHN.


hence
the
Plain
:

We
Intient

proceeded

and no sooner reached

than a Tumulus

Sepulchre,

and
(1)

Numism. Imperat. August,


who thus

et Cses. p. 13.

Par. 1698.
Method.
Geogr,

(3) See the observation

of Mentelle,

(Enci/clop.

Ancienne. Par. 1787.)

places

it,

on the authority of Pliny.

This position of the

city does

not however appear to be warranted by


Pliny's words are
:

any

explicit declaration of that author.

" Septen-

trionali sui parte Galatio"

conterminn, Mrridinna Lycaonia, Pisidice,

Mygdoniceque, ab oriente Cappadociam. attingit.


jprteter

Oppida

ibi

celehfrrima

jam

dicta,

Ancyra, Andria,
Plin.

Celcena", Colosso",

Carina, Cotiaion,
I.

Cerana,

IcoJiiuni,

Midaion."

Hist. Nat.

torn.

lib. v.

p.

284.

Ed. L. Bat. 1635.

PLAIN OF TROY.
of very remarkable size and sitaation
attention, for a short time,
_

121

drew our chap.


IV.

from the main object

of our pursuit.

This Tumulus, of a high conical form and veryregular structure, stands altogether insulated.

Of

its

great antiquity no doubt can be enter-

tained, lasting

by persons accustomed

to

view the ever-

sepulchres of the Antients^

By

the

southern side of its base is a long natural

mound

of limestone

this,

beginning to rise close to the

artificial tumulus,

extends towards the village of


of such

Callifat, in

a direction nearly from north to south


It
is

across the middle of the Plain.


height, that an army,

encamped upon the eastern

would be concealed from all observation of persons stationed upon the coast, by the mouth of the Mender. It reaches nearly
side of
it,

to a small

and almost stagnant


called
its

river,

hitherto
Callifat

unnoticed,

Callifat

Osmack,

or

Water, taking

name from
Mender

the village near to


:

which

it falls

into the

our road to this

(3)

" Mr. Bryant

says, the

tumuli on the Plain of Troyare Thracian.

In addition to the passages in Strabo which prove the Phrygians, the


inhabitants of the country, to have been in the custom of erecting

tumuli, the following passage from Atheneeus

maybe

added.

'You

may

see every-where in the Peloponnesus, but particularly at Laceda:large heaps of earth, which they call the
Pelops.'
1.

iiioji,

who came with

xiv. i>.0:?3."

TVulpolc's

Tombs of the Phrygians, MS. Journal.

VOr.. III.

12'2

PLAIN OF TROY.
village afterwards led us along the top of the
'

'^

^^/v^'
^

mound.

combmed

Here then both Art and Nature have to mark the Plain, by circumstances
although such as any accurate de-

of feature and of association not likely to occur

elsewhere

scription of the country


to include
:

may

well be expected
of Homer,

and
an

if

the

Poems

with

reference to the Plain of Troy, have similarly

associated

artificial

tumulus and a natural

mound, a conclusion seems warranted, that these


are the objects to which he alludes.

This ap-

pears to be the case in the account he has given


of the

Tomb of Ilus and the Mound of the Plain '.


To7w5
rain,
itself, in

Upon the surface of the


small channels caused

several

by

we

found frag-

ments of the

terra-cotta

vases oi jintient Greece^

(1)

to, tte

The Trojans were encampeJ 0#J Mound of the Plain (II. K. l60)

{^aKTjxu wiSlou)
;

upon, or near
his council

and Hector holds

with the Chiefs, apart from the camp, at the Tomb of Ilus
induced M. Chevalier
ecript of the

(II.

K. 415)

which was therefore near to the Mound. Their coincidence of situation


to

conclude they were one and the same


p. 113.
Sfc.

De:

Plain of Troy,

Mr. Bryant combated


p. 9.

this opinion

Observations upon a Treatise,

Mr. Morritt very properly

deride? the absurdity of supposing the council to be held at a distance

from the army.


(2)

Findical, of Homer, y>.96.


still

These are

in

our possession, and resemble the beautiful

earthenware found

in

the sepulchres of Athens, and at IVola io Italy.


is

The

durability of such a substance


;

known

to

all

persons conversant

in the Arts
air, at least

it is

known

to have resisted the attacks of water and


years.

two thousand

'

PLAIN OF TROY.
nor can we assign any other cause
for their ap-

123
^?^^*
^-

pearance, than the superstitious veneration paid


to the

tombs of Tiioas

in all the ages

of its

history, until the introduction of Christianity.

Whether they be considered as the remains of offerings and libations made by the Greeks, or by the Romans, they are indisputably not of modern origin. The antiquity of earthenware, from
the wheel of a
Grecian potter,
is

as easily

to be ascertained as

any remains of antient art which have been preserved for modern observation
site
;

and, in endeavouring to discover the

of

Grecian

cities,

towns,

and

public

monuments, such fragments of

their terra-cotta

may be deemed,
to medals

perhaps, equal in importance

and

imcriptions.

From this Tomh we rode along the top of the Mound of the Plain, in a south-western direction, towards Callifat. After we had proceeded about half
its

length,

its

inclination
its

became southward.
mity
Plain,

Having attained

extre-

in that direction,

we descended mto when our guides brought us to


it,

the
the

western side of

near to

its southern

termination,

to notice a tumulus, less considerable than the


last described,

about three hundred paces from

the Mound, almost concealed from observation

by being

continually overflowed,
I

upon whose

121

VLAIN OF TROY.
top two small oak
'

CHAP,
^

trees

were then growing.


its

,^

This tumulus will not be easily discerned by


future
travellers,

from the uniformity of

appearance, at a distance, with the rest of the


vast Plain in which
it

is

situate, being either

covered with corn, or furrowed by the plough.

The view the mouth


it

it

commands

of the coast, towards

of the Mender,

may

possibly entitle

to their

subsequent consideration, with re-

ference to the Sepulchre of Myrinna.

We
to flow

now proceeded

to the Callifat Osmack, or

Callifat

Water, a river that can scarcely be said

towards the Mender; yet so deep, that


conducted to a ford
in

we were

order to pass.

Hundreds of tortoises, alarmed at our approach, were falling from its banks into the water, as
well as

from

the overhanging branches

and

thick underwood,

among which

these animals,

of

all

others the least adapted to climb trees,

had singularly obtained a footing. Wild-fowl, also, were in great abundance and in the corn
;

land partridges were frequently observed.


Opinion
the iYniois.

We

have no hesitation

in stating,

that

we

conceive

tuis river to be the

SiMOis; nor would there,


if it

perhaps, remain a doubt upon the subject,


PreviVnt
error with
icf^ard to
tlic

wcrc uot
out
all

for

tlic

prejudicc founded

upon a

marvellous error, which has prevailed throughthe Trojan controversy concerning the

Sca-

ui.iiidw.

PLAIN OF TROY.
sources of the
of
all to

125
first

Scamander.
river
:

Pope seems
time,

char

have

fallen into the notion of the double

origin

of this

since

his

fVood,

Chevalier,

and

their followers,
tivo

have maintained
sources,
cold.

that

the

Scamander had
hot,

one of

which was

and the other

The whole The


as

of this representation has been founded upon

a misconstruction of the word riHrAI'.

Scamander

has
rise''

therefore

been described
tlie

having

its

from two sources

in the Plairiy
;

near to the Seaman Gate of


the zeal which has been

city

hence

all

shewn

in giving to the

(1)

An

expression occurs in the Prometheus of Mscuyi^vs, voruftZi


;).

7t Tnya), [v. 89.

8.

Ed. Blomf.) where

tlie

same word
sources,

is

used; not

with reference to

the

main heads, or

original

of rivers;

bat

to

r.ll

those springs by which they are augmented.

(2)

Tlius described in Pope's Translation of the twenty-second iwok


.

ef the Iliad

" Next by Scamander's double source they bound,


'

Where two fam'd

fountains burst the parted ground."

There

is

nothing in the original, either of the double source or of the

fnnte of the fountains.

Homer's words are

Acia)
'Sir.

eivtitfffoutri

Xxa^aiSoay

Si}jsvTj.

Bryant {Observat.

cfc. p.

28.) interpreted this passage thus,

"They

arrived at

two basons of
issue forth,"

fine

water,

from which two fountains of the

Heamander

but

combats the notion of their having any


to have succeeded

other relation to the river.


in a/fording the spirit

Cowper seems

more happily

and design of the original


they reach'd the

"
*

And now

nmning

riv'lets clear,

Where from Scamander's

dizzy fk)od arise

"

Two

fountains."

126

PLAIN OF TROY.
springs of Bonarhashy the

name
in

of those sources,
all

although they be

many

number, and

of

them be ivarm springs, as will hereafter appear. Having once admitted this palpable delusion
concerning the sources of the Scamander, not-

withstanding the very judicious remonstrances


of Mr. Bryant upon this part of the subject, and

the obvious interpretation of the text of


the wildest theories ensued'. the Plain of

Homer

All attention to

Troas on the north-eastern side of the Mender was abandoned; nothing was talked
but Bonarhashy, and
its

of

ivarm fountains

and these being once considered as the


of the Scamander, were

sources

further reconciled with

Homers

description,

by urging the absurdity

of believing Achilles to have pursued Hector on


the heights of Ida,

when

the chace

is

said to

have happened near to the walls of Troy.


the plain matter of fact
in
is

But

this;

that Homer,

no part of his poems, has stated either the

temperature of the
its double origin.

Scamander

at its source, or
is

In no part of his poems

there any thing equivocal, or obscure, concerning


the place

whence

that river issues, or the nature


It is

of

its

torrent.

with him,

Scamander,

(])

Among

others, tliat of

making the Heights of Boiun-bash^

a part

of the chain of

Mount

Ida. with which they have no connection.

PLAIN OF TROY.
flowino-

from Idean
^

Jove'';

MEFAI nOTAMOl
to

BA0VAINHI,
sea'^;
'

the great vortiginous river ^ ;

.IV.
the
;

127

chap.

'bear- ^wv_^

ing on his giddy tide the body of Polijdorus

the angry

Scamander\'

by which
river,

Achilles

The springs pursues Hector were tiuo


by the Poet
but

fountains ^ or rivulets, near to the bed of the


as expressly stated

they had no connection with the source of the

ScAMAXDER, and
river
in

therefore

the rise of that

Mount Ida causes no objection to Homers narrative. The whole country abounds so that, both with hot and with cold springs
;

being unauthorized by the Poet to ascend to the


source of the

fountains,

Scamander in search of we may rest satisfied with

those
their

position elsewhere.

Continuing along the southern side of


JVater"^, after

Callifat

Ruins by

having crossed the ford,


its

we came

osmacL''

to

some Ruins upon

banks, by which the

(2) Iliad *.
(4) Iliad *.
(6) Aoia)
-rriyai.
II.

(3) Hiail M. 74.


(5)

Iliad

*.

X. 147.
the Callifat Water has been noticed,
is.

(7)

The only person by whom


In the
tlie

the Eligineer Kauffer.

Map
it

he drew up by order of Count Ludolf,

the j^eapolita7i Minister at


after our return to

Porte, and since published by Arrowsmith


is

England,

indeed introduced; but in so slight


less

a manner, as to appear a

much

stream than his " Scamander, vel

Xanthus," which

is

not the case.

28

PLAIN OF TROY.
ground was covered
pillars,

to a consideraljle extent.
beaiitilul

These consisted of the most

Doric

whose

capitals

and

shafts,

of the finest

white marble, were lying in the utmost disorder.

Among them we
of granite.

also noticed

some

entire shafts

The temples

of Jupiter being always

of the Doric order,

we might suppose
site of
di

these

Ruins to mark the


to

fane consecrated
evidently the

Mean

Jove;

but Doric was

prevailing order

among
is

the antient edifices of

the Troas, as
district,

it

found everywhere in the


in

and

all

the temples

that

part of
to

Plirijgia

would not have been consecrated

the

same Deity.

The Ruins by the

Callifat

Water have not been hitherto remarked by any


traveller; although Akerhlad obtained,

and pubas old as

lished in a very inaccurate manner, an Inscription

which we
the

also

copied here.

It is

Archonship of Euclid'.

As

it

has

been

already published, both in the account of the

Greek Marbles preserved in the Vestibule of the University Library at Cambridge^, and also in
the Appendix to a Dissertation on the
Soros

of Alexander^, the introduction of the original

legend here would be deemed an unnecessary

(7)

See the late Professor Parsons opinion,

a">

given in the Author's

account of " Greek Marbles" at Cambridge,


(8) Ibid.
(9) "

p. 50.

Toinb of Alexander," Append. No.

4. p.

158.

PLAIN OF TROY.
repetition.
It

120 lower
^

was

inscribed upon the


:

chap.

part of a plain marble pillar


to

this

we removed
sent
to

the

Dardanelles,

and

afterwards

The interpretation sets forth, tb.at THOSE PARTAKING OF THE SACRIFICE, AXD OF THE GAMES, AND OF THE W^HOLE FESTIVAL, {honoured) Pytha, daughter of ScamaxDROTIMUS, NATIVE OF IlIUM, WHO PERFORMED the OFFICE OF CaNEPHOROS IX AX EXEMPLARY AND DISTINGUISHED MANNER, FOR HER PIETY TOWARDS THE GoDDESs." In the conjecture
England.
*^

already offered, that the stream, on the banks


of which these edifices were raised, and these

were offered, was the Soio'is of the Antients, some regard was necessarily intended, both
voics

to the

Ruins here situate, and to the Inscription


is

to

which reference

now made.

certain

degree of
evidence,

collateral,

although of no positive
bare

may

possibly result from the

mention of places and ceremonies, connected

by

their

situation, to the

and consecrated by

their

nature,

history of the territory

where

SiMOis flowed.

Near

to the

same

place, ^

upon a block of
Inscription,

inscription%.

Parian marble,

we

found

another

but not equally perfect.

The

following letters

were

all

we

could collect, from the most careful


:

examination of the stone

130
CHAP.
'

PLAIN OF TROY.

r-^

AsmoYrizi XMHXnNAEAYZAI nATHPKATATHNTOYHA OHKHNEZEniKPIMTO


KAIKIAIOYSOVnO

TAMIOYKA AnOAE
Village of

We

afterwards proceeded to the Greek villaae


near to the spot where the
In the streets

of Callifat, situate
Callifat

Osmach joins the Mender.


this place
;

and court-yards of

were lying several


and upon a broken

capitals of Corinthian pillars

marble tablet, placed in a wall,

we

noticed part

of an

Inscription in

metre

the rest of the cha-

racters having perished


.
.

lAYZINANAPAZINIK

nPOKAONYMO POSTOZOY
.

Medals.

While wc wcrc copying


of the place

this,

some peasants

came

to

us with Greek medals.

They were
and
the
all

all

of copper, in high preservation,

medals of Ilium, struck in the time of

Roman Emperors'.
The

Upon one

side

was

(1)

copper coinage of Greece was not in use until ta\vards the

close of the Peloponncsian

War.

It
;

was

first

introduced at Athens, at

the persuasion of one Dinniysius


Alhencvus,
lib.

thence called yLuXKov;; according to

xv.

c. S.

&

lib. ii.

c. 12.

PLAIN OF TROY.
represented
the
figure

131

of Hector

combating,
the

with his

shield
;

and

spear,

and

words

EKTHPiAIEfiN
later

and upon the other, the head


Faustina, Severus, or

either of Antoninus,

some
there

Roman Emperor

or Empress.

As

were so many of these Iliean medals^ we asked where they were found and were answered, in
;

modern Greek,
plain

at Palaio Callifat (Old Callifat),


village, in the

a short distance from the present

towards the

east"^.

We

begged

to

be con-

ducted thither; and took one of the peasants


with us, as a guide.

We
1

came
-

rounded on

to an elevated spot of ground, surn 1 1 T all sides by a level plain, watered

11

Rorhainsof
Xcwiliuvi,.

by the

Callifat

Osmack, and which there

is

every

reason to believe was the Simo'isian Plain.

Here

we

found, not only the traces,


citadel.

but also the

remains of an antient

employed
eminence

in raising

Turks were then enormous blocks of marble,


this

from the foundations which surrounded


;

and these foundations

may have

been the identical works constructed by Lysiviachus,

when he fenced New

Ilium with a wall.

(2)

Every

traveller

who

has visited Greece, will be aware of the im-

portance of profiting by the mention of the word Palaio, as applied to the

name of any
antient city
;

place.

It is a never-failing
it

indication of the site of

some

and so

proved in the present instance.

132
CHAT,

PLAIN OF TROY.
xiie appearance of the structure exhibited that
'

colossal

and massive

style of architecture

which

bespeaks the
Grecian history.

masonry of the

early ages of

All the territory within these

foundations

was covered by broken

pottery,

whose fragments were parts


terra-colta

of those antient

vases which are

now

held in such

Here the peasants said they had found the medals which they had offered to us and that after heavy rains, it was a very common thing to meet with them. Many had
high estimation.
;

been discovered
excavations

in

consequence of the recent

made
for

there by the Turks,

who were

at this time removinof

the materials of the old

foundations,

the

purpose of constructing

works

at

the

Dardanelles.

As

these

medals

plainly shew,

by

their indisputable legends, the

people by

whom

they were fabricated, and have


locality,

also, in the

circumstances of their

probable reference to the Ru'ms here, they enable us to


fix,

with tolerable certainty, the situation

of the city to which they belonged.

Had

w^e

observed, in our route from Tchiblack, precisely


the line of direction mentioned by Strabo, and

continued in a due course from

east

to

tvesi,

instead of turning towards the souih into the


Simoisian Plain to visit the village of Callifat,

we

should have terminated the distance he has


stadia, (as

mentioned, of thirty

separating the

PLAIN OF TROY.
city

I33

from the

village of the

lliensians)

by the
-

chap.-

discovery of these Ruins.


the

They may have been


in

same which Kanffer noticed


the
title

his map',

by

of FiUe de Constantine; but they are

evidently the remains of

New

Ilium; whether

we

regard

the

testimony afforded

by

their

situation, as agreeing with the text of Straho;

or the discovery here


eit)'.

made

of the medals of the of


this

Once

in

possession

important

upon the dark labyrinth of Troas; we stand with Strabo upon the very spot whence he deduced his observations conpoint, a light breaks in

cerning other objects

in

the district;

looking

down upon
front of the

the Simohian Plain, and viewing in


city,

towards the

south-iuest,

the

junction of the

iiuo

rivers; " one flowing towards

Sigevm, and the other towards Rhceteum,^' precisely as described

by him

being guided, at

the

same
Ilus,

time, to CaUicolone, the village of the


sejmlchres

Ilieans,

and the
or

of ALsyetes, Batieia,

and
the

by the clue he has afforded ^


the
artificial

From
tlie

natural

elevation of

(1)

See the Map. pul)lished by ArrowsmiLh, of The Plain of Troy,


this Chapter.

from an original design by Kauffer ; also the Vignetle to


(2)

The Reader

is

requested to pay particular attention to the smaJl

sketch which has been engraved for a Vignette to this Chapter, in order
to observe the extraordinary coincidence

between the actual survey of the


lii;

J'Uin, and the description given by Strabo, in


lib. xiii.

account of Troa--,

pp.

85.';,

861.

Ed. Ox.

134

PLAIN OF TROY.
territory
'

CHAR

on which the

city

stood, (an insulated

object in the Plain,)

we

beheld almost every

land-mark to which that author has alluded. The splendid spectacle presented towards the
we^/by the snow-clad top o^ Samothrace, towering
behind Imbrus, would
delineation
:

baffle

every attempt of

it

rose with prodigious grandeur


setherial

and while
cloud,
it

its

summit
in

shone

wdth

indescribable brightness

sky without a
its

seemed, notwithstanding

remote
all

situation, as if its vastness

would overwhelm
it

Troas, should an earthquake heave


base.

from

its

Nearer

to the

eye appeared the mouth

of the Hellespont, and Sigeum.

Upon

the south,

the

Tomb of

jilexandria

by the road leading to Troas^; and less remote, the ScajEsyetes,

MANDER,
the
east,

receiving Simois,

or CaUifat Water,

at the boundary of the Simo'isian Plain.

Towards
of

the Throsmos, with the


Ilus
:

sepulchres

Batieia

and

and

far

beyond, in the great

Idean chain, Gargams opposed to Samothrace^,

Sirab. Gengr.

lib. xiii.

p. 863.

Ed. Ox.

(2) It is only

by viewing the stupendous prospect afforded in these

classical regions, that

any adequate idea can be formed of Homer's

ix)\\ers

as a painter,

and of the accuracy which distinguishes what


p. 132.)

JMr. JFood

(Essay on Corner,
placed on
tlie

terms his "

celestial

geography."

Neptune,

top of Samolhrace,

commanding a

prospect of Ida, Trot/,


his

and

thefieet, observes Jupiter,


is

upon Gargarus, turn

back ujion Troas-

What

intended by

tliis

averted posture of the Cod, other than that

Cargann

PLAIN OF TROY.
dignified

135
chap.
v

by equal

if

not superior altitude, and

beamino^ the same degree of splendour from the

-^^

,/

snows by which

it

was

invested.

Gargarus was
unveiled
;

partially concealed

by a cloud, while Samothrace remained


?

a circumstance so often realized

All the march of Juno,


;

from Olympus, by Pieria and Mmathia,


to

to Athos

from Aihos, by

sea,

Lemnos ; and thence

to Imhros,

and Gargarus ;

is

a correct delineation

of the striking face of Nature, in which the picturesque wildness and

grandeur of

real scenery

is

further adorned by a sublime poetical fiction.


lived in the

Hence

it is

evident that

Homer must have

neighbourhood of

Troy; that he borrowed the scene of the Iliad


p. 182,)

(as stated
it,

by Mr. JFood,

from ocular examination

and the action of

from the pre-

vailing tradition of the times.

Honierian Car.

CHAP.

V.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
Ford of
the

Mender

Fountains

Temperature

of Bonarhashy

their

Possible Allusion to

them

in

Homer

Antiquities of Bonarhashy

Antient Tumuli
Acropolis
the
the

Heights

called the Acropolis

Journey .^neia Source of Mender Basalt Plain of Beyramitch TurkmanU Remarkable Tomb Bonarhashy of Beyramitch Warm Springs Beyramitch Antiquities Kuchunlu Tepe Temple and of EvgillarAscent Summit Gargarus of Hermits Vieiv from Point of Geogi-aphy MountainErrors
Observations by the Polar Star
to

Prohalle Origin of the supposed

Pillars

Altars

Jupiter

to the

o/"

Oratories
the

the

highest

in the

of


DISTRICT OF TROAS.
of the Country

I37

Appearance of

the Ideean Chain towards

Lectum

Dangerous Situation of the Author.

It was now time to visit Bonarbashyy a of which so much has been written and
It

place

en

vp.

said, ^.^^.w'

had long been a conspicuous object

in sight;
south-

and appeared at a distance towards the


east,

upon an eminence commanding a very


of
all

extensive view

the

Plain.

Returninsr

therefore to CaUifat,
to
it

we

took the ordinary road


F'dofth
iMcud.r.

from Koumkale, and soon arrived at a ford

of the Mender ; at this time so broad and deep,


that
1

we were
if it

glad to hail some

1111
we

^ Turks
,

at a

considerable distance upon the opposite shore,

and ask
carried

were passable.
;

They answered
by
the torrent.

in

the affirmative
off,

but

narrowly escaped being


all,

horses and

We
two

rode, quite

up

to the girths, across a place

hundred

feet wide,
It

tremely rapid.

and the current was exreminded us of those rivers

in the north of Sweden,

which

fall

into the

Gulph

of Bothnia.

It

was

at this ford that our friend

Mr. now Sir

IVilliam Gell, in a

very different
all

season of the year, was in danger of losing


the fruits of his journey,
fall

by

letting his

papers

into the river'.

He

stated the breadth of

(1)

Topography of
tlie

Troi/, p. 15.

See also the very accurate represenit,

tafion of

Fnrd, wiih a view, from

of JDonarbashy, in the 24th

Plate, p. 70. of the

same work.

am

able and anxious to bear

ample

tcstinionv

138
CHAP,
V. it

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
as

somewhat more than a hundred


it

feet.
all

la

certain periods of the year,

inundates

the

neighbouring territory

and the marks of such

an inundation, caused by the branches of trees, reeds, and rushes, left by the water on the
land,
its

were

visible a considerable distance

from

banks, at the time

we

passed.

It

has been

uual to consider this river, which bears every


characteristic of the

Scamander,
is

as the Simojs

o(

Homer ;

but there

positive evidence to the

contrary'.

All the principal battles of


either on the

Homer

were fought

banks of the Simois,

testimony to Sir IVilliam Cell's accuracy, in

all

the engravings whicli


in Constantinople,

have been made from his drawings.


in

We

were together

1800; and both

visited
:

Troas in the following year.


Sir IV. Gell did not arrive until

Our journey
December.

took place in
(I)
It
is

March 1801
quite

amusing

to

observe

the freedom of citation,

and
this

palpable errors,
subject.

which have been tolerated in the discussion of

In Mons'". Chevalier's Description of the Plain of Troy, we


by references

find the author (p. 3.) supporting the following observations,


to the text of

Homer

" I shall distinguish the impetuous course of the

rapid Simois, and the limpid stream of the divine Scaviander."

In the
21,

margin, the Reader


the
21st,

is

directed to

tlie

12th book of the Iliad,


to the
12th,
v.

v.

22

1^307;

the 7th, f.

329; and also

21, &c. for

authorities concerning the epithets thus given to the

two

rivers.
;

If he

take for granted the


slightest

fidelity

of

M.

Chevalier,

it

is all

very well

but th

examination of the passages referred


is

to,

dispels the illusion.


Simo'is, or

Nothing

there said, either of imjjetuous

and rapid

of the

limjiid stream
Jiatjle's

of the Scamander.

Yet the same author had found in


'Scamander,'
{see

Dictionaiy, under the article

p.4S.)

that

Julia, the daughter of ydvgusius,

met with the

fate of Sir William Gell's

Journals, which

we

also narrowly escaped, in fording the torrent of the

Mender.

'

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
or veiy near to
it
;

139
cha.p.
'

that

is

to say, within the

SiMOisiAX Plaix.

Homer,

enumerating the

rivers brought to act against the Grecian rampart,

thus characterizes the SiMOi's^:


'TToXXu /Ztayptx

Kflt; 2<|tt(i<j, 'oil

sccci

r^vlpctXiictt

If,

then,

we

can point out

aiiy other

passage

which decides the position of the


witii

regard to the

Simois,

Scamaxder we may identify

the two rivers,

without any reference to the

circumstances of their origin, merely by the

Such a passage occurs in the eleventh book of the Iliad, where Hector is described as being upon the left of all the war, and, at the same time, upon the
geography of the country.
banks of the Scamaxder^:

The Scamaxder being


of the

therefore

on the
in

left

Trojan army,

and

the

battle

the

Simo'isian Plain,

having in front the Grecian camp


nature
of the
territory
is

and the

sea,

the

sufficient to

decide the relative position of the

(2)

Iliad

M.

22. jBarnw.
Ibid.

Cant.

nil.

(3) Iliad A. 497.

VOL.

Til.

140

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

two

rivers.

The scene

of action can only be

reconciled with the plain of Callifat

Osmach,

Hellespont,

bounded on the left, to a person facing the by the Mender^-, which river is as

necessarily proved to have been the

Scamander.

of Homer.

Fountains
basky.

Aftcr having passed the ford,

we

galloped
;

up

to thc Aglicis

mansion

at Bonarhashy

the

name
nifies

of which place, literally translated, sig-

" The head of


arrival,

the springs'"''

Immediately

on our

we

hastened to them, keeping

a thermometer exposed and pendent the whola

way, as the sun was then

setting,

and a

fa-

vourable opportunity offered for an accurate


Sature"

investigation of their temperature.

Some

pea-

sants

who conducted
;

us,

related the tradition

concerning the supposed heat and cold of the


different sources

one only being, as they said,


to

a hot spring.

We desired

examine

this first;

and

for that

purpose were taken to a place

(1)

See the Vignette to the last Chapter.


p. 89.)

Mr. Wood
tlie

(Essay on

Homer,

was thoroughly impressed with the necessity of ad-

mitting the Simo'is to be on the eastern side of the Scamander, by the

remarks made upon Mr. Pope's Map,


reversed the position,

in

which

Engraver had

not only of the rivers, but also of the two


Sigeliivi
*'
;

promontories,

Rhsteum and
named
in

so that," says he,

"

the Sca-

mander runs on
FYNNVN,
*

that side of Troy which belongs to the Simo'is."

(2) Places are

Wales after the same manner

as

Pen tre

The head of

the three springs'

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
about half a mile from the jighas house, to
the most distant of the several
in fact, there are

141

chap.
v
.

springs

for,

many, bursting from

different

crevices, through a stratum o^ breccia or Puddingstone,

covered by a superincumbent layer of

limestone.

From

the

number

of the springs,
'

the Turks call the place Kirk Geuse, or


Eyes.''

Forty
this

We

then asked the


as
it

peasants
evidently

if

was not the same which has been described by Mons\ They replied, that its greatest heat Chevalier.
were the
hot spring,

might be observed during winter, and therefore


that
it

must be now

hot'^.

It

was a shallow

pool of water, formed


of

by the united product


issuing from several

many
was

small streams,

cavities in the rock

we have

mentioned.

This,

pool
hills,
it

overshadowed by some distant behind which the sun was then setting
quite
therefore a proper time for ascertaining

was

the temperature, both of the air and the water.

north wind had prevailed during the day,

but the sky had been more than usually serene,

and without a cloud


then stirring.

not a breath of air

was

We
it

first

tried the water with

our hands;

felt

warm, and even the rock


had
1801, was during the
to be greater at that
is

(3)

Almost the only winter the


of March.

T'MrA.s

in

month

The

peasants believe the

?ieat

season of the year, merely because the external air

colder.

The

temperature of the water

is

always the same.

k2

142

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
near and aJDOve the surface of the water was
sensibly affected

by

heat.
:

We
it

then had re-

course to our thermometer

was graduated

according to the scale of Celsius; but


of Fahrenheit,

we

shall

give the result according to the corresponding


elevation
to

being more adapted


England.

common
;

observation in
external
air,

When

exposed
at 48
point.

to the

the mercury stood

or sixteen degrees above the freezing

We

then placed

it

in

one of the crevices


so as to
:

whence the water

issued,

immerse

both the tube and the scale


the mercury rose to 62^ and

in

two minutes,
all

it

there remained.

We

then tried the same experiment in


;

the

other crevices

and found the heat of the water


temperature of the
to
47"".

the same,

although the

external air

was lowered
not

we proceeded to
and
could

the hot spring

From hence of M. Chevalier


struck

avoid
it

being
offered,

by the

plausible appearance

for those

who
per-

wished

to find here a hot

and a

cold spring, as

fountains

of

the

Scamander.

It

gushes

pendicularly out of the earth, rising from the

bottom of a marble and granite reservoir, and throwing up as much water as the famous
fountain of Holyivell in Flintshire.
Its surfiice

seems vehemently boiling; and during cold weather, the condensed vapour above it causes
the appearance of a cloud of

smoke over

the

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
well.

143
it

The marble and


of great

s-ranite

slabs around
its

chap.
V.

are

antiquity;

and

appearance, '
is

in the midst

of surrounding

trees,

highly

picturesque.
the external

The mercury had now


air,

fallen, in

to

46", the

sun being down;

but when the thermometer was held under


water,
it

rose

as

before,

to

62.

Notwith-

standing the

warmth
in

of this spring, fishes


reservoir.

were
held

seen
in

sporting

the

When

the

stream of either of the two channels

which conduct the product of these springs into a marsh below, the temperature of the
water was
distance

diminished,

in

proportion
it

to

its

from the source whence

flowed.

We

repeated similar observations afterwards,

both at midnight, and in the morning before


sun-rise
;

but always with the same results.

Hence it is proved, that i\\Qfountains oiBonarhashy are all of them luarm springs; and there are

many such
Mender

springs, of different degrees of temall

perature, in

the district through which the


Hellespont.

flows,

from Ida to the

That
Possible

the tiuo channels conveying these streams towards

the Scamander
oi'

may have been

111
still

aHusion in
to

the AOIAI IlHrAI Homer

Homer \

is

at least possible:

and when

it is

tamslt^'

considered, that a notion


The

prevails in the i^'^J'


f'etietia?i

(l)

following
II.

is

a literal translation of the words of the

ikholiast,

upon

X. 148.

in the plain; but the

" Two fountains J'rom the Scamander rise fountains nf the Scamander are not in the plaiuK*

144
CHAP,
V
ly

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
country, of one being
that the
hot,

and the other


all

cold;

.'

women
to

of the place bring

their

garments to be washed
according
industry,

in these springs,
visits

not

the

casual

of

ordinary

but as an antient and established

custom, in the exercise of which they proceed

with

all

the
it

pomp and

songs

of

a public

ceremony;

becomes perhaps
in

/jroiai'Ze'.

The

remains of customs belonging to

remote ages are discernible


linen

most the shape and


the

construction of the wicker cars, wherein


is

the

brought upon
all

these

occasions,

and

which are used


first

over this country.

In the

view of them, we recognised the form


Rome; and
this,

of an antient car, of Grecian sculpture, in the


Vatican Collection at

although

of Parian Marble,

has been so carved as to


its

resemble wicker-work; while

wheels are

an imitation of those

solid

circular planes of

timber used at this day, in Troas, and in


the
country.
in

many

parts of Macedonia and Greece, for the cars of

They
the

are

expressly described

by Homer, litter, when


The
all

mention made of Prianis

the king

commands

his sons to

bind

(l)

full

description of such a ceremony occurs in the sixth


it is

book of the Odyssey; where


with
family.

related, that the daughter oi Alc'mous,

the Maidens of her train, proceeds to wash the linen of her

According to Pausanias, there was an antient picture to be

seen in his time, in which this subject was represented.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

145
wicker-ivorL
'

on the

chest,

or

coffer,

which was of

chap.

upon the body of the carnage ^

v
^
'

As we returned
twilight.

to the house of the ^gha, the

prospect of the Plain was becoming dim in


Samothrace
rose over
still
all,

appeared; and

when

the

moon

the minuter traces of


;

the scene were no longer discernible

but the

principal objects, in fine distinct masses, re-

mained long

visible.

In the morning
antiquities

we observed

number of
;

Antiquities

and about the place

such

as,

tashy.

fragments of Doric and

Ionic pillars of

marble,
and,

some columns of granite, broken


in short, those

bas-reliefs,

remains so profusely scattered


serving to

over this

extraordinary country;
cities

prove the number of

and

temples,

once the
every

boast of Troas, without enabling us to ascertain


the position of any one of them.

There

is

reason to believe that some antient town was


originally situate at

Boxarbashy;

not only

by

these remains, but

by the marks of antient

(2) Iliad fi.

This wicker chest, being; moveable,

is

u^ed or not, as

rircumstaiices

from a

may require. sketch made upon

The Vignette to this Chapter, engraved the spot by M. Preaux, exhibits to the
its

Reader a very accurate representation of the Homerian Car, with

appendage of wicker-work.

146
CHAP,
*

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
turrets^

as of a

citadel,

in the soil

immediately

^-

behind the house of the jigha.

The
in the

relics of

very

antient

pavement

may
;

also

be observed

in

the street of the village


it,

and

front of

upon a large block of Parian marble, used as a seat, near to the mosque, Mr. JValpole observed a curious Inscription, which is here subjoined, in^
an extract from his Journal '.

CO "

shall here give

an Inscription which

copied at BouruaIt is

bashy, and which has never yet been published.

on a piece of

marble, now serving as a seat, and very interesting, being found on


the supposed site of Troy
5

but to what

city of

the Troad
it.

it

belongec[,

cannot be determined from any fact mentioned in


omission of the
lura. adscript, it

From

the

may be
;

referred to the time of the

Romans
of the

(See Cfdshull, Antiq. Asiat.)

and a form of expression preis

cisely similar to

one

in

the inscription

to be found in the

Answer

Romans

to the Teians, in Chishull, p. 102.

..... ENPANTIKAIPnPEPITHZ PPOZTOOEIONEYZEBEIAZ KAIMAAIZTAPPOXTHNAOHNAN


EKTHSPPOTEPONrPA<l)EIZHZ

EPIZTOAHSPPOZYMAZPE
PEISMAinAZi<{>ANEPONPE <l>YKENAIKAOHNATZTEBOYZKAt

TOYZBOYKOAOYS
"
citizens or magistrates of the place
;

This Inscription seems to have formed part of a message to

the,

and the writer

refers in it to

something formerly addressed


oxen, w'hich
find

to

them concerning
;

piety towards the


is

Gods, but particularly towards Minerva

and mention
;

made cf

may have been


/iijyj,"

offered

up to the Goddess

as

Xerxes,

we

from Herodotus,
;

sacrificed to her,

when

at Trov, a tbousau4

oxen

Vf ;^(X/a;

WalpoW s MS.

Journal.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

14/
chap.
Height";
called

At a distance behind Bonarhashy, and not in any way connected either with the antiquities
there, or with the place itself, are the Heights,

The

which recent

travellers,

and

several

of the

^'^'"/"''"

author's particular friends, after the

example of

M.

Chevalier,

have thought proper

to entitle the

Acropolis of Antient Troy.

mind

satisfied

Not having his own upon the subject, he would be


in

extremely deficient

duty to

his

Readers,

if

any sense of private regard induced him


forego
the

to
his

stronger

claim they have to

sincerity.

Having already shewn the nature of


induced M. Chevalier to adapt ap-

the error concerning the source of the Scamander,

which

first

pearances at Bonarhashy to the history of Ilium,

he

is

now

particularly called

upon

to point out

M.

Chevaliers

other misrepresentations.
is

One
is,

of the most glaring tempei'ature


of the

that

which concerns the


another
to,

springs":

in

describing the heights

now

alluded

as a part

of the Chain of Mount Ida, although separated

from

it

by the whole

plain of Beyramitch,
east
:

which

intervenes towards the

and a

third, that

of representing the heights belonging to the

supposed

Acropolis,

as

a continuation of the
is

ascent whereon Bonarhashy

placed; so that

(2)

" The one


is

of these sources

is

in

reality

irnrm, &c. and the

other

always cold."

Chevalier

Descrift. of Plain of Troy, p. 127.

148
CHAP,
V

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
Reader supposes a gradual rise place from what he has defined as the
the
situation of the lower to the
to take

,^-

'

relative

upper

city ; although

a deep and rocky dingle intervenes, never yet


subjected to any effort of

human

labour, that

might serve to connect the two places with


each other.
are

The

antiquities on these heights

certainly very

remarkable,

and

worthy

every degree of attention a traveller can bestow

upon them.

We

shall

now proceed

to describe

their appearance.

Proceeding

in

a south-easterly direction from


is

the sloping eminence on which Bonarhashy


situate,

we

crossed the dingle here mentioned;


to climb the steep,
citadel

and then began

whereon

it

has been supposed the

of Priam stood.
it

Upon
Antient

the very edge of the summit, and as


it,

wcre hanging over

is

an antient tumulus,

constructed entirely of stones, heaped, after the


usual manner, into a conical shape, and of the

ordinary size of such sepulchres


various,

this,

although
cir-

may be

averaged according to a

cumference, for the base, equal to one hundred

yards

and these are nearly the dimensions of


Hector'.

the base of this tumulus, which has been called


the

Tomb of
(l)

That

this

name has been

It is uinety-three yarJs in circunifereuce.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
inconsiderately given, will be evident from the

145

chap.

statement of a single fact


of the wall once

namely, that

it

stands

outside of the remains, insignificant as they are,

surrounding the
;

which
posed
one
is

it is

placed

upon although that wall has been


hill

described as the antient inclosure of the supcitadel.

The evidence

aiftorded

by the

therefore nearly sufficient to contradict


;

the other

for,

although Homer be not explicit


of Hectors tomb,
it

as to the situation

there

is

every other reason to suppose


within

the walls of the city.

was erected But there are

other tumuli upon these heights, equally entitled,

by

their size

and

situation, to the distinction so


this.

hastily

bestowed upon
and
to

It will therefore

be curious
appellation,

to ascertain the cause of its present

shew how very


loose
stones";

little

foun-

dation

it

had

in reality.

This tumulus has been

formed

entirely

of

and

the

(2) Here we found a new Orchis Orchis HeroIca.

species of Orchis,
lahello
;

which we
olicordato

liave called

emarginatn,

litissimo
cornit
:

petalis sulerectis ovato ohlongis

bracleis
;

germine

longiorihiis i

fuhcendente subulato germine hreviore


bulbis ovatis.

foliis carinatis subtrisijormibus

By the
;

side of

it

grew the Yellow Star of Bethlehem,

Oinithngnlum luteum

and the Grape Hyacinth, Hi/ncinthus racemosns.

On

other parts of these heights

we
of
;

found, inoreoxer, a

new

species of

Cardamiyie, which has received the

name
it
:

of Cardamine tenella.

The

following

is

the

description

Cardatnine folds simplieihus,


subreniformiin their

ternatis, pinnatisfjue ciliatis pilosis


bits
;

foltolis last inecqualibus

siliquts

Uneuribus longis.

Other plants, interesting only

locality,
tensis,

were, Ananone Jpcnnina, Teucrium Polium,

^nemom Hor-

and Sedum' Cepcua.

150
CHAP,

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
coincidenee of such a circumstance with Homers
description of the

a sufficient
itself'.

Tomb of Hector was deemed proof of the identity of the tomb


however, to

Httle further attention,

monuments would have shewn that they were all constructed after the same manner
these
the stones of the other uimuli being only con-

cealed from observation by a slight covering of


soil.

From
is
is

this spot the


in

whole of the

Isle

of

Tenedos

view,

and a most magnificent

prospect

afforded of the course of the Scathe sea, with almost


it

MAKDER

to

all

Troas,
This

and every interesting object


consideration',

contains.

together with the remarkable


the
hill
itself,

character

of

surrounded
still

by

precipices above the river ^ and,

more, the

erroneous opinions entertained of the springs at


Bonarbashy, superseded every objection urged

concerning

its

distance from the coast, and the

utter impossibility of reconciling such a position

of the city with the account given

by Homer of

the manner in which Hector


its

was pursued around

wails

by

Achilles'^.

(1) Iliad XI.


(2) (3) horse.

Sea also Chevalier's Description, &c. p. 125.


" Est in conspectu Tenedos."

Whence
Iliad X.

the Trojans were invited to cast

down the Grecian


I.

(4)

Some

autliors, misled

by Virgil, C5?.

487.) have

affirmed that Achilles dragged the body of Hector thrice round th city.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

151

One hundred and twenty-three paces from the tumulus, called by Chevalier, and by others, the Tomb of Hector, is a second a more regular
;

and a more considerable artificial heap of the same nature, and in every respect having a
better
first.

title

to the

name bestowed upon


this is

the

The base of

one hundred and

thirty-three yards in circumference.

An

hun-

dred and forty-three paces farther on, upon the


hill, is

a third, the circumference of whose base

measured ninety yards.


called,

Names have been


all
;

already bestowed upon them

the^r^^ being

as before stated, the


;

Tomh of Hector
third,

the second, that of Priam


of Paris.

and the

that

After passing these tumuli, appear

the precipices flanking the south-eastern side of

the

hill

above the Scamander, which winds


its

So much has been already written and published upon the subject, that
around
base.
it

is

not necessary to be very minute in de-

scribing every trace of


hill.

human

labour upon this


is

The extent of its summit


fifty

eight

hundred
founin

and

yards

its

breadth, in the widest part,


fifty.

equals about two hundred and


dations

The

of buildings,

very inconsiderable

their nature,

and with no character of remote


discerned in several parts of

antiquity,
it:

may be

the principal of these are

upon the most

elevated spot towards the precipices surrounding

152
CHAP,
its

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
south-eastern extremity;

where the appearas

ances,

as

well

of

the

soil

of masonry,

certainly indicate the former existence of

antient superstructure.

some But the remains are


seem rather to be of those numerous

not of a description even to denote the site of


Probable ongm of
thesup^Aa-oiioiii.

Roman

citadel

they

vestiges
pirates

of

the

retreats

which
CcEsar,

in different

ages have infested the


in the time of

Hellespont;

and whose dispersion,

Drusus

gave occasion to the memorial

of gratitude before noticed, as inscribed upon

one of the marbles


2it

we removed from
tumuli

the ruins

Hal'il Elly^ .

This remark applies solely to

the buildings.

The

upon these heights


carried back

undoubtedly relate to a very different period

and whether
to

their history

may be

the

events of the Trojan War, or to the

settlement of Milesian colonies upon the coast,


is

a point capable of some elucidation, whenever

future travellers

may have

an opportunity to

examine their

interior.

Thus

far of Bonarhashy, its

springs,

and

its

antiquities.
in the place,

During the rest of our residence

we made

several excursions into

the Plain, revisiting the objects before described.

(l)

See the preceding: Chapter,

p. 111.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

I53
in

We

crossed

the whole

district,

different

directions, not less than seventeen times; but

have preferred giving the Reader the result of


our observations in a continued narrative, rather
than in the exact order of their occurrence
this
;

as

must necessarily have introduced superfluous and wearisome repetitions^. We took ^

o^'^en-^-

tionsbythe
roiarStar.

the following bearings

by the

polar star.

Due
line,

north of Bonarhashy stands the Hill of Tchiblack.

