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,

A GOLDEN GUIDE

, ,J

GARDEN

OF

GODS

® COLORADO

GOLDEN NATURE GUIDES

BIRDS WEEDS FLOWERS INSECTS POND LIFE CACTI

INSECT PESTS TREES SPIDERS REPTILES AND AMPHIBIANS

STARS MAMMALS SEASHORES

CATS FISHES FOSSILS

TROPICAL FISH GAMEBIRDS ORCHIDS ZOO ANIMALS

SEASHELLS OF THE WORLD ROCKS AND MINERALS EXOTIC PLANTS

BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS NON-FLOWERING PLANTS

GOLDEN SCIENCE GUIDES

FLYING LANDFORMS GEOLOGY ZOOLOGY BOTANY

HEART FAMILIES OF BIRDS LIGHT AND COLOR WEATHER

ECOLOGY OCEANOGRAPHY EVOLUTION INDIAN ARTS

GOLDEN

FIELD GUIDES

BIRDS OF NORTH AMERICA SEASHELLS OF NORTH AMERICA

TREES OF NORTH AMERICA MINERALS OF THE WORLD

NATIONAL PARKS OF THE WORLD

GOLDEN

REGIONAL GUIDE

THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS

GOLDEN

HANDBOOKS

HENRY GASSER'S GUIDE TO PAINTING

THE SKY OBSERVER'S GUIDE CAMPING SCUBA DIVING

ANTIQUES KITES CASINO GAMES PHOTOGRAPHY

GOLDEN LEISURE

LIBRARY

WINES SAILING GUNS

HORSES BICYCLING FISHING

Golden, A Golden Guide®, and Golden Press®

are trademarks of Western Publishing Company, Inc.

THE

RocKY

MouNTAINS

by HERBERT S. ZIM, Ph.D., Sc.D.

in consultation with the

by HERBERT S. ZIM, Ph.D., Sc.D. in consultation with the UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO MUSEUM STAFF Boulder,

UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO MUSEUM STAFF

consultation with the UNIVERSITY OF COLORADO MUSEUM STAFF Boulder, Colorado ILLUSTRATIONS BY SU ZAN NOGUCHI SWAIN

Boulder, Colorado

ILLUSTRATIONS BY SU ZAN NOGUCHI SWAIN

Boulder, Colorado ILLUSTRATIONS BY SU ZAN NOGUCHI SWAIN Western Publishing Company, Inc. Racine, Wisconsin GOLDEN

Western Publishing Company, Inc. Racine, Wisconsin

GOLDEN PRESS NEW,YORK

This Golden Guide attempts to introduce and explore a widely known region-big, varied, and open

This Golden Guide attempts to introduce and explore a

widely known region-big, varied, and open enough to

tempt a multitude of visitors, many of whom stay to

swell the fast-growing population. The high, cool moun­

tains have a long and involved geologic history and a

wealth of rocks, ores, and minerals. The climate they help

create belies the summer heat and produces a richness

and a variety of plant and animal life which all may enj oy.

Without the expert knowledge of Hugo Rodeck and his staff the selection and checking of data would have been

difficult if not impossible. Richard Beidleman of Colorado

College also made his wide field experience available.

May I thank Gordon Alexander, William C. Bradley, John

B. Chronic, Don Eff, Gladys R. Gary, Russell M. Honea,

Edna Johnson, Albert Knorr, Urless N. Lanham, T. Paul

Maslin, Clarence J. McCoy, John Rohner, Orner Stewart,

Lowell E. Swenson, William A. Weber and Joe Ben Wheat

of the University of Colorado Museum; also Robert P. Allen, H. Raymond Gregg, Arnold B. Grobman, Donald F. Hoffmeister, and Alexander Sprunt IV. Thanks go, also, to

the artist, Su Zan Noguchi Swain, to Sonia Bleeker Zim for

her work on the Indian tribes, and to all those who provided photographs.

H.

S.

Z

©Copyright 1964 by Western Publishing Company, Inc. All rights reserved including rights of reproduction and use in any form or by any means, in� eluding the making of copies by any photo process, or by any electronic or mechanical device, printed or written or oral, or recording for sound or visual reproduction or for use in any knowledge retrieval system or device, un­ less permission in writing is obtained from the copyright proprietor. Produced in the U.S.A. by Western Publishing Company, Inc. Published by Golden Press, New York, N.Y. library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 64-11054.

HERE ARE THE ROCKIES 5 An introduction to the great mou ntain system that forms

HERE ARE THE ROCKIES

5

An introduction to the great mou ntain system that forms the backbone of North America. Climate; more information.

the backbone of North America. Climate; more information. ROCKY MOUNTAI NS TODAY : 15 The old

ROCKY MOUNTAI NS

TODAY

:

15

The old and new cities, their attractions. Tours and touring; calendar of events.

THE

GOOD

OLD

DAYS

23

I ndian tribes of the mountains and adjacent plains; the Spanish explorers and the French trap· pers. Lewis and Clark and the opening of the re · gion; mi ning, settlement and ra ilroads.

THE G EOLOG IC STORY

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

43

The ancient lands that were uplifted and altered to build the Rockies; the deposits of rocks and minerals and the unusual fossils.

ROCKY MOUNTAI N PLANTS

61

The rich variety of plants from the plains to the mountain tops.

Flowers

62 73 LIFE OF THE ROCKI ES
62
73
LIFE
OF
THE
ROCKI ES

Trees

ANIMAL

87

The rich and d iversified animal now becoming rare. Mammals . Birds Fishes Amphibians, Reptiles

Insects .

WHAT TO

life with species

87 97 108 1 10 1 13 DO
87
97
108
1 10
1 13
DO

SEE AND

116

N ational. Parks, Monuments and Forests; state

parks,

other

camping ,

outdoor activities.

museums,

sports

and

ational. Parks, Monuments and Forests; state parks, other camping , outdoor activities . museums, sports and

this book is an arbitrary area of some

400, 000 square miles, encompass­

ing the core of the Rockies. Its 2, 200- mile length includes parts of 5 states

The Rocky Mountains form a 5,000-mile jagged back­ bone for North America from Mexico to Alaska. More than a hund red north-south ranges make up this mountain complex which reaches its greatest width (300 miles) in Colorado and Utah. Colorado alone boasts of 54 peaks over 14,000 ft high. Mt. El bert in Colorado reaches up to 1 4,419 feet but / this falls far short of Alaska's Mt. McKinley,_ / /1 20,32ft

\

\

\

/"i

\

\

\ \ \

5

\ \

The Rockies are not all mountainous. Between and aro und the snow-ca pped ranges a nd conifer-covered slopes are natural parklands, extensive plateaus, brush· covered flats and semi-arid deserts. H uge ranches and fa rmlands hug the mountains where land has been cleared and water made available. At fi rst a gri m barrier to conti nental co nqu est, the Roc kies graduall y bega n to attract settl ers beca use of fu rs, minerals, forests and agricultural land found there. Later, people came beca use of the sti m u lating climate and superb scenery. The Rocky Mountain region, still frontier cou ntry at the tu rn of the centu ry, is now boom· ing in population, industrial development and cultural growth. Vacationers and new residents joi n the old-ti mers in enjoying the freedom and exh ilaration "out where the West begins."

and exh ilaration "out where the West begins." Upturned edges of sandstone layers have eroded into

Upturned edges of sandstone layers have eroded into unusual shapes; near Colorado Springs, Colorado

Simpkins-National Audubon Society

of sandstone layers have eroded into unusual shapes; near Colorado Springs, Colorado Simpkins-National Audubon Society
Bob and lro Spring Hereford cattle pasture at the foot of the Sawto . oth

Bob and lro Spring

Hereford

cattle

pasture

at

the

foot

of

the

Sawto . oth

Mountains

near

Stanley,

Idaho

Sawto . oth Mountains near Stanley, Idaho Mou nta in system is often d i vided

Mou nta in system is often d i vided i nto

a northern and a sout hern pa rt, which are sepa rated by broken pl atea us extending from the Wyoming Basin to the

Sna ke River Pl ain. The Northern Rockies begin north and

west of Ye l l owstone Nation al Pa rk and exte nd westwa rd i nto Canada and Alaska .