To

the west

lies

Tenedos; and in the same


is

nearer to the eye,


springs are

the

Tomb of jEsyetes.
;

The
tumuli,

towards the south

and the

upon the heights behind Bonarhashy,


south-east.

to

the

Lemnos, and a line of islands, are

seen from the heights, bearing from south-east

towards the

north-iuest.

On
when
(2)

the eiohth of March, the memorable day our troops under General Jlbercromhie
-^

Journey to
tlie

Sourcfe

of the
ji[cnder.

During these excursions,

collected

several

plants

which

deserve notice.

True Lion's Leaf, Lenntice Leontopetalum,

flourished

in different parts of the plain.

The blossoms
;

are yellow, with a tinge

of green,
Pseotiy
;

in large

leafy

bunches

the leaves almost like those of a

and the root a bulb, resembling that of the Cyclamen, but


This curious and beautiful plant
is

larger.

not yet introduced into

any English garden.


Holoschcenus.

Also the Cluster-headed Club Rush, Scirpus

This

is

found in England, upon the coast of Hampshire,


Solitary-flowered Trefoil, Trifoliuvi

and

in Devonshire.

uniflorum.

Dwarf rayed Thistle, Atractylis humilis. Beardless horned Cumin, Hypecoum imberhe, described by Dr. Smith in the Prodromus to
Dr. Sibthorpe's Flora Grcpca.

A non-descript

horned Cumin, with very

sharp leaves, and much-branched flower-stalks.


eoronaria,

The Poppy, Anemone

was common every wheti;.

154
ciTAP.
V

DISTRICT OF TROAS,

were landed
1

in Egypt,

and while that event

-,-,

was
its

actually taking place,


if

we

left

Bonarhashj,

determined,

possible, to trace the

Mender to

source in Mount Ida, about forty miles up

the country.

Distances in Turkey being everyto

where estimated according


hours
in

number of which caravans of camels, preceded by


the

an

ass,

are occupied in performing them, the


is

Reader

requested to consider every such hour

as equivalent to three of our English miles. After


riding, according to this estimate,

an hour and a
to the

half towards the south-east,


village of uiraplar.

we descended

We

afterwards proceeded
observed, in several
basaltic pillars.

through a valley, where


liasnmc
i

we

places, the appearance of regular


Y|jgj^(.g^

ins.

entering a defile of the mountains, very


in the Tirol,

like

some of the passes

we were
among

much

struck with the grandeur of the scenery.


their reed pipes

Shepherds were playing

the rocks, while herds of goats and sheep were

browsing on the herbage near the bed of the


torrent.
cupre,

We passed a place called Sarmo saktchy


In this,

an old coemetery, on the left-hand side of

the road.

by way of

grave-stone,

was

placed a natural
soil,

basaltic pillar,

upright in the

among fragments

of others.

The

pillar

was hexagonal; about seven


and ten inches diameter
;

feet in

height,

of hard black basalt,

without any horizontal fissures, like those seen


in the pillars of the Giant's

Causeway in Ireland,

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
but as regular
finest
in
its

155
chap.
-

sides and angles as the

specimen of crystallized emerald.

The

author,

who

has attended very particularly to

the appearances presented


parts of the world, in
lakes,

by

basalt

in

many

the beds
;

of rivers, in

and

in

the sea

and has traced them


the north coast of
is

almost the whole


Ireland,

way from

through

all

the Hebrides, to Iceland;

convinced that this regularity of structure in


basalt is entirely

owing

to crystallization.

The

original deposit

whence the

pillars in this place

were derived, does not lie far from the roadThe strata on each side consisted, for the most
part, of limestone
;

but

we observed

a subjacent
:

bed of

schistus,

containing greenish actinolite

jcHnoUte.

similar deposit has

been found upon the western


in

coast of Inverness-shire,

Scotland.

A
defile

wild

race of mountaineers

appeared
into

occasionally
;

descending
seated

the

heights

the

or

by the banks of the


feet,

river,

with sandals

on their

made

of undressed bulls' hides,


the

bound with thongs of


their ankles

and insteps.

same materials around Such was the caliga^


see
;

or military shoe, as

we now

it

represented
it is

by Grecian bronzes and medals


bable
that

and

pro-

from these mountains a costume

might be selected exhibiting the appearance of


the people over
country,
is

whom
to

JEneas, retiring

up the
the

said

have reigned,
L

after

VOL.

III.

156

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
capture of
'

CHAP,
/-

Troij'.

At

four hours' distance from


to the

Bonarbashy

we came

yEKEiA.

^NEiA

of Slratcr, situate

town of jEne, the upon a river falling

into the Mender,

which Mr. fVood has described

as being itself the Scamander\

The appearance

of the town

is

very pleasing, being ornamented

with cypresses, and backed by lofty rocks and We were surprised in finding a mountains.
place
of so
Its

much consequence

so

remotely
still

situate.

remarkable appellation,

com-

memorating the name of JEneas, and having

same appellation in the time of Augustus, speaks more forcibly the truth of the
borne the
story of Troy, than any written document.
is

It
is

an existing evidence, against which there


Its situation exactly
it

no possible appeal.

cor-^

responds with the position assigned to

by Slrabo, who relates its distance from Pal^e Scepsis, a name also preserved in the modern
Eshy
Shiipshu*.

appellation,

Upon

the

right

(l)

Slrah. Geog:r.
Ibid. p. 869.

lib. xiii.
^-/iff)

p.

873,
Thv

ed. Ox.

(^)

yovv

YlaXca^xn'^n

r7,s

fiiv

At/i'ia;

^li^^nt

dstf^KOVTet ffTC^IOVS.
(3)

K. &. X.

Descript of the Troade,


Fifty stadia, or six miles

p.

323.

and the Turkish Eshy have the same

The Greek word riaXa* The TurliS often translated epithets connected with the names of places mto their own Thus the laiiguag^e, while they retained the substantive unaltered. Palcc Scepsis of Slrabo still beairs the name with them of Esh^
(4)

and a quarter.

sig^nification.

Skilpshu.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
hand,
in the

157

approach

to JEnc, is a

most stupen-

chap.

dous

tLimuhis, called jllnc

Tcpe, literally JEneas


it

Tomb.

Some

Jens called

also

Sovran Ttpe, or

aJeXoirb.

Tojfih of the King.

The word Sovran has perhaps


Tcpe, signifying, in Turkish,
is

an

Italian origin.

an HEAP or tomb,
lia(pog
:

evidently the same with


to
afford,

and tradition seems


to

with

regard to this tomb, as good a foundation for


believing
Strabo
it

be the sepulchre of ^ncas, as


the authority of Demetrius of
in

found

in

Scepsis for his

royalty

the

country.
that
:

The

inhabitants

of jEne

pretend

they find
could hear

medals in considerable

number

we

of none, however, that had been seen of gold or

of silver

therefore the medals cannot be of very

antient date.

In the wall of the Khan, or Inn,

we

observed a marble, with the following imper-

fect Inscriptions

AYZ

E
r4

On AT H P TO M N H M E O H S E A A K PYn TA O Z
1

In a

ccsmetery close
to

to

the road

leading

from jEne
stones.

Turkmanle,

the inhabitants

had

used natural as well as

artificial pillars for

grave-

We

upright in

saw several columns of basalt the earth, mixed ^Yith others of


1.

158
CHAP,
'rraniie.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
There were no less than twelve of the
of the Doric order.

<

.y

>

latter,

This part of our

journey, from
Plain of
mitch.

^ne

to

Turkmanle,

conducted
of

ug through part of the beautiful Plain of Beyramitch;

appearing

to

the

eye one

the

happiest territories in nature, cultivated like a


garden, regularly inclosed, and surrounded

by

mountains.
places
is

The

distance

between the two


half.

said to be

two hours and a

We

frequently

met camels and dromedaries, and


in

we observed buffaloes everywhere used in tillage^


The road
crossed

some places consisted of


extent.
antient
bridge.

antient

pavement, to a considerable

We

also

an

Before

entering

Turkmanle,

we observed

the

appearances
together

of

mounds heaped upon the a few granite pillars, some

soil,

mth
still

of which

were

standing, and other remains denoting the site

of some antient citadel or temple.


tiquities

Various an-

may be

noticed in the whole of this

route

they are very abundant in and about

the town of Turkmanle.


this place,

As we drew nigh

to

the view of Gargarus, the highest

of

all

the chain of mountains belonging to Ida,


in great

appeared

grandeur; but so invested


feared

by snow,
at the to

that

we

we

should be unable

to reach its

summit.

The north wind blowing

same time

piercingly,

we had

reason

apprehend that our

difficulties

would rather

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
increase

159
chap.
V.
^ >.
..

than diminish.

We

continued our
at

journey, however,

and arrived

TurhmanU.
hospitality,

Here we experienced that cleanly and that homely welcome, which are
to characterize the inhabitants of
districts.

^iZiU.

often found

mountainous

Our

host received us into a large

and airy room, upon whose spacious hearth he had heaped together the entire trunks of
trees, all of

which were

in a blaze.
;

sheep

was

instantly killed,

and dressed

not only for

our present meal, but to serve as provision for


our journey.
lighted
interior
halls of in

Instead of torches or candles,

splinters 'of

of our

wood were used. The chamber reminded us of the


members
of the family, from

some of our oldest English mansions;


all

which

the

the highest to the lowest,

met

together.

It is

very probable that our ancestors borrowed the


style

of their dwelling-houses from the East^

during the Crusades.

The custom of suspending


quite
Oriental;

arm-our, weapons, and instruments for the chace,

upon the

walls,

is

so

is

that

of the raised platform for superior guests constir


tuting the upper extremity of the apartment.

To

these

may be added
full

the small panelled


;

wainscot,
latticed

of

little

cupboards

and the

windows, nearer to the

ceiling than to

the floor.

Several of the inhabitants came to

pay

Hieir respects,

and welcome the strangers;

160
CHAP.
V

DISTRICT OF TRDAS.

They had never

before seen Englishmen

but

-y-

./

they gave us an account of certain Frenchmen^


w\\o had endeavoured, without success, to visit

the top pf Gargarus, which they called Kazdaghy:.

From

this place a

road leads to Beyram, antiently

Assos, upon the Adramytlian Gulph,


Ydramit.

now

called

The Ruins of Assos were described


employ any person two

to us as sufficient to

days in a mere survey.


said
to

Many

Inscriptions are

exist

there,

hitherto

unobserved by

European

travellers.

Half an hour

after

leaving Turhmanle

we

came
place
'Warm
Spring

to

Bonarhashy of Beyramitch, the second


seen of that name; and so called,
its

we had

likc tlic first,

ffom

vicinity to ih.Q fountain-head

of some very remarkable

warm

springs, three
artificial

of which gush with great violence from


structed of antient materials.

apertures, into a marble reservoir entirely con-

This beautiful
finest Oriental

bason

is

shaded by the oldest and


Its

plane-trees.

waters take their course into


fall

the plain,

where they

into the Mender.

The

people of the place relate the same story of


these springs as of the others at Bonarhashyy
the supposed site of Ilium.

They

affirm, that

they are
it is

cold in

summer, and

hot in winter,

when
frost

said

smoke ascends from them.

The

>vas on the ground at the

same time we tasted

DISTRICT OF TROAS."
tlie

IGl
chai'.
.

water, which

was
it

quite

warm

yet bufH^loes
to

were swallowing
delight in

greedily,

and seemed
Its

the draught they made.

tempefound

rature
it

is

probably always the same.

We

equal to 69 of Fahrenheit.

The

shafts of

two

pillars of granite, of the

Doric order, stood, one


;

on each side of the fountains


culum of a marble Soros
'

and half the

ope?-

lay in the v/all above

them.

Some

peasants brought to us a few


effigies

barbarous medals of the lower ages, with


gf Saints and Martyrs.

An hour
Dardanelles,
It
is

after leaving this place

we came

to uei/m.

Beyramitch, a city belonging to the Pasha of the

and present
place,

capital of all

Troas.

a large

filled

with shops.

The

houses seemed better built and more regularly


disposed than in Constantinople.
Ail the land

around belongs

to the

Pasha before mentioned,

whom
is

the Porte has nearly ruined

by extorted

contributions.

In the yard of the Khan, or Inn,

a inarhle cglumn, exhibiting a variety of the

Doric order, which

we had

then never seen,

excepting in Thoas.

Instead of being fluted.

(1)

The

substitution of Soros for Sarcophagus

is

not made with the


ap[>lies will

smallest disposition to
antient Greek

pedantry, but as

it

strictly

to the

Tomb.

Some remarks upon

this subject

be found

ju the following Chapter.

162
CHAP,
the shaft
is

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
bevelled, so as to present a poly-

gonal surface.

Others, of the same kind, were


lying

among

the

antiquities

on

the

hill

at

Tchiblack.

This column stands in the middle

of a bason, serving as a public conduit, wholly

constructed of antient materials.

All

these,

together with an astonishing quantity of other


stones for building, were brought from

Ruins lately discovered upon a lofty

hill,

some which

we were

told

we

should pass immediately after

leaving Beyramitch, in our journey towards the

source of the Mender

the Pasha havinof

made

very considerable excavations there, in search of marbles, and other building materials. In the
streets of Beyramitch

we

noticed more than one

Soros constructed of entire

masses of

granite,

which the inhabitants had removed from the same place. One of the inhabitants told us he

had
if

lately

brought thence several broken pieces

of sculpture, to which

we

should be welcome,

we

could obtain permission from the Pasha

for their removal.

This was granted, and

we

afterwards brought them to England'.

(l)

They

are

Camh-idge.

now in the Que of them

vestibule of the

University Library at

represents the lower half of a female


is

figure^ the drapery of which


of Juno,
in

exquisitely fine

the other

is

a bust
p. 38.

Parian marble. See No. XVJ. and p. 48. No. XXVI.

" Greek Marbles,"

&c.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

103
cttap.
'

The
than a
at

place where
is

all

these antiquities have

been discovered
hill,

rather a conical mountain

bearing the

name

of Kushiinlu Tepe,

Ki'ish unli.

^"^^^

two hours' distance from Beyramitch, towards Indeed it has been so placed by Gargarus.
it

Nature, that

resembles a sort of advanced

immeThe Mender, or ScAMANDER, flows at its foot. The river is here generally called Kasdagky, from the name now given to Gargarus, the mountain whence it The principal site of the antiquities issues. upon Kushunlu Tepe is about half way up the side of the immense cone which bears this name but very remarkable ruins may be traced thence all the way to the summit. Having
position at the base of that mountain,
diately beneath its summit.
;

arrived at the base of the cone,

we

left

our

horses by the side of the river, and ascended


to the Ruins.

The

first

that

we
and

noticed w^as an
fifty-four wide^

area, ninety-two yards long

covered with fragments of

terra cotta,

and also

with pieces of antient glass, such as broken


lachrymatories, and other small vessels.
the north side,

On
by

part of a wall remained,

which the area had been

originally inclosed,

about fourteen feet in height. The work seemed


to be of the age of the Romans, from the
tiles,

baked

four inches thick, and the cement, used

an

its

construction.

On

the western extremity

164

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
of the area were considerable remains of bat^-,

CHAP,

whose stuccoed walls and terra-cotta conduits were still entire in several places. An excavation had been made by the Turks, on the south
side, for

the stones of the foundation, to the


feet.

depth of twenty-two

By

the appearance

of the foundation, the walls, on this side at


least,

had

been double,

and admitted of a
this area (per-

passage between them.

Above

haps that of a
tombs.

temple),

towards the north, were


tliirteen

We

entered an arched vault,


five v/ide,

yards long, and

and saw near


in

to it

the remains of a bath, wanting only the roof.

Here lay some


meter,

columns sixteen inches

dia-

among

pieces of broken amphorce, frag-

ments of marble, granite, basalt, blue chalcedony,,


and
jasper.

The

following letters, of the only

Inscription

we

could find, on a brdken slab of

marble, afford no other information than that the

language in use here was Grecian; and eveu


|;his

evidei]ce

must not be disregarded


,
.

...... OS

AION
PIOY

We
artist,

presently

came

to the cornice of a Doric

entablature, of such prodigious size, that our

Mons'. Preaux,

st^id

he had seen nothing

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
like it in Athens.

105
re-

There were other Doric


diameter,

chap.
V.
1
..^,

mains

and the shaft of one Corinthian column, v_


in

twenty-two inches from the Doric


canelure
the
hill

distinguished

in

having the edges of the

flat

instead of sharp.

Higher upon

we

found the remains of another temple

the area of this measured one hundred and forty

Here the workmen had taken up about a hundred blocks of stone and marble every one of which eleven inches in length, and measured five feet
yards long, and forty-four wide.
;

eiofhteen inches in thickness.

We

afterwards

found one of the angular corners of the foundation of this temple; a bath,

whose roof was yet


of

entire;

and

another

fragment

the

Doric

entablature before mentioned.


Jupiter being
all

The

temples o( ^f^;;^f^f
it is

of the Doric order,

very

^i"'^'^-

probable,

whatever may be the antiquity of

these works, that here

was the

situation of the

Temple and Altars of Idcean Jove, mentioned by


JIomer\ hj
situation,
JEsc.hyhis'\

and by Plutarcfi\

Their

with respect to Gargarus, agrees with

Homers description. According to JBschylus, they were EN lAAIP.I nAmi; and the highest
(1) Iliad O. 47.

(2) ^schyl. in Niob.


(3) Xla^ixiirai
%'

Vid. Slral,. Geo^r.


ooo;
'

lib. xii.

p. TAO,

auTu
fica/ioi

Issj,

to rrooTt^n Vt

ixaXuro Taeya^m, oxou


ipsi

Aio; xcu Miirgoj i)y


jirius

Tvyy^atouffit.

Adhaeret

mons

Ide, qui

vocabatur Gargarus, ubi Jovis et Matris Deorutn altaria occurPlutarcb. de Fluv. p. 41.
cd. Tolosa: ap, Bosc. 1615.

riiirt."

166
CHAP,
point of
all

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
the Id^an Chain extends itself into
hill at its

the plain, in such a manner, that the


base,

upon which these Ruins appear, is, in The baths serve fact, a part of Gargariis itself. place, and there to illustrate the history of the

warm springs in the neighbourhood. The original temple was therefore, probably, a very
are
antient fane of Jupiter Liberator, situate near to

the heights of Ida, on the site of which, in later


ages, these buildings

were afterwards

raised.

The most remarkable circumstance


to be related
stitions
;

is

now

and

it

seems

to refer us to super-

connected with the veneration in which

the top of Gargarus


seat

was

antiently held,

as the

of

the

Immortal Gods'.

spacious

(1) Vibius Sequester, in his treatise

De
his

Montilus, speaks of Garin

garus as the summit of


tnontis

Mount

Ida

" Gargarus

Phrygid Ida

cacumen."

And Maussacus,

in

Notes upon Plutarch {De

Fluv.),

who

cites this passage,

also observes, as a

comment upon

the

word

Va^ya^ov,

" Non

Ida, sed ejus cacumen aut fa^tigium Gargarus

Hesychius, Grammaticorum princeps, rd^ya^ev, ocx^ut^^iod The fact is, however, that an actual view of the country affords the best comment upon the antient Geographers, who have not clearly pointed out the nature of this part of Phrygia. The

dictum fuit.

i^evs"l^>i;."

district called

Ida consists of a chain of different mountains, one of


Freinshemius, in his Supplement to
places thick
set
Avith

which, separately considered, bore the name of Gargarus; and this


is

higher than any of the


Curtius,
called
affirms,

rest.

Quintus
antiently

that

trees

were

Id^

"

Nam

condensa arboriltts loca


Freinsh.
is

Idas anti(/ui

dixere"

Quint. Curt. Suppl.

lib. ii.

In Mr.' fPTilpole's Journal, there


subject

the following Note upon this

"

Ida

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
winding road, sixteen yards
the Kushiinlu.
All the
in breadth, leads

16/
chap.

from the remains of these temples to the top of

way up may be
but

noticed

the traces

of former works;
is

upon the
exhibiting

summit, there
in

a small oblong area, six yards

length,

and

two

in

breadth,,

vestiges of the highest antiquity.

The stones

forming the inclosure are as rude as those of


the walls of Tirynthus in
is

Argolis; and the by a grove of venerable whole The oaks, covering the top of the cone. entrance to this area is from the south : upon
encircled

the east and west, on the outside of the trees, are stones, ranged like
call Druidical circles.

what we,

in

England,
is

From hence

the view

grand indeed.
is

Immediately before the eye

spread the whole of

Gargarus; seeming.

"

Ida

is

allowed,

iu

Herodotus, to tneao the summit Gargarus.

Now, from comparing


Gargara
is

the above passages with Strabo, p. 843. where

said to be a
;)

town on Gargarus, a height of Ida,

(see

Casaubon's note, there

and

p.

872. where
;

it is

said to be a

promon-

tory of the Adramyttian Gulph

and consulting Hesychius, where

Gargarum
Ida.
It

is

a height of Ida, and a city of the Trojan district near

Antandros, we get the following particulars relating to this summit of

was near the coast, for


it

it

the coast, in a recess of

(Strabo, p. 872.), and the


;

was near Antandros, which was on town Gargara on


so that Xerxes,
left
;

the coast was upon this mountain

on passing by

Antandros, would pass by this mountain on his


into the Iliean territory,

and on coming

would have some way to go before he reached


thirty-five

Troy;
(Anton.

for Alexandria
Itin.)
;

Troas was
still

miles from Antandros

and Troy was

farther."

JValpolca

MS. Journah

163

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
from
1

CHAP,

its

immense
if

size

and the vastncss of

Iti^

V.
,,

features, as
this spot

those

who were

stationed

upon
its

might converse with persons upon

clear

and snowy summit.


its

A bold and sweeping

ridge descends from

top to the very base of

the cone of Kushunlu Tepe; and thip, as a stu-

pendous natural
tain.

altary
is

stands before the mountlie

Far below

seen

bed and valley

of the

ScAMANDER, bearing
its origin.

a wesiivard courscj

from the place of

As

the author descended, he found his

com--^-

panions busied
scribed.

among They had found a very

the Ruins before debeautiful


in

column, part of

which they discovered buried


artist,

the

soil,

and also a bronze medal of the city of


Mons'. Preaux, the

Corinth.

had

also

completed some very interesting views.


night

The

was passed

at the foot of Gargarus, three


in

hours distant from this place,


Ev-mlr.

one of the

most wretched

villages oi Turkey, called Evgillar.

The

arrival of strangers at first excited

some

suspicion

among

its

inhabitants,

who regarded
;

the whole party as so

many

French spies, and

even proceeded

to

alarming menaces

but a
honest

Jirman being produced, and the object of the

journey explained,

these

simple and

mountaineers conducted themselves with hospitality

and kindness.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

IG9
chap.

On the
sky

following'

morning, by day -break, the

being"

cloudless,

towards the

we began to ascend summit of the mountain. During


year,

ti.rsuin^

the greatest part of the


JEtna,
is

Gargarus, like

^Ir^Lu*.

characterized

by a
and

triple
;

zone

first,

a district of cultivated land

afterwards, an

assemblage of forests
through the

lastly,

toward the
Passing

summit, a region of snow and


first

ice.

on horseback,

we ascended by
in

the banks of the Scamander.

The scenery was

uncommonly
Salerno,

fine

it

resembled the country


Vietri,

the neighbourhood of

where

Salvaior

upon the Gidph of Rosa studied and painted


During the
first
Oratoricsof

the savage and uncouth features of Nature, in


his great

and noble

style.

hour,

we

passed the remains of some small

Greek chapels, the oratories of ascetics,


the dark spirit of superstition, in the

whom
fourth

century of the Christian

sera,

conducted, from

the duties of civil society, to the wildest and

most

untrodden

solitudes.

Secluded

from
these

scenes of war and revolutionary fury,


buildings remain nearly as they were
left

v/hen

the

country became
;

part

of

the

Turhhk
if

empire

nor would

it

have been marvellous,

mouldering skeleton,
altar,

at the foot of a forsaken

had exhibited the remains of the


votaries.

latest

of

its

One

of them, indeed, placed


in

above the roaring

torrent,

situation

of

i/0

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

imcommon
of the
colours.

sublimity,

painting of the Firgin,


eastern

was so entire, that a upon the stuccoed wall


still

extremity,

preserved

its

began to traverse the belt of forests, and were enabled to get half-way through this part of the ascent upon our horses the undertakinof afterw^ards became more tedious and
:

We now

difficult,

and

we

w^ere compelled to proceed on

foot.

Half-congealed snow lying

among
the

the

rocks,

and loose stones, rendered

way
of

dubious
of

and

slippery.

In

this

region

Gargarus there are

many

wild-boars, the traces

whose ploughing were very


left

fresh in

many
to

places.

Higher up, our guides shewed

us

marks

by the

feet of tigers.
;

They

find also
to take

leopards in these wilds

and are obliged

when they are killed, to the Pasha of the Dardanelles. The extensive survey we should enjoy from the heights was occasionally disclosed by partial openings in this scene of
their skins,
forests.

Already the whole Island of Tenedos

was

in view,

and

all

the

Trojan Plain.

Our

guides began to

talk

of the impossibility of

reaching the top of the mountain, and

murmured

alarms of chasms and precipices in the glacier

above

at this

we

did not wonder, having often


in similar

been accustomed to such treatment

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
enterprises.

171

We

expected to be deserted by

chap.

them

in the end,

and

it

proved

to

be the case

although

we were

not prepared for what

we

encountered afterwards.
the zone of forests
:

At length we cleared
above was
icy, bleak,

all

and
of

Our little party, by stragglers, was soon reduced


fearful.

the
to

number
a

small

band.

Neither the Jewish interpreter,

whom
of the

we had
artist,

brought from the Dardanelles, nor the


farther.

would go a step
however,

One

guides,

with Mr.

Cripps,

and our

Greek servant, remained with the author.

We

were reduced to the necessity of advancing upon our hands and feet, neither of which made the smallest impression upon the icy surface of
the snow.

Soon afterwards we found ourselves


slightest slip of one of our

hanging over the brink of a precipice, so tre-

mendous, that the


feet

would,

we

perceived,

afford

speedy

passage to eternity.

Here our servant refused

to proceed, and the guide

from following his

was only prevented example by brandy. The

author therefore prevailed on Mr. Cripps,


against his inclination, to remain behind
;

much
and,

by making

holes for the hands and feet, advanced

with the guide.


of eminence

The mountain has

four points
rise

toward the summit, which

successively, one higher than the other.

Our

progress led us to the third of these; the lowest,


VOL.
III.

i;2

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
except one
;

CHAP,
'

and

this point

we

attained in

tliej

_'

manner described.

From hence

the transition

to the base of the second point, over the frozen

snow along
without

the ridge of the mountain,


;

was made

difficulty

although the slope on each

side presented a frightful precipice of above a

thousand

feet.

At the base of the second

point,

viewing the sheet of ice before him, the guide


positively refused to proceed
;

and finding the


trial,

author determined to

make
all

a further

he

began

to

scream with

his might, breaking off

with his feet some nodules of the frozen snow,


in order to prove that the smallest fragment, if

once set

in motion,

would be carried

into the
to

gulph on either
sure,

side.

The ascent was,

be

somewhat critical, because it could only be effected by a ladder of ice. The author cut
holes for his hands and feet, his face touching

the surface of the steep as he continued climbing.

The north wind blew with a degree of violence that made the undertaking more difficult; for
his fingers,

almost
the

frozen,

lost

their

feeling.

tiger,

when

snow was
his
feet^;

fresher,

had

left

an impression of

and these marks


in

proved a valuable guidance'


direction to be pursued.

shewing the

In this

manner the

(l)

The author has only the

authority of the natives for

tlie

resort

of tigers to this mountain,

and the marks of

their feet in the snow

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
author reached the second point.
Still
;

173
a long

and laborious track was before him but the greatest difficulty was over. He advanced with
eagerness

over

an
all,

aerial

ridge,

toward the

where no vestige of anyHere the living being could be discerned. ascent was easier than before; and in a few minutes he stood upon the summit. What a
highest point of
spectacle!
It

view from
Pointof
tahi.

seemed as
of

if all

European Turkey,
really

and the whole


modelled before
glass.
first
;

Asia Minor, were

him on a vast surface


objects

of

The great
with
to

drew

his

attention

afterwards he examined each particular

place

minute

observation.

The
all

eye,

roaming

Constantinople,

beheld
of

the

Sea

of Marmora,
Asiatic

the

mountains
all

Priisa,

with

Olympus, and

the surrounding terin

ritory

comprehending,

one

survey,

all

Propontis

and the Hellespont, with the shores of Thrace and Chersonesus, all the north of the
jEgean,

Mount
Eithoea
;

Athos, the

Islands

of Imhrus,
all

Samothrace, Lemnos,

Tenedos,

and

beyond,

even to
Smyrna,

the entrance to the Gulph of


all

almost

Mijsia,

and Bithynia, with


Looking down upon

part of Lydia and Ionia.

Troas,
him.

it

appeared spread as a lawn before


distinctly

He

saw the course of the


the

Scamander
sea.

through

Trojan

Plain to

the

This visible appearance of the

river, like

174
CHAP.
^

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
^ silver thread, offered a clue to other objects.
'

"v

He

could

now

discern the

Tomb

of yEsyetes, and

even Bonarbashy.

At the base of the mountain, and immediately below his eyes, stood the conical hill of Kushunlu Ttpe, upon whose sides
and summit are the Ruins before described.
Notliiug cau bc better calculated to
i i

Errors
in the Geography of
try.

shew the
i

erroneous nature of all the maps published


country, than the view from this place.
j4dramyttinn Gulph
that
it

r i oi the

The

is

so close to the mountain,


;

may be
upon

said to skirt its base

inclining

towards the

north-east,

and bearing so much


side,

round
the

the noj-th-eastern
it

that

the

extremity of

is

concealed 'by that part of

Idceaii Chain.

Thus

it

would seem imposfrom

sible for

any one

to pass in a direct line

the end of the Gulph to the Dardanelles, without

leaving not only the Chain of Ida, but even

Gargarus, upon the

lej^t

hand.

This information

had before been obtained from the people of


the country;

and

if

the ascent had been im-

practicable, the fact

well ascertained.

would have been tolerably The satisfaction, however,j


and the
history
difficulties raised,

of confirming the truth by actual observation,

was now obtained


of
reconciling

the

of Xerxes

march
real

from Jldramyttium. to Ahydus\ with the


Herodot.

(1)

lib. vii.

p. ,j30.

, ;

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
geography of the country, were done away.

175

chap.
v

The

fact

is,

that an ordinary route of caravans,

from Ydramitt (j^dramyttmm) to the Dardanelles,

now
all

confirms the accuracy

of the

historian.

In the observance of this route, Gargarm, and


the Chain of Ida towards Ledum, are
left.

the

statement of this route,

upon and the


in

several

distances,

have been subjoined


is

Note below".
and as
it

There

yet another singular


this

appearance from the summit of

mountain

this is pointedly alluded to

by Homer
from the
^ppear-

seems

to offer a strong reason for believing

that the poet

had himself beheld

it

same place. ^
of
all

.... the Idcean Chain diminish in


.

Looking towards Ledum, the tops


altitude

anceofthc
i<i(eav.

by a
.

Chain
towards

regular gradation, so as to resemble a series


of steps, leading to Gargarus, as to the highest

point

of the

whole.

Nothing can therefore

more

forcibly illustrate the

powers of Homer as

a painter, in the display he has given of the


country, and the fidelity with which he deli-

neates every feature in

its

geography, than his

(2)

Ydramitt to Ballia
I>allia

to

Carab(5 to

Carab^ Bazar Keuy


to KirisI^

Hours

9
7

6
8 8

Bazar Keuy

Kirisl^ to the iDardanelles -

Total

38

170
CHAP,
>

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
description of the ascent of Juno
'

kom Ledum

to Gargarus

'

by a

series of natural eminences,

unattainable indeed
senting, to the

by mortal

tread, but pre-

great conceptions

of poetical

fancy, a scale adequate to the

power and dignity

of superior beings.

Upon

all

the points of this mountain, former

adventurers have raised heaps of stones, as

marks of

their enterprise^.

These were now

nearly buried in snow.

The author

availed

himself of one of them, to ascertain the tem-

perature of the

by placing his thermometer in the shade. It was now midThe day, and the sky was without a cloud.
atmosphere,

mercury soon
Dangerous^
situation ot

fell

to the freezing point,

but

it

did not sink lower during the time he remained.

As hc dcsccnded, not a
^

vestio-e of his ascent o

the Author,

could bc disccmed

and he unfortunately passed


point
of the

without noticing the particular part of the steep


leading to the third

mountain,

CO

Iliad S. 283.

(2) During' the heat of

summer, the

gjlacier

on

this

mountain
easy.

is

dissolved, and the ascent rendered therehy

much more

The

Earl of Aberdeen, as he informed the author, afterwards succeeded in visiting' the summit without difficulty, by choosing a more advanced
season of the year.

The

guides, however, thought proper to relate


tVie

that they never had been able to reach

highest point; perhaps to

avoid the trouble to which the attempt would expose them.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
In this whence he had gained the height. manner he lost his way, and wandered about, for three hours, over dreadful chasms and icy
precipices, in a state of painful anxiety
at last,
;

177

until

overcome

witli excessive fatigue, thirst,

and cold, he sank down upon a bleak ridge,

and moistened
his

his

mouth by
his

eating snow.

To

unexpected comfort, he experienced both


;

refreshment and warmth

benumbed

fingers

recovered their sensation, and he again en-

deavoured to walk.

Looking down towards

the south-west, he perceived, at an

immense

depth below, the very guide who had deserted


him, endeavouring to climb towards the third
point of the mountain, but always returning

back, and at last giving up the attempt.


erting every effort,
this

he succeeded

in

Exmaking

man

hear him;

who

then remained as a

mark, directing him to the ridge by which he

had ascended.
place,
all

When

he came to

this fearful

his resolution forsook him.

He

could

not persuade himself that he had climbed an


icy steep so terrible;

but presently perceived


for his feet.

the holes before

made

Upon

this,

striking his heels into the

hardened snow, so

as to form a stay for his support, he sat

down

and by slow degrees ventured


sliding

off the declivity;

sometimes

for

a yard or two, and then

stopping, so as not to acquire a greater velocity

178
ca^P

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
than he could check, by forcing in the staff of
I

.V

his

pipe* and one of his heels

at

the
left

time.

shp to the right or to the

same would

infallibly

have carried him over a precipice on


the ridge
its

either side;

whereon he descended
to

resembling, in

form, the roof of a house.

The guide was now heard, bawling


steer this

him

to

way

or that, as he inclined too

much

either to one side or to the other,

and acting

as a beacon for his course, until he reached

the spot where this

man

stood

when, having

caught him in his arms, he cried out with great


joy, "^//
/
;

^///"

There remained
this

still

much
over.

to

be done

and

was happily got

About a mile lower down they found their companions. Having in vain endeavoured to
kindle
a
fire,

they had collected themselves

into a sheltered cavity near the higher

bound-

ary of the

second

region

of

the

mountain,

waiting with the utmost inquietude.


flagon of brandy

Here a
and the

was soon emptied


still

guide,

who had accompanied

the author, proving

that old customs

existed in the country,

vowed
It

to sacrifice a fat ram, for the events of

the day, as soon as he should reach the village.

was two hours

after

dark before the party

arrived at Evgillar.
(1)

The Turkish
staff.

pipe

is

sometimes fashioned to serve also

as a stout

walking

It

is

theu tipped with horn.

Vaults ihscoitrcil among tl,cB.u\u6 ./ Alexandria Troas.

CHAP.

VI.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
Second Excursion upon Gargarus
of the Scamander

Greek Chapels Source Journey Alexandria Troas StuBergas ChemaU Decomposition of pendous Column Hot Baths Forvi of Sepulchre Soros Alexandria Troas Splendid Remains of Public Balnea. Other City of
to

Gi-anite

the

called

Vestiges

the

Votive

Tomb of ^Esyetes Interesting InscriptionS'lgenmAntiquitfes Erkessy


Tablet
to

Drusus Caesar

Udjek

Mount

180

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

Mount
to

Athos

Tombs mentioned ly Strabo

Reluni

the

Dardanelles Summary

of Observations made

in

Troas.
the eleventh of March, having collected

CHAP
VI. Second

(Jn

^~V

our guides and horses as upon the preceding

fpoTcar- ^^Y'
gurus.

^^

^^^

o^^
the

again

from

Evgillar,
to
visit

and
the

proceeded

up

mountain,

Cataract, v^hich constitutes

the source of the

Mender, on the north-west side of Gargarus.

Ascending by the side of its clear and impetuous


torrent,

we

reached, in an hour and a half, the

lower boundary of the woody region of the


Greek
Chapel.

mouutaiu.
.

Hcrc we saw a more


preceding day,

entire

Chapel ^

than either of those described in our excursion

during

the

situate
Its

upon an
form

was quadrangular, and oblong. The four walls were yet standing, and part of the roof: this was vaulted, and lined with painted stucco. The
the
river.

eminence

above

altar also

remained, in an arched recess of the


:

eastern extremity

upon the north

side of it

was

a small and low niche,


table.

containing

marble
very

In the arched recess


;

was

also a

antient painting of the Virgin

and below, upon

her

left

hand, the whole-length portrait of some

Saint,

holding an open volume.

these figures were each encircled

The heads of by a nimbus.

Upon

the right-hand side of the Firgin there

'

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

181
;

had been a

similar painting of another Saint


it

chap.

but part of the stucco, upon which

had v.v

been painted, no longer remained.

The word
The dimenfeet

riAPGENON, written among other


racters,

indistinct cha-

appeared upon the


Its height

wall.

sions of this building

were only sixteen

by

eight.

was not

quite twelve feet,

from the
roof.

floor to the

beginning of the vaulted

windows commanded a view of the river, and a third was placed near the altar. Its walls, only two feet four inches in
small
thickness, afforded, nevertheless, space for the

Two

two very large fir-trees, that were actually growing upon them. As we advanced
roots of

along the banks of this river, towards

its

source,
;

we
in

noticed appearances of similar ruins

and

some

places,

among
;

rocks, or

by

the sides of

precipices,

we

observed the remains of several


as
if

habitations

together

the monks,

who

retreated hither,

had possessed considerable


near to the source of
stony.

settlements in the solitudes of the mountain.

Our
the

ascent, as
river,

we drew

became steep and

Lofty

summits towered above

us, in the greatest style


its

of u^Ipine grandeur; the torrent, in

rugged
left.
Source of

bed below, foaming


Presently

all

the while

upon our

we

entered

one of the

subhmest
;

natural amphitheatres the eye ever beheld

and

manucr.

here our guides desired us to

alight.

The noise

182

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
of waters silenced every other sound.

CHAP,
VI

Huge

craggy rocks rose perpendicularly, to an im-

mense height
with pines

whose

sides and fissures, to the

very clouds, concealing their tops, w^ere covered


;

growing
moss,

in

every possible direction,

among

a variety of evergreen shrubs, wild sage,


ivy,

hanging

and

creepiilg

herbage.

Enormous plane-trees waved their vast branches above the torrent. As we approached its deep
gulph,

we

beheld several cascades,

all

of foam,

pouring impetuously from chasm.s in the naked


face of a perpendicular rock.
It
is

said the
all

same magnificent cataract continues during


seasons of the year, wholly unaffected
casualties of rain or of melting snow.
river so ennobled

by the
That a

by

antient history should at

the same time prove equally eminent in circumstances of natural


dignity,
is

a circumstance

worthy of being
uncertain
of

related.

Its origin is

not like

the source of ordinary streams, obscure and


;

doubtful

locality

and indeterdifficulty,

minate character; ascertained with

amongst various petty subdivisions,

in

swampy

places, or amidst insignificant rivulets, falling

from different parts of the same mountain, and


equally tributary
:

it

bursts at once from the


all
it

dark

womb

of

its

parent, in

the greatness of

the divine origin assigned to


(I) Iliad O.
1.

by Homer \

The

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
early Christians,

183
fled

who
to

retired or

who

from

chap.
VI.

the haunts of society to the wildernesses of

Gargarus, seem
selecting,

have been

fully sensible

of the effect produced by grand


as

objects,

in

the

place

of

their

abode,

the

scenery near the source of the

Scamander;
in

where the voice of Nature speaks


awful
tone
;

her most
waters,

where,

amidst

roaring

waving
of

forests,

and broken precipices, the mind


impressed, as by the influence

man becomes

of a present Deity ^

The course
with very
west.
Its
;

of the river, after

it

thus emerges,

little

variation, is nearly
is

from east to
of

source
or,

distant from Evgillar about

nine miles

according to the

mode
:

compu-

tation in the country, three hours


is

half this time

spent in a gradual ascent from the village.


it

The rock whence

issues consists of micaceous

schistus, containing veins of soft marble.

While

the Artist was employed in making drawings,


ill

calculated to aflbrd any adequate ideas of the

grandeur of the scenery,


to examine

we climbed
the

the rocks,
of

more

closely

nature
issues.

the

chasms whence the torrent

Having

(2) PrcEsentiorem et conspicimus

Deum,

Per invias rupes, fera per juja,


Clivosque praeniptos, sonantes
Inter aquas, nemoruinque iioctem!

184

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
reached these,

CHAP,
VI.

we

found, in front of them, a

beautiful natural bason, six or eight feet deep,

serving as a reservoir for the water in the

first
fall.

moments It was so

of

its

emission, and

before

its

clear, that the

minutest object might

be discerned
to

at the bottom.

The copious overcascades,

flowing of this reservoir causes the appearance,


a

spectator
to

below, of different

falling

the depth of about forty feet; but

there

is

only one source.


issues.

Behind are the chasms

whence the water

We

passed through

one of these into a cavern.

Here the water


It

appeared rushing with great force beneath the


rock, towards the bason on the outside.

was
in

the coldest spring the mercury in

we had
the

found

in the

country;

thermometer
according
placed
fall,

falling,

two minutes,
of Fahrenheit.

to 34",

to

the

scale

When

in the

reservoir

immediately above the

where the water

was more exposed to the atmosphere, its temperature was three degrees higher. The whole
rock about the source
is

covered with moss.

Close to the bason grew hazel and plane trees

above were oaks and pines

all

beyond was a

naked and tremendous precipice '.

Upon GaroarDs we found a beautiful new species, both of The first we have called Crocus caiididus, and the second Anemone j'ormosu. They may be thus described Crocus
(l)

Crocus, and of Anemone.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

18o
CHAP.
VI.
^

About one hundred and


source,
is

fifty

yards below the

warm

spring,

close to the

bed of

the river, exactly of the same temperature as

those

before

described

at

Bonarhashy.
;

We
and

returned from this expedition to Evgillar

leaving the village, went again to Kiishunlu Tcpe,


to

complete our survey of the Ruins there.

We
had

were

told that the

Pasha of the Dardanelles

mosque, the tomb of a Dervish, a bridge of three arches, and all the new works
built a

at Bei/ramitch, with marbles


Crocus

and other materials


stigmatibus anlhe-

/oliis lanceolato-lmearibus, Jlore hreinorihus

ras subcpquantibus profundi.f.iime muUipartitis, radicum Iwiicd fihrosoCostatd; corolla- lacinih elliplicis.

Anemone scapo apltyllo,fvliis crassisprofundisshnetripartitis sulrntundis


laciniis Jfabell/fonnibus subtrilobis acute dentatis
tito, laciniis
;

folio superiore tripar-

bis trijidis

anguslis

involucro tripartita laciniis lanceolatis

inferiori unidentato; petalis lato-ovatis majusculis.

We

also observed

upon
garia

this

mountain the /Anemone /Ipennina, Lichen

articulatus, Fra-

stcrilis, Crocus aureus, and Crocus Vermis. At the source of the Scamander gT&w " Mountaiu Shepherd's Purse," Thlaspi montanum; " Woolly-leaved Marjoram," Origanum Onites ; " Bulbous Fumitory," Fumaria bulbosa ; "The narrow-leaved Garden Anemone,"

Anemone

coronaria;

" Common Spleenwort," Asplenium

Ceterach;

and a beautiful species of Ruscus, a shrub, hitherto unnoticed by any author, with leaves broader and more oval than those of the Broadleaved Alexandrian Laurel, and the fructification covered by an oval
leaflet, as in

the Ruscus Hypoglossum.

To

this

we have given the name


supra Jlor for is,

of Ruscus Troadensis
gubfoliolo.

Ruscus

foliis lanceolafo-ovalibun,

The
and a

leaves are about


half, in length
;
:

to three

two inches broad, and from three, the lowermost grow in whorls, the
is

uppermost alternate
half an inch broad,

the leaflet covering the fructification


:

nearly

and about three fourths of an inch long

the fruit

uf the size of a small cherry.

We

did not see the flowers.

Immediately above the source


son," Alyssuvi delto'cdeum.

^ew

the " Purple-blossomed Alys-

186
CHAP,
^-'
^

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
from
last
this place.

As we passed through
sale,

this

town, a Turii offered for

a sardonyx,

exhibiting three distinct layers qf

white chalcedony

brown and of upon the upper layer was


well-known figure
a subject extremely
in

an

intaglio, representing the


;

oi Mercury with the purse

common upon gems found


It

Constantinople^.

was well executed, but the

price exorbitant,

therefore

we

declined the purchase.

We

here

visited the Intendant of the

Agha, and travelled

the

same day as

far as

Turhnanlt, where

we

passed another night with the hospitable owner


of the mansion

who

entertained us so well upon

a former occasion.