Southern Rocki es a re mainly long, uplifted ridges

wh ich, in risi ng, have u pturned layers of sedi ments on either side. In the north the Rockies are more massive and do not form ri dges with u pturned footh ills. In both areas the Rockies form the Continental Divide, where the slopes turn rain and melting snow i nto either the Atlantic or the Pacific drai nage. The Divide and most Rocky ranges are crossed by mountain passes (the l owest usable paths

on north·

The great Rocky

The

across the mountain s), th rough which roads and ra ilroads

fu n nel at elevations between 7, 500 and· 1 2, 000 ft. The

d i scovery

hastened the opening of the West. Colorado has 1 36 named passes, a nd the total n u mber for the Rockies may approach 500. In general, mountain soil is poor and rocky but in the natural basins or parks are rich grasslands. On the flanks

of the Rockies-especially to the east and in river va lleys

with i rrigation, prod uces fine crops.

Irrigation means that corn, alfa lfa, melons, sugar beets and truck crops can be ra i sed . Without i rrigati on, d ry fa rmin g may prod uce sorgh u m, w h eat, corn or enough grass for pasture. What used to be open range is now fenced and i m proved for cattle. Sheep ma ke the most of thi n ner mountai n pastures. The water of mountain strea ms and la kes is carried by i ngen ious tunnels and ditches to su pply power and i rriga­ tion needs. Other natural resou rces of the Rockies i ncl ude

great forests of pine, spruce and _fir with some hardwoods at lower levels. The geologic activity that fol lowed the up­

l ift of

the mountains honeycom bed the co untry rock with

veins rich in lead, zinc, silver, gold and copper. Petroleum

has been d i scovered in the Wyoming basir<rs and el se­ where. Coal is mined in the Rocky Mou ntain foothills.

resou rces a nd the

region's climate and geographic position h ave created i n­ dustries which bol ster the mountain eco nom y. Ra pid

tra nsportation by rail and air, plus the security of the in­

new atomic and

el ectro nic i n dustries as

we ll as to heavy and l i ght manu­

land area , make the region attractive to

of South Pass in 1812 and oth ers afterwa rd

-the soil is good and,

The exploitation

of these

natural

fa cturi ng. The region is far l ess dependent u pon eastern

man ufacturi ng than it was a generation ago.

a re attracted by what might be resources. But the combination

of climate, scenery and a rich ness of native pla nts and animals expresses the unique physical and biologic factors that unite to make this regi on so outsta ndi ng. Besides, the Rockies a re more centrally located than one might believe. Denver, the gateway to the Rockies, is 830 air miles fro m Los Angeles, 910 from Chi cago, 1 , 460 from Wa shi ngton, 1,200 from ' Atla nta, 1 ,020 from Seattle, and 1 ,080 from New Orleans.

The to u ri st and visitor considered lesser natu ral

Rich farms fill the river valleys near Missoula, Montana

B o b a n d Ira Spring

ROCKY

MOU NTAI N

CLI MATE

is affected by a ltitude,

lati­

tude

with

as

mile s) .

h ot,

peratu res

hel ps

be heavy through spring and

all

ea stern " rain shadow"

and

geogra phy.

Te m p erature

of

eli mb

one degree

and

of

fa lls

a b out

a bout

31h0F.

1 V2°

66

every thousand feet

one

moves

north

Daytime

but nights

may

d rops

latitude (about

sum mer are cool . d rop to

be warm or

va lleys, wi nter tem­

the low h u midity

and cold. Snow may

may persist in the mountains

The

as ten i n ches a

su mmer

unusual chinook winds blow

ra isi ng the temperatu re markedly

te mperatu res may

In mountain

-60°F.

but

both heat

get

the most

l i ttl e

mod ify the effect of

We ste rn

sum mer.

slopes

moisture.

may get as

nea rly so,

yea r. Skies are cloud less or

thu nderstorms.

down the ea st slopes,

in

with some

In winter the

just

a few

hours.