From Turhmanle we returned by

the

way

of

^ne
Ber^as.

and thence, intending to


took thc road to

visit

Alexandria

"Troas,

Bergas^, distant

two

hours from jEne, where

we

halted for the night.

By
(1)

the public fountains along this route, and

The

peculiar locality of certain mythological subjects, as repre-

sented upon the gems oi Antient Greece, has not perhaps been noticed ; yet the subjects of the gems are almost as local as those upon the medals
of the country.
in

Figures and symbols of Ceres are found in Cyprus


triple bust of Socrates, Alciblades,

Athens, the

and the Sicilian

\>hysic\^.\\

cent with one or three stars,

Raucondas; in Constantinople, representations of a Cresof Mercury with the jmrse, heads or

whole lengths of Esculapius, Apollo with the Chariot of the Sun; in Alexandria and other parts of Egypt, Scarabm, with various hieroglyphic figures, &c.
(2) Ui^y^i.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

187

where stone has been used

in building,

may be

chap.
^>

seen the capitals or shafts of columns, and other

fragments from antient ruins.

The next morning,


cuemai^.

March the

14th,

we
In
;

passed through Chemalc,


Chemale
is

distant one hour from Bergas.

full

of antiquities ^

the

coemetery

we

copied

several Inscriptions
for insertion.

but they are too imperfect


granite

Some

columns were lying

Decompo.
uruniu.

about,

whose surfaces exhibited a very advanced

state of decomposition.

We had observed similar


jgranzVe

appearances dXjEne; proving that the

had

been exposed

to the action of the


;

atmosphere

during a very long period


a fact of importance
lity of
;

and also confirming

namely, that the durabi-

substances employed for purposes of


is

sculpture and architecture,


to their hardness.

not proportioned
is

Marble, which

much

softer

than granite,

is

capable of resisting longer the


air

combined attacks of
have originated
from external
evidence,

and moisture.

The

cause of decomposition in granite columns cannot


in their interment; since nothing

tends more to preserve granite than exclusion


air.

Of

this

we had

satisfactory

when our

troops in Egypt subverted

the

cumbent obelisk

near

Alexandria.

The

hieroglyphical sculpture, upon the side which had

(.3)

Dr. Chandler believed


See " Travels in

this place to
/isia

have been the Coloncr of the


p. 34.

Antients.

Minor,"

188
otHAP.
.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
been buried
exposed
in the soil,

appeared

in the

highest

state of preservation; but the surface, so long


to the

atmosphere, was considerably


all

decomposed.

Of

natural substances used

by

antient artists, Parian marble,

when without

veins,

and therefore
to

free

from extraneous bodies,


found

seems

have best resisted the various attacks


is

made upon Grecian sculpture. It unaltered, when granite, and even


coeval as to their
artificial state,

porphyry,

have sutfered

decomposition.

Terra

cotta is

yet more durable


in

than marble.

Works executed

baked clay

have been preserved during a period of near


three thousand years, as fresh as

when they
and

issued from the hands of the artificer;

when any
lasting

nation

is

desirous of transmitting a
it

memorial

to posterity,

cannot employ

a better substance for this purpose.


Stupendous

Column.

^f^

IcaviuLr CkeniaU, in the ' o

road leading to o

a place called Lydia Hamam, distant about three


quarters of an hour, our Greek servant,

who

was

before us on horseback, and had

wandered

a,mong some thickets, returned, laughing immoderately, and saying,


*'

As you

are pleased
is

with the sight of columns, here

one large

enough

to gratify

your utmost expectations."

He

then led us to a short distance from the

road, where, concealed

among

trees,

lay the

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
largest granite pillar in the world, excepting the

189
chap.
'

famous Column of Alexandria

in Egypt,

which

it

y.

much
and
as a
it

resembles.

It is of the
:

same substance,

has the same form

its

astonishing length,

mere

shaft (without base, or capital) of one

entire

stone, equalled thirty-seven feet

eight

inches,

and

it

measured

five feet three inches in

diameter \
light

It

may perhaps

serve to throw

some

upon the origin of the Egyptian Pillar. Its situation is upon a hill above Alexandria Troas, A paved road led from the city, to the place where it either stood, or was to have been
erected.

We

have therefore the instances of

two cities, both built by Generals of Alexander THE Great, in consequence of his orders; and
each city having a
pillar of this kind,
its

upon an
pillars

eminence, outside of

walls.

These

may have

served to support statues in honour


;

of the founder of those cities

or they

been intended
observations

for sepulchral Stelcp,

may have in memory


Column

of illustrious persons.

The
the

author's subsequent

upon

Alexandrian

rather induced the latter of these two opinions.

The hot

baths, called Lydia

Hamam, have
Chandler'', that
and four

Hot

Baths,

been so ably described by Dr.


(l) Its diameter
five
is

five feet

three inches at the base

feet

inches at the summit.

(C) Travels in Asia

Minor,

p. 33.

VOL.

III.

190
CHAP,
VI.
>

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
it is

not necessary to detain the Reader with


"^

-,

any new observations upon them.


has the colour of
iron,

The water

whey
;

it is

impregnated with

and with

salt

and

its

temperature,

when
it

ascertained

deep

in

the

crevices

whence

issues, equals 142 o^ Fahrenheit.

These baths
of rheumatism,

are

much resorted to, for the cure

leprosy,

and every cutaneous disorder.

Formoftiie
Sepulcliie

caikd

JournevinQ: hence towards Alexandria Troas, o ^ we observed, upon a granite Soros, part of an
Inscription, of

some importance

in

determining

the particular nature of the sort of sepulchre

whereon it was inscribed namely, one of those huge stone sepulchres used, in all parts of
;

Turkey, as cisterns, beneath the public fountains'.

The Romans began

to

call

them

Sar-

cophagi about the time

of Pliny, owing to a
in their construction,

pecuhar kind of stone used

found at Assos upon the Adramyttian Gulph, and

supposed to have the property of hastening the


decomposition of the
(l)

human body.

St.

Augustine

Sandys mistook them he describes them

for antient cisterns.

In his description

of the Ruins of Alexandria Troas, (See Relation of a Journey, &c.


p. 24.)
as

" ample

cisternesfor the receit of raine,"


soile,

the city

"

being seated on a sandie

and

altogether destitute of

fountains."

They generally

consist of two

immense masses of stone


coffin,

one of which, being hollowed, served as the


its

and the other as

operculum.

They vary
is
;

considerably in their dimensions.

That to

which allusion
three feet wide

here made, was nearly seven feet long, and above

and

this

is

the

common

size.

DISTRICT OF TROA.S.
relates, that the

191
chap.
-

Greek "appellation of this kind


his

was illustrated by
of tomb

Soros^:

remark

is

forcJl)ly

this Inscription,

although so small

a part of

it

be

now remaining
.
. .

ATPHAI022nTHPEHKETHN20P0NEATTnKAI
"

AURELIUS SOTEH CONSTRUCTED THIS SOROS FOR HIMSELF AND"

Other instances, of the same nature, occur

in

the account given of our subsequent Travels,

where the legend 'O'

is

more

entire.

The remains of Alexandria Troas have


long served as a kind of quarry, whither not only Turks, but also their predecessors, during
several centuries, have repaired,

Alexandria

whenever they
of

required either materials for ornamental architecture, or stones for the

common purposes

building.

Long before the


to contribute the

extinction of the

Greek empire, the magnificent buildings of this


city

began

monuments
present,

of

its

antient splendour towards the public structures

of Constantinople;

and,
in the
its

at

there

is

scarcely a

mosque

country that does not

bear testimony to
costly
granite,

dilapidation,

by some
or

token

of jasper,

marble,

porphyry,

derived from this wealthy magazine.

(2) " Quia enlm area in qua mortuus jioiiitur, quod omnes jam XAPKOtUArON vocant, 20P02 dicitur Grasce." St. August, de CiiUat

Dei,

1.

xviii. c. 5.

See also Julius Pollux, X. 150

192
CHAP.
VI.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
After
all

that has been

removed,

it

is

truly

wonderful so

much
first

should remain.

The

ruins

of the place, although confused, are yet considerable.

The

object,

appearing in the
is

approach towards the city from Chemale,


Aqueduct of Herodes Atticus, formed of

the

enormous

masses of hewn stone.


exhibit the

The walls
style

of the city

same

colossal

of masonry.

Part of one of the gates yet remains, on the eastern side, whose ruins have been mistaken
for those of a

temple
square

it

consists of

two round
supporting

towers,
Splendid

with

basements,

pedestals for statues. Immediately after passing


this entrance,

Remains
of PubUc

and entering within the


city,

district

Balne^b.

once occupied by the

we

observed the

ruins of baths, with the reticulated

work

of the

Romans upon the stucco of the


marble Soroi
Valani oaks
lie

walls.

Broken
size,

about, of such prodigious

that their fragments

seem

like

rocks
soil.

now

covering the

among the But in all


is

that exists of this devoted city, there

nothing

so conspicuous as the edifice vulgarly termed

by mariners The Palace of Priam; from an


erroneous notion, prevalent in the writings of
early travellers, that Alexandria Troas Ilium of
(l)

was the
seen

Homer \
De La
is

This building
and others,

may be
fell

Belon,
It

Falle, Lithgow,

iuto this strange


lived-

mistake.

an error, however, which prevailed hefore they


his

Lithgow caused

own

portrait to be represented

in the

midst of
the

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
sea.
It

I93
has three
chap.
VI.

from a considerable distance at


are

noble arches in front, and behind these there

many

other

the stones are placed together

without any cement. Large masses of sculptured


marble, being the remains of a cornice, appear

above and on each side of the arches in front. The whole structure was once coated over with
marble, or with plates of metal
the metal fastenings
:

and holes

for
all

may

yet be seen over

the work.

Of the

three front arches, the center

arch measured forty-eight feet wide at the base,

and each of the other twenty-one.


in this part of the

The stones
Behind

work were
is

five feet ten inches

long,

and three

feet five inches thick.

the center arch there


four other arches
flight of steps
;

a square court, having

one on each side.

noble
in

conducted to the center arch

front

and upon each side of this there was a column of the prodigious diameter of eight feet the marks of their bases are still visible upon
:

the two pedestals.

Those columns were not of


;

entire blocks of stone

for

we saw

their dis-

jointed parts

among the ruins below the flight of steps. The back part of the building, and the two sides, were surrounded by walls supported upon open arches
:

twelve of these arches


almost entire.
;

remain on the northern

side,

The
calling

the Ruins of Alexandria Troas, as a frontispiece to his work

them the Ruins

of Ilium, with the


^'c.

Tombs of Priam and Hecuha.


J

See

Nineteen Years' Travels,

by JV. LUhgoiv. 4to. Lond,

6 14.

194

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
front of the building faces the west: behind,

that

is

to say,

upon the eastern

side,

were three

magnificent arched portals.

The

walls here, on

each side of the center arch, were supported

upon a vault containing


remain
entire.

six arches,
this

which yet
it

From

description,

is

evident that a plan of the building might be


delineated, exhibiting
its

original

form.

No
been
to
for

very

accurate

representation
it.

has

yet

engraved of any part of


haths, as a

We were inclined
it

believe, with Chevalier, that

was intended

grand termination of the Aqueduct of

Herodes Atticus\
Chandler,

that

it

The opinions of Pococ^^e and was a Gymnasium for the


con-

instruction of youth, are thereby rather

firmed than confuted. The balnea of the Antients,


particularly

among

the Romans, were often col:

and martial exercise such were the structures erected by Diocletian and by Caracalla; and by the Emperor Adrian,
of science

leges

according to Pausanias, as an ornament to the


city oi Corinth"".
Other Ves
ti";es

of the

On

the south side of this building, and very


it,

City.

near to
edifice,

found the remains of a circular resembling those structures at Baii^, in

we

Campania,
baths.

now

called

temples,

but primarily
in

Half of

this edifice
p. 10,

remained

an entire
c, 3.

(1)

Plain of Troy,

(2)

Pausan. in Corinth,

DISTRICT OF TROAS;
had a small corridor round the base of the dome with which it was originally covered.
state.
It

105

Farther on, towards the sea, to the south-west,

we
size,

found the ruin of a small oblong temple,

and afterwards observed another of considerable

whose foundations remain unbroken. Then, turning towards the west, we came to the
foundation of a very large building, but could

comprehend nothing of
present
it

its

former history.

At
and

consists only of a series of vaults

spacious subterranean chambers, one beneath


another, serving as sheds for tenders and herds

of goats \
course,

Again pursuing a
arrived at the
in

south-western

we

immense Theatre of
of seats
is

the

city,

still

state of considerable per-

fection.

The

semicircular range
:

vaulted at either extremity

the diameter, taken

from one side to the other, where the vaults


remain, measured two hundred and
feet.
fifty- two
it

Like almost every Grecian theatre,

was

constructed by making the slope of the

hill itself

subservient to the sweep necessary for accom-

modating spectators.
view of the
as the
sea,

It

commands a noble

with the whole Island of Tenedos

principal object immediately in front.

Lower down, towards


Soroi,

the port,

were marble
here

and other antiquities of less importance.

The

few

Inscriptions

discovered

by

(3) See the Vignette to this Chapter.

; ;

196

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
Chandler, and

by

others, have

been removed

and

it

is

not necessary to introduce what has


:

already been pubhshed

but perhaps, even in


confused and deso-

this brief description of the

lated ruins which denote the site of Alexandria


Troas,
it

has not been altogether possible to

avoid a repetition of observations

made by

pre-

ceding travellers ^

We

arrived again at Bergas, and, taking a

northern route, turned towards Udjek, with an


intention of visiting the To7nb of jEsyetes.

As

we

left

the village,

we

saw, near an old coememarble,

tery,

a large

square slab of Parian


soil,

lying upon the


(1) "

and broken
off,

in

two

pieces.

From Bournabashi,
for

I set

April

8,

1806, to a village called

istambol, for the purpose of examining the ruins of Alexandria Troas.

I procured a small hut

myself and servants

there, rode to Alexandria, at the distance of an hour.

and leaving the baggage The Ruins there

the different fragments of marble from Paros, and

Marmora

tlie

blocks

of granite

all attest

the former magnificence of this city.

The Theatre

faced the sea, as seems to have been the custom whenever the situation

allowed
dos,

it.

It is a mile

and the islands adjacent.

from the shore; and commands a view of TeneTo the north of this is a spacious oblong
its

building, constructed with stone, and

work strong and massive.

herd of goats, guarded by some large dogs, who


guides, was feeding by this place.

much

molested the

The black

felt tents

of some wandering
the east of the
:

Turcomans were pitched

at a small distance.

little to

above building are the great ruins of the Baths, of


wall are some of the earthen
pijies,

Roman work

in the

through which

tlie

water %\as conveyed.

To

llic

north-west of these are granite columns, lying on the ground;


feet in length,
still

one of which measured twenty-seven


than four
feet.

and

in diameter more

By

the Port were columns of

greater dimensions.

To

the north-east of the Baths are


lids of

many

sarcophagi of stone; some of the

which resemble those represented in the drawings of the Necropolis


of

DISTRICT OF TIIOAS.

197
chap.
>.

Owing
surface,

to

its

form,

we

suspected that some


its

Inscription

might be concealed upon


this

lower

y;

and

proved

to

be the case.

We

had no sooner raised the two fragments, than


there appeared the highly interesting tribute to VoUve

the

memory

of Drusus Ccesar, son of Germanicus Dmsus


is

and Agrippina, which


of Telmessus.
Mottraye,

now

in the Vestibule of

when on
it

the Spot, caused one of these tombs to

be opened; and found in


touched.

two

sculls,

which crumbled to dust on being

The Antients used to deposit in them different persons of the same family, as may be seen by inscriptions found on them. I measured
a sarcophagus
here, eleven feet in length,

and

six in breadth.

But

I did

not observe any splendid monuments, of this kind, to be compared with


those which I obser\ed at Aphrodisias, wherc^u-e

many

sarcophagi, orna-

mented with
rfuities

bas-reliefs,

and

figures, in excellent preser\'ation.

The

anti-

of this place (now called Gcyra, a few days' distance to the south-

east of

Smyrna), which I visited in December 1805, have not been exas


tliey

amined

merit

and would, from

their great magnificence

and

quantity, fully repay the pains

and trouble of any one who would ex-

plore them.

"
used

All the

ground within the walls of Alexandria


f/SaXavJ),

is

covered with
i*

the valani

producing the valanlda, the cup of which


ot

for dyeing,

by the Orientals, and some nations

Europe.

An

English vessel was taking in a load of this,

when

passed by, some

months

after.

beautiful slope of two miles, covered with this tree,

anil small bushes,

among which
city, carries

are lying pieces of marble, and re-

mains of the antieut


is

you to the

sea.

Here, on the shore,

an oblong hollow spot,


;

artificially

formed, which was perhaps con-

nected with the Port

and

this last
it

had a canal about two hundred

yards in length, which joined

to the sea.

The communication

of

the canal on one side with the sea, and on the other with the circular
basin which formed the Port, explains well this passage of Vitruvius
*
:

Fossis ductis,fit

aqu^

exitus

ad

littus

et

ex

man
Lib,
i.

tempestatibus aucto
c. 4.

in paludes redundantia motwnibus excitatur.'

" On
east,
is

a small rise of ground, without the walls of the town to the

a hot spring of mineral water, which supplies two basins at a


;

small distance

one of which

found extremely warm.

The people
in

198
CHAP,
^_

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
the University Library at Cambridge^.

Arriving

-~-^ afterwards

at the village of Udjek, distant

two

hours from Bergas,

we

copied another Inscription


:

from a smaller piece of marble


the country.

this

we

left in

The legend

is

as follows

SPLENDIDISSIMVS POPVLVS COL AVG-TROADENS AVRELIVM- lOBACCHVM

CVRATOREM IDIOMENOGEN
.

Tomb

of

We

then proceeded to Udjek Tipe, or the

^iyetes.

'^^^q^^q Tumuliis of JEsyetcs, whose situation


precisely agrees with the account given of that

monument by

Straho.

It is

of

all

others the

spot most remarkably adapted for viewing the


Plain of Troy, and
in the

it is

visible in almost all parts

neighbourbood come there


says,
is

to obtain relief for different diseases,

Pococke
I

some have thought

this to

be Larissa.

This conjecture,
I

think,

very

much

strengthened by a reference which

find

Athena!us makes, among other hot waters, to those at Troic Larissa.

See

lib. ii.

c. 5.

" Near

the hot baths

may be

seen specimens of the netted building


it)

{opus reticulatitm, as Vitruvius calls

of the antient Alexandrians, or

Larisseans.
*'

small rivulet runs in the plain below.


to

returned

Kistambol, with the remains of a lamb, which were

to serve for our supper,

and which the guide had bought at Alexandria


shillings, English.

for

the value of three


it

While

examined the

Ruins,
fire."

was

killed, skinned,

and roasted on the spot by a large wood

Walpole's

MS.

Journal.
it

(l)

See an account of

in a description of the

" Greek Marbles,"

&c. No. XXIII. p. 45. published at Cambridge in 1809.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
of Troas.

199
traced the
^

From

its

top

may be

^^;^^y
'

course of the Scamander; the whole chain of Ida, stretching towards Lectwn'; the snowy heights
of Gargarus
;

and

all

the shores of the Hellespont

near the mouth of the river, with Sigeum, and


the other tumuli upon
tumulus

the coast.

From

this

we descended

once more into the

Plaiii

of Troy, and came in half an hour called Erhessy. In the street of this village
to a village

Erkcsa;/,

there
(2)

is

a marble Soros, quite entire.


as appears

This was
by the following

Mr. /?^o/e crossed the Idermi Chain,


his Journal,

extract from

relating to an

cxcvirsion

he made from

Alexandria Troas to the Adramyltian Gulph.

" From
I

the village of Kistambol, where on a stone sarcophagus, by


1 lived,

the hut in which

'were the letters

POSTVMIA VENEREA,
is

set off to cross the part of Ida

which separated the road from the


called,

Adramyttian Gulph.

atro
To~J

This ridge of mountains


avanivouffo,

by Strabo,
In au

hix,rou
I

pa^is

z^o;

rhv

"iSsjv.

p. 871'

hour's time
I

reached Yalagick, where, on a stone by a fountain,


i^ignifer,

read the words

Imperator, Decurioni, well cut.


I

The rocks

near the road are of granite.

continued

my

route S.E. and E.S.E.

for seven hours, passing small streams running

down from the mounis

tains

by the

sides

grew

tiie

N'crium (which Hasselquist asserts


i.

the

tree referred to by David, Psalm

3.^

and the Plane.

The

Terebin-

thus

grew above, on the


:

rocks.

then reached a hamlet, Sunovassi,


a shed for our party to pass

encircled by mountains

here

we procured

the night, which consisted of myself, a servant, a guide, and a black


soldier
find

who was to accompany me to Adramyttium. We were able to some bread, which the Turks eat unleavened some pelmez, and some rice. The inhabitants of the village, who were Turks, shewed no
;

disposition to

annoy us, nor any impertinent

curiosity, although in that


travellers.

recess of Ida they could see but few

European

Corn, olives,

cotton, and maize, the ears of which are eaten roasted, were the produce
of their fields.

From

the mountain side they got

fir,

and the wood of the

arbutus, to supply their hearths.


I left

At

half past eight the next

morning

Sunovassi

at nine,

began to ascend Dikili-Dah, part of Ida. Nothing

200

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
brought from Alexaiidria Troas, and
it is

now-

used as a public

cistern.

It is of

one piece of

stone, seven feet in length, three feet

and a half

wide, and, without including the operculum, rather


Interesting inscrip.

more than three feet in depth. The following Inscription upon it, m Greek characters, is beautiIt serves fully cut, and in a very perfect state. to confirm what the author lately stated concerning the nature of the Grecian, and Egyptimi, In the chamber of the great Pyramid of Soros. Cheops there is a conditory of granite of the same

>-,

form and

size

and another, once the Soros of


is

Alexcmder the Great, mentioned by Herodian,

now

in the British

Museum.
I

Nothing could exceed the beautiful scenery which


as
1

beheld on

all sides,

continued

my

ride, occasionally casting

my

eye downwards upon

forests of pines,

and on

villages

hanging on the side or placed at the

feet of the mountains.

On
I

reaching the summit, the Sea and Island of


;

Mitylene presented themselves

and

in three hours' time,


I

from the

moment
ride
till

of ascending,

reached the shore, along which

continued to

a quarter before four,


fir,

when

turned up to the N.E.

On
I

the

sea side were pieces of

cut down from Ida, for ship building.


a small village, w here

At

half past four I arrived at Avgilar,

slept.

There

is

a Greek Inscription placed sideways in the outer wall of the

Mosque.

The next

day, at the distance of an hour and a half,


I

passed

some warm baths, which

was not able to examine,

as

some Turkish

women were

there bathing.

These may be the hot waters to which


In two hours and a half from

Galen says an invalid, who lived not far from Pergamus, was sent, ^De

Sim. Med.)). 296.


the baths
is

v. 13.) Ixitpavri Koc/Ava>.

Adramyttium, now
sea.

called

Edremiti distant more than

an hour from the


south-west,
I

From that
Chemar,
in seven
in

place, going first west, and then

came

to

two hours.

From Chemar,

passing

Karagatch, you reach


the sea."

hours Aiasniata, distant two miles from


Wulpolc's AIS. Journal.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
CO

201

>

O
'1

X W
^ O H

2 O -< H I H
-D

7:

o
z >

CO

W
1^ !^
h-^

HTl

ai

H
^ 2 o O
53

S5

H w

O a in >
o

W H > O
pi

_,

w
a O

fe en

H >

a
t)

o
d

CO

o w > > H E o M > to > E: O


'
!z!

>

O a

>

2!

O
5?:

d
p

5?

X w o 5 ~^ tO) S hi s H W H k!

d
d
"

^
"

> S3 > o -< a > H "0 m O > -I m O > m 13 z m Z I H > U o M 2 o M H > H O m > z 2 S3 I > < z M "0 I O > I M Z > 7: > m o f3 Z 7: M I] > > > -< m > > -0 > m -< JO m H M H Z > G X $3 7: H > z > H {3 H > H z O > M M M m m O m V 7Z Z2 O H O z O 7: > -< m z

m Z O -< M 2 O

I]

> H a H

> M 7: > I U m

7:

CHAP.
VI.

m O I 7: > H I Z M O o Z m 2 > > < M H > t3 7C m > Z H o > f3 > -I > m m -< Z 7s < H
$3

> > m Z > H m Z S3 M O 2 < Z H O -< m 7: > t3 m -| M m H Z O 7^ m 2 Z m > z z O > -< >
7: -0

O > -I > o o

>

> M H O < 6 <

o > o M o o o z > O < < o M > m > <

>

X
> o <

O
<

202
CHAP.
V.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

The characters of

this

Inscriptioji

cover one

.y-i-./

side of the Soros at Erkessi/, precisely as the

hieroglyphical characters cover those


^Alexandrian.

of

the

Both one and the other have been used by the moderns as cisterns; and it may reasonably be presumed, the repugnance of a very
few of our
such
cisterns

Englisli antiquaries, to

admit that

were

originally designed as recep-

tacles for the dead, will, in the

view of satisfac-

tory evidence, be done away.

Sigmni.

We
Cheyr.
village
sary.

were one hour and a quarter going from


it is

Erkessy to Sigeum, or, as

now

called,

Yeny

The promontory on which the present is situate bears the name of Cape JanisIts inhabitants are all Greeks, living
little

with

great cleanliness in their


retaining the
Antfquilies.

cottages,

and
in

manners of

their forefathers,

their hospitality to strangers.

Many

valuable

antiquities have, at difterent times,

been disco-

vered here by the inhabitants.


to us

They brought

an extremely rare bronze medal of Sigeum ;


with the square Sigma,
the famous
perfect.

on

this the letters CITE,

were very
before,

The stone with


ambassador

Sigean Inscription

had been removed, a short time


;

by the
in the

British

and more

recently a marble had been found at Koumkeuy,

a village
tion of

neighbourhood, with an inscripthis

the

age of the Seleucidcr:

they

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
permitted us to copy.
as
antient
It is,

203
chap.

perhaps, nearly
Inscription

as

the

well-known

now
from

placed in the vestibule of the Library of

Trinity College, Cambridge, which


Sigeian

was brought

by Edward Worthy Montague


Syrian kings,
precise date.
it

although, in the uncertainty which involves the


series of the

be impossible to
in the

determine

its

Antiochus,

year 196 a.c. went into the Thracian Cherso-

kingdom there and in the neighbouring country, for Seleucus, his second son \ It is, however, difficult to discover any
jiesus,

to

establish a

particular incident, in the history of the Seleu-

by the first part of the inscription. Antiochus was wounded in some battle and Metrodorus probably afforded him assistance.
cidcv,

alluded to

The purport
until

of the inscription

is

not very clear,


:

we

arrive at the eighth line

we

there see

that '^Metrodorus of AmphipoUs, the son of Timocles, is

praised hy the senate and people, for his

virtue

and

good-ivill towards the kings Antiochus

and

Seleucus,

and
;

the people
is to

he

is

deemed a benefactor
the senate
to
;

to the state

have access

to

and

to

be inscribed into the tribe

and fraternity

which he

may

luish

to

belong.''

No

attempt, except in a
the resto-

letter or two,

has been made towards

ration of the first part of the Inscription;

the

(l)

Z/iv. lib. xxxiii.

Appian.ixx Syriacis,

Prideaux, Part

2.

204

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
characters are given as they appeared upon the marble throughout the whole; and the learned

reader will perceive where the words require


correction.

lOZIAHOBAZIAEYZANTIOXOZ

AAKENOTETPAYMATIAZrENOMENOr ENTHIMAXHIIMTONTPAXHAON .. PAPEYOIXHYPOMHTPOAIIPOYTOY


ATP0YAINAYN02:E<1)EZAAKEN
.

EPIAYTOYKAIMEAEArPOZOZTI
.

..
.

THrOSPPOOPHMENOZTO

ZT.

nZZYM<l>EPONAEAOX0AITHIBOYAHI KAITniAHMniEPAINESAIMEN MHTPOAr2PONTIMOKAEOYZAM<I>l POAITHNAPETHZENEKENKAI EYNOIAZTHSEIZTOYZBAZIAEAZ N ANTIOXONKAIZEAEYKONKAI AHMONEINAIAE TONKAI


. .
. .

ONKAIEYEPrETHNTHZPOAEnZ
/^filAOZOAIAAYTniKAinOAITEIAN AITIK NZINKAIE<I>OAONEPITHN
.

BOYAHNKAITONAHMONPPnTUN
METATAIEIAZHEINAIAAYXniKAl
EIZ<l>YAHNKAI<l>PATPIANHNANBOY

AHTAIE
Chandler,

who has written an

interesting account

of the antiquities of Sigeum, says that the ^thenceum, or Temple of Minerva,

stood upon the

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

205
on which the
is

brow

of the high and steep

hill

church belonging to the present village


situate'.

now

'

^^^^'

From

the scattered marbles, described

by him
relief,

as its remains,

we
one

obtained a small bas-

now

in the Collection at Cambridge, repre-

senting two persons,

of

whom

is

in the

military garb of the Antients, and the other in


-the civic habit,

addressing a Figure of
is

Over the head of the Goddess

Mmen;a ". the word

AOHNA.
Homer does not mention
of Sigeum or of Rhceteum
:

either the Promontory

indeed, the latter can

hardly be called a promontory.


rather referred to cities, which the time of Homer.

These names

were

built after

The

tivo

promontories, one

on

either side of the Grecian fleet, as


to the east of the

two necks of
admit of the

it was stationed Mouth of the Scamander, were land, whose distance might well possibility of Agamemnon s voice,

when he
fore,

called from the centremost ship, being

heard to the two extremities '. The objection therewhich, with reference to this circumstance,
against the distance of Sigeum from

was urged
Rhoeteum,
is

superseded.

Whenever the account


is

given by an antient author

irreconcileable with

(1) Travels in Asia


(2) See

Minor.
p. 51.

"Greek Marbles," No.XXIX.

(3) Iliad

O. 222.

VOX-. III.

20f)

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

CHAP. >our preconceived and imperfect notions of the


J geography of a country,
to

we

are too apt, either


to

doubt the truth of the description, or

warp

the text so as to

accommodate an

interpretation

the measure of our

own
all

ignorance.

This has

given rise to almost


ing
y

the scepticism concern-

Homer and has also characterized the commentaries upon other authors. When, for example,
j^lschylus relates the instruction given to lo, for

her march from Scythia, the river he so happily


designates by the
its
title

of Hybristes\ owing to
is

great rapidity,

and which
his
it

evidently the

Kuban'^,

has puzzled
to

Editors,

who have

endeavoured

have been the Don^ the Dniepery or even the Danube, with about as
to

prove

much

reason as

if

they had supposed

it

to

be

the Rhine or the Thames.

An

actual survey of

the district of Caucasus, and of the course of the


rivers,

would have removed every

difficulty,

and proved the peculiar accura'^y with which


the Poet attended, in this instance, to the features of Nature. When indeed he conducts
his heifer "

down

the Indus to the Cataracts of

(1) ^schi/liis in

Prometh. Vmct
.

742. p. 56.

ed.

C. J. Llomfield,

Cantab. 181{).

"
'

Tf:>^i(rTns

Dubitatur

num

in hoc loco /Eschijlus

Araxem

,fluvmm innuat,

vel htru7n, vel Taiiaim, vel Alazona, vel Boi tjsthenetn,

quodsentit Butkrvs, vel denique fluviumcni nomeu Hylrisla, &c. &c." Ibid, iu Glossar. p. 144.
(2) Tlie

Hypanis of D'Auville, aud yurdamis of some authors.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
the
iV//<?,"

207
cHAr.
'

he

is

supposed to rave

and "
than

to

have reference to

good earnest; worse documents


in

modern maps;" because the


is
it

Indus

of

j^schylus

immediately confounded with the

Indian river of that name, to which


sible

he could

refer.

India

was imposwas unknown to


and the
as

the Greel's until the age of Alexander ;


inhabitants
Indians
of

Ethiopia were

considered

by

the Romans, so late as the time of


Straho

Augustus,
died a

expressly
of India ^

tells

us,

that

Homer was ignorant

j^scliylus,

who

full century before Alexander was born, had no means of being better informed respect-

ing that country

but there existed other rivers


Pliny mentions an
Nile,
in

with the same appellation.


Indus,

nearly opposite to the

Asia
us
to

Minor\

Experience

may

at last teach

ascertain, at least, the

geography of Homer and


venture to dispute their

of jEschylus, before

we

accuracy.
In the evenmo' of our arrival at Si^eum, ~

we had
in the

^lomu
Athos,

proof of the possible extent of vision

(3) Thy

fj^iv

oZ-/'lvlix.ya

oIk

oToiv''Oi/.r,c^i;.

Strab. Geog.

lib. i.

p. 56.

Ed.

Oxon.
(4)

" Aranis Indus

in Cybirataruin jugis ortus, recipit

lx pereunes
lib. v. c.

fluvios, torrentes veto

amplius centum."

Plin. Hist. Nat.

28,

L. Bat. 1635. There


tion
;

is,

however, a
for

diflferent

reading noticed in this edi:

Ninus being substituted

Indus in some copies

"

Alii

Ninus

x Alexand. et Hermol."

Vid. Var. Lectiones,

p.GM. Not,

IT.

O 2

208
^^^^^'-

DISTRICT OF TROA^S.
clear atmosphere of this country,

which would
Looking

**

-'

hardly be

credited

in

any

other.

towards the Archipelago,

we

plainly discerned

Mount Athos,
were with
its triple

called

by the peasants, who


Holy Mountain;

us, Agionoros\ the

summit appearing so distinctly to the eye, that we were enabled to make a sketch of it. At the same time, it seemed that its
relative position,

as placed in
is

all

our maps,

with respect to Sigeum,


north.

too far towards the

The distance

at

which we viewed

it

could not be less than a hundred English miles

according to D'AnviUe,

it is

about thirty leagues

from shore to shore, and the summit of the


Tombs
mentioned by strabo.

mountain is at some distance from the coast. ^^Q visited the two antient Tumuli, called the
ToTubs of

AchUks and
of the

Patroclus.
village.

They

are to

the north-east

third

was

discovered by Sir TV. GelP, near the bridge for


passing the Mender; so that the three Tumuli

mentioned
describes

by them

Strabo^

are

yet entire.

He

as the

monuments* of Achilles,

(1)

" Attamen

^tos mons Macedoniae

Hugmmros

proprio
torn.

nomine

vocatur."

Mabillon. Acta Sanctor. (hd. Bcnedicti,

IV. p. 374.

Not.
(2)

6.
It

L. Pur. 1672.

now

serves as a Turkish coemetery.

See the Engraving made


Plate

from

Sir TV. Cell's beautiful

drawing of

it,

XVI. Topography

of Troy, p. 45.
(3) Strab.

Geogr.

lib. xiii.

p. 859.

ed. Ox.

(4) MnJftaTa.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
Patroclus,

209
chap.
'

and Antiochus.

So much has been


it

published concerning them, that

will not
still

be

<-

necessary to
repeat,

add much

to,

and

less to

what has been

said before.

The two

nearest to Sigeum are conspicuous objects in


the view 'of persons passing the Hellespont^',

and, in their form, they are similar to others

described

in
is

the

preceding
that

part

of
of

this

work.
authors

It

remarkable,

none

the

who have

written upon the

subject,

have noticed

Strahd's allusion to three

Tombs.

The

largest

de Choiseul.

was opened by order of Monsieur We were acquainted with the Jeiv

employed as agent in the undertaking. He appeared to be an honest and a respectable man but we rather doubted the truth of the story
relating to the discovery of the antiquities sent
to his employer, as having

been found
work'.

in this

tomb.
pointed

There was no confidential person apto

superintend

the

It

was

performed by night, with scarcely any witness


of the transaction.

In the* zeal to gratify his

patron, and to prevent the disappointment likely


to ensue from an expenditure of

money

to

no

purpose,

it is

at least probable that his Jewish

(5)
(6')

See the Vignette to the next Chapter. See a narrative of the transaction, published by Mr. Thornton,

in his account of Turkey.

210

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
brethren of the Dardanelles substituted other
antiquities, in

the place of reUcs which they

had been told they might find in the tomb\ The Ruins of Pariwn, and of other antient cities in their neighbourhood, and the usual traffic
carried on with Greeks
Straits from
all

who

pass through the

parts of the Archipelago and

Mediterranean, might easily have furnished

them

with the means of deception.

We

have not the

smallest hesitation in affirming, that

we

believe

these tombs to be coeval with the time of Homer,

and that

to

one of them, at

least,

he has alluded

in the Odyssey".

Many

authors bear testimony

to the existence of the To7nb of Achilles,


its situation,

and to

on or by the Sigean Promontory^.

It is

recorded of Alexander the Great, that


Stele

he anointed the

upon

it

with perfumes,

and ran naked around it, custom of honouring the manes of a


JElian distinguishes the
that of Patroclus,

according to the
Hero"*.

Tomb of

Achilles

from

by

relating,

that Alexander

(1)

cast

from the bronze figure of


is

Isis, said

to

have been exca-

vated upon that occasion,

now
is

in the possession of the

arl nf

Aberdeen.

It certainly

represents very antient workmanship.

The

inverted position of the wing's

alone proof of

its

great antiquity,

whatever may have been


(2)

its real

history.

Odyss. il. 73.

(3J

Diodorus Slculus, Slralo, JElian, Philostratiis in Vit. /Jpollon, kc'


lib. xvii.

(4} Diod. Sic.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

211
It
^

crowned

one, and Hepho'stion

the other \
.

citap.
VI.

will not therefore

be easy to determme, at the

present day, which, of the three


standing upon this

Tombs now promontory, was that for.

merly venerated by the inhabitants of Sigeiim


for containing the ashes oi uichilles^

The same
is

degree of micertainty does not attach to the

Tomb of jjljax

upon the Rhoetean side there

only a single tumulus.

From hence we descended once more to Koum-hali; where we embarked for the DarAnd now, having finished the survey danelles. of this interesting country, it may be proper to add, by way of postscript to this Chapter, a brief summary of the principal facts concerning it,
for the

Hetumto
dandus.

use of other travellers, and as the result

of our observations in

Troas^

The distinction is also made (5) ^lian. Var. Hist. lib. xii. e. 7. Ly Strabo, and by other writers. This difference between Homer's
record and the traditions of the country, respecting the Trojan tVur,

seems to prove that the


See

latter

were not derived from the former.

Dr.

Chandler has discussed this subject, in his interesting History of Ilium.


p. 138.
It

(6)

should also be observed, that to the south of Sigeum, upon


if

the shore of the yEgean, are yet other Tumuli, of equal,


size, to

not greater

which hardly any attention has yet been paid


out at sea.

and these are


hoped, one

visible far

The opening

all

of

them

will, it is

day throw some light upon


(7)

this curious subject.

The Readep
;

is

rerjuested to consult the engraved Vignette of the

Fourth Chapter
follow.

as a

map

of reference for the observations which

212
CHAP.
V. ,-

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
I

The
r

river

Mender
and
i

is

the

Scamaxder

of

^1 Summary

HomcTy

Strabo,
rt

Pliny.

The amnis

navi-

ofObservain Troas.

gauUis 01 Pliny

flows into the yirchipelago, to

the SOUth of
II.

SlgeUTTl^.

The AiANTEUM,
;

or

Tottzi??

of Jjax,

stiil

remains

answering the description given of

its

situation

by

antient authors, and thereby de-

termining also the exact position of the naval


station of the Greeks.
III.

The Thymbrius

is

yet recognised; both

in its present appellation Thymbreck,

and

in its

geographical position.
IV.

The spacious

plain lying on the north-

eastern side of the

Mender, and watered by the

(1)

(2)

Tib. v. p. 27T. ed. L.Bat. 1635. " The following passage of Pliny is attended with some

Plin. Hist. Nat.

difficulty

but the expression


these

^mnu navii^abilis^

applied to the Scamander,

may be
:

well explained by Plutarch, in two passages to which


it

I shall refer

by

appears that the epithet navigabilis was given by the Antients


as well as amnis,

to small streams.

The word roraf/.os, them, when speaking even of torrents.


Scamander, amnis navigabilis
oppidum: dein
j)ortus
;

was used by

Strabo,

lib. ix. 6, 8.

et in

promontorio quodam Sigevm

Achaorum,

in quern injluit

Xanthus, Simoenti

junctus ; stagnumque prius J'aciens PalcFscamander'

" Plutarch
there.
*

speaks thus, in two places, of the river Melas, in Phocis

a part of Greece which he

knew most
into

intimately, from being born

The Melas, spread out


makes the
its

navigable marshes and lakes

(l>.5 rtXuroc ko.) xlfivas),

plain impassable.'
{^Xaifias
! jrnya.Ti).'

Again

*
:

The

Melas
Syllae.

is

navigalle at

sources

Vit. Pelop. et

The marshes on the Plain of Troy, made by the river, are mentioned by Strabo, p. 859. We have, then, the Melas, a small
river, navigable at
its

sources, and with navigable marshes."


ff'alpole's

31S. Journal.

DISTRICT OF TROAS.
CaUifai

213

Osmack,

stream the SiMOis.


the principal

Simoisiax; and that chap. Here were signalized all events of the Trojan War.
is

the

V. The Ruins of Palaio CaUifat are those of


the Ilium of Strabo.
or

Eastward

is

the Throsmos,

Mound of the

Plain.
if it

VI. The Hill near Tchihlack,


CalUcolone,

be not the
site

may

possibly
Ilieans,

mark the
mentioned

of the
Strahoy

tillage

of the

by

where

antient

Ilium

stood.

VII. Udjek Tepe

is

the

Tomb of
by
still

iEsYETES.
Strabo,

The

other
are

tombs
all

mentioned

at

Sigeum,

in the situation

he describes.
exists
;

The
is

To??ib

of Protesilaus also

it

on the European side of the mouth of the


VIII.

Hellespont.

The springs

of Bo;2r^'a5A7/

may possibly
They
is in

have been the AOIAI nHFAI of Homer; but


they are not sources of the Scamander.
are, moreover, ivarm springs.

IX. The SOURCE of the


Gargarus,

Scamander
the

now
all

called Kasdaghy,

highest

mountain of

the Idcean Chain.

X. The Altars of Jupiter, mentioned by Hmner, and by JE,schylus, were on the hill called
Kushunlu Tepe, at the foot of Gargarus; where
the ruins of the temple

now
is

remain.

XI.

Pal^

Scepsis

yet recognised in the

appellation Eslsy Shiipshu.

214
CHAP.
VI.
^

DISTRICT OF TROAS.

Aineia of Straho; and jEni Tepe, perhaps, the Tomb of jEneas. XIII. The extremity of the Adramyttian Gulph
XII.
is

MnL

the

inclines

round the ridge of Gargarus, towards


so
that

the

north-east;

the

circumstance of
left,

Xerxes having this mountain upon his


his

in

march from Antandrus

to Ahydus, is thereby

explained.

XIV. Gargarus
all

affords a view, not only of


all

the Flain of Troy, but of

the district of

Troas, and a very considerable portion of the


rest of

Asia Minor.

Sigean Promontory.

CHAP.

VII.

FROM THE HELLESPONT TO RHODES.


Transactions at the Dardanelles

Voyage down Promontory Lesbos


tions

the

HellespontTenedos Lectum
Piihlic Sports

Inscrip-

Erythrtsan

Straits

View of Patmos and /^eCyclades Pirates Cos Plane Tree Fountain of Hippocrates Greek Manuscripts
Straits

Chios

of Samos

Burning Vapour

Inscrip-

tions

Beautiful Piece of Antient Sculpture


to

Voyage from Cos

Rhodes

hy Walpole

Carpathian

Ruins of Cnidus
Isles

visited by Morritt

and
chap.

Rhodes.
This

E were detained some time at the Dardanelles,

waiting for the vessel from Constantinople.

216
CHAP,
vir.
V

FROM THE HELLESPONT


came at last, so deeply laden with stores, for the ^ "L supply of our army m Egypt, that we were almost She had the name afraid to venture on board was literally nothing more than of Tauricia, and
a covered boat.

-v-i-/

tionslTthe
neufs'!'

Mercantile speculations

make

bold adventurers.

Few

persons would have

volunteered in an expedition across the Mediterranean in such a bark; but our good captain comforted us with the assurance, that Columbus sailed

across an
mise.

unknown ocean

in a skiff of less pro-

He had cast anchor higher up the Straits,

towards the Sea of Marmora, where vessels from Constantinople lie secure from all winds, and find
better ground.

There

is

no good anchorage
fitted

at

the Dardanelles.

Captain Castle had

up a

small apartment in the stern, to serve as a cabin;

and had placed one enormous gun

in the

prow,
did

to intimidate pirates; observing dryly to us, as

we surveyed
weather.
It

it,

that

we

should be lucky

if it

not carry the gib-boom under water, in rough

was amusing

to notice the sort of

speculation,

which occupied not only the hold,


it

but every part of the vessel, where


possible to

had been
mer-

cram any

article of food or of

chandise. Barrels o{ Jdrianople tongues, candles,


tea, sugar,

cheese butter of the Ukraine, already


;

in an oily state,

and oozing through the sides of

the casks; wine, onions, cordage, iron, biscuit,


cloth, pens, paper, hard-ware, hats, shoes, tobacco.