CLI MATIC DATA

FOR SO ME ROCKY

 

Alti-

lati-

Sl ope

City

 

tude

tude

E. or

W.

Banff, Alberta

4, 53B ft.

5 l'N

East

Ca lga ry.

Al berta

3.439 ft.

5l'N

East

Missoula,

Mont.

3,223 ft.

47'N

West

Helena. Mont.

 

4.047

ft.

47'N

East

B utte,

Mont.

5.7 16 ft.

46'N

West

W.

Ye l l owstone, Mont.

6.667 ft.

45'N

East

Rapid City, S.D.

3,229 ft.

44'N

Ea st

Sun Va l l ey, Idaho

6, 000

ft.

44'N

West

Boise,

I daho

 

2,B42 ft.

44'N

West

Casper, Wyo.

5,123 ft.

43'N

East

Pocatello, Idaho

4,461

ft.

43'N

West

Rock Springs, Wyo.

6,271 ft.

42'N

West

C heyenne, Wyo.

6.060

ft.

4l"N

East

Salt lake City, Utah

4,390 ft.

40'N

West

Vernal,

Utah

 

5,050 ft.

40"N

West

Denver,

Colo.

5, 2BO

ft.

40'N

East

leadvi lle,

Colo.

10, 1BB ft.

39'N

East

Colorado

Spr.,

Colo.

5, 900

ft.

39'N

East

Gunnison,

Colo.

7 , 6B l ft.

39'N

West

MOU NTAI N CITIES

Avg. Jan.

Avg. July

Annual

temp.

temp.

precip.

1 3"F

57"F

21 in.

IB' F

7 5"f

17 in.

22'F

6B'F

14 in.

20'F

66'F

13

in.

23'F

65'F

14 in.

1 3'F

5B' F

19 in.

23'F

72'F

!B in.

3

l 'F

B2'F

!B in.

27'F

75'F

11 in.

26'F

72'F

1 5 in.

26'F

72'F

13 in.

1 9'F

69'F

7 in.

27'F

67'F

16 in.

30'F

77'F

16 in.

1 7'F

70'F

9 in.

32"F

73'F

14 in.

IB'F

56'F

20 in.

30'F

6B' F

14

in.

B"F

6l'F

lO in.

Changes in life zones a re evident in the thin out at higher altitudes Seven

Changes in life zones a re evident in the thin out at higher altitudes

Seven

Sob and Ira Spring

Devi ls Range, Idaho. Conifers

LIFE ZO NES i nclude com mun ities of pla nts and animals

which, in turn, reflect the relationship between cli mate and a ltitude. Each thousand feet up the Rockies brings a tern· perature d rop eq ual to a 200- mile jou rney north . Since

te m perature and rainf all often d et ermine the kind

plants that will su rvive, typical communities develop in

areas that have a common local cli mate. Thus, as one climbs the Rockies, the changes he sees in plant and ani­ mal l ife reflect the same changes he would see if he had traveled north. The plant communities and the l ife zones they form are

of

not clear cut. The western side of the Rockies has more rainfall than the eastern slopes and this ma kes for richer plant l i fe. The Rockies, as covered in this book, extend

south, so the average temper-

over 2,000 m i les north and

atu res run some 20° less in the Ca nadian Rockies than in central Col orado. In Colorado, one must climb to 1 1 ,500 feet to reach the ti mberl ine, the poi nt a bove which no

trees grow. The ti mberl ine is at about 9,000 feet in Mon·

tana and at

Spring tends to come about one day later and fall one day earlier for every 1 00-ft. rise in elevati on. This makes summer at the Colorado timberl ine only a bout six weeks long-from July to mid-August. The tiny alpine flowers

bu rst i nto

are soon go ne. Birds at tim berl ine

nest later and migrate earlier than those on the Plai ns. Below is a chart of the general ized l ife zones for the

Rockies of Colorado. Farther north the wa rm Sonoran

at lower levels.

In much of the Rockies the Tra nsition and Ca nadian zones fuse and overlap. The treatment of flowers, shrubs, trees, mammals and birds (pp. 62-107) genera l ly follows a zonal pattern which will bot h help one to recognize life zones and make identification easier.

Zone disa ppears and the other zones are

bloom all at once a nd

growing in mats a nd cushions

only 7,000 feet in northern Al berta .

(pp.

62-63)

LIFE ZONES IN THE ROCKIES

Zone

Location

Elevation

Typical plants

Arctic·

above timber·

over

Alpine grasses. l ichens,

Alpine

line

1 1 .500 ft.

sedges, Dwa rf Wil low

Hudso,.ian

high mountains

1 1 , 500

Limber Pine, Engelmann

to timberline

10,000

Spruce, Bristlecone Pine

Canadian

lower mountains

10,000

Quaking Aspen, Lodge·

 

8,000

pole Pine, Douglas Fir, Ponderosa Pine

Transition

foothills

8,000

Pinon Pine,

 

6,000

oaks, Rocky Mt. Juniper

U pper

6, 000

Cottonwood , willows,

Sonoran

4, 500

Box Elder, Sagebrush

variety of accommodations are available for visitors A chalet in Glacier National Park Bob and

variety of accommodations are available for visitors

A

chalet in Glacier National Park

Bob and Ira Spring

in the

Rockies;

this

is

a

THE VISITOR comes to the Rockies with a pa rcel of clear expectations. He will not be disappoi nted. The summer

the cool nights are restful. The

scenery is unrivaled. Activities range from d ude ranch ing,

hunting, fishing and

ated relaxation. Enjoy the Rockies to the fullest, but come

of time to get accl i·

mated to altitudes over 7,000 ft. Avoid exerti on the

fi rst few days. Wear appropriate, comforta ble clothing and

St u rdy

shoes ma ke wal ki ng a pleasure. Don't be deceived by dis·

tances on a road map. Mountain driving requires care and should be done slowly. Stop often to enjoy the scenery and to relax. Check before ta king u ngraded mountain roads or local short cuts. In su mmer there may be mos·

q uitoes a long la kes and streams and biting flies in the

forests. Ticks occur in grasslands and brushland. Some ticks a re carriers of disease. R attl ers a re fo und but not commonly in the mountai ns. Leave them alone. In short, take the same care out-of-doors that you would at home.

have wa rm jac kets or sweaters fo r the cool even i ngs.

camping down to plain, unadu lter·

cli mate is sti mu lating and

prepa red . Remem ber, it takes a bit

may be had from

federa l and state sources.

N ational Forests: U.S. Forest Service, for E. Wyo. and Colo., Federal Center, Denver 2, Colo. For W. Wyo., Utah and S. Idaho, Forest Service Bldg. , Ogden, Utah. For N. Idaho, Mont., Federal Bldg., Missoula, Mont. National Parks and Monuments: National Pa rk Service, Washington 25, D.C., or the regional office for the Rockies, National Park Service, Omaha 2, Nebraska.

MORE

I N FORMATION

on

the Rockies

COLORADO

Adv. and Publicity Dept. , Capitol Bldg., Denver 2

WYOMING

Travel Comm., State Ofc. Bldg. , Cheyenne

2 WYOMING Travel Comm., State Ofc. Bldg. , Cheyenne I DAHO MONTANA Travel and Adv. Dept.

I DAHO

MONTANA Travel and Adv. Dept. , State Highway Comm., Helena

UTAH Road and To urist I nfo., State Ca pitol Bldg. , Salt Lake City

BRITISH COLUMBIA

ALBERTA Gov't Travel Bureau, Legi slative Bldg.,

State Dept. of Commerce & Dev., Capitol Bldg. , Boise

Gov't Travel Bureau, Parliament Bldg., Victoria, B.C.