TO RHODES.
ftnd fruit.

217
chap.
VII.

few

live

sheep were, moreover,

huddled together close to the gun in the forecastle.

During our stay at the Dardanelles, we had lived


in the

house of the Neapolitan Consul.

This re-

spectable old

man put in force a stratagem which^


The

may

serve to shew the extraordinary power of

hnagination over diseases of the body.

author, being troubled with an intermitting fever,

brought on during his journey in Troas, had been

observed by the Consul to go frequently to a


clock,
in the

antechamber of our apartment,


hour when the paroxysm would

watching
begin.

for the

This had hitherto occurred exactly at

hour.

One morning he put back the clock a full At tivelve, therefore, as the index pointed to eleven, there was no apprehension of the fever; and at one, although the hour seemed to be preUnforsent, the paroxysm did not take place. tunately, pleased by the success of his experinoon.

ment, he boasted of it; and the consequence was,


that, after the usual interval, the fever

again

returned.

In the same manner, the charins used

among
and

the lower order of people in England,

in other countries, operate in healing agues.

The Tomh of Protesilaus, as related by Philostratus\ was antiently resorted to for the cure of a
quartan fever.
(l) P/iilostrat. in Heroicis.

See also Chandler's Ilium,

p. 14-.

218
CHAP.
VII
/

FROM THE HELLESPONT

We

received e^reat

civilities

from the Pasha.

He sent one of his officers, with our Greek servant,


to collect

some marbles which we wished to remove from Troas; a work generally attended with difficulty, owing to a notion the Turks have, that Christians cmi extract gold from such stones. The
ceremony of
his daughter's marriage with the

son of an Asiatic Viceroy, called, by


nence.
PubHc
iX^ciie.

way of emi-

The Pasha of Asia, and said to be Lord over a hundred villages, took place during the

we

remained.

Upon

this occasion, public

sports

were exhibited; and we had an opportuof Djerid, the tournament of the Turks.

nity of seeing a magnificent celebration of the

game

This very antient pastime might possibly have


given rise to
tilts

and tournaments.

It is difficult

to reconcile a passion for this martial exercise

with the natural habits and indolence of the Turks.

The two

old Pashas fought against the

young

bridegroom, each party being at the head of a

numerous band. The contest was


that

often so severe,
if

we

expected to see their eyes,

not their

lives, sacrificed.

The manner

of the engagement

has been often described.

It consists chiefly in

a charge at full speed, and in an attack,

made by
Great

hurling short thick sticks, as javelins'.

(l)

According to the Chevalier D'Jrvieur, {Voy. dans


it is

la Palestiney

p. 62. Par. 17 17,)

from

this

kind of weapon that the game derives


its

'

TO RHODES.
dexterity
darts,
is

219

shewn, both

in parrying off these


skill.

and

in the

display of equestrian

Upon

^^^j^J^,

the day following that in which the combat took place, male camels were brought to fight with

each other, during a concert of Turkish music. In this exhibition there was nothing curious nor
diverting,

except the extraordinary strength

shewn by these animals, when a female camel was brought before them. One of the camels,
with half a dozen strong Turks endeavouring to
restrain
it,

set off in full speed, overtook the


all

female, and threw her down, notwithstanding


their efforts to the contrary.

The

festivity of the

day ended with a scene of

intoxication in the

palace of the Pasha of the Dardanelles,

who was

much

addicted to drinking.

When commotions

was reason to fear a visit from the Capudan Pasha, who came occasionally to
arose, or there

levy contribution, he retired to his


the recesses of Mount Ida
:

little villa in

here he gave
;

full

scope to his love of drinking

having conveyed
dancers,
to the

with him his concubines, musicians,

and game-keepers, being much attached


sports of the
field.

its

appellation;

Djerid being

an Arabic word, which

signifies ih*

branch of a Palm-tree stripped of its leaves. Sometimes, canes or reed-', A rejtresenor common sticks, are employed for the same purpose.
tation of this sport
is

given iu Nicbulir's Description of Arabia,

torn. 1.

tab.XV.

Copenh. 1773.

220
CHAP.
VII.
'

FROM THE HELLESPONT


late

The

Mr.

JViUis left at the Dardanelles


.

two

marUeSy with

inscriptions,

ionT^'

possession of the

were offered found them


Troas.
pillar,

for

which are now m the Custom-House officer. These sale to us. Mr. Willis, it is 'said,
;

in Troas

probably

in

Alexandria
capital of a

One

of

them had been the

and was converted by the Turks into a

mortar: the other exhibited only a broken mass


of marble, of an irregular form.

Upon

the

first

we

read,

FORTISSIMOETINVICTISS

IMOCAESARIDNGALER AVR VAL MAXIMIANO


PRINCIPI IVBENTVTIS
This inscription belongs to the latter end of the
third century
;

Galerius Maximianus having

been

Consul

in the

year 294.

The

title

of Ccesar

was

conferred upon him

by

Diocletian.

The

letters

DN are the usual abbreviation of Dominus.


title

The
con-

Princeps Jubentutis, or Juventutis,

was used
it

in the time of the

Republic and
;

we

find

tinned through almost

all

the Emperors, until the

time of Constantine: "


CESsiONis," as
it is

symbolum FUxuRiE

sue-

expressed by Spanheim\

In what remains of the other inscription,

we find

mention made of the Tribunus Militum of the third


(1) Z)e Prcrst. ct Lh.

Nxon.

Diss, 7.

TO RHODES.
Legion
;

221
chap.
'

of the Frcefeclus Fabrum'; and of the

Pnefectus Equiium.

The

latter

part relates,

perhaps, to the conquest of forty-four States in


Africa.

The

following are the only legible cha:

racters upon the stone

MILLEGIIIAV PRAEFFABR TEST


TRIE

PRAEF EQVITUMALA NVMIDIVIPRONI

CIVITATES XXXXIIII

EXPROVINCAFRICA

We

saw no other

antiquities at the Dardanelles

nor were

we

able to procure any antient medals.

If these be found,

the Consuls of the different


as presents for their re-

nations reserve

them

spective ambassadors at Constantinople.


Castle had,
tlie

Captain

however, obtained several among


;

where he also observed curious mosaic pavements, and other remains of


that city.

Ruins of Parium

Havino'^

all

our

thins^s =

anchor, and took leave

we weighed of Monsieur Preaux, who


on board,
.

Voyage

down

the

udiesiMU.

returned to Constantinople.

As we

sailed

down
side*.

the Straits, a very conspicuous Tumulus appeared, crowning the hills

upon the European


Ep.

(2) Vid. Cic.


(3)

ad

Attic.

Perhaps the Torab of Protesilaus, near

Elti$.

222
CHAP.

FROM THE HELLESPONT


Leaving the Dardanelles,

we

again passed the

interesting land of Troas, once

more viewing the Rhoelean Promontory, the Tomh of A/ax, +he


Grecian harbour, the Sepulchre ofJSsyetes, and the
of Xanthus, tinging the dark waters of the

mouth

Hellespont with its yellow torrent.

Our course
;

was along the European


coasting Sigeum there
is

side of the channel

as in

a shoal, whereon vessels

are often stranded. In order to escape this, ships

from the Archipelago SiYoid bearing up the Straits


until they are able to see all the windmills, sta-

tioned upon the

brow

of the promontory'.

Two

of the tombs mentioned

by

Straho appear very

conspicuously in that point of view.


of a Dervish
is
is

The house
one which

situate in the side of

the nearest to the windmills, and to the village

of Yeni Cheyr; and this was the sepulchre opened by order of Monsieur cle Choiseul'\ Having doubled the cape, two other Tumuli appear upon the coast towards the south^
large,
Teaedos.

These are very

and stand close to the cliff above the shore.

^Yq galled ou towards Tenedos.

The

soil,

as

we

approached, seemed bleak and barren; but the

(1) (2)

See the Vignette to this Chapter. See Xhefignette : although, with reference to the
is

Tumh of Achilles,
it

there

a passage in Straho which seems to assign for

a position to

the south oi Sigeum.


I.ectum,
*. r. X.

He
I,

is

evidently proceeding from ^/geKwi towards


S'

when he

says 'Esti

h f^t'-k Tnt tiytaHa.

a.Ki>a,^ y.ai <ro

'A;^/XXsiv,

Strab. Geog.

xiii. />. 86'9.

Ed.Oxon.

(3)

See the preceding Note.

TO RHODES.
island produces the finest wine in the u4rchipela^o.

223
chap.

The Egyptian Expedition had raised its price to the more usual demand eight paras the oke was only from four to six. This wine will keep
:

fourteen or sixteen years


its

after that time

it

loses

red colour, and becomes white, but retains


strength and flavour to a

its

much

longer period.

The wind and sea were


could not land
near the town
sheltered spot.
:

so turbulent, that

we

we

fired a gun,
is

and remained

this

situate in a

low and

boat came towards us upon

our signal, but found such a sea running, that


she was compelled to return, and

we

continued

our course.

Perhaps we surveyed the island

better from our deck than

we

could have done

on shore

for

we saw

the whole extent of the


its port,

town, with the vessels lying in


land on either side.

and the

There

is

upon the island

but one object


wine.
It
;

to attract strangers, excepting its

was

antiently famous for its earthen-

ware
is in

fraoments of which

we had
this,

seen in Troas.

But the Soros


lum, is said to

oi AtticuSy father oiHerodes Atticus,


;

the market-place

and
It

with

its

opercu-

be

entire.

stands in the Agora

of the town, serving as a


tion

cistern.

The
it

inscrip-

upon

it is

already published*.

Touriiefort,

who has

anticipated every thing

might have

(4)

See Chandler's

I/iscript tones

Antique, No. IV,

VOL.

iir.

224
CHAP,

FROM THE HELLESPONT


been proper
to state concerning
;

the antient
at the

history of Tenedos

and who pubHshed,

same

time, a very accurate Plan of the island,


;

with a view of the town

was

told that

no

The bronze medals of Tenedos are however not uncommon. If the interesting monument now mentioned be
remains of former times existed'.
hereafter noticed,
cult.
its

removal

will not

be
but

diffi-

The Jeivish Consul


effect the

at the Dardanelles

might
this

at

any time

undertaking;

could not be done without considerable expense.

Continuing
after passing

our
the

course

towards the

south,

town of Tenedos, we were

struck by the very grand appearance of the antient


Balnece, already described,

among

the remains

of udllexandria Troas.
building

The three arches of the

make

a conspicuous figure, from a consi-

derable distance at sea, like the front of a magnificent palace ;

and

this circumstance,

connected
*'

with the mistake so long prevalent concerning the


city itself,

gave

rise to the appellation of

The

Palace of Priam,'' bestowed by mariners upon


Ledum
tory.

these ruins. Thence


of Lectum,

we sailed to the Promontory


at the

now Cape Baha,

mouth of the

^dramyttianGulph; the south-western extremity

(1)

Voyage du Levant,

torn. II. p. 92.

Lj/on, 1717.

TO RHODES.
of that chain of mountains of which Garsarus
is
>

225
chap.
VII.

the summit.
cUff,

This cape presents a high and bold


little

on whose steep acclivity the

town of

Baha appears, as though stuck within a


It is

nook^

famous
:

for the

manufacture of knives and


are distinguished in
Leek.s.

poignards

their blades

Turkey by the name of Baha


crossing- the

Afterwards,

mouth of

the Gulph,

we passed

round the western point of the Island of Mitylene,

antiently called the Sigrian Promontory.

It is uncertain at
its

what time the

island chansfed
it

antient
;

name

of Lesbos for that which


it

now
with

bears

but Eustathius says

was
Its

so called from
situation,
is

Mhylene, the capital town.

regard to the Adramyttian Gulph,


delineated in

erroneously

maps and

charts

some of these
Sea^.

place

it

at a distance in the

JEgean

We

had surveyed the whole of

this

island,

Leshos.

with considerable interest, from the Peak of


Gargarus; and now, as the shades of evening were
beginning to conceal
(2)

its

undulating territory,
engraved in Sir TVilliam GelCs

verj-

accurate view of
p. 21.

it

is

" Topography of Troy,"


ealled

from

his

own drawing.

The

place

was

Buba, from a Dervish {Baha) buried there, " who always gave the Turks intelligence when any rovers were in the neighbouring seas."

Egmont and Heytnan's Travels, vol.1, p. 162. (3) Our geographical documents of the /Archipelago are a disgrace to the age the very best of them being false in their positions of latitude,
;

and

in the respective bearings of the different islands, as well as

remark-

able for their unaccountable omissions.

P 2

226
CHAP,
VII.
V

FROM THE HELLESPONT


a vain wish of enjoyina- a nearer view J J
9
excited.

was

.>

The consciousness to a traveller


he cannot
visit,

of the

many

places

often counter-

balances the satisfaction derived from the view


of objects he has been permitted to see \

Few

(l)

Icne, will

Some amends for the author's deficiency, with respect to Mitybe made by communication of a different nature ; namely,

by those extracts from the

MS.

Journal of his friend Mr.

fTltlpole

which

relate to his Travels in Asia Minor.

They begin with

his

Journey

from Pergamus to Smyrna,

" The

antiquities of
;

Pergamus are very deserving of a minute


;

examination

particularly those on the Acropolis


is

on one part of

which, towards the south,

a wall of granite, a most stupendous work,

eighty or ninety feet in perpendicular depth.

Vast cisterns and

decayed towers, (in one of which

copied a Greek Inscription relating

to a decree ratified by the people of Pergamus, and inscribed in the

Temple

of Bacchus,) are to be seen there.

The Acropolis was adorned


pillars, of

with a temple of the Corinthian order, whose


feet in diameter, are lying prostrate

nearly four
it.

among
:

other parts of

This

temple,

conceive, was erected to Minerva

we know, from Vitrui.

vius, that her temple

the silver

money

of

was built ' in excelsissimo loco' (lib. Pergamus bears her image constantly
the town
it.

c.7.);

and
also

games

were, as Polybius informs us, celebrated here, in honour of her, by


Attalus,
(lib. iv.)

Below, to the south,

is

and to the west


relative situation

of it was the Stadium, and a theatre above


of these

The

two buildings at Tralles


(lib. v.)
*

in Asia

was the same, according to

Vitruvius,

Trallibus porticus ex utrdque parte scend^, supra sta-

dium.'

Farther on to the west, are the remains of an amphitheatre or


:

Naumachia

there

is

water dividing the two semicircles


first,
it

so that if
in a

the building was used for the


*'

must have flowed beneath,

channel, whenever the sports were represented.

There

is

with greater safety, than in the

no part of the Turkish dominions where you may travel district under the family of Kara

Osman

Oglou.

The two

capitals, as they

may be

called, are

Pergamus,
I

and Magnesia.
cultivated

In coming from the former place to Smyrna,


territory.

passed

through part of their


j

The country was,

for

Turkey, well

most of

it laid

down

in cotton and coi-n land.

They plough,
as

TO RHODES.
literary strangers will pass the shores of Lesbos

227
^^}^^f' VII.

with indifference.
nified
as
I

Its

land was peculiarly dig:

by
told,

genius,

and by wisdom

iEolian lyres
;

was

with a pair of oxen, more than an acre a day


is

and the
(April)

manure they use

burnt weed.
:

The whole country was now

wearing a beautiful appearance


cinth, were seen in the fields,

the anemone, ranunculus, and hya-

and by the road

night in the open air, by a

fire

side. Having slept one which the driver of the caravan kindled

with dried horse-dung,

arrived the next day at the banks of the


daily adding to the land,

Hermus
it

winding, and
tlie

muddy ;

which
1

it

has

already formed on

north side of the Gulph of Smyrna.

crossed
in

at the ferry, and reached

Meuomen
boats

whence
daily to

sailed to
in

Smyrna

an hour.
Angouria.
streets of

From Meuomen,

come
is

Smyrna,

the season,

laden with water-melons (the Cucurbita Citrullus), called, by the Greeks,

From
Smyrna.

the seed, a liquor

made, which

is

sold about the

" The
olive, fig,

fields

and gardens about Smyrna are planted with almond,


trees.

and pomegranate

The

little

village of

Narli-keui

takes

it

name from the abundance


and
insects,
(a

of the pomegranate-trees there.

Some

of the plants, birds,

found at Smyrna, are described

by Hasselquist.
the latter
'

The

j'rancolin

kind of partridge, and called by


heccajico, are

Belon the array?) of the Greeks), and


I

found

in

abundance

have heard called by a

name not

unlike the antient.


lib. ii.GD.

SyxaX/Ss; (sajs Athenffius) are taken in the Jig-season-'


species of plover, are seen in
I

Woodcocks, and a

December. Wild-boars saw


also a quantity of
fasts
;

are frequently shot here in the mountains.

the ix^'s (the sea-egg), which

is

eaten by the Greeks in their

now by the same name. ' It d/^/ends itself hy its pricMy shell:' Athenaeus, lib.iii.41. The ocfopodio?i, as the modern Greeks call it, is also eaten by them in Lent it is a cuttle-fish, with eight rays, or tentacula, as the name indicates. The hills round Smyrna are
and
called
;

of granite.

At a

village to the south of

it,

called

Bujaw,

is

a very fine

grove of cypress-trees:
in their

this tree, so great a favourite with the


is

Turks

burying-grounds,
its

there planted on account of


Sycoinortis,

its

balsamic

smell

wood, as well as that of the Ficus


for
its

was always

prized in the East

The Egyptians made their mummy-chests of it and the Athenians buried those who had fallen in war in coffins of this wood. Between Smyrna and Bournabat, a
durability.
;

village

seven miles to the north-east of

it,

is

a very large cemetery,

with

228
CHAP,
t -

FROM THE HELLESPONT


were strung in every valley, and every mountain
>

^-'

v^as consecrated

by

the breath of inspiration'.


tell

While more antient records


Sappho, and a Pittacus
;

of an Alcceus, a

of Arion, and Terpander ;

with all the

illustrious
it,

names o^ Lesbian bards and


and Greek Inscriptions.
extensive,
as

with remains ot antiquity in

The Turkish
never

burying-grounds are in general

they

put a

body where one has been already deposited; and are also offensive, as In the mosque at they do not put them deep in the ground. Bournabat, I copied a Greek Inscription from a pillar sixteen feet in
length
tion
is
:

it

commemorates the

river

Meles

the
it

last

part of the inscripto


;

a Senarian Iambic.

This river, before

comes

Smyrna,

is

crossed by two aqueducts, to the south-east of the city

one of which

may
feet.

be 300 feet from one

hill

to the opposite

and the other about 200


In going out

The Meles

flows

now through part

of the town, turning a few

mills; and empties itself in the sea to the north-east.

of the Frank-street, at the north end, and towards the careening-

ground, you walk over

soil

which has been gained from the

sea.

The

arrow-headed grass of Sweden, which Hasselquist found here, and

which grows where the earth has remains of

sea-salt,

proved to him

that the earth had here been covered with the sea.

This circumstance

makes
*'

it

difficult to

arrange the present topography, in some respects,

with the antient.

The remains
:

of antiquity, which the Acropolis of

Smyrna

presents,

are few

the chief are, part of the castle-wall, perhaps of the time of


;

Lysimachus
declivity

the cisterns

and the

site of

the Stadium, built as that

at Ephesus was, with one side on vaults, and the other on a natural
;

exhibiting

now

sports of a less cruel kind than

it

did for-

merly.

In

1806,

merchants.
the Theatre
while
there
I
is
;

saw cricket-matches played heie by some of the Kiln and Ba2ar were built with marble brought from
I

and the only specimen of antiquity which was discovered


foot.

was there, was a colossal marble

After Constantinople,

no town in the Levant which presents a more beautiful and


is

interesting prospect than that which

beheld fi-om the

castle-hill,
;

extending over the city beneath

the bay with the sliipping


tlie

the
;

mountains beyond; the winding Hermus on

north side of theGulph

and the biglily-cuhivated


(1)

plain

adjoining to the city of Smyrna."


IFalpole's

MS.

Journal.

Where each

old poetic mountain

Inspiration breathed around.

; ;

TO RHODES.
sages

229
;

and poets and historians

Cicero

and
its

chap.

Vitruvius expatiate

on the magnificence of

capitar.

Such was the

flourishing state of the

Fine Arts in the city of Mitylene^,


cellus, after

when Mar-

the battle of Pharsalia, retired thither

to

end

his

days

in

hterary ease, that a modern

traveller, after the lapse of

seventeen centuries,

could behold nothing but proofs of the splendour to

which they had attained ^


are less

The medals

oi Lesbos

known
its

than of any other island in the

Archipelago;

because those which have been


antient silver coinage, properly

described as

Yet the island itself has never been fully examined in modern times probably from its being so completely under
belong to Macedonia'.
the Moslem dominion.
Tournefort,
it,

who has

given

us the best account of

with that industry


his writings,

and erudition which characterize had


little

opportunity
to his

for

its

investigation.

According

own

confession, he was, for

the most part, confined to the shore at Petra^


Gc.

(2)
(3)
(4)

De Leg.

Agr.

Vitiuv. Y\h.\. c.Q.

'H fiiyiirrv

rro\is.

Strah. Geogr.

lib. xiii.

"

Aussi n'y voit-on que bouts de colounes, la pluspart de marbre

blanc, quelquesunes gris-cendr^, ou de granit,

&c

II

n'est

pas croyable combien dans les ruines dont nous parloas, ilyrcste de chapiteaux, de frises, de piedestaux, de bouts d'Inscriptions," &c.

Tournef. Voy. du Lev. torn.


(5) See

II. p. 81.

Lyon, 1717.
et

Combe's Accouut of Hunter's Medals, IVum. Vet. Pop.


1.

Urb. &c. Tab. 33. Fig.


(6)

&c. p. 171.
torn. II. p. 86.

Voyage du Levant,

230

FROM THE HELLESPONT


lest the captain,

with
to

whom
to the

he had contracted
should
sail

for

a passage

Constanlinople,

without him.

Next

work

of Tourneforty

rank the Travels of Egmont and Heyman, who

saw more of
but
still

the actual state of the country


little is

very
;

known

of the interior of

the island

although, according to the observait is fertile,

tions of these gentlemen,

and well

cultivated

yielding seventy thousand quintals

of

oil

annually to the port of Mitylene\

The

site and remains of the antient towns of Eressus^

and Methymna^ were known in the time of Tournefort; the former of which still preserves
its

original

name, almost

unaltered,

in

the

modern

appellation of Eresso ;

and the ruins of


Excepting Euhcea^

the latter are yet to be seen*.

this is the largest island in the

Mgean

Sea.

It

was the mother of many jEolian colonies. Its happy temperature conspired with the richness
of
its

soil

to

produce those delicious

fruits,

and those exquisite wines, which are so highly


extolled

by

antient writers*.

The present

state

(1)

Beef was then only one penny the pound in the market of

Jllit2/lene.

(2)

Famous
Famous

for the births of Theophrastus

and Plmnias, the most

rcnowped
(3)

of Aristotle's disciples.
for the birth o2 Arinn.
torn. II. p. 84.
i.

(4)

Voy. du Lev.

[h)\\Ci.Horut. Lib.
Cell. lib. xiii. c. 5.

Od.

17.

Firgil. Georg.

lib.

ii.

8;;,

SO.

Aul.

&c. &c.

TO RHODES.
of
its

231
its
'

ao-riculture

does not however entitle

chap.

products to the high encomium once bestowed

upon them.
reputation
entirely
to
it

Its

wine

is

said to have lost the

formerly gained; probably owing


the

ignorance and

the indolence

of

its

Turkish masters,
to

and

to the disregard

shewn by them
vine.

the

cultivation

of

the

Early on the following morning, passing the

Er-iihraan

Promontory of Melisna, and the mouth of the Hermean Gulph, or Gulph of Smyrna, we entered
the Straits, between Chios,

now

Scio,

and the

main

land.

All this

voyage from the

Hellespont,

between the continent and adjacent


but pirates lurk among the

islands,

was

considered by our Captain as mere river sailing


Straits, in greater

number than
always
with
it,

in

the
of

more open
land,

sea.

Being
close
in

in

sight

and

often

the prospects are in the highest

degree

beautiful.

In the channel between

CJiios

and the opposite


is

peninsula of Ery three"', the scenery

perhaps

(6) Travels ai
(7
)

Egmont anA Hiymav,

vol.1, p. 158.

iMid. I75D.

The Ruins

of Erythro' are at a jilaco .'ailed Rytropoli, by the little

river Aloes, near Tchesme.

When

iMr. 7/^//.o/c'vvas there, a


all

number

of

very beautiful

little

bronze medals wcvc discovered,

of Erythr.'e.
in front
t!ie

He

kindly presented some of them to the aiiihor.

They have

232
^vn^*
^

FROM THE HELLESPONT


"^^^^^^l^cd

by any thing

in

the Archipelago;

'-'

not only owing to the grandeur, the height.

the bead of Hercules

and

for the obverse, the letters

EPT, with the


Minor, made

name

of a magistrate.

An

Extract from Mr. Wulpole's Journal will


/isia

here communicate the result of his remarks in


subsequei)tly to his arrival at Smyrna. " During my journey in Asia, I took up

my
to

abode for the night in

the khans or caravanserais, choosing a


stitutes for inns, rather

room

myself in these bad sub-

than the private houses of the Turks, where


admittance.
is

my

Janissary procured

me

For although the Turks are quiet

and

inofFensive, yet

any thing

preferable to sleeping in a small


at meals,

room

with half-a-dozen of

them ; or to a cross-legged posture

round a

low

table,

eating spcon-meats, of which their repasts generally consist.

As

the road I travelled was not

much

frequented, I was forced to stop at

the houses of individuals; and arriving generally at sun-set, I found

them
rise

beginning their supper


at break of day.

their dinner is at ten in the

morning, as they
hut of

Sometimes a

village afforded a small


:

mud and

straw, purposely built for travellers


feet

half of this

was raised about two

from the ground,

for

men

to lie

on

the other half accommodated


it

three or four horses.

In the great towns

was necessary

to

go

first

to

the Governor, with some present, accompanied by

my

Janissary.

At

Guzel-hissar I waited on the Aga, who, after some conversation with


Janissary, ordered a

my
At

Greek

(his tailor) to receive


tlie
it

me

into his house,

where

I remained some days.

Presents to

servants are always given.

Melasso, I waited on the Governor:

was the time of the

fast

of the

Ramadan
amber
eat,
:

I found

him

sitting

on

his divan, counting his beads of thick

a pipe was brought to me, but not to him, as he did not smoke,

nor drink, from sun-rise to sun-set.


in
:

He shewed me

guns and

pistols

made
to

England these some Englishmen had brought to Melasso, coming


for the

buy horses
I

army on

the Egyptian Expedition.


strictly observed.

This

fast

of the

Ramadan

found was most

IMy Janissary was not so

scrupulously abstemious as

my guide, who never


travels I
:

even took

snuflT until the

sun was below the horizon.

I passed the evenings WTiting

my

journal,

and reading some books of

had with me.

The Turkish

peasants

would sometimes bring medals


versation of the

these they found in the fields.


as I

The con-

Turks turned generally,


its

found from

on

tlie

affairs

of the village and

neighbourhood.

my interpreter, Tlie women never


appeared.

'

TO RHODES.
.

233
1

and the magnitude, of the gigantic masses on chap. \ i. ^ the coast, but from the extreme richness and
>

Chios.

appeared.

I saw

some by the road

side

and in the

villages,

young

chil-

dren made their appearance, with strings of copper money around their heads ; and the nails, both of their hands and feet, dyed of a reddish
colour, with henna, the leaves of
paste,

which are powdered and formed into a


:

and then applied.

Tins

is

a custom of great antiquity


in this

Hasselquist

says he

saw the

nails of

some mummies dyed

manner.

Although

the Turks, in their intercourse with each other, strictly adhere to the
practice of taking off their slippers in a room, (a custom of the Antients;
see Martial,
lib. iii.
'

deposui soleas,') yet they dispense with


travellers.
it is

it

frequently

in the case of

European

" Besides rice and fowls,

possible to procure, at

many of the

villages

and towns

in Asia 3Iinor, Yowrt, or sour milk, called in

Greek l^uyakx

Cainiac, or coagulated cream, in


rupi,

Greek u^^oyaXu

and

soft cheese, ;^Xfcg

a literal translation of the caseus viridis of Columella.


is
is

Glutton

is

universally preferred to beef ; this, in general,

coarse

and bad

tasted:

the former
"

is

double the price of the

latter,

and

two-pence the pound.

Greek labourer receives from


pence
:

thirty-five to forty paras a day, nearly


;

fifteen
sists

he works only two-thirds of the year

the other third conis

of holidays.

During the four


he eats

fasts,

of which that in Lent

the most

strictly observed,

shell-fish, caviar (the roe

of sturgeon), pulse, and

anchovies.

" I observed but few Greek villages in Asia IMinor

the Greeks all

seek the great towns, to avoid more easily the different means of oppression
resorted to by the Turkish Governors; whose short residence in their

provinces

is

spent,

not in countenancing or furtliering any improvement

or plans of amelioration in the condition of those subject to them, but in exacting everj' thing they can, to repay tliemselves for the

sum which

the

Porte takes from them


to amass.
It
is

and

in carrying

away what wealth they

are able

difficult to ascertain
:

what sum any given province pays

annually to the Porte

but a

neai- conjecture

may be made, by adding


Governor
stipulates to

the Haralch (capitation-tax) to the

sum

wliich the

pay every year.


"

The Turks,

as far as

my

experience carried mc, shew no disposition

to molest or offend a traveller.

Sometliing contemptuous

may

at times

be

observed

234
<^^^Ar.
"

FROM THE HELLESPONT


fertility

of the island,

filled

with flowery, luxu-

r^

riant,

and odoriferous

plants,

and presenting a

magnificent slope, covered with gardens from

observed in their manner.


genera] deportment,
is to

But a

great change for the better, in their

be attributed to their never being

now exasperated

by the attack of
"

corsairs or pirates

on the

coast.

No

people living under the same climate, and in the same country,

can be so opposite as the Greeks and Turks.

There

is

in the former a

cringing manner, and yet a forwardness, disgusting to the gravity and


seriousness of the latter.

The Turks

treat the

Armenians, who conduct

themselves generally with great propriety and decorum, with


harshness than they shew to the Greeks.
certainly not the

much

less
is

Their present condition

most favourable point of view for considering the cha-

racter of the Greeks;


situation,

and

their faults,

which are those of

their unfortunate

would disappear under more favourable circumstances, and a


government.

different

When
many

in oflSce

and

authority, they are not so

devoid of insolence to their countrj-men as might be wished.


bashis in the

The

codja-

Morea

are,

of them, tyrannical to the other Greeks.


at their hands, in the time of
vvith

The treatment which


the Greek empire,

the

Jews experienced

is

that

which the Greeks now meet


'

from the

Turks.

'

No

one,' says

Benjamin of Tudela,
;

dares to go on horseback,
all

but the Imperial physician

and the Jews are hated in the town by


p. 30.

the

Greeks, without any regard to their good or bad character.'

as cited

hy

2\^iebithr.

" Neither hay nor oats are

known

to the
'

Turks ; nor has any nation in

the East ever used them for their horses.

They brought barley

also

and
E.

straw for the horses:'

A'/n^s iv. 28.

Homer may

be consulted,

II.

195; and Juvenal,

>S'a/.viii.

Qjumentis ordea

lassi's').

Niebuhr

sa}'s,

he saw no oats in Arabia.


as corn and cotton.
are very productive.

I did not observe tobacco so

The

tobacco-plantations require

much cultivated much attention, but


The
crop from a

After gathering the leaves, the stalks stand and rot,

and, by the salt which they contain, fructify the earth.


tobacco-plantation
is

esteemed worth
corn.

t%\ice as

much

as the product of the

same land sown with


yield about

An

acre of moderately good


:

ground

is

said to
tliree

two hundred okes of cotton

an oke

is

two pounds and


an eke.

quarters;

and the cotton may be worth nearly two

piastres

" The

TO RHODES.
the water's edge.

235
fruit

Trees bending with


Mastic-tree

chap.
VII.

the citron, the orange, the lemon, the mulberry,

and the Lentisais

or

are

seen

"

The

olive-tree flourishes in a chalky soil.

In summer, a hollow
off with

is

dug round
sticks,

the tree, to receive water

the

fruit is beaten

long

and not gathered.

The

olive-presses,
;

which I saw, consist of a


rises
is

circular basin, of twelve feet in diameter

and from the centre

tall

strong piece of wood, to which a large stone, like a mill-stone,

attached.

A horse goes round the basin, and,


wood
" Locusts are called by
tlie

as

he moves, the perpendicular piece of


is

receives a rotatory motion; this

communicated

to the stone.

Greeks

x.ara.oa,

(a curse).

They had

laid

waste the country about Adramyttium and Pergamus.

Proceeding in

a straight

line,
:

and stopped by no impediment, they devoured every kind


all

of vegetation

means used
fire,

to destroy

them were

fruitless

if

some part

were

killed

by smoke and
tlie

kindled expressly,

still,

however, multitudes

escape.

In July,

Archipelago was covered for some distance with


sea.

swarms, which the wind had driven into the


grasshoppers, with legs

They were larger than


their

and body of a yellow colour:

wings were

brown, and spotted.


the Arabs, the locust
are surprised at this
oysters,
;

The Turks have


is

not learned to eat them; but with

boiled or roasted, and eaten with salt.

Europeans
eat crabs,

as the

Arabs

are,

when they hear

that

we

and

lobsters.

" The storks, while I was in the Troad, were building their nests on the
houses at Bournabashi.

The

veneration paid to these birds by the


(says

Maho-

metans

is

well known.

The Thessalians

Plutarch, de Iside et

Osiride) esteem tliem, because they destroyed serpents.

The

noise

made

by the upper and under parts of


Ovid.)
is

their bill

('

crepitante ciconia rostro'

well compared, by Shaw, to that of a pair of castanets.

"

On

the great roads near Smyrna, which lead to the interior, are to be
;

met frequent caravans of camels


round
because the same ornament

these are preceded

by an
I

ass

and
this,

their necks are strings of beads,


is

with a

bell.

mention

seen on the camels sculptured at Persepolis.

Tlie camel of the northern part of Asiatic

Turkey

is

a stronger animal
five

than that of the south

the latter carries not

more than

hundred

pounds weight; but the former from eight

to nine hundred.
IFalpole's

Near

Moolah

met a caravan laden with

iron ore."

MS. Journal.

236
CHAP,

FROM THE HELLESPONT


forming extensive groves
:

and

in the

midst of

these appears the town of Scio.

Upon
of
the

first

entering the Straits, small objects

do not interfere with the stupendous grandeur


view.

Mountains,

high,

undulating,
all

sweeping, precipitousr inclose the sea on


sides
;

so as to give to

it

the appearance of a

vast lake, surrounded by that sort of Alpine

where the eye, from the immensity of objects, roams with facility over the sides and the summits it beholds surveying valleys, and
territory,
;

precipices,

and chasms, and crags, and bays;


all

and, losing

attention to minuter features, is

entirely occupied in viewing the bolder outlines

of Nature.

As we advanced, however, and


to
Chios, the splendid picture pre-

drew near sented by


attention,

that beautiful

island
it,

drew

all

our

and engrossed

from daylight until

noon. It is the Paradise of Modern Greece; more productive than any other island, and
yielding to none in grandeur.

We

passed close
its

beneath the town, sailing pleasantly along


odours, wafted from

vineyards and plantations, and inhaling spicy


its cliffs

and groves.

The

houses being
trast to

all

white, presented a lively con-

the evergreens which overshadowed


like little palaces in the

them

seeming

midst

of bowers of citron, lime, olive, and pomegranate

TO RHODES.
trees.

237

This chosen spot was for

the residence of an Englishman of the

many years name of


;

chap.
<

Baimbridge,

who had searched

all

Europe for a
and,

healthy place in which to end bis days

although his arm was fractured at the advanced

age of seventy-four, he lived in Scio until he

The captain of our vessel well remembered him, when he was himself
ninety-three.

was

mate of a merchantman, and his master's ship was laid up during a twelvemonth
only
the
in the island.

He

pointed out the house where

he

lived,
;

and the tree beneath which he was

buried

and spoke of

his

own

residence in Scio
life.

as the happiest remembrance of his

Indeed,

the praises of this favoured island are universal


in the country,

and

its

dehghts constitute the

burden of many a

tale,

and many a song,


its

among

the

Modern

Greeks^:

produce

is

(l)

Egmont and Heyman published,

perhaps, the best account of this


to their

island, not

even excepting that of Tournefort ; and

Travels

the Reader

may be

referred for further statistical information.

To

repeat what has already been so fully communicated, would hardly be

deemed justifiable.
poet, Parthenius.

We

are indebted to their

work

for the following

eulogy of Chios, as taken from the writings of the celebrated Neapolitan

" Et me

grata Chios,
;

cum Nereus

obstrepit undis

Accipiat

noto facundos littore amicos

Invisam

O, qui

me

ventus felicibus

oris

Sistat, et ingenti Telluris protegat arcu

Ingenium

me

mite

soli,

me

collis aprici

Prospectus, dulcesque cavis in vallibus umbrsp,

Ac

238
CHAP,
VII.

FROM THE HELLESPONT


chiefly silk ^

and mastic.

From

the abundance

of the latter article, the Turks call Chios

name

of Sackees, which signifies

by the mastic\ The


it

sale of a single ounce of this substance, before

the Grand Signiors tributary portion of

has

been

collected, is punished with death.


is

This

portion

annually received

by the

Cadij in great

pomp, attended by music and by other demonstrations of joy.

The

inhabitants of Chios
;

sixty thousand

of this

amount to about number twenty thousand


It contains forty-

reside in the

town of

Scio"^.

Ac

tepidae invitant aurae, solesque benigni

Necnon

et placidi mores, et arnica virftni vis,


officiis
;

Docta aiiimos capere

O,

si

mihi

vitffi,

Ducere, quod superest, alta hie sub pace

liceret

"
!

Nauticortim,
(1)

lib. iv.

p. 103.

For every information concemiD^ the Mastic-tree, and the use


of
its

made
to
it,

gum,

see Tournefort, torn. II. p. 66.

in

Turltey,
;

the

ladies of the country

amuse themselves by chewing mastic

ascribing

at the

ing to

same time,- many virtues. Egmont and Heyman, only get

The Turks, however,

accord;

the refuse of the mastic

the

best being sold to foreigners.


(2)

" To the south

of the

town of Scio, which stands on the eastern


is

side of the island, nearly in the centre,

a beautiful plain, of five

miles in extent, by the sea side

it is filled

with lemon, orange,


of Lentiscus,

fig,

pomegranate, almond, and olive

trees.

A species

from

which the mastic

gum

is

procured, grows in great abundance there.


is

No

other mastic but that of Scio


in

mentioned by travellers

in the

Levant; but
Aiyvrria,

Galen we find a reference to Egyptian mastic,


6.

/^aerrlxi

lib. ii. c.

ad Clauconem,

" The

TO RHODES.
two
villaofes'.

239

Its minerals merit a

more par^

chap.
VII.

ticular regard than- they

have hitherto obtained*.

Jasper and marble are said to be found here in


" The
in
it,

fine

climate of the islaud, the mild g^overnnient of the Turks


all

the natural disposition of the inhabitants,

contribute to form
;

that liveliness and gaiety of temper which characterize the Sciots

and

have given
{aXoya

rise to the proverb,


'

that

it is

easier to find
{Xiaric

a green horse'
<p^ev4ftoy).

-r^dnnMo)

than a sober-minded Sciot'


are beautiful
;

The

features of the
in

women
is

but are covered with a paint,

which mercury

an ingredient, and by this their teeth and breath

are affected.

"

Besides cargoes of oranges and lemons, sent to Constantinople


island exports

and the Black Sea, the


velvet, to Barbary,

and to Egypt.

many bales of silk, damask, and The population of the capital is


Corn and provisions
is

30,000

of the whole island, 80,000.

in

general

come over from

the continent of Asia, as the island


sufficient for the inhabitants.

mountainous,
the north, and

and cannot produce

To

to the west of the town, are seen lofty rocks of granite.

Many

of the

mountains of Chios contain various


church of the Convent of Neamoue

sorts of marble, with

which the

in particular is
is

ornamented.

The

head of

this

convent

inyovfiivo;, as

he

called)

shewed

me

the library,
street in

which consisted of some volumes of the Greek Fathers.


which
I lived in

The

the town was inhabited by Catholic families only,

separated from the other Greeks by religious schism.

In a house in

that street,
I shall

copied a very interesting Greek Inscription, in verse


it,

here give part of

in a

lately published in a periodical


'Soi Xecfi'Tu fi\v

more correct manner than work


:

it

has been

2o%a, xttXoTg o Iff^kav '^a^iy ipysis

It is in

honour of Megacles, the son of Theogiton."


JValpole's

MS.

Journal.

(3)

Egmont and HeymurCs


be any truth

Travels, vol.

I.

p. 236.

(4) If there

in

the adnge prevalent in Scio concerning

the original formation of the island, the geologist would have ample
scope for his researches.
tion of the world,
sea,
Its

inhabitants relate, that,


all

"

at the crea-

God threw

the rocks of the continent into the


Ibid. p. Stil.

and of these the

island of Scio was formed."

VOL. in.

240
CHAP,
VII.
^'

FROiM

THE HELLESPONT
'
. .

considerable quantity and beauty, and a kind of

green earth, resembling verdegris', of which

we were

not able

to

procure

specimen,

called " Earth of Scio' by the

TurJis.

The

pavement of the church of Neamomj, a convent, two hours distant from the town, consists of marble and jasper, with inlaid work of other curious stones, dug from quarries in the island. Several Greek manuscripts were preserved in the
library

of

this

convent,

Hey man

visited the place-.

when Egmont and The antient medals


of the Levant; and

of Chios, even the silver, are obtained without


difficulty in various parts

perhaps with more


itself^

facility

than upon the island

Its inhabitants

antiently possessed

reputation for virtue,

still

said to be maintained
Plutarch*, there
Chios,

among them. According to


no instance of adultery

was

in

during the

space of seven hundred years.

Straits of

Having
Straits,

cleared

the

Chian,

or

Enithrcran

we

sailed along the Ionian coast for the

channel separating the stupendous heights of

Samos from the

lower land of

Icaria.

This

(1)

Egmont and Heyman's


They
all

Travels, p. 237.

(2) Ibid. p. 249.

(3)
its

have reference to the


;

CMun

wine, which

still

maintains

pristine celebrity

and represent,

in front, a sphinx, with a

bunch

of grapes; for the reverse, an amphora, with other symbols of the


island's fertility.

(4) Plut. de Virt.

Mulierum.

TO RHODES.
marine pass
is

241

at present generally

known

chap.

these seas by the appellation of the Samian


Boccaze.
in
It

presents a bold and fearfid


of which
is

strait,

the

mouth

the small island of


rolls

Fourni.

very heavy sea


so

continually

through this channel,

that,

with contrary
to our

wind, even a frigate can scarcely effect the


passage.

Whether

it

were owing

having

travelled so long in the level plains of Russia, or


to the reality of the scene,

we knew

not,

but

Samos appeared to us, on its northern side, the most tremendous and precipitous mountain we had ever beheld. Its summit was concealed by
a thick covering of clouds, although
all

the rest

of the Archipelago appeared clear and serene.

We

were

told that the heights of Samos

a.re

rarely unveiled; a circumstance which might

give rise to those superstitious notions enter-

tained in earlier ages,

when

its aerial

solitudes

were believed to be the abode of Deities, whence the Father of Gods and Men, enveloped
in

mysterious darkness, hurled his thunder on


mariner.

the passing

seamen of the

The most enlightened day, among whom might indeed

be included the Master of our vesseP, maintain.

(5) Captain Castle

of a

small yacht.

His

was reduced by misfortune to become the master abilities are well known to those of our
visited the

countrymen who have

Levant.

Arrowsmith has used

his

nautical observations in completing a Chart of the Archipelago.

q 2

242
CHAP.
VII.

FROM THE HELLESPONT


upon testimony which
it is

difficult to dispute,

Burning Vapour.

that in stormy weather they have observed a lambent flame playing upon the face of the

precipice

of Samosy

about two-thirds of

its

height from the surface of the water.

They

further allege, that the natives of Samos have

frequently gone

up the mountain,

in

dark tembut have


it

pestuous weather, to seek

this tire,

never been able to discover whence


It is

issues.

probably one of those exhalations of ignited

hydrogen gas, found in

many

parts of the world,


in

which are always most conspicuous


rainy weather;
as,

hazy and
burning

for exa^nple, the


in

vapour

at Pietra

Mala

Tuscany, and many

other in different parts of Persia.

That of Samos,

perhaps, from
still

its

inaccessible situation, rendered

more difficult of approach in stormy weather,


from a considerable distance at
sea'.

might escape the search of the natives, and yet

be

visible

(1)

An

anecdote very characteristic of the Turku, relating to an

occurrence wliich happened a short time previous to our travels in

Turkey, will prove that lights are sometimes exhibited by the Samians
themselves, to guide vessels in these Straits.

Turkish frigate, during

her passage through the Boccaze of Samos, was wrecked upon the
rocks of that island.

The Turkish Admiral


:

insisted

upon being paid

the value of the frigate by the inhabitants

and when the Samians,

regretting that they had not gone up with lights, maintained their
innocetfce as to the loss of the frigate, the

Mohammedan

exclaimed,

" You
which

will

admit one argument ! JVould the wreck have happened, if


this observation,

your island had not been in the way?" The force of


is

strictly

founded upon the

Mohammedan

law, has been illustrated

TO RHODES.
Approaching- the yawning chasm which Nature,
in

243
chap.

one of her awful convulsions, has here opened

to the waves, a

mountainous surge rolled

after

our

little

bark.

Prosperous winds, however,

carried

us

along,

and we presently
the*

left

the

Boccaze in our stern; passing the Isle of Fourni,

and steering
waters, with

into
all

broad surface of the

the

southern islands of the

trated by George

Henry Keene, Esq. a very eminent Oriental

scholar,
is

who

resided uiauy years iu India, in the Company' s service,

and

now
law,
/

of the University of Cambridge.

Mr. Keene has informed the author,

that the
is

fifth

species of homicide, according to the

Mohammedan
is

called homicide by

an intermediate cause, and

it

explained by the

following cases.

A. digs a well, or places a stone in land not his

own

and B,
dies
:

coming by,
B.'s blood

falls

into the well, or stumbles over the stone,


is

and

that band or company of which A.


;

member

shall

pay the price of


is

for A. in the act that

he did, transgressed the law, and

therefore considered as having thrown

down the deceased.

But

if

horse should stray that way and be killed, A. must himself pay the
value.

Or,

if

the wall of a house leans over towards the street, and the
is

master of the house

duly warned to remove the wall

and he does
it falls

not within a reasonable time remove that wall, so that at last

down and
house
is

kills

a man, or destroys private property

the master of the

answerable for these consequences.


relate to persons riding horses,

There are many cases which


the Translation of the Hedaya.

and

carrying burdens, along the high road, &c. &c. as

may be
this
:

seen in

Now
&c.
is

the principle of the law in

all

these cases

is

that every

individual, in exercising his right to use highways, markets,

mosques,

bound by the condition, that such


:

exercise of his right shall not

be dangerous to any other individual

and

it

was by a sophistical

application of this principle, that the Cupiidan


of

Pasha made the Greeks

Samos pay

for the loss of his frigate.

244

FROM THE HELLESPONT


Archipelago in view.
It is

not possible for any


to describe the

power of language adequately


View of
the cy-

appearance, presented at the rising, or setting


Q^
i-j^g

-j^

^Y\Q

^^ean

Sea.

Whether

in

dim
and

perspective, through grey and silvery mists, or

amidst hues of hveliest purple, the

isles

continents of Greece present their varied features,

nor pen, nor pencil, can pourtray the scenery.

Whatsoever,
youth,

in

the

v/armest fancies

of

my
this

imagination

had

represented of

gifted country,

but surpassed.
,

was afterv.^ards not only realized, Let the Reader picture to his

conception an evening sun, behind the towering


cliffs

of Patmos, gilding the battlements of the


its

Monastery of the Apocalypse with


sible brightness,

parting rays

the consecrated island, surrounded

seeming

to float

by inexpresupon an abyss
is

of fire'; while the moon, in milder splendour,


rising full over the opposite expanse.

Such a

scene

we

actually witnessed, with feelings na-

turally excited

by

all

the circumstances of local

solemnity; for such,


the face of Nature,
Apostle, kindling in

indeed, might have been


the inspiration of an

when
its

contemplation, uttered

the Alleluias of that mighty Voice ^ telling of

(l)

" Aud

saw

35 it

were a sea of glass mingled with

fire."

Rev.

(2}

Rev. xix.

1.

TO RHODES.
SALVATION AND GLORY AND POWER.

245

HONOUR AND
.

CHAP
VI
I

How very different were the reflections caused,


upon leaving the deck, by observing a sailor with a lighted match in his hand, and our
Captain busied
in

Kraics.

appointing an extraordinary

watch

for the night, as a precaution against the

pirates,

who swarm

in

these

seas.

Those
the in-

wretches, dastardly as well as cruel,


of the crew to death.

stant they board a vessel, put every individual

They
;

lurk about the Isle

of Fourni, in great numbers

taking possession

of bays and creeks the least frequented

by other
a
hole

mariners.

After they have plundered a ship,

and murdered the crew,


boats again-

they bore

through her bottom, sink her, and take to their

(3)

An

extract from Mr. JVulpole's Journal, containing? an account

of his journey from

Smyrna

to Hullcarmisms,

will here give

the

Reader some information concerning the coast along which we were

now sailing. " As many


quities,

of the

monuments and superb remains on the


I

coast of

Asia have been minutely and faithfully described in the Ionian Anti-

and by Chandler,
I

shall

not repeat their remarks.

The

various inscriptions which

copied, both on the coast, and in the interior


entirely

of the country,

many

of

them

unknown, cannot obtain room


I

few miscellaneous remarks, which occurred as travelled along the coast southward to Halicarnassus, " The country between Smyrna and Ephesus is very mountainous
I shall state a in

here.

one part of the road, near the Caister, you pass the base of the auticnt Gallesus, under most frightful precipices, the habitation of

some


246
^y^^*
.

FROM THE HELLESPONT

^ harbour of the
some
eagles
is
:

The next morning we came


Isle of

to

anchor

in the

Cos,

now

called Stanchio,

a few pines are seen on the sides of the mountains


its

lower

down
now,

the arbutus, in great abundance, with

scarlet fruit, called

as antiently, fiufjiaizuy.ii (see Hesych.);


is

and by the torrents, oc-

casionally crossing the road,

the plane and the oleander.

The

fields

are laid

down

in cotton plantations, Indian corn,

and wheat: among

these are olive-trees, with vines growing around them.

The present
huts on the

inhabitants of Ephesus are a few fishermen,

who

live in

banks of the Caister, over which they ferried me.


through a muddy plain,
lofty reeds,
iii

This river winds


it,

some measure formed by


itself into

and through
swans which

with a slow yellow stream, without


:

anj' of the

the Antients describe

i't

empties

the sea, at the distance

of an hour from the morass, near the supposed site of the famous

Temple

of Diana.

The subterranean
which
I

vaults and passages, close to the

east of this marsh, (into

descended by a rope, and found only

bats above, and water below,) are imagined, by some, to be the remains

and substruction of

this temple.

The Church

of St. John, built at

Ephesus by Justinian, and which Procopius says was very magnificent,

may

have been raised from the materials presented


;

b}'

the Temple of

Diana

and

this will in

some measure account


latter.

for the little that


to

can

be seen or known of the west of the stadium,


wall, as
is

Near these remains,


:

the south-

an arch

on the top
I

of this, climbing by the

no ladder was
was
at

to

be found,

copied a Greek inscription, in

perfect preservation.
first

The Agha
Ephesus
;

of the place rode about with

me

the

time

and imagined that every inscription

I copied,

pointed out the situation or

bushes in the plain,


faurea hencdicfa,

sum of a hidden treasure. The among which are the Agnus castus, and Cenconceal many remains of antiquity. The Ephesians
hill

were supplied with their marble from the


their city

(Prion) whereon part of

and porphyry and granite, of which, gigantic specimens are lying in the plain, were brought up to the town by means of the river, and by the canal, into the actual morass which
was built
;

once formed the port.

" As you advance southward from Ephesus


(antiently

and

Scala

Nuova
with

Neapolis),

the

high

mountain,

Mycale,

covered

arbutus, wild-olive, and ilex (from which the peasants


presents itself; and soon after a lofty white

make
is

charcoal),

summit

seen to the
its

south; this

is

the top of

Mount

Titanus, 'called now, from

form,

Bisher-

TO RHODES.
where the sea appears
indeed
it

247
;

entirely land-locked

as

chap.
^

does for a very considerable distance

Jiisher-matli, Five-Jingers.

The most commanding view


I

of this was from

the Acropolis of Priene, from which

descended, on the south-east side,

by a way almost impassable, resting at times to contemplate the ruins


of the

Temple
rises

of Minerva at Priene, and to cast

my eyes
In the

over the Plain


side of

of the Meander, towards the

Lake

of

Myus, on the north-east

which

Mount Titanus
and

in all its majesty.

"

Ionian Anti-

quities," a

minute detail of the architecture of the Temple of Minerva


;

has been published

in Chandler's
lie

"

Inscriptions," a faithful copy

from the inscribed marbles that


mit of the
land, marshy, and

among

the ruins.

From the sumPriene, once

Acr<>polis of Priene I saw, to the south, the vast accretion of

muddy, occasioned by

the Meander.

on the
I

coast, was, in the time of Strabo, five

miles

from the

sea.
:

crossed the river, winding through tamarisks, in a triangular boat


:

its

breadth here was about thirty yards


I

at a later season of the year

passed

it

again, higher up, in Caria, over a

wooden bridge,

sixty paces

long.

From

the

summit
I

of the Theatre of Miletus, facing the northriver.

wc;5t, is a

good view of the mazes of the

sea from the theatre

conjecture to be seven miles.

The distance of the The high mounand the


site

tains which are to be passed in going from Miletus,

of

the

Temple

of Apollo, near the promontory Posidium, towards Jassus,


:

are also covered with arbutus, the dwarf oak, and the pine

those

mountains are the haunts of numerous beasts,

particularly^ of the

jackal (called by the Turks, chical), which disturbed us in the night,

by

its cries.
it is

The road
:

is

often cut through masses of slate


it

some-

times

paved

by the side of

are small huts, of wood, covered

with beughs, for the purpose of selling coffee to travellers, chiefly in

summer-time
soil

they are generally by the side of a running stream.

was

loose,

and

easily

yielded to the plough.

The The quantity of


of persons to

ground which might be brought into cultivation,


for cattle,
till it.
is

for corn, or pasture

very great
rain

but

it

is

neglected, from

want

had now increased the torrents descending from the mountains, so much, that it was quite dangerous to pass them. The

The

south-west brought with

it

rain;

the north-east, a sharp cold air:

these two winds arc called by the Turks, Lodos, and Foreds ;

names

borrowed from the Greek.

" The road

leads

on to Casikli
the

for three hours,


;

then turn to the

east, for

same time

you by the sea and reach Assum Uassus),


:

the

248
CHAP,
Vil.

FROM THE HELLESPONT


from the
island,

towards the north.

One

of the

kihabitants, after

we had

landed, brought to us

a bronze medal of the island, with the head of


It is the and the word KHIIIN. more interesting, as few medals are now found

Hippocrates,

at Cos.

We

could neither procure nor hear of


silver.

a single one in
island

In other respects, the

abounds
in

in

antiquities;

but they are


that

scattered

such a confused manner,

nothing decisive can be collected from their appearance.


port,

In the wall of the quay, facing the


the colossal marble statue of

we observed

the f5ituation of which, in the recess of a hay, looking over olive-

grounds to the sea, and thence to the high mountains near Halicarnassus,
led
is

beautiful.

To
I

this last place,

now

called

Bodntn, the road

me through

groves of myrtle, and

ilex,

by the sea-shore, for two

hours and a

half.

shall here subjoin the distance of

some

of the

places on the coast.


Hours

From Priene

to

the Meander

3
1

To Acqui To Ura (Temple To Casikli To Assuni


" The
as
I

of Apollo)

"I Sg 6
I

direct route from this last place to Halicarnassus


;

cannot give

wish

as

we

lost

our way, going for three quarters of an hour


sea,

through a bay of the

up

to the horses' girts

and riding

all

the

day in rain, until half past nine, when the barking of dogs guided us
to a

Turkish hut, where

slept

the next morning, at eight,


;

set

out again, passing some fluted columns


hives,

and

in

a valley, some bee-

made

of earthen-ware, cylindrical, about

two

feet

and a half

in

height.

Riding among mountains,


in a at

reached a colfee-hut at

Guverchin, by the shore,


hours and a half arrived

bay, running east and west; and in four


If'alpolc's

Halicarnassus."

31S. Jotirnaf.

TO RHODES.
a female, with

249
but

drapery finely executed,

the head,
off.

arms,

and

feet,

had been broken


gate

On which we

the left-hand

side of the

by

entered the town, an Inscription re-

mains, in a high state of preservation, beginning-

ABOYAAKAIOAAMOS:

this

has already been

published by Spon and by other authors, and


therefore needs not to be inserted here.

plane-tree,

supposed,

and perhaps with


is

PianeXrco.

reason, to be the largest in the world,

yet

standing

within the

market-place.

It

was

described, as the famous plantain-tree, half a cen-

tury ago,

covered with

by Egmont and Heyman \ It once its branches upwards of forty


is still

shops; and enough


all

remaining to astonish
branch, extending
the
sea,

beholders.

An enormous
to

from the trunk almost

although

propped by antient columns of

granite,

gave

way and
size.

fell.

This has considerably diminished

the effect produced


Its

by

its

beauty and prodigious

branches

still

exhibit a very remark-

able appearance, extending, horizontally, to a

surprising
time,

distance;

supported,

at

by

granite

and marble
notion

pillars

same found upon


the

the island.

Some

may be formed

of the

time those props have been so employed, by


Egmont dM^ Heyman' sTrvLXch,
vol.!. p. 263.

(l)

&.C.

250
CHAP,

FROM THE HELLESPONT


the appearance of the bark; for this has actually

encased the extremities of the columns, and so


completely, that the branches and the pillars

mutually support each other:


those branches were raised,
v/ould
lift

it

is

probable,

if

some of them

the pillars from the earth.

Beneath

this tree,

we

observed a cylindrical

marble altar, adorned with rams' heads support-

ing festoons in
Delos,

relief,

exactly like the altar from

engraved in Tournefort's Travels, and

lately presented
lege,

by Mr. Harvey,
to

of Jesus Col-

Cambridge,

the

Vestibule
altars are

of

the

University Library.

Such

common in
'.

the Levant; they are usually scooped, as this of


Cos has been, for mortars, to bruise corn

Where

they cannot find altars for this purpose, they

Thus have been preserved a few Grecian antiquities, which otherwise would long ago have been converted into lime. The inscription upon this altar was
employ the
capitals of columns.

very

legible.
its

Its antiquity

may be
fl

noticed, al-

though

particular age cannot be ascertained,


in

bv

the

manner

which the

is

written.

It

(l)

Their dimensions are generally

measured.

TO RHODES.
was
evidently a votive donation, given

251

by the
'^

chap.
-

person whose name appears inscribed

APOAAriNlOY

TOYAPOAAnNlOY MATMHTOZ
Near the same
noticed,
place, another altar,

and a few
migiit

marbles with imperfect inscriptions,

be

but

none of them merit

particular

description-.

In the interior of the town, by a


is

public fountain,

a large cubic block of marble,

upon which the inhabitants are accustomed to wash the bodies of dead persons. For this reason, it was difficult to obtain their permission
to turn the

stone, in search of an inscription;


so, to

and

still

more

copy the legend we there


so done.

found,
ever,

when we had

At

last,

how-

we succeeded
:

in transcribing the follow-

ing characters
in

these form part of an inscription


filled

honour of some one who had


he

the offices

of Agoranomos, of President of the Games, and

Gymnasiarch :

is

celebrated

for

his

piety

(2) It

is

very probable that these remains of votive offerings, and

the remarkable plnne-tree by which they are overshadowed, are so

many

relics

of the

/isclepieum.

See

the remarks
;

made upon
Part
II.

this

subject, during our second visit to

Cos

Section II.

of these

Travels, Chap.

\]U.

p. 327.

Broxhourn, I8li.

252
CHAP,
VII.
V

FROM THE HELLESPONT


towards the Dii
ness'"

j4us:usti, ^

and

for his

courteous-

.y,.

towards the College^.

ArOPANOMH:s:ANT AArNnZArilNOOE T H

ZANTAEYZEBnSEni.. AHTEYZANTATUN
TAZZEBA2:TAZPEAXrEP.aN

EYAPEZTnxrYMNAZIAPXH
ZANTATIlNnPEZBYTEPIlN ZEMNXIZAIATETAN

EZTOZOEOZXEBASTOS EYZEBEIANKAIAI ATANEZ


TOZYZTAMA4^*IAO<|)POZY

NAN

EYNOI AZXAPI

N
to us,

Two other Inscriptions were pointed out


in the wall of a

narrow

street,

by the French
of the

Consul;

very intelligent

man

old

regime of France,

who had

suffered severely in

the oppression and cruelty, to which his situation

had exposed him, from the Turhish Government.


In the
first,

the Sigma

is

represented by three

(0 The word
in Euseh.
(2)

(pikof^o/rivn,

although frequently translated friendship,


is

properly signifies what in Latin


lib. vii.

called coniitas.

Vid. Not.

P'ale.iii

c.

22.
to
"Suirrtifia,,

The word corresponding

in

Latin

inscrijitions,

is

Crev, as well as Collegium.

Vid. Reincsii Jnscript. 2^.263.

TO RHODES.
sides of a square';
rizing,

253
citai'. VII.

a circumstance characte-

perhaps, rather the country, than the age


It

of an inscription.

was very common among

the Dorian colonies settled in Asia Minor.

AIONY
c(

ovno

AEUCKIi; n N o n< o

NO MOY
The rounding
and
to
it

of

its

angles introdsced the semi-

circular letter; but this


in
;

was of remote

antiquity,

use long prior to the age often assigned


as

may be proved by

manuscripts found

in Herailaneum,

and by a fragment of the writings

of a very antient author,

who compares

the

new

moon

to the

Sigma of the Greeks^.

(3) It

is

a curious fact, and perhaps a proof of the great antiquity of


its

the angular /Alphabet of the Greeks, that two or three of


in

characters,

different

positions, afford the whole.

Indeed, as such a form of

writing must consist wholly of the same straight line, under different

circumstances of combination and position, every letter

may

be derived

from

the sides of a square.

The

ci-yptography

of the

Moderns,

expressed by the four extended sides of a square, and with, or without


points,
(4)

was

in use

among

the Greeks.

The
in

late Professor Po*ore used to cite the following fragment, as

proof of the antiquity of the Semicircular Sigma.


rio

Tzetzes in

Commenta-

MS.

Hermogenem, quoted by Ruhnken,

in his

Notes on Longinus,

sect. 3. p. 135.

xaXsJv Tov; kl^ou;

yr,;

hoTa, rov; -rorafiovs, yis ^As/Saj*

u;

Tr,*

2sX^w>iv ovgavou vtolXiv Ai<r^^iitv ffiyfta.


X'i%t<nv

o'iStu

ya^

auraTs alro; Air^^iuv Xtyii,

MHNH TO KAAON OTPANOT NCON

CIFMA.

On

254
CHAP.
VII.

FROM THE HELLESPONT


The
other Inscription
is

in

the same wall,

and relates to gladiatorial and hunting sports,


exhibited
scription.

by the persons mentioned in the inThe expression (^uuJxia, MovoyAy^ojv


This " troop of gladiators" had fought

occurs in an inscription found by Peyssonel at


Cyzicum.

there, at the public games,

when Aurelius

Gratus

was Asiarch

^.

<|>AM

Al A

MONO

M AXilNKAIVnO

MNHMAKYNHTE
ZIXINNEMEPIOY
KAZTPIKIOYHAKI?.

NIANOYASIAPXOY KAIAYPHAIAZ Z A n<|)OYZn AA

TUNOZAI Kl N N A NHZA PXI EPEI HZ TYN Al KOZAYTOY


I

All these islands,

and the neighbouring coast

of Asia Minor, produced illustrious men.

Samos

On which
tlyfiM.

RuhnTien remarks

" Pro
quod

fflynttc, v.

3, et 5.

scribendum

Sic

enim jEschrion novam lunam vocabat a


loco refellitur,
Is.

figure Sigmatis

Graeci C.

Ex quo

Vossius et Ez. Spanhemius

statuebant, banc sigrnatis figuram serius in Graecorura consuetudinem


venisse.

Nam

^schrion,

sive Saraius sit, siveMitylenaeus, certfevetus-

tus scriptor est."

Vide Jonsium de Script. Hist.

Phil.

ii.

2.

p.l2'i.

(l) Recueil d'Antiquites, torn. II. p. 219.

Par. 1T56.

TO RHODES.
gave birth to Pythagoras.
Cos had her Ape lies;

255
<^"^^-

and Hippocratesy whose tables of medical cases

were consulted by the inhabitants of all the neighbouring states. It would have been well for many individuals of our army and navy, if the rules of Hippocrates respecting diet had
been observed by them during the time they remained exposed to the climate of the Levant.

He

prohibited the use of eggs

which,

when
\isit

taken as an article of food, are extremely dan-

gerous to the health of Englishmen


the eastern shores o^

who

iho, Mediterranean''-.

We

set

out

upon

asses,

accompanied by
supIt

guides, to ascend the heights of the island, and

view the fountain whence the town


plied with water,
is

is still

by means of an

aqueduct.

upon a mountain about three miles from the shore, and still bears the name of Hippocrates.

The cover
places,

of the 'aqueduct

is

broken,

in

many

by the women

of the island, in procuring


linen.

water to wash their

As we ascended.
when we were about
g'ave us this

(2) Professor Pallas, writings from the Crimea,

to sail from Constantinople for the Grecian


*'

Isles,

caution

Have a

cure of the three poisons

eggs, butter,

and milk!"

We

were afterwards witness to the

loss of a British officer

(among many

other examples of a similar nature), who, after persisting in the use of

eggs for his breakfast, was seized with a fever

off

the coast of Egypt,

became

delirious,

and, during the night, leaped from his cabin into

the sea, and was drowned.

VOL.

III.

256
CHAP,
-^yg

FROM THE HELLESPONT


iiad a fine

prospect of the numerous adjacent

islands,
nassus,

and of the opposite coast of Halicar-

now

called

BMrun\
exist

We

followed the

(l)

"

If

any doubt should


it

whether BUdrrln were the antient

Halicarnassus, or not,

stance

might be removed at once by this circumStrabo points out the situation of the island Arconnesus ; and

the small island opposite the fort of B6dr6n is now called ArconSso. The general appearance of the place, moreover, ag;rees with'' the
detailed description Vitruvius has given us of the situation of Halicar-

nassus, in his second book.


:

The entrance

to

the port of B{ldriin

is

on the right and left, as you enter, sand has from the south-west accumulated, and the free passage is not more than sixty yards wide on the north-west side many Greeks and Turks were at work, employed
:

in building a line-of-battle ship

this I

conducted

me

over the vessel had been in Egypt at the time

navy was there, and mentioned the

The Turk who when our names of some of the officers. The
went
to see.

palace of Halil-bey, the Governor, stands by the sea-side, on the north of the port
;

and

directly opposite stands the Castle of BftdrCm


in a circular

and

round the harbour the town extends,


half a mile.

sweep, for nearly

"

Bftdrftn

is

a corruption, through Petrumi, as the Turks write

it,

frotu Pietro.

The

Fort of San Pietro, Castellum Sancti Petri, (see the

Geography of Niger, 441) was taken by Philibert de Nailar, GrandMaster of Rhodes, and followed the fortunes of
this island.
It con-

tinued iu possession of th^ Knights until, as the Turkish annals inform


us,
it

was surrendered to the Ottomans, with Cos and Rhodes,


*

in'the

29th year of Hegira, and 1522 A.C.


coin et

Cum Rhodo Turd arcem

Stan-

Bedrum aliam arcem


travellers, I believe,
I

in /Jnatolid sitam in potestatem redegire?

Leunclavius, p. 342.

" Few
I

have been able to examine the inside of

the Castle of BCidrCin.

had entered, and advanced some way, when


his

was obliged

to return,
I

but not before


In the
reliefs,
first

by order of a Turk who made had taken the following notes.

appearance

court,

coming from the town,


its

saw some marble basTheir manner and

fastened in the wall, in

construction.

style

were very good; but one

in particular

struck

me

it

represents,

on the right hand, a man on horseback, with a cloak round his neck, like that on the figure on the lamp engraven by Beger, in his Letter
to

TO RHODES.
course marked out by the aqueduct,
all

257
the

way

chap.
VII.

to the top of the mountain, where the spring

to Spanheim

he

is

throwing a javelin against another, who


:

is

at the

head of the horse with a shield


a

on the

left of

the stone

is

the foot of
left

man upon

the body of another,

who

is

supporting himself on his

knee.

In the wall by the sea, washing the sides of the castle,


:

is

an

imperfect Inscription, relating to Antoninus Pius

KAISAPIAAPIANXlIANTXlNEINXllSEBAXTniKAIQEOlSSEBASTOIS

" Not

far

from

this, is

the headless statue of a


in

Roman Emperor
first lines

or

warrior.

Over a gate

the castle

copied the following lines, in

capital letters, with a stop after each word.

The two
last

are

taken from the anthem after the Nunc Dimitds,

in Complin,

or the

Night Prayers of the Roman Church.


the 127th Psalm.
I.

The two

are taken from

H.

S.

Salva nos, Domine, vigilantes,


Ciistodi nos dormientes:

Nisi

Dominus

eustodierit civitatem,

Frustra vigilat qui custodit earn.

"

Coats of arms, of different knights of the order of St. John,

may be
;

seen sculptured in parts of the fortress.

Coronelli says, that over a

gate was written Propter Jidem Catholicam tenemus istum locum


in another place, the

and,
this

word Sareuhoure, with the date 1130;

points to an aera prior to that of the Knights of Jerusalem,

who

did

not possess
castle

it till
;

the fourteenth century.

Whence the

bas-reliefs in the

came

to

what building they belonged ; whether to the Palace


according to the description of Vitru-

of Mausolus, built on this spot,


vius,

and beautified with marble {proconnesio marmore), or to some


I

building of the time of Antoninus, to


raised, cannot be determined.

whom the Inscription was was copying another Inscription,


when I was obliged
pointed

beginning

OENAONEPXOMENOS,

of a very late date,

to quit the castle.


*'

The

situation of the
It

famous Mausoleum

in Halicarnassus

is

out by Vitruvius.
sanias, lib.
c. 14,
viii.

seems to have been standing in the time of Pauof Constantine Porphyrogenetes, de


it

The words

Them.

do not directly inform us whether

was extant when he wrote.

Perhaps the Saracen, Mavias, who succeeded Othman, and who, as the

same Constantine informs

us, laid

waste Halicarnassus, {de Admin, Imp.)


'Z

11

niay

258
rises.

FROM THE HELLESPONT


Some
plants

were then

in

bloom, but the


expected';

season was not so forward as

we
this

and

may have
these terms
:

hastened the
in his

destruction of

building.

We

6nd
it

Lorenzo Anania,
'

Cosmography, Venet. 1576, writing of

in
dei
is

Appare ancora qualche ruina con non poca maraviglia


but
it

risguardanti ;'
stated.

does not appear upon what authority this

Without

offering
1

any conjecture,

shall

describe what
to see the

remains of antiquity

observed here.

Those who wish

form

of the antient Mausoleum,

may

consult the twenty-sixth volume of the


it,

Acad, des Inscriptions, where Caylus has attempted a delineation of

from

Pliny.

" About

four hundred yards from the castle, to the east,


fluted,

are six

Doric columns,

supporting an architrave

the ground seems to

have been raised round about them, as they are


feet in

little

more than seven

height.

In the yard of a Turk's house,


;

close by, are

some

fragments of

pillars, fluted

and, what

is

very singular, in the fluted

parts are large

Greek letters, beautifully

cut.

"

copied, on one, the words

Xx^iSyifiov, 'ASwo^ti^ou,

and

fia^irou, part

commemorated in this manner. In this instance, the pillar bearing the names is circular ; but the Athenians were accustomed to inscribe square pillars to the memory of wise and virtuous men, in large letters. Hence a man of probity among them was termed nrg^ayuvo; ur/i^. " I traced the antient walls of the city of Halicarnassus for some
probably of the
doubtless, persons
distance, beginning with
city

name Demaratus ; who were,

had more than one


ax^o'^oXio-i

acropolis, as

what might have been an acropolis ; for the we learn from Strabo, andDiodorus
This wall
I

(lib. xvii.

aaXcus).

followed in a western direcfor

tion,

between a small and a large mound,


:

about a hundred and

thirty feet

it

then turned

in a north-east direction,

and afterwards

north.

One of the ruined square towers, built


outside,

of stone, without
thirty feet high.

cement
I

on the

and

filled

within with earth,

is

saw

four more, communicating with each other by an interval of wall.

These are what Diodorus, writing of Halicarnassus,


and
fiiaovv^ym.

calls

6^yoi^

Near the rained square tower

saw some of the vaults


them.
In the

of the old city, and copied

some

inscriptions relating to

town are

to be seen altars of marble, with the usual

ornament of the

festoon with rams' heads.

" The fast of the Ramadan was not quite over when I was at B6driUi. The opulent Turks were sitting, in the day-time, counting their beads, and

TO RHODES.
we
afterwards observed, that, even in Efryht, a ^'
^

259
chap.
VII.

botanist will find few specimens for his herbary

and the hours anxiously until sunset. The caravanserai I lived in was it was not to be compared in size with other occupied partly by Jews
:

buildings of the kind which


pillars

had seen

in Asia.

In some of these, the


:

supporting the galleries are colunuis of antient edifices

as, for

instance, at Melaso, the antient Mylasa.

" I went over to Cos from Halicaruassus, the twenty-eighth of November, in a Turkish passage-boat, which sails every day, if the weather is fine. In the bottom of the boat sat some Turkish women,
of
fingers,

whose bodies nothing was to be seen, but the extremities of tlieir dyed red. The east side of the island of Cos is mountainous
:

close to the
fruit
is

town are orange and lemon plantations


all

from these the

exported in abundance to

jiarts

of the Archipelago.
;

The

island has_ suffered occasionally

from earthquakes

particularly from
;

one at the end of the fifteenth century, as Bosio informs us


in the time of Antoninus entirely destroyed the town, as

and one

we

learn from

Pausanias,

(lib. viii.)

which however was restored, at great expense,


This circumstance of the

by the Emperor, who sent a colony there.


destruction of the town

may

lead us to suspect the antiquity of the

monuments
dialect

of art

now

to be seen there; and, indeed,


;

many
this

of the

inscriptions are of a late age


of Cos

they are
;

all

in

Doric
it

was the

and Halicarnassus

but although

was the native

language of Herodotus and Hippocrates, they preferred the open


vowels of Ionia.
In an inscription near the castle and a mosque,
;

observed

T02E022EBA2T02
in Doric,

this

form may be also seen


(:>Qo)

in the

monuments,

published by Gruter

and ChishuU.

The

use of the O for the

OT

lasted, in ihe. other dialects of Greece,


ffira.

from the

time of Cadmus to the Macedonian

{Taylor ad Mar. Sa7i.)

There are many


of the town.

bas-reliefs to

be seen in the streets and in the houses

Porcacchi, in his Description of the Archipelago, says of


di

Cos,

'Ha
is

molti iwbili edi/izi

marmo
in

anticJii

;'

but of these no

vestige

extant;

Votive-offerings in honour of i^sculapius,

whose

temple, according to Strabu, stood

the suburb,

may

be observed.

Near a mosque
tree,

is

a cylindrical piece of marble, with four sculptured

figures, dancing, winged,

and holding a wreath of

flowers.

plane-

twenty-seven feet in circumference, whose branches are supported


castle.

by seven columns, stands near the walls of the

Hasselquist,

the

260
CHAP,
>V

FROM THE HELLESPONT


before the latter end of April, or beginning of

-'

May.

At length we reached the entrance of

the naturalist, says,


largest,

'

imagine,

in

seeing

it,

to have beheld the

oldest,
:

and most remarkable inhabitant of the vegetable

kingdom

it

has forty-seven branches, each a fathom thick.'

"

rode to a village two hours and a half distant from the town,
:

called Affendiou, perhaps the Standio of Porcacchi

on the road

many Greek inscriptions. different direction, we came to a


copied

In returning to

the town by a

source of cold mineral water: at


is

half an hour's distance from this, above in the rock,

a source of hot

water, where there are remains of basins, wherein those

water were accustomed to bathe.

n half an hour more


:

who used the we came to


and
live

the place called the Fountain of Hippocrates

a light was procured,

and we walked
four wide
:

into a passage fifty yards in length, six feet high,

at
:

the bottom ran a stream of water, in a channel

inches broad

we reached,
is

at last, a circular chamber, ten feet in

diameter

this

built quite near the source.

The water running


is

from beneath the


as soon as
tile
it

circular chamber, through the channel,


air,

conveyed,

reaches the open

by another channel, covered with


t<iual to four

and stone, over a space of grqund

miles, and sup-

plies the

town of Cos.
fron

" The road


Strabo,

Affendiou to the town

is

very striking.

The

fertility of the island is celebrated

now

in the

Levant, as in the days of


of

who

calls it iuKa^vos

-.

and the language


del n'y a

Thevet would have

appeared perfectly correct,


the year
:

if I

had been there at a different season of


le

!t

pense que souhz


si

lieu plaisant que. celuy la,

veu

les

ieaux jardins
cu
les

oderi/erans, que vous diriez que c'est

un Paradis

ierrestre, et la

oisenux de toutes sortes recreent de Icur ramage.'

See bis Cosmography, 229.

" Whilst
is

was at Cos,

took a boat, and went to see what


;

suppose

to be the Ruins of

Myndus

where, among other interesting remains,

a long jettee of stones, parallel to each other, and principally of

thirteen feet in length, connecting an island to the


also to the Ruins of Cnidijs, at

main
first

land.

went

Cap

Crio.

It

was the

of Pecember

and we had hardly time to enter one of the small harbours of Cnidus,

when a

gale

from the south-west, the wind usual


'

at this

time of the

year, began to blow.


[de Ventis, 413,)
*

The

Libs, or Soutk-West,' says Theophrastus,

is

very violently felt at Cnidus and Rhodes;'


is

and
is

one of the harbours of Cnidus

open to

this quarter.

There

no

villa" e

TO RHODES.
a cave, formed, with great
art,

201
chap.
'

partly in the soHd

rock, and partly with stone and stucco, in the


village or appearance of habitation

^-^

uow
I

at Cnidus.
in a

lay in the open

boat

all

night, and the

Turkish

sailors

cave on

shore.

The

following are the remains of antiquity

observed there.

" On

the left-hand side of the harbour, as you enter from Cos, upon

a platform, are the lower parts of the shafts of eleven fluted columns, standing, and of very small dimensions
:

around the platform


this

is

ruined wall

a sort of quay

was formed round

port, as

may be
ascribed

inferred from the stone-wori<.

Beyond the
St.

fluted
:

columns are vaults

of very
to the

modern work, and

vestiges of buildings

these

may be

time when the Knights of

John were

at Rhodes,

and had
rows

stations

on the coast of Asia,

in this part.

Passing on eastward, you


thirty-six

come

to the

Theatre, facing the south-west, with


;

of seats of marble

part of the proscenium

two

vaults,

opposite

each other

and

in the
:

area of the theatre the mutilated statue of a

woman,

iu

drapery

the head of this, a one of the Turkish boatmen


to a

informed me, had been taken


for a mortar.

neighbouring village, to be hollowed


hill

On
hill

the level

summit of the

over the theatre, and

commanding

a view of the sea, are very large remains of a temple


is

the side of the

faced with stone

the ground

is

covered with
I

fragments of white marble columns with Ionic capitals.

measured

one of the columns

this

was, in diameter, three feet and a half.

The

Cnidians had, according to Pausanias,

many temples
site of one.

of

we may conjecture
is

this to

have been the


it

Venus ; and Below the hill


separates the

a large area

and under
I

a larger

still.

An isthmus

small port, wherein


this

anchored, from a larger harbour.

Followinj^

neck of land,

in a westerly direction,

you reach the other part of

the town, opposite to that where the theatre and public buildings were
situate.

A bridge,

says Pausanias, once formed the

communication

There are extensive foundations lying to the east of the theatre and temple ; but I was not able to find any inscription or money of the antient city. The earthenware of Cnidus
side to the other.
is

from one

praised by Atheuteus

(lib. i.)

and the calami or reeds, which grew

here, were the best, says Pliny, after those of Egypt.

The

use of
;

reeds for writing prevails now, as formerly,

all

over the East

and

they are prepared as in antient times.


*

'

With a

knife,' says Salmasius,

the reed was


tiairotat

slit

into

two points
xi^dtffft,

hence, in an epigram, we find,


apices
scissi.'

xci'Ka.fJt.ot

liciyXuTrrct

calami in duos
fViiljWln'.s

Ad

Sulinum."

MS.

Journal.

262
HAP.
^.

FROM THE HELLESPONT


side of the mountain.

Within

this

cave is an

.y,../

arched passage

at the

bottom of which the


a

water flows through a narrow channel, as clear


as
crystal.
It

conducts

to

lofty

vaulted
like

chamber, cut

in the

rock,

and shaped

bee-hive, with an aperture at the top, admitting


air

and

light

from the surface of the mountain.


tapers,
to this

We
It
is

proceeded, with lighted

curious cavern, and tasted the water at its source.

a hot spring, with a chalybeate flavour,

gushing violently from the rock into a small


bason.
In
it

its

long course through the aqueduct,


it

although

flow with great rapidity,


it

becomes
great

cool and refreshing before

reaches the town,


of
its

and

perhaps

owes
it

something

celebrity to its medicinal properties.

The work

constructed over
Hippocrates
;

may be

as old as the age of

setting aside

all

the notions enter-

tained concerning the supposed epocha of domes

and arches.
principal

That

in

an island,

famous
bearing

for

having produced the father of Medicine, the


object

of curiosity,

still

traditionary reference to his name, should

be

warm

chalybeate spring,

is

remarkable

circumstance.

Descending from
the
first

this fountain,

we

saw, for
in
its

time, the

Date-tree,

growing

natural state.

few of these trees

may be

TO RHODES.
noticed in oardens about the town.

263
chap.
VII.

were very abundant


mon.

Lemons but oranges not so com-

We

purchased the former at the rate of

about three shiHings for a thousand, notwithstanding the very great

them
Cos
is

to

supply the

demand then made for Brituh fleet. The island of


for the

very large, and

most part consists

of one barren mountain of limestone; of which

substance almost

all

the Grecian Islands are

composed.

There are few parts of the world

where masses of limestone are seen of equal


magnitude and elevation.

Some

of the principal

mountains exhibit no other kind of stone, from


their bases to their summits.

of our vessel,

The Greek sailors who accompanied us upon this


;

expedition, caught several land-tortoises

which,

being opened, were found to be

full

of eggs.

The
cious

sailors

described them as the most deliin

food

the

counti*y.

Small

vessels,

freighted with these animals, go to supply the

markets of Constantinople.

We

saw the process

of cooking and dressing them, after

we

returned

on board; but could not so prejudices as to eat them.

far

abandon our

poor

little

shopkeeper

in

Cos

had been
therefore

Crrccic

mentioned, by the French Consul, as possessor


of several curious
old

sciins.

books.

We

went

to visit

him; and were surprised to find

264
CHAP,
VII.

FROM THE HELLESPONT


him, in the midst of his wares, with a red
night-cap on his head, reading the Odyssey of

Homer in manuscript. This was fairly written upon paper, with interUneary criticisms, and a commentary in the margin. He had other manuscript volumes, containing works upon rhetoric,
poetry, history, and theology.

Nothing could

induce him to part with any of these books. The account he gave was, that some of them were copies of originals in the library at Patmos, and that his father had brought them to Cos. They were intended, he said, for his son, who

was

to

be educated

in the

Patmos monastery.

We

were not permitted

to enter the castle

this is close to the

shore, fortified

town of Stanchio, on the seaby a moat upon the land side.


to our vessel,
its

Taking the small boat belonging

we examined
Bcamifui
Piece of
antient

the outside of

walls towards

the sea; and here

we had

the satisfaction to
bas-reliefs J

discover one of the finest

perhaps i r

evcr scen.

It

was employed by the Genoese as


it

part of the building materials in the construction


of the castle
;

and, being of great length,

was

broken into four pieces, which are placed


wall
;

in the

two above, and two below


of this valuable relic, to

',

facing the

(l)

The removal

any of the Museums of


civilized nation.
It
is

Europe, must he a desirable object with every

an honour reserved for some more-favoured adventurers.

The only
power

; :

TO RHODES.
sea.

265
ciiap.
'

The

subject seems to be the Nuptials of


It

Bacchus.

contains fifteen figures, although


efi'aced.

' ,

some are nearly


principal
is

Amono* these, the


and leaning

a bearded figure, sitting with a

trident or sceptre in his right hand,

upon

his left elbow.

By

his left side sits also

a female, holding in her left hand a small statue


the base of this rests

upon her knee.

She

is

covered with drapery, executed


style of the art of sculpture,

in the highest

and extends her

right

arm around

the neck of the bearded figure

power we possessed of adding


sures,

to the stock of

our national literary treaaid our national situation,

was due to our industry alone.

The
was

with

regard to Turkey,

might then have afforded, was studiously


proliibition

withheld.

An

absolute

enforced, respecting

the

removal of any of the Antiquities of the country, excepting by the


agents of our

own Ambassador at the Porte. Sir TV. Gell, author of " The Topography of Troy," &c. was actually prohibited making drawings within the Acropolis of Mhens. While we must lament the
miserable policy of such a measure, and a loss affecting the public,
ourselves as individuals, we can only add, that ever}' now making towards rescuing from destruction, not only the monument here alluded to, but also many other important

rather than
exertion
is

valuable

objects of acquisition lying scattered over the desolated territories of

the

Turkish Empire.

To

a British

Minister

at the Porte,

their

removal and safe conveyance to England would be the work merely


of a wish expressed

upon the subject

to

the Capiulan Pasha

and

for

the measures necessary in removing them from their present place,

no injury would be sustained by the Fine Arts,

any Grecian

building.

English

in the dilapidation of

travellers,

distinguished by their
in their wealth, are

talents, illustrious

in their rank,

and fortunate

now
that

traversing those regions, to

whom

every instruction has been given


:

may

facilitate

and expedite their researches

it

is

hoped success
thft

will attend their

promised endeavours to enrich their nation by

possession of such valuable documents.

266
CHAP,
V

FROM THE HELLESPONT


her hand hanging negligently over his right
/

-V

shoulder.
rock.

They

are delineated sitting

upon a

By

the right side of this groupe stands


;

a male figure, naked

and upon the

left,

a female,

half clothed, presenting something, inform like an


antient helmet.

Before them, female Bacchanals

are introduced, singing, or playing

upon musical

instruments.

In the lower fragments of this ex-

quisite piece of sculpture are seen Satyrs pouring

wine from skins

into a large vase.

Others are

engaged
sacrifice
:

in seizing

an animal, as a victim for

the animal has the appearance of a

tiger, or a

These beautiful remains of Grecian sculpture may have been brought from
leopard
'.

HalicarnassuSy Cnidus, or one of those other cities

of^^za ilfmor where the art attained to such high


perfection
;

or they

may have

all

resulted from

some magnificent edifice by which the island was formerly adorned. Columns
the destruction of of
cipolino,

breccia,

and

granite^ together

with

masses of the

finest marble, either

upon the shore,

or in the courts and inclosures belonging to the


inhabitants, or

used

in constructing the walls

of the

town and

fortress, in the public fountains.

(l)

We

also

saw here the remains of a sculptured 7uarble

frieze,

exhibiting festoons supported by antient masks.


of
it is in

The

principal part

the land side of the castle, over the entrance, where

may

also be observed part of a CorintJdan cornice of the finest

workmanship.

'

TO RHODES.
mosques, mortars, and grave-stones, the pave-

267

ment of baths, and other modern works, denote the ruin that has taken place, and the immense
quantity of antient materials here

^y^y^'

/-

employed.

The mosque of the town of


entirely of marble.

Stanchio is built

The voyage from

Cos

to

Rhodes, like that

Voyage
Rhodes.

which has been already described, resembles

more a pleasing excursion in a large river, than The Mediterranean is here so in the open sea. with islands, that the view is thickly studded
everywhere bounded by land^
close

We

steered

round

the
;

Triopian

Promontory,
it,

now
be-

called Cape Crio


held,

and, having doubled

towards the west and south-west, the

islands of Nisyros

and

Telos,

whose modern

names are Nizary and Piscopy. According to Strabo, Nisyros antiently possessed a temple of We afterwards obtained a most Neptune^.
interesting view, from the deck, of the Ruins of
Cnidus, a city
"^
Jf"'"*

famous

in having

produced the
architects

most-renowned
Antient Greece.

sculptors

and

of

The Turks and

Greeks have

long resorted thither, as to a quarry, for the

(2) Called Sporades, from the irregularity in which they are here
scattered.
(3)

Some

of

them are uot


lib. x.

laid

down

in

any chart.

Slrab.G&ogr.

p. 714.

Ed. O.ion.

2G8
CHAP,
VII.
^

FROM THE HELLESPONT


buildiiio*
,

materials

afforded
_

by
''

its

immense

I,-

.<^

remains.

With the

aid of our telescopes,

we

could
entire,

still

discern a magnificent theatre almost


edifices.

and many other mouldering

This city stood on the two sides of an antient


mole, separating
its

two

ports,

and connecting

the

Triopian

land, in

Strahos time an island,

with the continent'.

Visited by

(i)

We

are indebted for the information which follow;, concerning

Halicarnassus and Cnidus, together with the Plan which accompanies


it,

to the observations of

Mr. Morrttt ; celebrated

for his controversy

with Mr. Bryant, on the subject of Homer's Poems and the Existence
of Troy.
It
is

the mure valuable, because few modern travellers


;

have

visited

these Ruins

and
set

certainly no one better qualified for

the undertakipoj.
" 14th

June, 1795.

We

out in a boat from Cos. and in a few


a
distance of

hours

reached

Boudroun, the antient Halicarnassus,

eighteen computed Turkish miles.