Edmonton , Alberta

MAPS are essential. Use road maps

especially to check mi nor roa ds. Deta iled topogra phic maps a re fine for hi kers. Write U.S. Geological Survey, Wa shi ngton 25, D.C., for a free key map of each state you · desi re and for order forms.

from several sou rces,

BOOKS on this .region a re plentiful. Most deal with speci·

bi rds.

Below are some guides and general i ntroductions. Those

of the W. P. A. h ave a wea lth

fie subjects, such as hi story, mining, trees, or

Writers'

Proj ect tend to be dated but sti ll

of pertinent detail.

Colorado Ormes, Robert M., GUIDE TO COLORADO MOUNTAINS, Sage, 1955. ·writers' Project, COLORADO, Rev. Ed., 1951, Hastings.

L., GUID E TO THE WY OMING MOUNTAINS AND

1 960, Sage. Writers' Project, WYOM I NG, GUIDE TO ITS

HISTORY, H IGHWAYS AND PEOPLE, 1941, Oxford U niv. Press. Idaho Writers' Project, I DAHO, A GUIDE IN WORD AND PICTURE, 1950, Oxford Univ. Press. Montana Writers' Project, MONTANA, Rev. Ed., 1 9 55, H a stings. Howard, Jose ph K., MONTANA, HIGH, WIDE AND HAN DSOME, Rev. Ed ., 19 59, Ya le. Utah Writers' Project, UTAH, Rev. Ed., 1 9 54, Hastings.

British Columbia Goodchild, Fred H., B R ITISH COLU MBI A, I TS H I STORY, PEOPLE AND I NDUSTRY, 1951, Macmillan. Ormsby, M. A., BRITISH COLUM· BIA, 1958, Macmillan.

Wyoming Bonney, 0. H. and

WI LDERNESS AREAS,

Denver's Civic Center, viewed fro m symbol of the Rockies' g rowth the dome of

Denver's Civic Center, viewed fro m symbol of the Rockies' g rowth

the dome of the State Capitol

Josef Muench

Building, is a

the dome of the State Capitol Josef Muench Building, is a During the next decades centennials

During the next decades centennials of all sorts wi ll be celebrated up and down the Rockies. Colorado began in 1 959 with the centennial of its gold rush. All these cele­ brations will serve as remind ers of the prodigious growth of this region. Progress has not been steady. At the half­ century point many min ing booms had al rea dy bu rst. Towns were aba ndoned as the ores gave out. But the second half­ centu ry has seen a pronou nced change . N ew dams and tun­ nels have made cheap power and i rrigation water availa­ ble. The a i rplane has su pplemented roads and ra il roads to bring the Rockies within a few hours of both coasts. New heavy industry has stabilized the economy, and old sta nd bys like cattle and sheep raisi ng, lumber and farm­ i ng have become more prod uctive. New and bigger cities boast of schools, u niversities, pa rks, zoos and museums. As you pass through cities l i sted on the next th ree pages watch for worthwhile thi ngs to see and do.

State of Colorado The U.S. Air Force Academy, in the foothills just north of Colorado

State of Colorado

The U.S. Air Force Academy, in the foothills just north of Colorado Springs

C O LORADO

Denver: mile·high ca pital of, and la rg· est city in, Colo. Establi shed in 1860 by prospectors and miners in eastern shadow of Rockies. Growi ng commer· cial, agricultural and vacation center. Site of U.S. Mint. Air Force base and scool . U niv. of Denver, colleges, mu· seu ms, zoo, and many municipally owned mountain parks.

Toll

road and cog train to 14,11 0·ft. sum· mit of Pi kes Peak. Has broad streets. fine homes and parks; art center. Colo. College. Will Rogers Shrine, Garden of the Gods; Zoo; USAF Academy; home

of N.A. Air Defense Command.

man ufactu ring

center. i rrigated valley area. State fa ir and rodeo.

Grand Junction: Nearby mineral de· posits and i rrigated farmlands. Gate· way to Colo. Nat. Mon. Visit observa· tory in Gr<jnd Mesa Nat. Forest, which also has ski slopes and tows.