This small town stands on a shallow

bay, at the eastern extremity of the large


city.

and deep port of the antient

Off this bay


'

lies

the island mentioned in Strabo, by the


(lib. xiv. p.

name of

Arconnesos,
scattered

A^xinvifis,

656.)

The houses
,

are iri-egularly

on the

shore,

and interspersed with gardens burying-grounds,

and cultivated
is

fields.

We

lodged at a large khan near the bazar, which


Choiseul's

marked

in the delineation given in

Voyage Pittoresqiie
i^ort

(PI. 96. p. 152.)

Several Turkish vessels were at anchor in the


at night

and the disorderly conduct of the crews

made

the houses of the


Pistol-

Greeks uncomfortable, and indeed unsafe places of residence.


balls

were at night so often

fired at their

windows, that they were obliged


;

to barricade those of their sleeping

rooms

and the outward windows of the

khan had been


our

carefully walled up, for the

same reason.

We, soon

after

arrival, crossed

some gardens behind the town,


which
is

to view the remains of


it.

an antient

edifice

on the north-east

side of

We found

six

columns of the

fluted Doric, supporting their architrave, mutilated frieze,

and

cornice.

The marble of which they


few white veins ; nor
is

are

made

is

of a dark grey

colour, with a

the masonry of the

same workmanship

TO RHODES.
Prom our
distant vaew of the place, being
its

569
citAP.
^^'"

about two leagues from the entrance of


southern and larger port, the
hill

whereon

its

manship with the remains we had elsewhere found of the


Greece.

finer ages of

The forms of

the stones

and junctures of the building are


is

more slovenly and

inaccurate,

and the architecture

not of the same

elegant proportions with the earlier Doric buildings at Athens, and in

Magna

Grajcia.

The intercolumniations
and with
less relief

are

much

greater,

and the

entablature
parts of the

heavier,

and
;

projection.

The lower

columns are buried in earth


sarcophagi,

and near them are two or and without


inscriptions.

t^ee

plain

of

ordinary work,

Broken stumps of columns,

in a line with those

which are standing, and


field.

many

ruined fragments of marble, are scattered over the


all

From

the

length of the colonnade, and the disappearance of

the corresponding

columns of the

peristyle,

if this

be supposed to have been a temple,


It appeared to

I should hesitate to adopt the conjecture.

me

the remains

of a

stoa, or portico,

and probably ranged along one


It

side of the antient

Agora of the town.

agrees in
;

many
as
it

respects with the situation

assigned to the Agora by Vitruvius

would be on the right of a


castle

person looking from

tlie

modern

fortress,

where stood the antient


;

and palace of Mausolus,

at the eastern

horn of the greater port

while

the smaller port formed by the island of Arconnesus would be on the


left,

in

which order Vitruvius seems to place them.


is

quantity of

marble

dug up near

these

ruins, the

remains of other magnificent

buildings.
their extent,

The

walls are visible from hence through a great part of


to have

which appears

been about

six

English miles from the

western horn of the port, along high grounds to a considerable eminence


north-west of this ruin, and thence to the eastern promontory on which
the

modem

castle is built.

On

the eminence, which I noticed, are

traces of antient walls, indicating the- situation of the fortress called the

Arx Media by
that, or

Vitruvius, wherein stood the


itself,

Temple of Mars ; but of

indeed of the fortress

there are but indistinct remains, so

that

we could not

ascertain the position of the temple.


:

At
it is

the foot of

this hill remains the antient theatre, fronting the south

scooped in

the

hill,

and many rows of marble

seats are left

in their places.

The
IHany

arcades of communication, and the proscenium, are in ruins.

large caverns are cut in the hill behind the theatre, probably places of
sepulture,

270
cMvr.
ruins stood

FROM THE HELLESPONT


seemed
to rise

from the sea

in

form

of a theatre.

Straho notices this form, as cha-

racterizing the land

on the western side of

tlie

sepulture,

from

their appearance

but their contents have been long ago

carried away.

The modern

castle stands
it

on a tongue of land
;

at tlie

eastern extremity of the port, which

commanded

and, from the antient

materials used in

its

construction, appears to have been formerly a fortress


;

commanding

the port

and

here, as I

suppose, was one of the Citadels

mentioned by Strabo, who says expressly, that when Alexander took the
town, there were
/2t'o,

Qittvi'S

rivly.il'jn,

lib. xiv.

p.

C57.)

At the western

extremity of the bay, the situation of the Aga's house and harem pre-

vented our researches.

Here was

the fountain Salmacis, the temples of


'Sa.Xju.dxi;

Venus and Mercuiy, and


An-ian
(Ub.
i.

the an^a, y.xXovfiUn

mentioned by
Acropolis of
that

p. 25.

de Exped. Alexand.)

the

second
as in

Strabo, in
island,

which the Persians took refuge,

as well

on the

when

the town had been carried by the attack of Alexander on the

land

side.

Arriau also notices the third Acropolis, the Arx iledia of

Vitruvius, on the eminence behind the tlieatre, axaav tv t^oi 'iAvXamsat


ftuXmra,
rir^afi/iivriv,
tlic

fortress that

looked towards Mylassa, near the


of their assaults upon
as
tlie

wall where the Blacedonians

made one
this

city.

Diodorus Siculus mentions

fortress

the ax^otroXis,
liis

Acropolis,

(Ub. xvii. p. 178. vol.11. Wesseling.)

From

\\Titings,

or at least
details

from the same source. Anian seems to have collected most of the
of Alexander's famous siege.

The

citadel

and fountain of Salmacis on

the western horn, and that on the island of Arconnesus, continued to


resist the

Macedonians

after the

Arx Media and

the city were destroyed.


;

They probably
but the third
Vitruvius
tliough
;

therefore were the double Acropolis mentioned by Strabo


is

ceitainly

mentioned both by Diodorus, Arrian, and

and

as certainly its remains are seen behind the theatre,

Choisetd considers the


a

Acropolis here as only meaning

an

elevated part of the city,


writers.

mode

of expression not

at all

usual to Greek

" 15th June.

We

tried to procure permission

from the Disdar, the


tliat

Turkish Governor of the Castle, to see the interior of


after a

fortress

but

long negotiation,

we were

at last only permitted to

walk with a

Janissary round the outward ramparts, his jealousy not permitting the
I

inner

ir.nitt

,U^

Tuhliifiai UrtvS^ iai2.fnT.(h,Ml Srir.l\wLi..

TO RHODES.
mole, not' included in the view then presented
to us.

271 chap.

According to the valuable observations

of Mr. Morritt, given below, in an extract from

uiner gates to be opened into the court.


date, but built, in

The

castle is a

work of modem

a great degree, of antient materials, confusedly put

together in the walls.


its

There

is

a plate which gives a correct notion of


Pittoresque.

general appearance, in the


lion,

Voyage

We

found over the

door an ill-carved

and a mutilated bust of antient work.

Old

coats-of-arms, the remains probably of the Crusaders,


St.

and the Knights of


precious fragments

John of Rhodes, are mixed

in the walls %vith


art.

many

of the finest periods of Grecian


frieze,

There are several pieces of an antient

representing the Combats of

Thr

nd the Amazons, of which


Lord Elgin brought over

the design and execution are equal to th


fr

-n

the Parthenon.

These are stuck

in the wall,

some of them

reversed,

jme edgewise, and some which have probably been


time

better preserved
it.

by

having the curved side towards the wall, and inserted in

Xo

entreaties
if

nor bribes could procure

these, at the

we were abroad but now,


;

thej

eould be procured, they would form, I think, a most valuable supplement


to the

monuments

already brought hither from Athens.


I should say they

From my
finish,

recollection of them,

were of a higher

rather

better preserved,

and the design of a date somewhat subsequent

to those

of Phidias, the proportions less massive, and the forms of a softer,


flowing,

more

and

less severe character.

It

is

probable that these beautiful


:

marbles were taken from the celebrated Mausoleum

of

this,

however,

no other remains are discoverable


permitted to examine.
I

in those parts of the


this day,

town we were
near a fountain

found an Inscription

in the town, containing hexameter and pentameter lines, on the consecration, or dedication, of

some person

to Apollo.
:

" 16th June.


is

We examined

the general situation of the town

this

already described,

and we searched

in vain for traces of the INIauso.


;

leum.

The view
little

of Cos and of the gulph are beautiful

and there

is

picturesque

port behind the Castle, to the east, shut in by the rock

of the Arconnesus.

This was the

little

port seen from the palace of die

Carian Kings, which stood in the old Acropolis, where the Castle
is;

now

although Arrian places this Acropolis


" 25th June.

(<

t^

vsjVa*)

on the island

itself.

We again

set off early;

and doubling the western point

of our

little

harbour as the day broke, we saw, in another small creek,

VOL.

III.

272
CHAP,
vir.

FROM THE HELLESPONT


his Manuscript Journal, the

mole

is

now become

J an isthmus

connecting the Triopian Promontory

a few remains of ruined walls, the vestiges of the antient Bargasa,

enumerated by Strabo

after

Keramos, in
standing

his description of the gulph

With some
wind

trouble,

after

northward for some


swell,
:

hours,

we
we

doubled Cape Crio, under a very heavy


into

and soon ran before the


at the

the southern harbour of Cnidus

mouth of

this

moored, under a rocky shore, near the eastern extremity of the city walls.

Some
still

large stones, which have served for the foundation of a tower, are

seen on the edge of the sea.

Mounting the
broken
cliffs

rock, extending along


its

tiie sliore,

we came

in view of

tlie

of the Acropolis, and

ruined walls.
also visible
:

The foundation and lower


these extend

courses of the city walls are


to the sea,

from those of the Acropolis

and

have been strengthened by towers,

now

also

in ruins.

Above

us,

we

found a building {See B. of Uie Plan) whose use I


It

am

unable to explain.

was a plain wall of brown stone, with a semicircle in the centre, and
front,

a terrace in
sea.

supported by a breast-work of masonry, facing the

The

wall was about ten or twelve feet in height, solidly built of

hewn

stone,

but without ornament.

We

now turned
slope,

westward, along
covered with old

the shore.

The

hill

on our right was a steep


:

foundations and traces of buildings

behind these rose the rocky points


is

and higher eminences, where the Acropolis

situate.

We

sooa came

to the Theatre, whereof the marble seats remain, although

mixed with
ai-e

bushes, and overturned.

The

arches and walls of the Proscenium

now
work
little

a heap of ruins on the ground.

large torso of a fettiale figure


It

with drapery, of white marble,


originally,

lies in the orchestra.

appeared of good
air as to

but

is

so mutilated

and corroded by the

be of

or no consequence.

Near

tliis

are the foundations and ruins of


;

a magnificent

Corinthian temple, also of white marble


lie

and

several

beautiful fragments of the frieze, cornice, and capitals,

scattered about
It

the few bases of the peristyle,


is

remaining in their original situation.

so ruined, that

it

would

be,

I believe, impossible to ascertain the ori.

ginal form and proportions of the building.

We

left

the isthmus that

divides the two harbours on our left

and on the eastern shore of the

north harbour came to a


still

still

larger Corinthian temple, also in ruins,

and

more overgrown with bushes.


amongst the

The

frieze

and cornice of this temple,

wliich lie

ruins, are of the highest

and most beautiful work-

mamhip.

little

to the north of this stood a smaller temple, of grey

veined

TO RHODES.
and the land
to the

273
it,

eastward of

once an

chap.

island, with the Asiatic continent.


Veined marble, whereof almost every vestige
is

The English
We
now

obliterated.

turned again eastward towards the Acropolis.

Several arches of rough

masonry', and a breast-work, support a large square area, probably the

antient Agora, in which are the remains of a long colonnade,

of white

marble, and of the Doric order, the ruins of an antient Stoa.


is

Here

also

the foundation of another small temple.


street

On

the north

of this area

a broad

ran from the port towards the Acropolis, terminating near

the port, in an arched gateway of plain and solid masonry.

Above

this

are the foundations of houses on platforms rising towards the outward

vaUs ;

traces of a cross street


is left

near the Theatre

and the Acropolis, of

which nothing

but a few ruined walls of strong brown stone, the

same used
cut.

for

the substructions of the platforms into which the hill is


to

few marbles, grooved

convey water from the


;

hill

of the Acro-

polis, are scattered

on part of this ground


it

and we could

trace the covered

conduits of marble wherein

had been conveyed.

We now

descended

again to the isthmus that separates the two harbours.


it

In Strabo's time
;

was an

artificial

mole, over a narrow channel of the sea

and the

western part of the town stood on an island united by this isthmus to the
continent.

An

arch

still

remains in the side of


fallen,

it,

probably a part of this

mole
lated

but the ruins which have


side of
it,

with the sand that has accumu-

on each

have formed a neck of land here, about sixty or


port on the north, as Strabo tells us, was shut
still

seventy yards across.

The

by

flood-gates

and two towers are


fixed.

to be traced, at the entrance to

which the gates were


southern port
is

It contained,

he

says,

twenty triremes.
tlie

The

much

larger,

and protected from


still

open sea by a mole


the ports, to

of large rough-hewn stones, which


the west, the town rose on a
thatr
hill
-.

remains.

Beyond

the form of this Strabo compares to

of a theatre, bounded from the mole on the south by steep preci-

pices of rock,

and on the north by walls descending from the ridge

to

the gates of the northern harbour, in a semicircular sweep.


side of the

On

this

town we found the old foundations of the houses, but no


ornamental buildings, and no
marble.

temples nor traces of


circuit of the walls
is

The

perhaps three miles, including the two ports within

them.

reference to the annexed Plan will give a clearer view of the

situation than I

am

able to affoi-d by description only."

(See the PTan

annexed.)

Mori-itt'f

US.

Journal.

274
^y^j^'
v^

FROM THE HELLESPONT


Consul at Rhodes afterwards informed
'

us, that

a fine colossal marble statue

was

still

standing

in the centre of the orchestra belonging to the

Theatre, the
off;
its

head of which the Turks had broken


statue in

but that he well remembered the


perfect state.
is

This

is

evidently the

same

liflvlF
pole.

which
ill

alluded to

by Mr.

Morritt.

Mr. Walpole,

a subsequent visit to Cnidus, brought


:

away

the Torso of a male statue

this

he has since

added
bridge.

to the collection of Greek Marbles in the

Vestibule

of the University Library at Cam-

No

specimen of Cnidian sculpture can

be

regarded with indifference.


of Praxiteles

T'^enus

The famous was among the number of


is
still

the ornaments once decorating this celebrated


city,

and

its

effigy

extant

upon the
son of

medals of the place.

Sostratus of Cnidus,

Dexiphanes, built upon the Isle of Pharos the

celebrated Light-Tower,

that

was considered
were afterwards

one of the seven

wonders of the world, and


the coast, or in the port

from which
of Cnidus,

all

similar edifices

denominated.

Upon

was decided the memorable naval


the Spartans lost the

combat, considered by Polybius as marking the


8era

when

command

of the

sea,

which they had obtained by

their victory

over the Athenians in the Hellespont.

Although

above two thousand years have passed since the


squadrons of Persia, from
all

the ports of Asia,

TO RHODES.
crowded the Dorian shores, the modern
veller
tra-

275
chap.
-

may

yet recognise,

the vessels of the

country, the simple

mode

of construction, and

the style of navigation displayed

by the armaPisander.
city,

ment of Conon, and the galleys af


Placed within the Theatre of the

and surto

rounded

by

awaken the

many memory of
so

objects

calculated

past events, he might


aofe

imagine himself carried back to the

in

which they were accompUshed


find in

neither will he

any part of the country a scene where

the memorials of Andent Greece have been less


altered.

Yet the whole coast of Asia Mixor,


for

from the Triopian Promontory to the confines


of Syria, remarkable

some
lies

of

the

most

interesting ruins of Greece,

almost unex-

plored.

Until the period at which this Journal

was

written,

when

the British fleet

came

to

anchor in

the spacious and beautiful Bay of

Marmorice, the existence of such a harbour had

not been ascertained

'

but there

is

no part of

the south of Lycia and Caria where a gulph,

a bay, a river, or a promontory, can be pointed


out,

on which some vestige of former ages

may
much

(1)

The Journals

of "Mr. Morritt and of Mr. Walpole contain

valuable information concerning the interior of

^a

Minor, of which the

author has not availed himself; because they relate to objects too far

removed from the route here described


men, much batter
will, as it is

and

also because

these

Gentle-

qualified to

do justice to

their

own

valuable observations

hoped, present them to the public.

276
CHAP,
VII.
V,

RHODES.
not be discerned:

many
-^

of these are of the


of

..y i

remotest antiquity
lated
to

and

all

them are calcuin

throw

light

upon the passages

antient history.

After losing sight of the Ruins of Cnidus,


sailed in
'

we

view of Syme and of Rhodes ; an emifirst

nence, called the Table Mountain,

appearing
insular,

upon the
as
if it

latter,

and seeming
south,

itself to

be

were separated from the

rest of the

island.

Towards the

the islands of Crete


Carpathian
Ides,

midway between and Rhodes, we saw the

Carpathian Isles; a surprising distance for the

eye to roam, considering the distinct prospect

we had

of the largest,

which
wafted

is

now

called

Scarpanto.

We

were

by
;

favourable

breezes during the whole night

and the next


has been
writers,

morning we entered the old port of Rhodes,

between the two


the feet of the rested ^

piers,

on which

it

fancifully asserted,

by some modern
Colossus

celebrated

formerly
is
">

The mouth

of this

harbour

choked with

ruins, that small vessels alone are

able to enter;

and even our

little

bark was

aground before she came to her anchor.


(1) "

Media

inter

Uhodum Gnidumquc Syme."

Plin, Hist. Nat.

lib.M. c.Sl.

L. Bat. 1635.

(2) It

is

somewhat remarkable, that

this circumstance,

which

is

neither

mentioned by Strabo nor by Pliny, both of


continues to be erroneously propagated.

whom

described the statue,


The

now
called the


of

GULPH
irith

of

GLAUCUS,

GULPH

MACRI,

MeTopngraphy nfthe Ruins of

the City qfTelmt'Ssiis.

.-.,*? .-^'

A. Tou-n of .Wncri. B. RniiiJ0/7>linfjn, faj<ond west of the town. C. Ruiiij of Cenoete and Venefortreiset.

D. The island
bv Tti Venet

?d entirely

fea Q. Exceedinl^ hi^h mountains, covered with snotv. R. Road for vessels into the harbour. X. Promontorycalled the Seven
Capes.
a.
h.
c.

of G,
lyin^ the mouth of the
itdini^Sf

ncross harljonr.

E. Island in the motilh of the Outph^ behind which ships findthebest anchorage for
wnterint;,

F. fCock on which La Pique frigate struck. G. H. I. K. Islands in the mouth

The Theatre. The Sibt/l's Care.


Ruins amons the rocks.

d.
e.

oftheOiilph.

Mausoleum. Large Greek Tomb on


shore.

the

M.N.F. Jnchorasc.
S.
ft'aterin^-ptace.

V. River running into the har-

f. The Siiyli- Tom*. e. h. i. Tombshewn in the rocks, k. m. Greek Tombs.

Gulph

N. B. The ftihyl's Tomb at /, as ihe luscriptiou shews, is of antient Greek work. The lofcy oiuaacaias cDvirouiug the iubjcct it 10 frequent squalls and calms.

CHAP.

VIII.

FROM RHODES, TO THE GULPH OF GLAUCUS,


IN ASIA MINOR.
Rhodes
Climate

Antiquities Lindus
Scenei-y

Inscriptions

Divers of Syme and NisjTus Gulph Malaria Island of Glaucus Grandeur of the mentioned by Pliny Ruins of Telmessus Theatre Oracular Cave Sepulchres of the Telmessensians
Pagan Ceremony

Tomb of

Helen,

daughter of Jason

Other

Soroi
at

Mausoleum

Monolithal

Sepulchres

Ruins

Koynucky

278
Koynucky

RHODES.

Conduct New -discovered Plants of the Natives upon the Coast


State of the Country
Isle

Turhdent

of Ahercromhie.
is
is

CHAP,
VIII.
Rhodes.

JlVhodes
the place

a truly delightful spot


healthy
;

the air of
filled

and

its

gardens are

with delicious
gale
is

fruit.

Here, as in Cos, every


fra-

scented with the most powerful


is

grance, which

wafted from groves of orange

and citron

trees.

Numberless aromatic herbs

exhale at the same time such profuse odour, that


the whole atmosphere seems to be impregnated

with a spicy perfume.

Climate.

The present
that hardly a
in

inhabitants of the island confirm

the antient history of its climate; maintaining,

day passes, throughout the year, which the sun is not visible. Pagan writers
it

describe

as

so

peculiarly

favoured,

that
it

Jupiter is fabled to

have poured down upon


are liable to

a golden shower.
variation
:

The winds

little

they are north, or north-west, during

almost every month, but these winds blow with


great violence.
lations

From
last

the

number

of the appel-

which

it

bore at different periods, Rhodes


received the
Its

might have at
[wly-onomous

name

of the

island'.

antiquities are too

(1)

Ophiusa, from

the

number of

its

serpents; Stadia, or Desert;

Telrhinis, Corj/mbia, Trinacria, Mthreea,

from

its

cloudless sky; Asteria,

because,

RHODES.
interesting to be passed over without notice
;

279
chap.
VIII.

but

we were

hastening to the coast of E^ypt,


in

and contented ourselves


inscriptions

copying the few


its

found within the town, or in

im-

mediate vicinity-.

The

streets
;

English sailors and soldiers

were filled with and all other consi-

derations were absorbed in the great event of

the expedition to Ahoukir.

A vessel had returned


taken to a hospital
;

from Egypt, and put on shore a few of our

wounded

troops,

who were
the

already prepared for their reception

but these
of land-

were men who


ing,

fell in

first

moments

and could give but a very imperfect account of the success of an enterprise destined to crown with immortal honour the Statesman by

whom
it

it

was planned, and


All

the armies

by which
French

was achieved.
after

we

could then learn was,


the

that,

a severe engagement,

troops had retreated towards Alexandria.

As

because, at a distance, the island appears as a star; Poessa, Atabyria,


Oloessa,
first

Macaria, and Pelagia.

"

Some

are of opinion that

Rhodes was

peopled by the descendants of Dodanim, the fourth son of Javan.


tlie

Both

Septuagint and Samaritan translation of the Pentateuch,


vol. I.

Eg-

mont and Hey man,

p. 269.) instead of

Dodanim,

always use

Rodanim and by
,-

this appellation the

Greeks always named the Rhodians."

(3)

The

antient history of Rhodes, collected by Savary from difterent


in die Twelfth Letter of his Travels in Greece,
talents,

authors,

and contained

may
and

be considered as the most favourable specimen of this author's


perhaps the best account extant of the island.

It is better to refer the

Reader to such a source, than


detailed.

to repeat

what has been already so ably


280
CHAP,

RHODES,
we had
.

vm,

near relations and dear friends ensrasfcd

,r-.^ in the

conflict,

...

it is

not necessary to describe

our feehngs upon this inteUigence.

Antiquities.

The
Malta\
injury,

principal ruins at Rhodes are not of earlier

date than the residence there of the Knights of The remains of their fine old fortress
the building

prove that

has sustained

little

owing either

to time

or to barbarians.

It still exhibits a venerable

moated

castle,

of

great size and strength

so fortified as to

seem

almost impregnable.

A drawing made from this


:

structure might furnish one of our theatres with

a most striking scenic decoration

it

appears to

combine

all

that

is

necessary in a complete
;

system of fortification

dykes and draw-bridges,

towers, battlements and bastions.

The

cells of

of the Knights are yet entire, forming a street within the works
cathedral,
:

and near

to these cells is the

whose doors of sycamore wood, curiously carved, and said to be incoror chapel,
ruptible, are preserved in their original state

the arms of England and of France appear sculp-

(1) " In the year 1308, the

Emperor Emanuel, upon

the expulsion of
this isldnd;

the Knights from

St.

John d'Acri, made them a grant of

which they continued to possess until the year 1522, when, after a glorious
resistance, the

Grand-master,

Villiers,

was compelled
fust to Candia,
1

to surrender

it

to

Solyman II.
Sicily,

The Knights then retired,


till

and afterwards

to

where they continued

the year

530,

when Charles V. gave


vol. I.

them

the Island of Malta."

Egmont and Het/man,

p. 270.

RHODES.
tiired

281
chap.
VIII.
^-

upon the
.

walls.

The Turks have converted


.
.

the Sanctuary into a magazine for military stores.

Of Lindiis, now
tal of Rhodes, so

called Lindo, the antient capi- undui.


little

visited

by

travellers, so

remarkable by
historian ^

its

early claim to the notice of the


dignified

and so

by

the talents

to

which

it

gave birth ^

we

collected a few scattered

observations from the clergy and surgeons of


the British
ship
fleet.

The chaplain of the Admiral's


spoke of the ruins of a temple,
stood upon the site of the fane

described the antiquities there as very

numerous.
w^hich

He may have
to the

originally

consecrated

by the

Daughters

of

Danaus

Lindian Minerva'^.

When

our

(2)

LiNDCswas founded by Egyptians un&er Danaus, fourteen hunaera.

dred years before the Christian


to by Corner- (U. B. 668.

It is

one of the three


lib. xiv.)

cities

alluded
it

See also Slraho,

Notice of

also

occurs in the Parian Chronicle.


(3) It gave birth to Cleobulus, one of the Seven Sages; and to Charea

and Laches, the


mistake,

artists

who designed and completed


famous
statue:

the

Colossus.

highly

characteristic

of French authors, %vas committed by


it is

Voltaire, respecting this

noticed by

2ilentelle, in

a note

to the article Livdos, Encyclopcdie Melhodique.

Voltaire having read

Indian for Lindian, relates that the Colossus was cast by an Indian.
(4)
'li^ov
OS
iffTr./

'Afir,vai
is

Aiyoicc;

ithrcid

i^ifxvi;,

too*
tlie

Aityat^at li^ufiif

" There" [at Lindus) "


the

a conspicuous temple of
Strabnn. Geogr.

Lindian Minen-a,
p.
9'.i7.

work of the Danaidae."

lib. xiv.

Ed. Oxon.

Savary says the ruins of this

edifice are still visible,

on an eminence near

the sea: Letters on Greece, p. 96.

The

inhabitants here consecrated the


it

7th

Ode

of Pindar's Ol j-mpics, by inscribing

in letters of gold
to

Ibid.

Demetrius Triclinius.

Lindus was the port resorted


building of Rhodes.

by the

fleets

of

Egypt and of

Tyr<', before the

Ibid.

282
^vin''
V.

RHODES.
countrymen were
noticed
;

there, several inscriptions

were

and of these, one may be here inserted,


it

tions,

owing

to the evidence

contains contain respecting the

real position of the ancient city.

AINAIOI A TH ZJ ZTP ATOM

POAYKPEONTOZ

NIKHNTAOAYMPIA PAIAAZPAAAN
PPATONAINAinN
Many
in
cities in

Asia and Europe celebrated games


of

imitation

the

four

sacred

Greece'.

Agesistratus, who is

games of commemorated in

this inscription,

was

the

first

of the Lindians

who

had overcome the Boys Olympic Games \

in wrestling at the

Some

terra-cotta

vases,

of
:

great antiquity,
of these,

were also found in a garden

we

pro-

cured one with upright handles.

Lindus

is

not

more than one long


if

day's journey from Rhodes,

the traveller

make use

of mules for his con-

veyance.

(1)

See Recueil (VAnliq.

tarn.

II. p. 223;

and

also

Corsiiii Diss.

Qualuor, Agon. p. 20.


(2) In an Inscription found at Sparta,

and

cited by Caylus,

wc

reac(,

RHODES.
The
inscriptions

283
at Rhodes

which we noticed
altarsy

chap.
^

were principally upon marble


drical form,

of a cylin-

y-i/

adorned with sculptured wreaths,


at

and festoons supported by rams' heads, as


Cos,

and

in

other parts of Greece.

The

Jirst of

these
laurel,

altars

and

it

was decorated with wreaths was thus inscribed:

of

AYZANAPOYAYZANAPOY
XAAKHTAKAITAZrYNAIKOZ KAEAINIAOSKAAAIKIATIAA KPOAZZIAOZ
It relates to

Lysander and to his wife

Clecenis.

Upon
only the
a voiu

a second, with the rams' heads, appeared

name

of a person

who had

placed

it

as

PYErO A
AOPEriN oz
upon a
third,

corresponding

in its

ornaments
son

with \hQ Jirst, was the name of


of Polyaratus

Polycleitus, the

POAYKAEITOZ

nOAYAPATOY
By
imitating the classical simplicity and the

284
CHAP,
'

RHODES.
brevity used by the Greeks in their
inscriptions,

we

^ might improve our national taste

in this respect.

How^ much more impressive


adopted, than our

is

the style they

mode

of writing

upon public
it

monuments, where a long verbose composition


is

exhibited, relating to things of which


!

cannot

concern posterity to be informed

In other ages,
territories

however, the Greeks of the Rhodian

had the custom of


inscriptions

adding
distich.

to

their
this

simple

^n hexameter

Of

we saw
it

many

instances;

but shall subjoin one, as

appeared upon the pedestal of a marhle column


at Rhodes
:

this pedestal

had been bored, and

placed over the mouth of a well in the inner


basin of the principal harbour'.
is

The

inscription

interesting,

because

it

relates to an artist of

the country, Amphilochus the son of Lcigus,

who

was probably an

architect

AM<!>IAOXOY

TOYAAArOY
nONTflPEnZ
HKElKAINEIAOYnPOXOAZKAIEPEZXATONINAON
TEXNAZAM<l>IAOXOIOMErAKAEOZA<i)0ITONAEI
"THE GREAT AND IMMORTAL GLORY OF THE ART OF AMPHILOCHUS REACHES EVEN TO THE MOUTHS OF THE NILE AND TO THE UTMOST INDUS."

(1)

After our return to England,

we were

gratified

by finding that
noticed
this

Egmont and Heyvian,

half a century

before,

had

also

Inscription

RHODES.

285
chap.
"l
T"

By the
The

Indus

is

here meant the river ofyEthiobia.


^

I T

T
'

Greeks before the time of Alexander had no


India.

-^

knowledge of
his heifer

Thus

jEschylus conducts

down

the Indus to the Cataracts of the

Nile\

Upon

a mass of marble, in the street before

the Greek Convent,

we

also

observed the

fol-

lowing record of an offering to Jupiter the Saviour

by

the persons

whose names are mentioned

IHNnNNAOYNOY
APAAIOZnPOZENOS A ZnT H P
I

circumstance occurs annually at Rhodes


literary

pagan
^''^"''^"y-

which deserves the attention of the


traveller
:

it is

the ceremony of carrying Silenus


at

in

procession

Easter.

troop

of boys,

crowned with garlands, draw


Inscription (See Vol.
to the
I. p.

along, in a car, a

268.)

because their copy confirmed our own, as


while, in oiuer respects,
it is

words

AAAFOT and nONTflPEnX;


The
Classical

so

imperfect, as to be unintelligible without the assistance of the

more

correct

reading here offered.

Reader

will

be interested in remark-

ing, that Aristophanes, in the iJt^tXai, uses the expression of the

Rhodian

poet:

E(V ugn NEIAOT nPOXOAlS viaran.


(2)
(/i6.
i.

Tims
c. 1 9.)

in Rufflnus {Eccl. Hist.

lib.

i.

c. 9.)

and Socrates Scholasticut

made of the introduction of Christianity into India, three hundred years after tlie Christian sera, when Frumentius was j^pointed Bishop of tlie ^ixumi ; meaning tliercby Abyssinia: for it is
mention
is

said of India by Socrates, that

it

joias to ^Ethiopia.

286
CHAP,
VIII.

RHODES.
fat

old man, attended with great

pomp.

We

unfortunately missed the opportunity of bearing

testimony to this remarkable example of the


existence of Pagan rites in remaining popular
superstitions'.

Mr. Spurring, a naval

architect,

who

resided at Rhodes, and Mr. Cope, a com-

missary belonging to the British army, informed


us of the fact
procession.
;

both of

whom had

seen the

The same ceremony

also takes place

in the Island of Scio.

(l)

Even

in the

town of Cambridge, and centre of cur University,

many

curious remains of very antient customs

may be
of

noticed, in dif-

ferent seasons of the year, which have passed without observation.

The custom

of blowing horns upon the

first

May {Old

Style)
as

is

derived from a festival in honour of Diana.


called, or Harvest- Home,

At the J/awkie,

it is

may be

seen a clown dressed in female apparel,

having

his face painted,

and his head decorated with ears of corn, and


is

bearing about him other symbols of Ceres, the while he

carried in a

waggon, with great pomp and loud shouts, through the streets ; the horses being covered with white sheets. When we have asked the

meaning of

this

ceremony, the people answer, that they are drawing


th) or Harvest Queen."

MoRGAY (MHTHP
England.

These antient customs of

the countrj' did not escape the notice of Erasmus,

when he was

in

He had

observed them, both at Cambridge and in London;

and particularly mentions the Mowing of hxrrns, and the ceremony of depositing a deer's head upon the altar of St. Paul's Church, which

was

built
in

upon the

site

of a temple of Diana, by Ethelhcrt king of

Kent,

the time of

I\lelitus first

Bishop of London, as appears from

a manusciipt in the

Cottonian Collection.

" ^pvd

^4nglos,"

says

Erasmus, " mos

est Londini, ut certo die populus in


hastili

summum
ferse,

tem-

plum Paulo sacrum inducat longo

inipositum caput

cum

inamceno sonitu coknuum veNatoriobuim.

summum

altare
i.

dicas
tnni.

omncs

afflatos
'icQ

<ksiast(P, lib.

Op.

V. p, 701.

H&c pomp4 proceditur ad furore Deli*." Erasmi Etdho KniglW s Life of Erasmus

Canib. 1726. p. 237.

RHODES.
From
famous
tlie

287
so

neighbouring Island of Symcy

for its divers,

women come
;

to Rhodes for

are the porters and water- ^'Z7^nA and appear distinguished -^''"i"'"*carriers of the island

employment.

They

by

a peculiar

mode

of dress, wearing white

turbans on their heads.

Their features have,

moreover, a singular character, resembling those


of the
Tziganhies, or
gipsies,
in

Russia.

In

Syme-, and in the Isle of JSJisyms, now called Nizari, whose inhabitants are principally maintained the

by the occupation of diving


singular

for sponges,

following

custom

is

observed.

When
day,

man

of any property intends to have

his daughter married,

he appoints a certain

when

all

the

to the sea-side,

young unmarried men repair where they strip themselves in


goes deepest into the

the presence of the father and his daughter, and

begin diving.
sea,

He who

and remains longest under water, obtains

the lady^

(2)

SVME yet

retains

its

antient appellation
to

derived from Syme, a

daughter of lalysus, according


(3)

Stephanas Byzantinus.
p. 266.

Egmont and Heyman,


in the

vol. I.

When

the antiquities

obtained by the English Ambassador in Athens were sunk, by the loss of

a vessel

Bay of

Cerigo, together with the valuable Journals of his

secretary, Mr. Hamilton,

relating to his travels in Greece and Egypt,

this gentleman, with great presence

of mindj'^sent for

some

of these

divers;

who

actually succeeded in penetrating to the ship's hold,

and

in driving large iron bolts into the cases containing Marbles, at the

bottom of the sea, in ten fathoms water

to these they afterwards

applied cords, and thus succeeded in raising a part of the ship's cargo.

288
CHAP.
viir.

FROM RHODES,

north wind had psevailed from the time of


It

our leaving the Dardanelles.


ever, as soon as

changed, how-

we had put
called

to sea

from Rhodes^
Gulph
situate

which induced us
Gulph of GUwcux.

to stand over for the

of Glaucus,

now

Maori

Bay,

between the
Lyciay
in

antient provinces of Caria and


difficult

Asia Minor'; a place

of

access to mariners, and generally dreaded

by
it

Greek sailors, because,

when

sailing to\vards

with a leading wind, they often encounter what


is

called a

head wind,' blowing from the Gulph,


its

causing a heavy swell within

mouth, where

they are also liable to dangerous calms, and to

sudden squalls from the high mountains around.


Grandeur
of the Seenery.

Xhc appearancc
.

of

all

the south of j4sia Minor,

froiii

tlic

sca, is fcarfully
it

grand

and perhaps
Burke
has

no part of
sources
of

possesses more eminently those


the

sublime,

which

instructed us to find in vastness and in terror,

than the entrance to the gulph into which

we

were now sailing. The mountains around it, marking the confines of Caria and Lycia, are j?o exceedingly high, that their summits are covered with deep snow throughout the year

(l)

Cicero (lib.i. de Divinatione)


It

places the city of Telmessus in


to

Caria.

seems rather to have belong-ed

Lycia.

finit Telmessus," says

PUmj

(Hist. Nat.

lib. v.

cap. 27.)

" Qucb Lyciam The moun-

tains to the 7iO)th and

ivest of it

formed the bouiulary hetweea the t\o

provinces.

; ;

TO THE GULPH OF GLAUCUS.


aind

289
chap.
^

they are visible, at


distance,

least,

one third part of


Jlsiatic

the whole

from the

to

the are

African

Continent.

From Rhodes they

distinctly seen, although that island

be rarely
not

discerned from the mouth of the Gulph, even


in the clearest weather.

Of this Gulph

it is

possible to obtain correct ideas, even from the

best maps, as

it is

falsely delineated in all that


It inclines so

have yet been published.


towards the south,
a basin.

much
which
as in

after passing the isles

obstruct the entrance, that ships


Its

may

lie

extremity

is

quite land-locked

although
it,

no such notion can


it

be

formed of
in

from the appearance


in

makes, either

D'AnviUes Atlas, or
cation.

any more recent publiespecially in


MaUAria.

The
is

air

of this Gulph,

summer,

pestiferous;

a complete mal-aria^
it.

prevails over every part of

Sir Sidney Smith,

being here with the Tigre,


within the lapse of one
his arrival, he

assured us that
the time of

week from
list.

had not

less than

the crew upon the sick


The name generally
given,

one hundred of The author soon


to

(2)

in

the

Mediterranean,

those

mephitic exhalations of carluretled hydrogen, prevalent during the

summer months, where


mouths of all
Thessaly,

land has not been properly drained.


:

The

rivers are thus infested

also, all cotton


is

and

rice

grounds

places called Lagunes, where salt

made

all

the plains of Baotiut

and Macedonia, particularly those of Zeitun, the anlient

Lamia, and Tkessalonica; the great Marsh of B^rotia; all the northern and western coasts of the Morea; and the whole coast of Romelia,
opposite Corcyra,

now

Corfu.

VOL.

Iir.

290
CHAP,
VIII.

GULPH OF GLAUCUS.
became a
striking

example of the powerful


air,

influence of such

not only in the fever


in a

which there attacked him, but


until

temporary

privation of the use of his limbs, which continued

he put to sea again.

It

may

generally

be remarked, that wherever the ruins of antient cities exist, the air is bad; owing to water

which has been made stagnant by the destruc^tion f aqueducts, of conduits that were used for the public baths, and to the filling up of
channels formerly employed to convey water,

which
pools.

is

now

left,

forming fens and stinking

But

it is

not to such causes alone that

the bad air of the

Bay of Mcn maybe


it

ascribed.
it,

The

lofty mountains,

entirely surrounding

leave the Gulph, as

were, in the bottom of a

pit, where the air has not a free circulation, and where the atmosphere is often so sultry, at the same time, that respiration is difficult
:

vals,

sudden gusts of cold wind rush down, at interfrom the snowy heights, carrying fever
to those

and death

who expose

their bodies to

such refreshing but deceitful gales.


temptations to
visit this place,

Yet the
no

notwithstanding
;

the danger, are lamentably strong

there

is

part of the Grecian territory more interesting in


its

antiquities than the Gulph of Glaucus.


little

The

Ruins of Telmessus are as

known, as they

are remarkable in the illustration they afford

GULPH OF GLAUCUS.
with reo:ard to the tombs and the
Antients.
theatres of the

291

chap
VIII.

v.^.^

We

had no sooner entered the mouth of the

Gulph, than

we

encountered the tremendous

swell our pilot had taught us to expect.

At
the

one moment, a gust, as of a hurricane,


vessel upon her beam-ends;
sails

laid our

at another,

were shaking, as
all

in

a calm, and the ship

pitching in

directions.

In this

situation

night

came

on.

well out at sea,

Our Captain, wishing himself was cursing his folly for ven;

turing into such a birth

dryly observing, that

"

if

we

did not look sharp,

we

should be smous,
;

thered before morning."

Land around

on
but

every

side, increased

our apprehensions

patience and labour at last brought us quietly


to anchor

on the eastern side of one of the six


behind which
visit

isles in the entrance to this bay,

vessels

lie

most commodiously that


Expedition,
ships

the

place for the purpose of watering.

During the
hither
;

Egyptian
obtain

came

to

wood and water

for the fleet

but their

crews being attacked by the natives of the


coast,

who
it

are a very savage race of

moun-

taineers,

was

usual to send to Cyprus for

those supplies.

\Vhen daylight appeared,


T 2

we observed


292
CHAP,
VIII.
<

GULPH OF GLAUCUS.
lar^^er island
_
'

than any of those


''

we had

before

noticed, lying farther within the bay, towards

mentioned

thc east, and entirely covered with buildings,


like the small

'"'"'

island in the Las:o Mass^ore of


hella.

the Milanese territory in Italy, called Isola

This island

is

perhaps the Macris of Pliny S

which he describes as Ivino- towards the river Glaucus ; unless, from the circumstance of its
ruined town,

we may

consider

it

as Telandria,

which
the

is

placed by him nearly in the same

situation.

The buildings seemed


of Italians
;

to us to

be

work
and

for,

upon hoisting out our

boat,

visiting the place,

we

found here the

ruins as of a Genoese town, of considerable size,

which the inhabitants of the town of Maori were probably accustomed to resort, during
to

summer,

to

avoid the bad

air.

Some

of the

houses, porticoes, baths, and chapels, are yet

almost entire

and the whole has a picturesque


appearance.
After passing this
the

and

striking

island,
Ruins of

we rowed towards

situate in

town of Maori, the midst of the Ruins of Telmessus.


of this city appears in the insoription

The name

which we found there, proving the accuracy of D'Anvillc in the position which he assigned to
(1)

PUny mentions
It
is
:

the island Macris, whence the modern

name

niacri.

perhaps, therefore, this island to which he alludes in the

following passage

" Glaucumque
//.

versus ainnem Lagusa, Afacrui,

Didynia?, Helbo, Scope, Aspis, et in qi\k


Hist. Nat.
lib.

oppidum

interiit Telandria."

v, torn. I. p. 280.

Bat. 1635.

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
it.

293
chap,
i..

Here the bay winds round a promontory,


inclines

and

towards the south, presenting a

,-

beautiful harbour sheltered on every side

by

a mountainous coast-.

We

landed upon the

modern pier; and, having paid our respects to the Agha in the usual form, by taking a cup of They lie his coffee, proceeded to the Ruins.
towards the east and west of the present town,
or, in truth, all

around

it

for

when

the

modern
Ruin
the

town was
antient

built, it

arose from the ruins of the


first

city.

The

and principal
to

appears from the sea, before landing,

west of the town. It is that of an immense Theatre, whose enormous portals are yet standing
:

Theatre.

it

seems to be one of the grandest and most

perfect specimens

which the Antients have

left

of this kind of building.


for
it,

The

situation selected

according to a custom observed throughis

out Greece,
the sea.
tects,

the side of a mountain sloping to

Thus, by the plans of Grecian archioperations


of Nature were works of art for the
;

the vast

rendered subservient to
possessed naturally
a

mountains, on w^iich they built their theatres,


theatrical

form;

and,

towering behind them, exhibited a continuation


of the

immense

Coiion
;

which contained the seats

for the spectators


(2) See a small Chart

giving a prodigious dignity


spot by the author, as
a,

made upon the

Vignette to this Chapter.

294
CHAP,
VIII.

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
to the

appearance of their

theatres.

Indeed,

it

may

be said, that not only the mountains, but


itself,

the sea

and

all

the prospect before the

spectators,
buildings,

who

were

assembled

in

those

must have been considered, by the

architects of Grecian theatres, as forming parts

of one magnificent design. object from

The removal

of any

the rest would

materially have
Savary,
it is

injured

the

grandeur of the whole.


at

who saw much less than


its

this theatre

Telmessus, says
',

that of Patara half so

and
as

we

found
of

diameter

not
;

great

that

Alexandria Troas
it

yet the effect produced by

seemed
in

to
its

be greater.

Some
feet

of the stones
feet

used

construction are

nine

long,

three feet wide, and

two

thick.

Three
of

immense

portals,

not

unlike

the

Rains

Stonehenge, conducted to the arena.

The stones

which compose these gates are yet larger than


those already mentioned
:

the central gateway

consists only oijive, and the

two others oi three

each, placed in the most simple style of architecture.

Every thing

at Telmessus is Cyclopean

a certain vastness of proportion, as


admiration which
this

in the walls

of Tirynthus or of Crotona, excites a degree of


is

mingled with awe

and

may be
(l)

said to characterize the vestiges of

" Letters on Greece,"

lib. ii.

48,

Lond. 1783.

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
the Dorian colonies over
all

205

the coast of

Asia

chap.
VIII.

The grandeur of the people and the sublime conceptions of their artists were dis-

Minor.

played,

not only

in

the

splendour of their

buildings, but in the

magnitude of the materials

were constructed. The kings and the people of Caria and of Lycia have left behind them monuments defying the
with
their
edifices

which

attacks of time or of barbarians.

Amidst the
earthquakes

convulsions

of Nature, and

the

which have desolated the shores of the Carpathian Sea, these

buildings have remained un-

The enormous masses belonging to the doors of the Telmessensian theatre were placed together without any cementation or grooving; they are simply laid one upon
shaken.
the other
;

and some notion may be formed of

the astonishing labour necessary in the completion of the edifice to


it

which they belong, when


that every

is

further

stated,

stone in the

outer walls of the building


relief,

was adorned by a
edges
''.

formed

in bevelling the

There

were, originally, Jive immense portals leading to


the arena, although three only remain standing
at this day.

The
of

largest of these, being the

central

place

entrance,

consisted

of Jive
so,

(2) In all description of this kind,

the pencil of the artist


it is

is

much
will

superior to the pen of the writer, that

doubtful whether,

after everj'

endeavour to give an idea of

this

appearance, the account

he

iiitellisriblc.

296
CHAP.
viir.

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
pieces of stone; two being on either side, as
uprights, and one laid across.

The uprights are

ten feet two inches, and five feet eleven inches,

making the whole height of this door sixteen feet and one inch. The breadth of these stones is three feet ten inches, and they are twenty
inches thick.

The space

for
;

the entrance

is

seven feet three inches wide

and the length of


is

the upper stone placed across the uprights

ten feet seven inches

all

of one entire mass.

The doors on each


their uprights,

side of the

main entrance,

consisting only of three stones each, had, for

masses of eleven

feet three inches

in height, four feet in breadth, nineteen inches in thickness,

and the space


:

for the entrance six


left

feet four inches

those upon the right and


still

of the three in the centre were

smaller.

An engraved

representation will perhaps give


to this description.

more perspicuity

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.

297
;

The form of this


entire.

theatre

is

semicircular

it

has

twenty-eight rows of seats, and all of them remain

The rows are divided


all

into
;

two

parts,

by

a corridor passing

round

fourteen seats

being

in

the

upper

division,

and the

same

number

in the lower.

In the upper compartis

ment, on each side of the theatre,

a vaulted
to

chamber; one being exactly opposite


other.

the

Perhaps the measure across the arena,

to the beginning of the seats,


its

may

rather prove

form

to

be

elliptical

than semicircular.

We
we

found the distance from, the centre portal to


the lower bench to be thirty-five yards, and

obtained

major

diameter

of

thirty-seven

yards by measuring the distance from side to


side.

The stones

of which the walls consist,

between the
in length
;

portals, are eight feet ten inches

these were placed together without

cement, and exhibited the same massive structure as the rest of the building.
to render

Being resolved

an account as explicit as possible of


still

a theatre

remaining so entire,
to

we

shall

now proceed
seats.

state
is

the dimensions of the


sixteen inches, and the

Their height
twenty-five;

breadth

and the height of the corridor, passing round the back of the lower
is

tier,

five

feet

eight inches;

so

that

the

elevation of the persons placed in the upper

row was forty-two

feet

above the arena.

Before

298
CHAP,
VIII.
<
I

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
the front of this fine theatre extended a noble

.y

,./

terrace, to

which a magnificent
sea.

flight of steps

n-

conducted from the

The

beautiful harbour

of Telmessus, with the precipices and snow-clad

summits around

it,

were
;

in the

prospect sur-

veyed by the spectators


sides the edifice
in

and behind towered


adapted.
to
It is

the heights of that mountain, to whose shelving

was

itself

not

the

power of imagination

conceive a

sublimer scene, than, under so


stances of grand association,
the
stranger,

many

circumto

was presented
from
his

who,

landing

bark

beneath the Propylcea of


and,
entering

this building,

ascended

to the terrace of the Theatre from the strand,


its

vast

portals,

beheld the
its

Telmessensians seated

by thousands within

spacious area.
Oracular Cave.

Ncar

to the ruins of this edifice there are


;

other remains

and,

among them,

there

is

one,

of a nature too remarkable to be passed without


notice
:

it

is

a lofty and very spacious vaulted

apartment, open in front,

hewn

in

the

solid

substance of a rock, beneath the declivity upon

which the Theatre


sea.

is
it

situate,

and close to the


;

The

sides of

are of the natural stone

but the back part consists of masonry, stuccoed


with so

much

art,

that
itself.

it

exhibits the appear-

ance of the rock

This stucco evidently

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
served as a screen, to conceal a hollow recess,
of the same height and breadth as that side of
the vault.

299
chap.
VIII.

In
of

this

recess

was probably
for

secreted

one

those

soothsayers

which

Telmessus was antiently renowned'; so that when persons entered the vault to consult the
oracle,

a voice apparently supernatural might


Similar

answer, where no person was visible.

means

of

deception,

priests, are exhibited

employed by Heathen by their remains at Argos


be described.

in Peloponnesus, as will hereafter

With regard to this Cave, it is difficult to explain the manner in which the person who delivered
the oracular sayings obtained an entrance to the
recess.

We
;

could observe neither hole nor

crevice

nor would the place have been discoif

vered,

some persons had not, either by accident or by design, broken a small aperture
through the
artificial wall,

about four feet from

the floor of the vault.

flight of steps

extended

(l) Telmessus

was so renowned

for the art of diiinalion, that Crasus,

king of LydUt, sent to consult


tioned by Herodotus.

its

soothsayers
of

The famous haruspex

upon dii occasion menAlexander the Great


lib.
rcc
ii.

was Aristander of Telmessus.


UTO yivov; ^ilMai

Arrlan (Epod.
ffo^als

ed.

Gronov.)
<

says of the people, Enai ya^ raus TiXfiiTffia;


fffiiriv

h'a

ilny'-.f^xi,

auroli xai yufai?,t xai *ai7t rhv fiavrua.*-

It

may be

observed here, that the

name
is

of the city, in the text of Jrrian, and in

Gronovius's commentary,
there, prove the

written Telmissus.
as written in

Our

inscriptions, copied

word to be

the following passage of

Cicero:

" Telmessus

in Carid est:

qua in urbe excellU hanispieum


lib.
i.

disciplina."

CiCERO de Divinat tone,

300
CHAP,
VIII.

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
from the shore to
this

remarkable

cave.

As

it

was open in front towards the sea, it does not seem to have served for a place of sepulture. We may therefore conclude that it was one of
the chambers of those juggling soothsayers, for

which

this city

was

particularly famous.

The. walls of the Theatre of Telmessus furnished materials for building the pier of the
present town.

The sculptured

stones, already

noticed upon the exterior of that sumptuous


edifice,

may now be
this

discerned in the later


All the marble used

masonry of

work.

by

the Turkish inhabitants of the place, in their

coemetery, mosque, and public fountains,

was
and

taken from the remains of the Grecian


afterwards fashioned,

city,

by those

barbarians, into

shapes by which every trace of their former honours has been annihilated. Enough, however,
yet exists, to prove the rank once maintained

by the Telmessensians, although little can be found within the precincts of the modern town. Yet even here we observed some antiquities and among these a marble altar, on which a female figure was represented, with the extraordinary
;

symbols of two hands figured


as
if

in

bas-relief,
this

cut off and placed

by

her,

and with

inscription

EIPHNHXAIPE

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.

301
chap.
-,

Near the same place was


Ionic

also the capital of an


architect's

pilaster;

having

the

name,

Hermolycus,
belonged,

so engraven

upon

it

as not to

be discerned when the building,

to

which

it

was

perfect;

the letters being in-

scribed behind the

capital,

where the stone


;

^as intended
thus written

to

be placed against a wall

and

PHOAYKOY
we
passed through
it,

Not being
towards the
the

able to discover any other anti-

quities within the town,


east^;

and here

we had ample
them have been
effect,

employment, in the midst of the sepulchres of


Telmessensians.

Some

of

delineated,
in the

but

without accuracy or

work of Monsieur de Choiseul Goiiffier'. They are the sepulchres to which allusion was made in a former volume, when discussing the

Cl)

The remains

of Genoese

and of f'enetian buildings cover


full

all

the

coast near to the town.

We

found here, in

bloom, that exceedis

ingly rare plant, the Aristolochia Maurorutn.


in

It

badly represented

Toumefmt's Travels, torn. II. p. 79- The singular colour of the r'.ower, and also its brown leaves, made it at first doubtful to us It grows also near to the ruins ^\hethe^ it were an animal or a plant.
of the Theatre.

This has been stated for the (2) lot/age Pittmesque de la Grece. purpoie of contradicting a Note published in the English edition of
Lond. 1788. ; where it i; said, that " these antient monuments are delineated with great minuteness and
Savory's Letters on Greece, p. 49accuraci/

302
CHAP,

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
subject of the origin of temples'.
stated, that the
It

was

there

most antient Heathen structures, for offerings to 'the Gods, were always either tombs themselves, or they were built where
tombs

had been.

Hence

the

first

temples

of

Atheris, of Paphos, and of Miletus; and hence the

terms used

by the most

antient

writers

in

their signification of a temple.

Hence,

also, the

sepulchral origin and subsequent consecration


of the Pyramids of Egypt.

But since Mr. Bryant,


origine,
it

alluding to the tombs of Persepolis, maintained


that they

were temples ab

as distin-

guished from places of burial,


exactly with

will

be right to

shew, that those of Telmessus,


the
Persepolitan

corresponding

monuments, so

that one might be confounded with the other,

have upon them

inscriptions

denoting explicitly

the cause of their construction.

Sepulchres

Thc Tombs
botli

of

Telmessus

are of two kinds;

Teimesscnsians.

bcing visiblc from the sea, at a considerable


The^r^^, and the more extraordinary,

distance.

are sepulchres

hewn

in the face of perpendicular

accuracy in the Koyage Pittoresque,"


his

If

the Reader attempt to form

judgement

of the Ruins of Telmessus

from that work, he

will

neither have any notion of their real grandeur, nor any correct idea
of their appearance.
(l)

"Journey along
Chap.
II.

the

frontier

of

Circassia."

See

Parti.

Vol.

II.

p. 75. of the

Octavo Edition.

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
rocks.

303
chap.

In places where the side of a mountain

exhibits an almost inaccessible steep, the antient

workmen seem
labour.

to

have bestowed their principal

In these situations

may be

seen exca-

vated chambers, worked with such marvellous


art as to resemble porticoes with Ionic

columns

gates

and

doors beautifully sculptured,

on which

are carved the representations as of embossed iron-work, bolts, and hinges.

Yet every such appearance, however numerous the parts that compose it, proves, upon examination, to consist

of one stone ^.

When

any of the columns have


remain susbeing, in fact, a part

been broken

at their bases, they


;

pended by
to'support,

their capitals

of the architrave and cornice which they seem

and therefore sustained by them, and


to

by the contiguous mass of rock above,


they
all

which which

belong.

These are the


Persepolis.
is

sepulchres

resemble those of
of tomb found at
Soros,

The other kind


the true Grecian

Telmessus

the Sarcophagus of the Romans.

Of this

sort there are several (but of a size and gran-

deur

far

exceeding any thing of the kind else-

where), standing, in some instances, upon the

cfaggy pinnacles of

lofty

precipitous

rocks.

(2)

similar style of workmaiislii])

may be

observed in the stupen-

dous Indian temples, as they ha^e been beautifuUy delineated by

Mr. Dunid.

304
CHAP.
VIII.

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
It is

as difficult to determine
it

how they were


to

there placed, as
for taking

would be
;

devise means^

them down
and

of such magnitude are

the single stones composing each Soros.


to the shore,
in less elevated

Nearer

situations,

appear other tombs, of the like nature, and of


still

larger size, which are formed of


;

more than

one stone and almost all of them, of whatsoever magnitude or form, exhibit inscriptions.

The
is

largest of those near to the shore, situate

in a valley

between the mountains and the


of five

sea,
;

composed

immense masses of stone

four being used for the sides, and one for the
lid or cover'.

small opening, shaped like a


is

door, in the side facing the harbour,

barely

large enough to allow a passage for the

human
of the

body.

Examining

its interior

by means

aperture here afforded,

we perceived another

small square opening in the floor of this vast


Soros,

which seemed to communicate with an

inferior vault.

Such

cavities

might be observed
excepting
the bodies of the

in all the

sepulchres of Telmessus,
;

those cut in the rocks

as

if

dead had been placed

in the

lower receptacle.

(1)
it

The

length oi ihz operculum (and of course of the


is

5ojw which
;

exactly covers)

ten feet

its

width, eight feet five inches

and

its

thickness,

two

feet six inches.

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
while the Soros above answered the purpose of

395
chap.
VIII
'

a cenotaph
sufficiently

wherever the ground had been cleared around them, there apfor

'

'

peared, beneath the Soros, a vault".


;

Almost all tombs have been ransacked but perhaps these the one to which reference is now made has
yet been

not

opened.

Gipsies,

who were

encamped in great numbers among the Ruins, had used some of the vaults, or lower receptacles,

as sheds for their goats.

question is

here suggested, which it may be possible to " Whence originated the answer it is this
; :

distinction,

observed in the Telmessensian sepul-

chres,

between the tombs having a Persepolitan


and the cenotaphs
to

character,

exhibiting
Soros

the

most
first

antient form of the

Greek
Asiatic,

The
dis-

seem evidently

be

as they corstill

respond with the remains of customs


cernible in

many

parts of India.
;

The

last are

of European origin

and

their introduction

may
from

therefore be referred to periods in the history

of the country,

when

the

first

colonies

Greece took possession of the coasts of Caria

and Lycia.

The Dorian

dialect

is

yet retained

(2)

Such a mode of interment


It is

is

still

exhibited in

all

our English

coemeteries.

a practice that we derived from the i?o>5; and

the form of their Sarcophagus

may

yet be noticed in almost every

thurch-vard of our island.

306
CHAP,
'

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
in almost

every

inscription

found upon these

shores'.

Tomb

of

Upon
an

the ridit hand of the


in

mouth of the

Soros,

daughter of is

Inscription,

legible

characters, of the

highest importance in ascertaining the identity


of the city to which
the illustration the
it it

belonged, as well as in

offers

concerning the nature of

The author copied it with all the] care and attention it was possible to bestow, when exposed to the scorching beams of
itself.

monument

a powerful sun,

and

to

mephitic exhalations

swamp in which it is situate. By the legend, this monument is proved to have been the Tomb of Helex, daughter of Jason, a
from the

WOMAN
it

of Telmessus.
is

It is difficult to
turret,

comunless

prehend what
from

intended by the

be the superior receptacle, or Soros


this
inscription,

itself.

We

learn,

that Greek

tombs
to the

were not always exclusively appropriated

interment of a single body, although such strict


injunction be sometimes expressed against the
(l) Tlie late Professor Porson, to
tion

whom the author shewed


it

the inscrip-

he discovered upon this Soros, maintained that

was evidently
to the

older than the hundredth Olympiad.

Reckoning, therefore,
antiquity
of
this

time in which

it

was found, the

monument
for

amounted to two thousand one hundred and seventy-one years ;


the hundredth Olympiad terminated with the year 377 B. C.

Professor
it will

Porson himself afforded the translation of this inscription, as


be found here given
;

the author having cai'efuDy inserted


left

it,

literally

and verbally, from the copy

with him by his lamented friend.

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
admission of any other corpse than of the person
first

307
chap.

buried'; but that

sometimes they answered

all

the purposes of a

modern family

vault.

EAENH H
A<l)<MON
I

KAI

ACO

NOCTOYAIO TENOYCTEA
M H EEIETOM N H MEIONKATECKEYACEN EAYTH KAIOS^EAY

THNENEOAS'ENAnOA

AWNIAHAYIwAYTHC
KAI EAENHTHKAIA<I><|>I

WErrONH AYTHCAAAWAE MH AENIE2EINAIENTW

nYPnCKWTHOHNAIME
TATOENTA<!)HNAIAYTHN EITiC0EI HTINAACE

BHCECTWGEOICKATA
XOONIOICKAIEKTOC
0<l>l

AETWTEA
XIE

M H EEEN WAH

MOEI W

(!2)

See particularly the Inscr-ptioK copied at Erkessyheuy, in the

Plain of Troy, as found on a Soros brought from Alexandria Trons, in


the Sixth Chapter of
this

Volume,

p.

204.
t'

VOL. in.

308
CHAP.
VIII.

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.

THE DAUGHTER OF JASON THE SON OF DIOGENES, A WOMAN OF TELMESSUS, CONSTRUCTED THIS MONUMENT FOR HERSELF, AND LATE IN LIFE HAS BURIED HERSELF THEREIN; AND TO APOLLONIDES, HER OWN SON AND TO HELEN, WHO IS LIKEWISE CALLED APHION, HER OWN GRANDDAUGHTER; BUT TO NOBODY ELSE BE IT ALLOWED TO BE DEPOSITED IN THE TURRET, AFTER THAT SHE HERSELF IS THEREIN ENTOMBED. BUT IF ANY PERSON PRESUME TO PUT ANY PERSON THEREIN, LET HIM BE DEVOTED TO THE INFERNAL GODS, AND LET HIM YEARLY PAY TO THE TREASURY OF THE TELMESSENSIANS
APHIOX,
;

HELEN,

WHO WAS ALSO

FIFTEEN DRACHMS*."
gllll

There were other

sepulchres of the

although not quite so large,

same form, which consisted


its oper-

only of two masses of stone

one for the body,

or chest, of the Soros, and the other for

culum; and, to increase the the


skill

wonder excited by
in their construc-

and labour manifested

tion, these

have been almost miraculously raised


left

to

tlie

surrounding heights, and

standing

upon the which the

projections and crags of the rocks


casualties of

Nature have offered


of

for

their reception.

One
shillings

them

exhibits a has-

(l)

Nine

and eight-pence farthing.

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
relief;

309
^^J^^'
-

and by the
so

left side

of this, an inscription,
that

but

nearly

obliterated,

we

could '

>

discern few of the letters.

The

re/fe/" represents

a female figure seated, to bringing an infant.

whom some

one

ig

Four other

figures,

two

male and two female, follow the person


carries the child.

who
com-

These again are succeeded


This subject
to
is

by a

train of attendants.
in Greece.

mon
by

It is similar

that described

Dr. Chandler at

Sigeum\ as being the prenot quite

sentation of a new-born babe to the tutelar Deity,

upon the
so

fifth

day

after its birth.


this

It is

clear for

what purpose
in

subject

was

introduced upon a sepulchral monument, unless


it

were erected

memory

of one

who

died in

child-bed.

The only

distinct letters

were the

following

AH
....

...

PA

AHMHTPIO OESTHATHN TAKAAA OfsllOZAIOINH NTAION


.
.

Upon
the

the opposite side of this Soros, towards

mountain,

we

found also part of another

inscription

TEAHTO
/i/itiquitits.

AAOAZK

...
See

...

KN

OZI
Ionian

(2) Travels in Asia Minor, p. 36.

also

a Plate in the

u 2

110

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
This tomb consists of

CHAP.
VIII.
.,

two

entire

stones,

y,.i

'

standing upon a lofty rock, difficult of access.

One

stone being hollowed, affords a receptacle

for the

body

the other supplies

its

ponderous

covering.

Near
simple
rials,

to this there is

another tomb, with a

bas-relief,

but not of less massive mateits

nor less elevated in

situation.
is

The

practice of ornamenting the Soros

not of a

date so remote as the chaster style observed in

Some of the old sepulchres oi Macedonia, and in In its others left by the Ptolemies of Egypt. simplicity and original form, it preserves a grandeur not to be aided by any ornament.

The purest model was afforded by the granite Soros, in the chamber of the Greater Pyramid, when it was covered by a simple slab. During
^

the

first

ages, the Soroi

were destitute even of


v^ork

inscriptions; the

magnitude of the
it

spoke

for itself,

and

was believed

that

posterity

needed no other information^.


(1)

In later times,

The

classical taste of

Poussin did not suffer this model to escape


celebrated picture
of

his
into

when he painted the Egypt. The Holy Family are


notice,

The Fli^M

there delineated by the side of an


its

antient<o?6, consisting of the Soros^ with

simple covering, destitute


all is

of any ornament whatsoever.

In that picture,

repose, and gran-

deur, and sublimity, in the highest degree.


(2)

The account
lib.
i.

given by Diodorus of the Sepulchre of Osymandi/as,


ed. /Vessel.

{Diod. Sic.

p. 57.

Amst. 1746.)

aflFording

one of the

oldest Insaiptijans of this nature, proves

how fully the Antients relied upon


the

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.

Sll
f"HAP.

when

the relics of the dead

of superstition, and sloth

became sources or avarice had ren-

dered them subservient to mercenary purposes,


it

was necessary

that inscriptions should often

not only record the origin of the tomb, but also


testify the miracles
it
it

wrought, or the mysteries

concealed.

at

Hence those numberless writinsfs the monument of Memnon, and the longpriests

catalogue of hieroglyphic characters with which


the
of Alexandria

had

inscribed

the

Soros containing the consecrated remains of the

Founder of

their city.

It is quite inconceivable

by what

art

the people

of

Telmessus

were

enabled to raise such everlasting monuments


of their piety for the dead.

The

Soros

now

upon the top of a rock, towering among the ruins and other sepulchres of the city it consists, like the former, of two pieces of stone and its foundation is upon a
described,

stands

mass so solid, that even the earthquakes, which the country has been liable, have not,
the smallest degree, altered

to
in

its original position.

the perpetuity of their

memory by

the greatness of their sepulchres.

EA2IAETCBA2IAE.aN0CTMANAXACEOIIEIAETICEIAEXAI BOTAETAinHAIKOCELAIIKAinOTKEIMAIXIKATnTITXlNE
" I am Osi/mandyus, King MflNEPrflN. would know how g^reat I am, and where I
of
of Kings
lie,
!

Jf

any one

let

him surpass any


expresses his

Hecuba of Euripides, manner in which he lives, provided be allowed a magnificent Tomb after his death.
works."
Ulysses, in the
infliflcrcnce as to the

my

only that he

312
CHAP.
,'

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
Again passing the
proceeding a
little

Tomb of Helen, and farther towards the east, we


Monument, which
in

came
1
Mauscv

to

the remains of a

should have believed to have been the famous

Cenotaph erected by Artemisia


husband, from
its

honour of her

conformity to the accounts


if

given of that work,


for
it

Strabo

had not assigned

a different situation \
of

Hard

by, upon a
following

block

marble,

we

noticed

the

inscription,

perhaps referring to this building.

The stone seemed as if it had been placed over It purports that the entrance of some edifice. " Sammias constructed a person of the name of the monument for himself, his wife Auocesis',
daughter of Naneis, his family,
dants
:"

and descen-

and concludes with the usual prohibi;

tion concerning its exclusive appropriation

and

the fine to be levied in consequence of


tion, to

its viola-

be paid to the Senate.


\

2 AMMI AE K ATE2KETA2ENT0MNHMEI0NE ATTn V. A


r

SAIKIATT0TATSH2EINANHIAO2KAIT0I2TEK1SI0I2

HTOI2EKTOTTaNE20MENOI2EKrONOI2MOTKAI TOTTIOTMOTEnArAOOTXAPAEANMEINHMETATTOr OTAENIEHE2TAIANOIE/ lH0IiiErHMH2TNXaPHSAITINI XEONniEIAEOHOAAAO n0IH2A2An0TEI2EITEA


Iv'tiSSEnNrEPOTSIA

^..

(1) Slralon.
(2)

Geog.

lib. xiv.

p.

938.

ed. Oxon.

This

name occurs in an

Inscription published
p. 368.

by Mnffei, Epist.

P.

Gall. Antiq.

See also Oderki Inscript.

'

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
That a building equal
vidual,
to this in

313

magnitude

"^'Jf*

should have been erected for any private indi-

seems

to

be improbable

and that

it

could not have been one of the public edifices


of the Telmessensians,
is

evident, because

it

did

not admit light


sepulchral,

and
also

further, that its origin

was
cir-

may
is

be inferred from the

cumstance of
Its

its situation in
;

the midst of tombs.


it

form

quadrangular

consists of enor-

mous masses
cement
:

of stone, placed together without


all

strength seems
its

which the architect


It

intended in

formation.

bears every trace

of having sustained

some enormous obelisk or


it

pyramid,

to

which
it

supplied

basement.

Viewed
solid

externally,
;

has the appearance of a


to the

cube

but having effected a passage

interior of the pile,

by means of chasms

wliich

had been opened by earthquakes, we found an


arch, within,

cube.

upon each of the sides of the Between these arches, the intervening
were each of them of one
entire stone,

parts, that is to say, the solid angles of the

building,

of incredible size, and scooped within, so as to

form a dome by meeting together


part of the fabric.
pile the arches

in the

upper

Upon

the outside of the


to give addi-

were walled up,

tional strength to the work,


it

and better enable


it

to sustain the

immense weight

was designed
towards the

to bear.

All the ground before

it,

314
CHAP,
VIII.

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
sea,

had been

levelled^

and

was

formerly
'

covered by masonry,

now

only visible

in a

few remaining
us to believe

traces.

In this extraordinary

sepulchre, there is
it

nothing which should induce

to

be of less antiquity than the


;

Tomb of Helen

before described
to
it

consequently

we may

refer

as offering a satisfactory
circular
arches,

proof of the existence of

and

even of a dome,

in architecture,
sera.

four centuries

before the Christian

We

aftervv^ards

ascended the

cliffs,

for the

purpose of examining more accurately what are

deemed, and with reason, the greatest


ties of

curiosi-

Macri

the tombs cut out of the solid

rock, in the precipices towards the sea.

labour here bestowed has been immense


the

The and

work is very beautiful. Some of these are more adorned than others, having, as was
In those which w^ere almost plain, the

before stated, a kind of portico, with pillars in


front.

was as smooth as if the artist had been employed upon wood, or any other soft
hevv^n stone

The exterior form of almost every one of them cannot, perhaps, be better described, .nan by comparing them with a familiar
substance.
article

of household furniture, to

which they
to

have

great

resemblance;

namely,

those

book-cases, with glass doors, seen upon bureaus,

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
surmounted by ornamented rail-work over the A small rectangular openino-, front and sides.
scarcely large enough to pass through, admitted

3 15
chajp. VI IT.

where we found a square chamber, with one or more receptacles for dead bodies, shaped like baths,
;

us to the interior of some of them

upon the sides of the apartment, and neatly chiselled in the body of the rock. The mouths
of these sepulchres had been originally closed

by square

slabs of stone, exactly adapted to


;

grooves cut for their reception


adjusted, that,

and so nicely
finished,

when

the

work was

the place of entrance might not be observed.

Of

similar construction,

although not exactly

of the same form, were the sepulchres of the


Jeivs in

Pal.estine; and particularly that in

w^hich our Saviour

was

buried, as will be
Inscriptions

more

fully shewn in the sequel '.

appeared

upon several of them, but written in so many different characters, and with such various
marks of
any
origin.

time, that

it

is

impossible to assign

precise period for the

age of their

common

Upon some of them were letters of no remote date, as may be proved from the names
they served to express,

and the manner


;

in

which they were written


" And

and, close to these.

(1)

laid

him

in

a sepulchre which wa? hewn out of a rock, and

rolled a stoue unto the door of the sepulchre."

Mark

xv. 46.

316
CHAP,
VIII.
'

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
were others of Phoenician workmanship. In proof of this, we shall here insert two inscriptions,

copied from tombs adjoining each other

both being hewn out of the same rock, and, to


all

appearance, by the same people.

Upon

the

first

appeared,

Tl B

EPIOYK A AYA OVn EPTA M OY

and upon the adjoining sepulchre these remarkable characters:

very antient mode of writing the name of the


I

city is evident in this inscription'. If the P \, written in such legible characters at the end, be the date, it denotes a degree of antiquity
irre-

concileable to the form of one of the letters, and

would carry us back to a period equal to two thousand four hundred and forty-one years: but
it

may
(l)

specify

sum

of money, as in

the

The arrow-headed
Mcffci

character

>ffy

be a numeral.

See the

first

Iiiicrij.tion in

Museum

flroncnst:

RUINS OF TELMES8US.
termination of the inscription upon the
Helen.

317

Tomb

of chap.
-

-y

Over the entrance of a


to these,
tion^,

third sepulchre, near


inscrip-

we

found another very legible

with a square Sigma:

AIOTEIMOYTOY TAEnOAEMOYKAl AIOTEIMOVAICTOY TAEnOAEMOYnPOrONI KON


And
over a fourth, an
inscription less perfect,

with the same Sigma, of which


discern these letters:

we

could only

APICTEI AOYTOY

ANAKTOC

KAITWNKAI

OMWNAYTOY
Mmnutha'
Sepulchres.

But there were some of these sepulchres without any discoverable entrance, either natural or artificial; nor could we conceive how they were
formed, or in what manner bodies were con-

veyed into the interior. The slabs whence the seeming doors were constructed, proved, upon
examination,
The
word

to

be integral parts of the solid


may be
translated

(2)

last

in this inscription, ^^oyoviKeM,


vouoy

tiw>tu7ne7ihtm

avkum ;

being understood,

t'id,

Mnffci

Museum

VtrcneJtsc, 59.

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
CHAP,

vm.

yock; neither would the interior have been dis'

cerned, had

it

not been for a small irregular

by the people of the country through one of the divisions hewn in imitation Through this hole, barely wide of pannels.
aperture, broken

enough

for

a person to

thrust his head,

we

obtained a view of the interior.

Here we per-

ceived the same sort of chamber as in the others,

but without the smallest joint or crevice, either


belonging to the doors, or anywhere in
sive sides,
its

mas-

by means
This

of which a stone might be


for a place of

removed, or any opening effected


admission.
future travellers

may be left for explanation by who visit Macri. It was to


;

us altogether incom.prehensible
it is

and therefore

better to curtail the marvellous, than,

by

enlarging upon

such a subject,

to

incur the

imputation of writing a romance.


like the curious

Something

cement, before mentioned S in the Oracular Cave to the west of the Theatre,

might perhaps, by

its

resemblance to natural

stone, have deluded our observation,

and thus

concealed a secret entrance to the tomh.


is

There

reason to suspect, from the general appearance

of their places of burial, that the Telmessensians

were not more studious of beauty and elegance


in their construction,

than of preventing access

(1)

Sec page- 258.

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
to

319
^"f/**
^

them afterwards; and

it is

probable that, in

certain instances, the only clue to the interior

was

in the possession of the priests, or of the family

to

whom
in

these sepulchres belonged.

Hence may

have oriofinated the Oriental tales of charms

used

admission to subterraneous caves, and

chambers of the dead'.

The next we
able for
its

visited

was

particularly remark-

simplicity

and beauty.
it

The

letters

of an inscription in the front of

were rude, and

barbarously engraven.

A repetition of the words


tWO
liuCS

THE MOXUMEXT
is

(jO y^V'^UAt'ov), iu

OUC

above the other, without any other inscription,


also

remarkable.

Within,

it

had three

receptacles for dead bodies, one on each side of


the chamber.

One

of the pannels in front

was
so,

open

the other never

was intended

to

be

the rock behind being plain and entire ^

Of all

(2)

There

is

something of this nature in Gray's translation of " The

Deseent of Odin," from the IVorse tongue.


*'

Faring to the northern clime.

Thrice he traced the Runic rhyme;


Thrice pronounc'd, in accents dread.

The
Till,

thrilling verse that

wakes the dead

from out the hollow ground.

Slowly breath'd a sullen sound


'

What
I'o

call

unknown, what charms presume,


."

break the quiet of the tomb

"
its

(3) Its length,


five feet

within, was five feet ten inches; and

breadth,

two inches.

320
CHA1>.
VIII.

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.
these tomhs, the most magnificent are those cut
in a precipice

facing the sea.

Many
to

of

them

have the appearance of being inaccessible; but

by

dint of

chmbing from rock


fall,

rock, at the

risk of a

dangerous

it is

possible to ascend
in front

even to the highest.


rude
ture,

They have
is

several

pillars,

whose

capitals exhibit the curva-

or horn, which

generally considered as

denoting the Ionic style of architecture;


those pillars are every one of
parts
of

and

them

integral

the

solid

rock,

although

some be

twenty

feet high.

The mouths

of these sepul-

chres are closed with beautiful sculptured imita-

tions of brazen or iron doors, with hinges, knobs,

and bars.
occasioned

The porous nature of the rock had


filtrations,

and a

stalactite

deposit

had nearly covered a very long

by the side of one of them. All that could be discerned was a repetition of the words 70
inscription

[j.vy}[j^ziovj

as in the former instance.

species
to

of sage, growing, in great abundance,


size of a large

the

shrub, also

covered the rocks

here, yielding a fine aromatic smell.

has perhaps already been said

Enough of these monu-

ments; and yet not more than a third part of

them has been described the whole mountain facing the sea is filled by their remains. After examining that which has been last described,
:

we ascended

to

one above,

appearing larger

RUINS OF TELMESSUS.

321

Here the rock consisted of a beautiful breccia; and before the mouth of tliis remarkable tovih were columns of that
substance, at least twenty feet in height.
is

than any of the others.

This
of

the most

elevated

of

all

the

sepulchres

The view from it commands the bay. Looking hence upon the water, it is easy to
Telmessus.

perceive the traces of extensive Ruins stretching


into the sea, visible

from

this

eminence, althousfh

covered by the waves. To the east of the town,


at a considerable distance from
it,

and near

to

the
to

mouth
to

of the river Glaucus

',

there appeared

be the foundation of an antient work, which


have been part of a mole, and of a

seemed
fortress.

The peasants of Macri informed us, that ten leagues to the east of what are called The Seven Capes, or one day and a half's journey from these
Ruins, at a village called Kovniicky, there are other
^"'"*,
***"

very extensive
cerned
tions.
it

ruins,

among which may be


:

dis-

statues, columns,

and several antient inscripbut

These reports are often exaggerations

may be

of consequence to determine whether

the Ruins at Koynucky be not the remains of

Xanthus, or oi Paiara, cities of Lyci a, concerning

(l)
torn.
I.

" Amnis G/cm deferens 7V/mc5sw."


p. 272. L. Bat. 1635.

Pirn. Hist. Nat.

lib. v.

322

GULPH OF GLAUCUS.

^vm'
'

^^'^^^^
'

modern

state

we have no
it

information; the

one celebrated
Brutus,

for the siege

sustained against

and the other


it

for

the enibelUshments
Philadelphus.

bestowed upon
Turbulent
State of the Country,

by Ptolemy

Durin? the time we remained in Macri Bay, ^ the Aghas of the country were at war marauding"
"^
:

parties, profiting

by

the general tumult,


It

had
In-

set fire to

several villages.

was
its

therefore

dangerous to venture far from the coast.


deed, the sea-side
Conduct of
t!ie

was not without

dangers.

Captain

Castle,

venturing along the beach, in

Natives

upon the

search of a convenient place to obtain a supply


of fresh water,
fell

into the

hands of a party of

the natives, as wild and as ferocious in their

appearance as any of the tribes of Caucasus.

him surrounded by twenty-five armed men, who had taken his dirk from him, and who One of seemed very mischievously disposed.
these fellows, a sturdy mountaineer, wore,

We found

by

way

of ornament, one of the buttons of a British

naval-officers uniform.

We

could not learn

how he

obtained this
us,
it

but as our interpreter

was proposed that we should adopt a method resorted to by Captain Cook in such situations, and prevail upon some of these men, by signs, to accompany us on board. Four of them consented, among whom was the Chief. They followed us to the place

was not with

GULPH OF GLAUCUS.
where the boat was stationed but expressed visible uneasiness, and began to call loudly to
;

323
chap.

their

companions on shore, as

we

stretched out

from the land towards the Taurida.


ducted them, however, upon deck
;

We
when
Castle,

con-

new
con-

dilemma
insisted

occurred

for

Captain

ceiving that he had been insulted

upon

fighting with their Chief.

by these men, It was

with
us

difficulty

we

could prevent this from being

noticed by the party


;

who had ventured with


all

but getting them

at last into the cabin,

and having appeased our worthy Captain, by


pointing out the

danger to which he would


in offending

expose others of our countrymen,

the natives of a coast frequented at that time

by our
a

ships for

wood and

water, he consented

to overlook the indignity.

After giving them

dram

each, with a

little

gunpowder, some

Constantinople pipes, tobacco,

and

coffee,

they

were so

gratified, that

we might

perhaps have

ventured with them even to Koynucky, whither


they offered to escort us.
selves,

We

contented our-

however,

in

gaining their permission to

botanize unmolested around the Gulph; and, for


that purpose,

accompanied them back

to their

companions.

We

landed upon the western side of the bay,

near to the place laid


VOL.
III.

down
X

in the chart as the

324
CHAP.
VIII.

GULPH OF GLAUCUS.
most convenient
for

watering ships', where a

river empties itself into the Gulph.

Here we

fomid the ruins of several buildings ^ situate in


pools of stagnant water and most unwholesome
New-discovered
Plants.

The sands were covered with exceedingly rare plants. To add to the extraordinary allurements presented by the coast of Macri, it is preeminently distinguished by the interest it offers
fens.

to the botanist.

We

found no less than eleven

new

species, besides

many

almost unknown,

during our short examination of the place.

The

new-discovered plants alone will be mentioned


in aJYote^;

and the more general List reserved

(1

See the Vignetle to this Chapter.

(2) Perhaps the remains of Pinara,

mentioned by Pliny.
finit

'

Ultra
Plin.

par sinus priori

ibi
e.

Pinara,
I.

et quae

Lyciam

Telmessus."

Hist. Nat. lib.\.


(?,)

27. torn.

p. 371.

L. Bat. 1G35.
slender

I,

non-descript shrubby species oi Eupliorhia, with

flexuose shining shoots, and pointed leaves,

about two-thirds

of an inch long, of a lanceolate form upon the lower part of the

branches, but gradually becoming more oval as they ascend.;

the rays of the umbel nearly of the same length with the involucre
;

the divisions of the

cal3'x

very short, rounded, and entire

the petals toothed, nearly wedge-shaped.

We

have named

it

Euphorbia iwucronata.

Eupliorbia fruticosa, glabra; foliis


;

ovato-lanceolatis tmicronaiia integerrimis

foUolis involiicri ova-

libus: involucelli ohovatis, ititegerrimis petulis dcntatis ; capsulis

verrucosis glahris.
II.

small non-descript species of

Trigonella,

with
;

prostrate

pubescent stems, from three to


leaflets

five

inches ^Dng

the largest

measuring only a quarter of an inch.

The pods very


it

narrow, hanging down, with the points again turned upwards,


like

bunch

of fish-hot ks.

Wc

have named

TKiG0Ni2Li,A

llAMIOERA.

: :

GITLPH OF GLAUCUS.
for

325
chap.
VIII.
^

an y^phcndix.
.

We
.

also visited a beautiful

little

uninhabited island, lying in the mouth of


bay.
It

-,-

>

the

a single mountain, covered with an exuberant vegetation, and with

consists of

AherLom^"*

HAMiGERA.

TrigoTiclla

legiwxinihus

pcdicellutis,

llnenriliis,

hnmnlis, declhiatis, pubescffntibus, pednnculo J'ructi/ero inermi


folio longiore foliolis cuneato-obovaiis, dentutis, sericeo-puhescentibus.

III.

non-descript

species of Galium,

in habit

resembling the

purine, or Common Cleavers, and the stems and leaves in the same manner rough, with hooked pritklcs ; but differing in
having fewer leaves together, and their points more elongated,

and

in the fruit being quite concealed in its long

hooked

bristles.

We

have called

it

nearly allied to

Galium TRACtiYCARPUM. This species is very the Galium aparinoides of Forskahl. Galium
fructu denslssim'h
Idspido.

foUis senis septenisve anguslo-lancenlatis longe mucronatis, carinis

marginibusqtte aculealis
IV.

non-descript dwarf annual species of Bromus, about a foot in

height, with the heads of flowers nearly of an oval form, very


close,

and shining,
it

their length

from one to two inches.

We

have called

Bromus
;

nitidus.

Bromus annuus,

humilis

paniculd ovatd coaxctald

spiculis hrevissime pedunculatis, erectis,


;

glabris, nitidis, subnovemjloris

Jloribus diandris, aristis rcetis


foliis pihso-hirsutis,

glumis paulo-longioribus, scabris ;

v.

non-descript spec\e% of Jlopecurus, about the heiglrt of the


nitidus, the

Bromus

heads of flowers nearly oblong, and placed

verj' little

above their inflated sheath, the end of which gene-

rally rises

above them
'I'he

the awns more than double the length

of the glumes.

species

ought

to be placed near the /]lope-

ciirus angustifulius of J^r.

Sibthorpe.

We

have called

it

Alope-

cuftus FOLiosus.

Alopeciirus spied ovato-oblongd glumis acutis

arista dimidio-brevioiibus,

basin versus hirsutis, darso-asperis


aspcr'is.

vaginis htflatis longis ; foliis striatis margine

VI.

nou descript

species of

Onosma, with short crooked woody

stems, lanceolate, and blunt bristly leaves, from about half an


inch to an inch in length, the Ijuiiches of flowers short, nodding,

gem

rally

simple

the corolla about a third part longer than the

2 X

*':il^^>

326

GULPH OF GLAUCUS.
clouds of mosquitoes, " wheeling their droning flioht," sole tenants of the wilderness, with the
exception of a few rabbits.

The aromatic odour


We
have named
Bristly

calyx,

and the stigma two-cleft.

it

Onostna.
tortuoso
;

Onosma setigera.

Onosma

caule fruticenle, pumilo

pungentibus asperis ;

ramis brevibut hispidis ; foliis lanceolatis, papulosis, setts racemis brevibus ; calycibus dense setosis ;

VII.

A non-descript

coroUd elongatd subeylindricd ; antheris excertis. species of Trifolium, about nine or ten inches
long, the stem a
little

hairy upwards, with few branches, or


;

quite simple, the leaflets inversely heart-shaped and toothed

the flowers purple, in short close heads, persisting, and be-

comiDg

rigid

the standard very large,

rounded above, but

narrowing downwards.

The

species ought to be arranged near

the well-known Trifolium spadiceum of Linnaeus, and the TrifoUum speciosum of Professor Willdenow. We have called it

Trifolium ciliatum.
sphecrisve pmicijloris,

Trifolium annuum,spicis subovatis hemico7-olld

cariosd

majusculd

petalis denti;

culatis; calycis dentibus subulads, ciliatis, inaqualihus

foUolis

obcordatis denticulatis

stipuUs ciliatis mojusculis.

*
of the

covered,

Upon the Isle of j^bercrombie, in among other very rare plants, new species, hitherto undescribed by any
I.

the mouth

Gulph, we

dis-

the four following entirely


author.

tall

non-descript species of Scrophularia, with the leaves


;

repeatedly cut and jagged into narrow sharp segments

the

pannicle of flowers from one to two feet or more in length,

with bracts, the lowermost of which are pinnatified, and the

uppermost ends nearly linear at the subdivisions


flowers about as large as in Scrophularia canina.
called
it

and the

We

have
foliis

Scrophularia Silaifolia.

Scrophularia glabra,
;

tripinnatifidis laciniis angustis acutis

panicula terminali lon-

gissimo.
II.

non-descript species of Laserpilium,


to

the

lower leaves

of

which are from eight inches

a foot or more in length, and

from two to three inches across where they are broadest,


having nearly the general outline of an ostrich feather, except
in being less flattened,

and more attenuated upwards

their

segments

GULPH OF GLAUCUS.
exhaled from the shrubs and herbs by which it
completely mantled,
is
is

327

chap
VIII.

quite as powerful as in the

scented atmosphere of Rhodes,

few solitary

segments repeatedly suhtlivided,


threads
:

till

they become

as fine as

the leaves on the stem have the same outline, but their seg^ments are more distant from each other. The stems
are smooth ; and vary, in the specimens we saw, from a foot to more than two feet in height. The umbels have from eight to twelve rays, and measure from two to four inches over: their
partial

umbels are small, and crowded with flowers

the petals

yellow.

We

have called

this

very beautiful plant Laserpitium

ELEGANS.

Laserpitittm folds decompositis circumscriptione oblaciniis


;

longo-plu mi/or mibus,


petiolis glabris striatis
niis
;

subsetaceis

mvcrnnatis

glabris

involucri laciyiiis elovgatis upice tenuissi-

umbellis hemisphtcricis.

TIT.

non-descript species of yerbascum, from five to six fcetliigh,


little

the stem erect, shrubby, and a


leaves,
in

cottony, as well as the

which are from an inch and a half to two inches or more length the lowermost attenuated downwards into long foot:

stalks, the

uppermost

sessile.

The bunches
in length, very

of flowers on the

smaller plants eight or ten inches long, nearly simple, on large


plants eighteen inches or

more

much branched,
in

and twiggy; the flowers yellow, about an inch


the filaments woolly towards the base, and one of

diameter;

them always

shorter than the rest.


STRicTUAi.

We

have named this species Verbascum.


erecto, foUis inferiorilus

Verbascum caule fruticoso

spatulato-ovatis petiolatis, superioribus ovato-lanceolatis obsoletissini

dcnlatis integerrimisve sessilibus;

omnibus

pifis

stellatis

canescentibus, muticis; rucemo clongato; pcdictliis cahjce longi-

oribus divaricatis.

IV.

non-descrij)t

shrubby species of Hypericum, with upright


;

stems, from one to two feet high

the largest leaves

little

mope
it

than an inch

in length

the flowers of a golden yellow, small,

with petals double the length of the calyx.

We

have called

Hypericum virgatum.

Hypericum fruticosum foribus


.

trigynis,

cali/cibus obtusis, glanduloso-ediutis

rncemis cauUbus gracilibus


J'oliis iiUcrnodiis,

quintu})lh hrevioribus, termiiialibus

longioribus
inferioribus

erectn-pntuUs,

punctatis,
,-

nudis,

subtus glaucis ;

spatulato-oblongis

superioribus li)iearibus margine rcvolulis.

328
graves of
the shore
;

GULPH OF GLAUCUS.

'

unknown persons appeared upon


containing, probably, the bodies of

British seamen,
pestilential air

who had
to
it,

fallen victims to the

oftheGulph, during
the

their station

here.

We

added

number

of the live

animals found upon

by

losing four out of the

fourteen sheep put on shore by our crew to


graze, while

we remained
;

at anchor.

Neither

modern geographers have bestowed any name upon this island which is the more
antient nor

remarkable, as

it

aftbrds a very important land-

mark

for vessels entering the

Gulph.

Its lofty

conical form, resembling those sepulchral

erected by antient nations as

mounds monuments of
its

departed heroes,

together with

situation,

surrounded by

vast

monuments of the
It

dead,

have qualified
therefore

it

for a natural cenotaph.

may

bear

the

name
it

of

Abercrombie;
invested,
will

whose immortal
nial

glory, unfading as the perenis


;

foliage

with which

flourish to the

end of time

while the boasted

renown of every howling


MESsus
is

soothsayer of

Tel-

hushed

in oblivion.

Jaqufs Abd'allah Menuu.

CHAP.
FROM
The Taurida

IX.

ASIA

MINOR TO EGYPT.

sails for

Egypt

Vigilance
the

of the English
the

CruizersExtraordinary Instance of Propagation of SoundAstonishing Appearance presented by caused hy Ravages of War


British Fleet

the

Spectacle

State of Affairs upon the Author's Arrival Obstacles


encountered hy the Expedition under Sir Ralph Ahef-

crombie

Sir

Sidney Smith

Cause of

Account of

the

Campaign

the

Delay

in landing the Troops

Death of
Major

330
Major

FROM
Victory,
the

ASIA

MINOR
of the

Eighth of March General Menou of Affair of TwelfthAction of Sensation caused by Battle of Twenty-first Death of Abercromhie Measures pursued by Suc View of the Country Journey Rosetta
the the Tliirteejith

M' Arras Descent

Army

Battle,

and

the

the

his

cessor

to

Mirage.
IX.
'

1 HE impatience

of our Captain to proceed


fleet,

"

with his earo^o to the


_

added

to the

weak

rida

sails

state of thc author's health,

made us

for Egi/jit.

eagfer to ^

leave Macri.

Having got on board our stock of


Isle,

water, and our sheep from Abercromhie s

contrary wind prevailing, we beat out of the Gulph, and made our course for Egypt. The wide surface of the Libyan Sea was before us.

We

entertained

anxious thoughts
little

concerning

the safety of our

bark, deeply laden, and

ill-suited, either in

her complement of mariners

or in her construction, to encounter the deadly gales

and the

calms of the

Mediterranean.
in

Landsmen, however, are generally erroneous


their calculations at sea.

The success of the voyage surpassed our most sanguine expectations. A land-breeze came on soon after we had cleared the Gulph, the sea was unruffled,
and

we

stole along,

almost imperceptibly, with


over
of

hardly

a wind or any sensible motion,


so
tranquil,

a surface

that

a glass

full

water might have remained upon deck without

TO EGYPT.
spillin"" a

331
voyage, which
chap.

drop.

During

this

continued only five days, the most surprising


vigilance

y
crdf^'

was manifested by our

cruizers,

who

offhe''^^

had the guardianship of the coast of Egypt, Over an expanse comprehending six degrees of
might have been supposed that a vessel lying so low in the water, and so small as
latitude,
'it

the ship in which


:

would escape observation but we were spoken to at least halfa-dozen times and the master of one of the
sailed,
;

we

cruizers actually boarded the Taurida, believing,

from her French aspect, that he should take


possession of her as a prize. '
i.

very remarkJ

Extran.
dinary in^'^nc^ of the propa-

which may convey notions of the propagation of sound over water, greater than will perhaps be credited; but we
able circumstance occurred,

gation of sound.

can appeal to the testimony of those


witnesses of the
fact, for

who were

the truth of that which

we now relate. By our observation of latitude, we were an hundred miles from the Egyptian
coast: the sea

was

perfectly calm, with

little

or no swell, and scarcely a breath of air stirring,

when Captain

Castle called

our attention to the


a low

sound as of distant

artillery, vibrating in

gentle murmur upon the water, and distinctly heard at intervals during the whole day. He said it was caused by an engagement at sea,

and believed the enemy had attacked our


off Alexandria.

fleet

No

such event had, howevei',

332
taken place
the sounds attack
;

FROM ASIA MINOR


and
it

was afterwards known,

that

we then heard proceeded from an made by our troops against the fortress

upon the Nile beyond Rosetta: this had commenced upon that day, and hence alone
of Rachmanie

the noise of guns could have originated.

The

distance of Rachmanie from the coast, in a direct


line, is

about ten leagues

this allows

one hun^

dred

and thirty miles

for the

space through
it

which the sound had been propagated, when


reached our ears.

On the sixteenth of April, towards we first made the fleet off Alexandria
mast-head of the Taurida.
out of his course, mistook
troop
ships
on,

sun-set,

from the

Our
it

Captain, being
for

the fleet of

and

other transports.
steered
it

Evening
harbour of

coming

we

for

the

Alexandria, believing

to

be Ahoukir Bay, and


it

grew dark; an intention which would soon have been interrupted by the guns of our fleet, if we had persevered
wishing to get in before

but the boatswain


error,

at

length perceiving our


all

we

lufled up,

and lay-to

night.

In

the morning of April the seventeenth,

we saw

Alexandria very distinctly, with the French ships


lying in the harbour; and had a fine view of

the famous

Column

called

well as of the Obelisk to

Pompeys Pillar, as which mariners give

TO EGYPT.
the

333

name

of Cleopatra

Needle.

A
the

stiff

gale
v

chat.
..,
^

coming
Aboukir.

on,

we

steered along

coast for

About nine o'clock a.m. we made Nelsons Island; and presently saw the whole
of troop ships,
frigates,

fleet

transports,

with

all

the

Turkish
craft,

merchant vessels, and other


It

belonging to the Expedition.

was the
;

Astonisha"iSe pre-"^'

grandest naval sight

we had
its

ever beheld

and

much more
the famous

surprising in

appearance than
at

the*Bndsh
^^^^*'

Russian

armament, prepared
forest,

Portsmouth during a former war.

Innumerable
covering the
cutters, plying

masts,
sea;

like

an immense

swarms of sailing-boats and


in
all

about

directions

between the
it

larger
is

vessels;

presented a

scene which

not

possible to describe.

We

stood on, for a con-

siderable distance, to the eastward of Nelsons


Island, in

order to avoid the shoal where the

Culloden struck before the action of the Nile;

our course being precisely the same pursued by


the British fleet previous
to

that

memorable

engagement; and the

fleet of transports lying

at anchor, afforded a correct representation of

the position of the French


occasion.

armament upon

that

Bearing down

at

last

upon the

fleet,

we

passed under the stern of the Delft frigate

when, being unmindful of the temerity of our

334
CHAP, proceeding,
IX.

EGYPT.
we
ventured to
hail a

young

officer

upon the poop, and to inquire for the situation


of the
Braakel.
to

Captain

Castle

immediately

beware of repeating the question saying, that we should soon be sensible of the immeasurable distance at which the inhabitants

warned us

of those floating islands hold the master of a

merchant smack

and so

it

was proved by the


thunder, in
three

answer, which came, like

monosyllables, easier for the reader to imagine

than for an author to express.

Soon

after,

the

Quarter-master of the Braakel came alongside,


in the jolly-boat
;

Captain Clarke,

who expected

us, having surmised, as he afterwards informed


us,

from our

pitiful

appearance and wavering


his visitors,

4:rack, that

we were

and

in

want of
both of

pilot.

Having reached

his comfortable cabin,


officers

we were

soon introduced to the


;

the army and the navy

and found,

after our long

absence from England, the society of our coun-

trymen particularly

grateful.

We

enjoyed, what

we had

long wanted, the guidance of books and

of well-informed men, concerning countries

we

were yet to explore. we had made to the Capudan Pasha, we accompanied Captain Clarke to the Sultan Selim, and
to the

According

promise

introduced him to the Turkish Admiral.

Several
different

days were employed


ships^, in

in visiting the

search of friends

and schoolfellows;

EGYPT.
some of whom,
to the Guards,

335
chap.
>

particularly of those belonging

we had
in

the misfortune to find

'/

desperately wounded.

The
a

sight of

many

of

spectacle

our

gallant

officers,

wounded

state, or SeTatage*
* ^^ '""

brought from the shore incapable of service from


the injuries of the climate, presented a revolting
picture of the ravages of war.

One

day, leaning

out of

the

cabin

wounded

officer

window, by the side of a who was employed in fishing,

the corpse of a man, newly sewed in a ham-

mock, started half out of the water, and slowly


continued
the shore.
its
its

course, with the current, towards

Nothing could be more horrible:


visible,

head and shoulders were


one
side,

turning

first to

then to the other, with a move-

ment so solemn and awful, that one might have imagined it was impressed with some dreadful
secret of the deep, which, from
it

its

watery grave,

came upward to reveal'. Such sights were afterwards more common; hardly a day passing
without ushering the dead to the contemplation
of the living, until at length they passed with-

out our observation.

Orders were afterwards

(1)

Precisely in the

same manner, the corpse of Carraccioli rose and


to Naples,

floated in the

Bay of Naples, and was seen coming


"

swimming

half out of the water.


" astonished
fear,
tlie

fact so

extraordinary," says Mr. Southey,

King, and perhaps excited some feelings of superstitious


See
Soufh.c//'s

akin to regret."

Life of Nelson,

vol. II.

p. 53.

Lond.

1813.

336
CHAP,
^-'
^

EGYPT.
issued, to convey the bodies for interment
N'elsoiis Island, instead of casting

upon them over-

board.

The shores of

Egi/pt might in truth

have been described as washed with blood.

The bones of thousands were whitening, exposed to a scorching sun, upon the sands of If we number those who had fallen u4bouMr^
.

since the

first arrival

of the French

upon the
and

coast, in their battles with the Turks'^, Aral-s,

English,

we

shall find

no part of their own


so steeped
in

ensanguined
gore.

territory

human

Add

to this the streams

from slaughtered

horses, camels, and other animals, (the stench

of

whose remains was almost


even before

sufficient to raise

a pestilence
English,)

tlie

arrival

of the

and perhaps no part of the world ever


so

presented

dreadful an example.

When

land-wind prevailed, our whole

fleet felt

the

(1)
^\e

Between the

village of [Ilko,

and a place called the Caravanserai,


sculls

saw the shore entirely covered with human


for

and bones.
I^'elson's

Dogs
Island

were raking the sands

human

flesh

and

caiTion.

became a complete charnel-house,

wliere our sailors raised

mounds of

sand over the heaps of dead cast up after the action of the
military men,

2^tle.

Even

who have

published an account of the Expedition, have

expressed the horror which these scenes excited; nor would


that

anyone

envy-

man his feelings who could

view them with indifference.


in the

(2)

Ten thousand Turks were drowned at once


after

Bay of

Aboulclr

,-

being driven into the sea by Buonajmrte,

the slaughter

of four

thousand of their countrymen in the

field of battle.

See the Plate, repre-

senting this dreadful massacre, in Dcnon's " Voyage (V Egyple," PI. 89.

and

also a narrative of the fact, p. 259.

EGYPT.
tainted blast; while from beneath the hulks of

337
chap.

our transports, ships that had been sunk% with


all

the encumbering

bodies of

men and

car-

cases of animals,
fearful exhalation.

sent through the

waves a

At the time of our


been defeated
troops;

arrival, the

French had

state of
afl'airs

in three successive actions;

that

upon

the-

of the eighth of March, the day of landing our

arrival,

the thirteenth,

when
to

the English drove

them

from the

heights

which they had


battle

retreated;
twenty-first,

and the memorable

of the

when

Ahercrombie

fell.

There had

been a skirmish on the twelfth;


Archclale, of the

in

which Colonel

twelfth dragoons, lost an arm,

and Captain Butler of the same regiment was


taken prisoner.
first,

In the action of the twenty-

the French lost five thousand

men

eleven
before

hundred of
their

whom
and

the

English buried

own

lines,

in diflferent parts of their

camp.

We

saw

the trenches in which they

were deposited.
It
is

a subject of wonder, that our

troops

should have succeeded in this instance so well


as they did.

They landed under every

possible

(3)

Part of the L^ Orient, with one of her cables, was raised by the

crew of the Ceres, Captain Russel, in weighing anchor.

338

EGYPT.
circumstance of disadvantage,

and yet drove

from their posts, with the bayonet, the veteran


Obstacles

ncounthe'^Ex^.

legions o^ Buonapartts
1^

army; a mode of fighting


at that
It

which the French were supposed,


^^
it

undo" s'r Ralph Abcrcromi>'e-

ti'^^^'

^^ superior to every other nation.

^ras there manifested, as

has since been so


they have
to British
in

decidedly proved, that,

no chance of success
soldiers.

man to man, when opposed

The

laurels gained
fade'.

by our army

Egypt can never

Posterity will relate

the heroism, which, on these remote and almost

unknown deserts, enabled an inexperienced army to vanquish an enemy, not only in possession of the territory, but also inured to the

and well acquainted with the country. The obstacles encountered by our troops were greater than have ever been described, the most powerful of which originated in their want
climate,

Never did so much ignorance The maps they characterize an expedition. would have disgraced a brought with them The instruction which they had Chinese Atlas.
of information.

received

was a mere mass of error; and guides were unable to direct them. It is
Sir

their
said,
last

Ralph Abercromhie lamented, in his


false notions

moments, the

he had been taught

to

(1) "

The meanest

soldier of that

army," said Mr. Sheridan, "ought

b^ covered with laurels,"

EGYPT.
entertain of Egypt, and of the situation in which

339
chap.
\
'

the French were there placed.

In

fact,

eveiy

one possessed more information than the conductors of the British armament.

There was
Instead

not a clerk in the factory of Constantinople or of

Smyrna who was not better informed.


of the
flat

sands they expected to find between

Ahoukir and Alexandria, they discovered a country full of eminences

and advantageous posts


to another.

the French,
to fall

when

defeated, had therefore only

back from one strong position


they believed the

Once having
told

effected a landing, our troops


tale

were
they

and

that

might march without interruption to the walls


of Alexandria.
It

may be

important to the in-

terests of our empire to state the truth, at this

distance of time
of this

and to afford a brief record memorable campaign, as far as it can be communicated by a writer destitute of any
; :

military science
it,

it

will

be given as he received

from the most impartial among the French,


the

as well as from

most candid of

his

own

countrymen.

The

divisions

and cabals among the Chiefs on


failure,

both sides, were productive, often of

and sometimes of
talents

disaster.

The

rare military
sir .<r/dfy

and valour of Sir Sidney Smith, beloved

too as he

was by

the soldiers and sailors of the

:>,40

EGYPT.
expedition, could not be viewed without jea1

CHAP, I \

['

lousy by the commanding officers both of the

army and navy. The most unpardonable resistance was therefore opposed to his measures,
and
to his

suggestions.

His situation was,

in

truth, singular.
fleet felt

Some
so

of the Captains in the

umbrage because one of their profes-

sion associated

much with landsmen, and


assist-

was
the

so often on shore; while the Generals of

army could

ill

brook counsel, or even


officer.

ance, from a naval

the important project,

Upon this account, which was recommended


Lake of

by him,

of sending gun-boats into the

Aboukir' previous to the action of the thirteenth of March, and the voluntary offer he

made
view

of
to

conducting

that

operation, with

impede the retreat of the French, were not only

(1)
liable,

In the extraordinary changes to which this part o Egypt has been


the vei^ limited observations of the author do not authorize even an

attempt to reconcile the existing appearance of the country with


description of antient geographers.

the

Strabo

(lib. xvii. p.

1135. ed Oxon.)

journeying by land from the Canopian Gate of Alexandria towards the


east, arrives, after

the distance of one hundred and twenty stadia (fifteen

miles), at the city of Canojms.

This seems to coincide with the position


lake, the result

otAhoukir.

But

as

to the present
it

of an inundation

during the year 1784, wliether

cover the original course of the Aieipu^

(by means whereof, as distinct from the Alexandrian Canal, the annual

voyage took place from Canopus to Alexandria), or whether


ritory formerly inundated, in a similar

it

occupy ter-

manner, by the sea

or if the site

of Aboukir

may

not rather be that of Taposiris than of Canopus, a(?cord-

ing to Forsler's conjecture, in his Notes upon Granger, supported by the


testimonifs of Z\icbnhr
;

may remain

for future determination.

3f

AT

['f

ZA

K MA RJE O T I S
Me
S/m'if.t ifherv

This ZuAf was dn/ habtr


imulr in^4pnll8(U

dslntimis

t/im

S fn^

-^

_-

j^,^ .iM"" '"

h-iou- r/w ,rarrrct't/,fl,}Av

SiiM

EGYPT.
rejected,

341
that
v

but his information respecting

chap.
-v " "'

lake
that

was disregarded: it was even asserted, there was not water sufficient in the lake
passage of boats of burden,
fit

for the free

for

the conveyance of artillery or troops; although


Sir Sidney Smith
ship's cutter,
it.

had himself been

there, in his

and had sounded every part of


reflects so

One

of his private letters, about this time,

to his brother- in Constantinople,

much

credit

upon
it

his

patriotism and national

character, that

deserves a place in the history

of the Expedition.
rities

Having stated the peculia-

of his situation, and the obstacles he had

to encounter in his earnest endeavours to serve


his country, he added, "
the
It is

true,

once held

helm ivhere I must now

tvork

a labouring oar;

hut I shall not pull less stoutly on that account."

The

fleet,

with our army, arrived in Marmorice


of
Caria,

causes of

Harbour,

upon the coast

on

the inkmUng
"^" '''""P'-

twenty-eighth day of December, 1800.

Having

waited there near two months, during which


time a small reinforcement arrived from England,

(2) John Spcnsc}- Smith, Esq. his Majesty's

Envoy

Extraordinarj'

and
at

IMinibtcr Plenipotentiary, previous to the arrival of the

Enrl of Elgin,

the Ottoman Porte.

VOL.

III.

342
CHAP,
it

EGYPT.
sailed for

Egypt on the twenty-second' of


troops, burning
for

February.

The

action, in

excellent health and spirits, arrived in Ahouhir

Bay upon
A. M.

the second of March, at ten o'clock

sham descent had been practised

in
it

Marmorice, to exercise the soldiers.

By

this

was found,

that six thousand

men might be
twenty-

landed, in the most perfect order, and ready for

immediate action,
three minutes.

in the short space of

Their passage had been bois-

terous. Several Greek transports parted from the


fleet

during a gale of wind,

and disappeared
twelfth,

for

many

days, with part of the

the

twenty-sixth,

and HompescKs, regiments of Dra-

goons.
finding

Owing perhaps to this circumstance, or that it was too late to land the troops

upon the day of their arrival, the undertakingwas postponed until the next: an unfortunate
circumstance, although perhaps unavoidable, as

an opportunity was thereby

lost,

not to be after-

wards recovered.
effected,
it

Had

the landing been then


that

is

now known

we
it

should have
is

encountered no opposition; and


put on

also cer-

tain that the reserve at least might have been

shore.

The enemy, although long

(1)

According

to

Sir

R.

Wilsoii's

Narrative, this happened on the


it

twenty -third.

Tlvc author gives his information as he received


fleet,

from

the captains of the

and from the log-books of

their sliips.

s's^ ssss ssgs s^


FIRST LINE
/',.,.,,/,.,/',:,,/

W,/,

BGBs

BSE
Secokb
]Li:^e.

s
Q
S

<--^

S
<r'
-

C2yM<y/>?-^->/^/^i/

/iocfJ'<J^

B B S
TIBLE

l\i

RESERVE

J^hH^h^ ^f<n

J:^JS12 hy T. laJtS

an^

TlZI^niiar.

StnimJ.

EGYPT.
before informed of our approach,

343

was

totally

chap.
>

unprepared; and the lives of many brave soldiers

might have been spared.


to land:
in

proved unpropitious, and our


gained

The following day army was unable consequence of this, the enemy
to

time

strengthen

himself,
all

and

to

spread news of the invasion in

parts of the

country where his forces were stationed.


parations were accordingly
opposition.

Pre-

made

for

a stout

The succeeding morning was equally unfavourable, and six days were lost in the same manner; daring all which time, the
English fleet remained in sight of the

French

army and was


;

at length so little regarded, that

becoming dupes by the delay, believed the whole to be intended as a feint,


the
French,
,

which might beguile their attention from the part of the coast where the descent was really
meditated.

So

completely did

this

opinion

finally prevail, that the

time thus allowed them

to prepare for their defence

was not employed

so advantageously as

it

might have been.

Greek deserter, sent, as they afterwards believed,

by our army, had


report,

among them a to which implicit credit was given, affirming that our intention was to land the army at Jajri, upon the coast of Si/ria.
circulated

The delay shewn upon

this occasion

was not

Y 2

. , . ,

344
solely

EGYPT.
owing
to the weather.

A pnncipal

source

of

it

might be referred

to another cause.

M' Arras,

chief engineer,

Major had been forwarded,


fleet

in. a vessel,

previous to the sailing of our


to

from the Bay of Marmorice, in order


noitre the country,

recon-

and

to

obtain information

necessary for expediting the


troops.

landing

of our,

This

officer

had been twice on shore,


boat
oball,

either in the Penelopes or the Petrelfs

and with the greatest success.


served the Lake of Ahoukir
the adjoining territory
heights
; ;

He had

had surveyed

ascertained the different


for

and selected a convenient place

landing.

Having

finished

all

his

plans,

he,

unfortunately ventured on shore the third time,


to confirm the accuracy of certain observations

and was observed by a


in-

French,

armed

boat,

the very instant

return to his ship.

when he was putting off to The wind was against him


it

and the crew of


Death of
M'Arras.

his boat finding every effort


to fall alongside,

ineffectual, suffered

and sur-

rendered.
cruclty ou

By
tlic

a most dastardly instance of

part of the French, they poured a


into the boat,
after

volley of musketry

the

surrender had taken place;

by which Major
after this disaster^

M'Arras was
our

killed.
;

Soon

fleet arrived

and the Commander-in-chief,

instead of obtaining the information confidently

expected, was reduced to the dilemma of waiting

EGYPT.
until the

345

business of reconnoitring-,
difficult

now
in

ren-

chap.
^

dered more

than ever, could

some

.\'-

_.

measure be again accomphshed.

Thus was the descent of our army postponed


until

Descent of
^^"^ '^'^"'^"

the eighth

of March.

The French had


than they thought
;

gained

even more

time

proper to employ for the means of defence

and were stationed upon the sandy heights eastward, and within gun-shot, of Aboukir Castle, between
that fortress and the entrance to the lake.

spot selected for


diately under this

The landing the troops was immehill


;

and that a worse place


is

could hardly have been chosen,


this circumstance, that the

evident from
had, besides

enemy

their artillery their flanks,

upon the heights, a covering for of eight field-pieces upon the right,
left.

and four upon the


of landing^

These, together with

the guns of the castle, bore

down upon

the place

The day prior to that of the descent, signals were made to cook three days'

provisions for the troops, and for boats of every


description to put off from their respective ships,

and
(1)

to repair to the
known

Mondovi
who

brig, as a point of

It is

to every officer

attended this Expedition, that

the army might have been landed anywhere to the eastward, near Rosetta,

without the

loss of a single

man.

Whenever

it is

asked,

Why

was not
is

this the case? there is but

one mode of reply; namely, that which


:

suggested by another interrogation

Why

were we as ignorant of the


of Africa?

country of which

we came

to take possession, as of the interior

346

EGYPT.
rendezvous,
'

<

,-

CHAP,

when a

false fire

should be shewn

from the Foudroyant, the ship of the Commander^


hi-chief.

vktory of

On

the following morning, the eighth

tfuirciu

of March, at three o'clock a. m. the expected


signal

was made.

Agreeably

to the instructions

given, every boat then repaired to take in her

proportion of troops from the ship, or ships, to

which they were

allotted;

and then proceeded


under the
hill,

to the appointed station, close

about a league from the enemy, whence they

were

to

move, according
all

to the order of battle

there they

remained, until the whole of the

reserve

was

collected around the Mondovi.

Never was any thing conducted with greater regularity. The French, to their astonishment,
as they

afterwards often related, instead of

beholding a number of

men landed

pell-mell,

saw

the Hriiish troops preserving a regular line,

as they advanced in their boats, although the

wind was
landing
heaviest
in

directly in their teeth;

and, finally,

due

order

of

battle,

under

the

fire

perhaps ever experienced.

Shells,

cannon-balls, and grape-shot, coming with the

wind,

fell like

a storm of hail

'

about them

yet

(l)

The

sailors

upon

this occasion
to a violent

compared

t'le

!l>

ck shower of
fleet

shot

falling:

about them

storm of hail which the

had

experienced in the Bay of Marmorice, when the hail-stones were said


to have been as large as

musquet -balls.

*'

On the eighth

of February,"
says

l.^Loi'v).;

I.,iiiii,lw iiitli

,;iiii..

fl.it/.

liitlrr.s- <lli,;itl

/"/

//.

HHay 9
/iMWi.J MnlS^M: fyrr.tJM
.,:,./

irjin

EGYPT.
not a soldier quitted his seat or moved, nor did a single sailor shrink from the hard labour of
his
oar.

347
chap.
^

Not a musket was

suffered to be

charged, until the troops could form upon the


strand.

the

They were commanded to sit boats and this command, with


:

still

in

incon;

ceivable firmness, did these

men obey

with

the exception only of returning for each volley

of shot from their enemies three general cheers,

an
it

effect of

ardour

in

which

their officers

found

impossible to restrain them.

those

who remained

in the ships

The feelings of were not proof

against such a sight.

Several of our brave


;

seamen wept

like children

and many of those


to

upon the quarter-decks, who attempted


telescopes, suffered the glasses to
fall

use

from their

hands, and gave vent to their tears.

But the moment of triumph was


For three long miles, pulling
Hist.ofthe Exp. p.

at hand.

in this

manner
violent

says Sir

/?. JVilson.

5.)

"commenced the most

thunder and

hail

storm ever remembered, and wliich continued two

days and nights interniittiugly.

The hail, or rather the


Diodurus Siculiis

ice stones,
XX.)

WERE

AS BIG AS

LARGE WALNUTS."

(lib.

menthe

tions a storm of hail

which happened at Rlwdes

in the spring of

year 316 before Otrist, when the hail-stones were upwards of a pound in weight, and the houses were thrown down by the weight of them.

We

have accounts of a similar nature in sacred Scripture


cast
:

*
:

The

Lord

down great

stones

from heaven upon them unto Azekah, and

they died

they were morewiiich died with hailstones, than they

whom

the children of Israel slew with the sword."

Joshua

x. 11.

348
CHAP,
IX.
'

EGYPT.
aoaiiist

the

wind, did our brave tars strain


Several boats were sunk by the

every sinew.

bursting of the shells, and about two hundred

and seventy

men were
At

killed

before
all

they
their

reached the shore.

length, M^ith

prows touching the beach at the same instant, Then a spectacle was the boats grounded. presented that will be ever memorable. Two
hundred of the French cavalry actually charged into the sea, and were seen for a few seconds
hacking the

men

in the boats

these assailants

were every one killed. It was now about ten o'clock and within the space of six minutes, from this important crisis, the contest was decided. The soldiers of the forty-second regi;

ment, leaping up to their middle

in

water,

formed rapidly upon the shore; and with a


degree
of impatience nothing could restrain,

without waiting to load their muskets, broke

from the main

line before it

could be formed,
sinking deep in
'.

and ran gallantly up the

hill,

the sand at every step they took

In

this

(1) Sir

R. Wilson relates, that the twenty-third aud/ortieth ran

first

up the

hill,
it,

and, charging with the bayonet the two battalions which


carried the

crowned

two Nole

hills in

the rear, and took three pieces

of cannon.

" The for tij -second,"

says he,

on a parade."

Hist.of Exped. p. 14.


it

energy" was everywhere displayed,


the most impetuous.
the truth
;

" had landed, and formed as Where " a/?nost preeecrnatural is of little moment to ascertain

Sir Robert

had every opportunity of ascertaining


statement would not justify the

but a

difl'erence in his

author

EGYPT.
body of French cavalry charged down upon them but, instead of being
perilous
situation

349
chap.
IX.
*

any disorder, they coolly received the charge upon the points of their bayonets
thrown
into

and the rest of the army coming up, routed the

enemy on
greatest

The French fled with the precipitation. Our troops had been
all

sides.

taught to expect no quarter, and therefore none

was

given.

claimed nor obtained mercy


death, and victory.

The wounded and the dying neither all was blood, and
;

It is in the

midst of the

glory this day's


British arms, that

success reflected

upon the

Humanity remembers some


to forget,

things she
record.

may wish
cool

but never will


valour with

The

and patient

which our soldiers had sustained the torrent of French artillery, and beheld the streaming

wounds

of their companions, previous to their

landing, could but prove a prelude to the fury

they would manifest, w^hen

it

became

their turn

author
to

in altcriug notes

made from testimony upon the

spot, in order

copy the narrative even of a more accurate writer.

Having

after-

wards an occasion to examine the place of landing, the author visited


the
hill

here alluded to

and was at a

loss to conceive,

how
fire,

troops

could charge rapidly with fixed bayonets against a heavy

where,
the

unimpeded by any other


Joose sand, he found
it

difficulty

than the sinking of

his foot in

almost impraclicable to ascend.

The
;

fact,

however, only proves what ardent valour may accomplish


this

for that

was really-done,

it

would be absurd to doubt.

350

EGYPT.
./

CHAP. 40 attack; and a consequence so inseparable


V

.-v

from human nature must bring along with

it

thoughtless havoc, and indiscriminate slaughter.

Our

loss

in

killed

and wounded upon

this

occasion amounted to five hundred and

sixty.

General

When
in Egypt,

Menou.

our troops landed, Jaques Ahd'allah ^

Menou, Commander-in-chief of the French forces

was

in Cairo.

Intelligence had been

repeatedly sent to him, accompanied by entreaty,


that he

would hasten

to the relief of Alexandria.

The

French

obstinate,

him as a pompous, corpulent man, entirely absorbed in


described
in

composing or
soldiers.

delivering harangues

to

his

No persuasion could move. He considered the affair


as of
little

induce him to
of our invasion

importance.

Until our

army had
and

actually

gained footing in the country,

twice defeated the French troops, he took no

measures

to interrupt their progress.

According

to the French statement. General Friavt, with a

body of cavalry, amounting to fifteen hundred men, was the only force upon the spot to
oppose the landing of the English army.
believed,

Had

the resistance been greater, and Menou present,


it

is

that,

with

all

the advantages

possessed by the French, a descent upon the


coast would have been impracticable.

EGYPT.

351
chap.

skirmish took place upon the twelfth of


In this affair the twelfth regiment of

March.

Dragoons, by too precipitate a charge, suffered

j^^^^Jt)^"

very considerably.

Colonel Archdale,

who comft

manded

it,

lost

an arm, receiving a shot, in

the very instant that he raised his sabre as


signal for his troop to advance,
Tirailleurs.

from one of the

This did not


gallantly

prevent

him

from

leading his
the

men enemy, much

through a bcdy of
Captain
also tak^n

superior in number.

Butler of the
prisoner.
lickly

same regiment was

This brave but rash action was pub-

reprehended by our Commander-in-chief;


ill

and the army was cautioned against the


effects of too

impetuous zeal and intemperate

The command of the twelfth devolved upon Colonel Brown; and Colonel Archdab came on board the Braakel.
valour.

On

the thirteenth,

the followins: day, the

our
the

Action of
teemh.

army attacked and drove


action of the eighth.

enemy from

heights to which they had retreated after the

This battle was despe-

rately fought on both sides, and mutual loss

sustained to a very considerable amount.


result,

The

however, made
also discovered,

it

eviilent that no resist-

ance could be offered


It

to the

Eugiish bayonet.
this occasion

was

that

upon

the French used bidlets

and cannon-shot of

352

EGYPT.
deemed a
disho-'

CHAP, copper and brass; generally


.-

nourable practice, as calculated only to gratify


cruelty and malice.
inflicted

The
with

slightest

wounds

so

are

said,

what

truth

others

may
ships

determine, to be mortal.

This species of

ammunition was obtained from the sheathing of


in

the port of Alexandria.

Several of

those balls were exhibited in the


of them

fleet,

and some

we

afterwards found in the sand where

-the action took place.


.

An

opinion then pre-

vailed, that if the action of the thirteenth

had

been properly followed up, the English would


have been the same day
andria.
this
in possession of Alex-

We

had reason afterwards


case,

to believe

would have been the

by

information

from the people of the city;

stating, that

no

reinforcement having arrived from Cairo, the

merchants, tradesmen, and other inhabitants,

were compelled
have cast away

to

attend the gates as

mount the ramparts, and sentinels; who would gladly


arms
to receive the English,

their

or would have turned them upon the French

during their retreat.


done,
the

Instead of this beingto

enemy were allowed


in

establish

themselves,

a very advantag*eous position,


walls,

upon some heights before the

whence

it

was found exceedingly difficult to dislodge them. To this place our army pursued them; and then retreated to an eminence near some

EGYPT.
Ruins, rendered afterwards renowned, as the

. 3o3
ctiap.

theatre of the most dreadful carnage during the ^ glorious battle of the twenty-first.

^j_

About the nineteenth, Menou arrived


andria, pouring forth a torrent of

in

Alex-

abuse upon
the

the garrison and troops

who had opposed

landing of
his
*'

tlie

English army.

Delivering one of

turgid

harangues,
to
tlieir'

he reproached them',
an army
school-

in allowing,
to

everlasting shame,

of heroes
boys.''

be chastised by a
fat

The

mob of English figure of Menoii, added

to his

blustering and gasconading manner, rendered

him a pleasant object of


vivacit}'"

ridicule to the natural

of Frenchman,

who

distinguished

him
fre-

by

the appellation of " Cochon-Ganeral T

quently retiring from the parade highly diverted

by

his fanfaroniiades.

Having ended the speech


for a general

he had prepared

for the occasion of his arrival,

immediate preparations were made

attack upon the English, with his whole force " pour aneantir les Anglois," as he termed it,
tout d'un coup.''

The day

for this great event

Avas fixed for the twenty-first,

when our army


in
its

was

to

be surprised, before day-light,

(l)

The words were

given to nie Ly some French

ofl'icers

wlio were

present upon that occasion.

354
CHAP,
IX.

EGYPT.
encampment, routed, and
<f

kicked' into the

Lake

'

ly^.

of Aboukir.

Battle of
the

Twen-

_,..
for

iy-first.

At the hour appointed, the attack was made. . . in the begnmnig oi it, the French conducted

^.,_^,
skill.

themselves with admirable

It is certain
;

our army did not then expect them

although,

two preceding

nights, the soldiers

ordered to lie

down upon

their arms,

had been and be


silently

ready at a moment's notice.


on,

They came
which
is

and

in

good order;
it

the

more

remarkable, as

was

said the greater part of

them had been dosed with brandy.


crept with amazing perseverance,
their

They had
even upon

hands and knees, through fear of alarming

our videttes.

The
at

French videttes were, how-

ever, observed to

draw nearer and nearer


length,

to

ours

until,

the English

sentinel

observed the French army close behind, coming


slowly on in a
line.

This

man gave

the alarm,
all

by

firing his

musket, and retreating with

possible expedition.

The French
hill,

instantly

and

rapidly charged
attack

up the

beginning a false

upon our

left;

and, carrying a redoubt

by

(l)

The

literal translation

of culbiiter, the
;

word used by Menau

is

the orders given for that attack


Roise,

as

found

in

the pocket of General See the original,

whose head was taken

off

by a cannon-ball.

in Sir Jiobcrf. TVilsnu's Hist, of the Expedition.

EGYPT.

355

means of the bayonet, hoped thereby to throw chap. our army into confusion, by drawing the attention from its right, where the main assault was This project was soon perceived by intended.
our Commander-in-chief, and failed of
It
its effect.

was

still

dark.

The

firing

ceased upon the

left,

and was soon heard very warm upon

the right.

To

that point General Ahercromhie


attention
;

directed

all his

although both armies

discharged their artillery without discerning- a


single object, except during the flashes of the

cannon

when, as an

officer

belonging to the

reserve assured us, the French

army was not


so near, than

otherwise visible, although

now

by the appearance
during
those

of a long black line, disclosed

momentary

coruscations.

As
and a
seen
regi-

dawn
party

appeared, the French were found to have


in

succeeded
of

turning our right wing

their

cavalry

were

actually

advancing in the rear of the twenty-eighth


ment.
this

The prudence and

gallant conduct of

regiment gave the

first

favourable tuni
in the rear

to the conflict of the day.

Cavalry

of infantry have generally the


it

power

to

throw

into disorder.

It

was

at this critical

moment,

decisive as to the fate of Egypt, that an adjutant

of the tiventy-eighth gave the word,


right about, face
!''

*'

Rear rank

This was readily obeyed

and the

soldiers,

with astonishing firmness and

356
^?x^'
'

EGYPT.

P^'^^'^^i^ce
'

of mind, sustained a severe attack

in front

and rear at the same time, without a single man moving from his place'. At this
i\\Q

juncture,

forty -second regiment,

coming up

to aid the huenty- eighth,

were themselves overwhelmed and broken by a body of the enemy's


Still,

cavalry.
sisted to a

although dispersed, they re-

man

and were seen so intermingled

with the enemy, that the flank companies of the


fortieth,

stationed in the openings of the Ruin


right,

upon the

were

afraid to fire, for fear of

destroying them.

Menou had promised a Lonis

to every French soldier

who

should be con-

cerned

in establishing a position in that building

and several attempts were made

for the purpose.

Theffty-eighth had been stationed there in the

beginning of the action, with a part of the


twenty-third,

and had already repulsed a column


its

of the enemy, in

attack upon this place


conflict sustained

when, during the severe

by
^

the tiventy- eighth in front, three columns forced


in

behind the redoubt where that regiment was


;

stationed

and while some of them remained to

carry on the attack


part penetrated

upon

its rear,

the principal

into

the

quadrangular

area

formed by the Ruin.

Here they were received

(l) Thejifly-eiglitli. is said to IVilsnn's Hist, of the

have been also

in a similar situation.

Exped. p. 32.

EGYPT.
b}^

357
chap.
IX.

\hefifty -eighth and twenty-third; and followed

by a part of {he forty-second, who cut off their retreat; so that a most desperate contest ensued. Our men attacked them like wolves, with less
order than valour, displaying a degree of intrepidity nothing could resist.
all

After expending

their

ammunition, they had recourse to stones


their muksets, transfixing

and to the but-ends of

the Frenchmen with their bayonets against the


walls of the building, until they had covered the

sand with the blood and bodies of their enemies

where they remain heaped at this hour, a striking monument of the tremendous glory of that day.

Not fewer than seven hundred Frenchmen were


bayonetted or shot among those Ruins.

By some unaccountable
cipal part of the artillery

negligence, the prin-

and ammunition had

not been brought to the station then occupied

by our army
the

hence originated a saying, that

French had been defeated by an


Certain
it is,

enemy

destitute of artillery.
twenty-eighth

that both the

and forty-second regiments, towards


General

the termination of the contest, were reduced


to the necessity of throwing stones*.
(2) "

The French on

the right, during the

want of ammunition among

the British, having also exhausted theirs, pelted stones from the ditch at the
tu'enty-eighlh
;

who

returned these unusual, yet not altogether harmless,

instruments of violence, as a serjcant of the twenty-eighth was killed by

one breaking through his forehead."

Hist, of the Exped. p. 34.

VOL.

III.

358
CHAP.
IX
Sij.

EGYPT.
Kalph Ahercromhie, with a view, as
t\\Q
it is

related,

of rallying

forty-second,

and restoring order

among their
action

ranks, hastening towards the dread-

ful conflict in the

Ruin upon the

was
at

hottest,

where the was nearly surrounded by


right,

a party of French cavalry.


thrust

dragoon made a
arm,

him;

but Sir Ralph, receiving the


left

sabre between his breast and his

wrested the weapon from


this instant,

his antagonist.

At

an English

soldier,

seeing another

riding towards

the General to aim a blow at


ball, thrust his
it

him, and being without


into his musket,

ramrod

and with

shot the dragoon.

was seen without his horse, the animal having been shot under him when Sir Sidney Smith coming up, supplied him with It was on this that on which he was mounted.
Soon
after, Sir Ralph
;

occasion that Sir Ralph presented to Sir Sidney


the sabre he had wrested from the dragoon
'.

Soon
in the

after,

our venerable

hour of conquest,

Commander received, the fatal wound in his

thigh, of

which he afterwards expired.


declared itself for the English;
said to

Victory

and

it

now may be

date from the

moment

when

Ahercromhie received his mortal wound.

(l)

Sir Sidney has since placed this sabre

upon the Monument of

Sir

Ralph Abercromlie.

EGYPT.
Five
i^re72c/i

359
Me?ioiis horse

Generals were

killed.

was shot under him. It was reported, that he wept when he beheld the fate of the day, and
exerted himself in vain endeavours to rally his
retreating army.
side,

Among

the

wounded on our
and Sir

were Generals

Cakes, Moore, Hope,

Sidney Smith.

The

loss sustained

by the French
Eleven hun-

was not

less than five thousand.

dred of their
buried by our

dead,

as

before stated,

were

own

troops.

After the action,

both armies maintained the positions they had

occupied before the battled


After the twenty-first of March, the affairs in

Egypt remained
stand.

for

a considerable time at a
fleet,

menThe tioned, upon the seventeenth of April. death of Sir Ralph Abercronibie had then thrown f^S' by a gloom over every thing: and to its dissijoined the
as before
^J'/j^.^^!.'

We

pation,

neither the splendid

talents

nor

the

crombie.

acknowledged popularity of
in

hi*s

successor were

any degree adequate.

Although General,

(2)

The French army upon

this occasion consisted, according to their

own

statement, of nine thousand seven hundred

men, including

fifteen

hundred cavalry, with

forty-six pieces of cannon.

The

British force,

reduced by their losses in the actions of the eighth and thirteenth, &c.,
did not yield an effective strength of ten thousand men, including three

hundred cavalry.
French

As the battle was fought by the right of the EJiglish


resisted the concentrated attack of all the

army only, half that number


iorca,

See Hint, of the Expedit. p. AZ.

z 2

360
<^^P'
^

EGYPT.
now
'

Lord, Hutchinson received as


all

members

of

his council

those persons v/liose advice or


the late

assistance

was esteemed by
which
it

Com-

mander-in-chief, and implicitly adopted every

measure

to

had been
the

his intention to

adhere, the regret of


the loss of their

army and navy on beloved veteran was expressed


discontent.

only

m munnur and

A less enviable

situation could not


Avliich
Measures
Sk's'uc-'''

have been sought, than that

General Huichinson was called upon to


is

^h.

There

now, indeed, both


dwelling upon the

satisfaction
difficulties

^^^^ pleasure in

cesser of

Abcrcrumhie.

^f

jjjg

arduous station; because the result has

proved, that no one could either


better qualified for

have been
the

the undertaking, or could


for

have devised a scheme more wisely

ultimate success of the enterprise, than the very

system he pursued, and accomplished,


final

for the

delivery of Egijpt.

Profiting

by the moral
lion,"

of the old fable of " The four bulls and the

he directed the operations of the army successively to the different stations held

by

the

dispersed forces of the enemy: subduing these,

one

after another,

instead of allowing

them

to

combine

their strength,

he was enabled to

effect

what no other plan of carrying on the campaign


could possibly have brought to pass.
It is true,

that matters did not proceed quite so rapidly as before, but they advanced with

much

greater

EGYPT.
certainty.

361
in the fleet

mere spectator

would

^^^ ^'
^.

have heard continual complaint of the tardiness

-v- -^

and torpor seeming- to prevail. Even the Frenchy from their advanced posts conversing with our
oriicers,

were known

to indulge

their

sarcasm

at

the dilatory

nature of our operations,

by

'txpressing

pretended

impatience

for

better

quarters; and

by

occasionally remarking, " Mes-

sieurs, vous vous

hatez trhs lentement."


their

The

senti-

ments however of
cited,
if
it

own Generals might be


to

were necessary,

prove that a

more soldier-like undertaking was never brought to issue, nor one more characterized by sound
military science, than the plan for the expulsion

of the French,

^^

hich the successor oi Abercrombie

adopted.

To accomplish
effort

this desirable object,


all

his first

communication between the garrison oi Alexandria and the rest


was, to interrupt
of Egypt.

This was effected by destroying the

Canal of Alexandria ; and thereby not only preventing

supply of fresh

water,

but also

causing the waters of the Lake of Abouhir to


fall

into the antient

bed of the Lake Mareotis.