B oulder: Univ. of Colo. and Museum; N at. Bureau of Sta ndards lab. Winter sports, Chautauqua summer program;

Colorado

Springs:

Resort

city.

Pueblo:

Steel

plant,

annual rodeo. Fine mountain parks and Flagstaff scenic highway.

Greeley: Agricultural marketing center established by famous editor of N .Y. Tribune, Horace G reeley. Colorado State College, Meeker Memorial Mu·

seum. U SDA Experimental Station.

Fort Collins: Agricultural center and

State

resid enti al city,

Univ.; Pioneer Museum. Follow Route

14 west to Mountain Park and fish hatcheries.

home of Colo.

MON TANA

Helena: Capital of Montana. Past and

silver and

lead mining. Museum, a rt gallery,

cathedral.

Butte: Extensive u nderground copper

and zinc mines. Ag ricultural and stock

center.

museum.

Great Falls: Industrial and financial center -largest city in Montana. Art gall ery, annual state fair and rodeo. Giant Springs and Lewis and Clark National Forest are nearby.

fine

present

l inked

with gold,

School

of

Mines

has

Bozeman: In rich agricultural and live.­

stock

State College started here in 1893. N earby is Gallatin Nat. Forest and the Gallatin Gateway of Yel l owstone Nat. Park.

Livingston: Railroad center, timber in­

dustries. Scenic d rive from here goes

to Gardiner, entrance to Yellowstone· Nat. Pa rk.

Billings: Rail center, oil and sugar re· fi neries. Historical museum, scenic drives. Headquarters for nearby Custer Nat. Forest. Annual rodeo.

Nearby

cam pgro unds,

Abu ndant

wildlife in Pintlar Wi lderness Area.

Missoula: Training school for Forest Service Smokejumpers. Livestock auc­ tions, Montana State University. Fish, game and guides nearby.

Kalispell: Agric ultu ral mar ket center surrounded by recreation areas in· eluding H u ngry H orse Dam, Glacier Nat. Park, Flathead Lake and Flathead Nat. Forest.

strea ms,

and

land of Gallatin Va lley. Montana

Anaconda:

Copper

dinosaur

smelter.

lakes

fishing,

beds.

WYO MING

Casper: Center of sheep, cattle and

oil region. Replica of Ft. Caspar. Near­

by

Half Acre and I ndependence Rock.

Cheyenne: Home of world·fa mout Frontier Days in July; maintains Old West flavor throughout year. State's la rgest city and capital. Commercial, ranching and rail center surrounded by ranch country.

are Casper Mou ntain Park, Hell's

Laramie: Quiet western town between mountain ranges. Ranching and sports· men's center. Site of University of Wyoming; fossil museum.

I D AHO

Idaho Falls: Idaho's second l a rgest city, has waterfalls and picnic a reas. Nearby lands irrigated by Snake River prod uce grain and potatoes. Atomic Energy Commission's national reactor testing station just west of city on Lost River Plains.

Pocatello: On Oregon Trail in broad valley of Snake River at western edge of Rockies. Trading, railroad and col­ lege center. Near giant American Falls 'Reservoir (irr i gation and power) and historic site of Old Fort Hall.

(irr i gation and power) and historic site of Old Fort Hall. UTAH Salt Lake City:

UTAH

Salt Lake City: Ca pital of Utah. N ear desert, Great Salt La ke and moun­ tains. Wo rld headq uarters of Mormon Church; famous for Mormon Ta ber­ nacle, choir, and temple. Largest city

Denver and West Coa st. Agri­

cultural, industrial, mining, especially copper, and cultural center. Museums, art collections, colleges and university.

qgden: Important rail center and ship­ ping point for livestock. Utah's second la rgest city. Lies between mou ntains and Great Salt La ke. Site of U.S. For­ est Service experimental station. East through Ogden Canyon is Snow Basin winter sports area.

between

Provo: A cultural and steel center near rich agricultural land. Site of Mormon Brigham Young Univ. Nearby and to the north towers Mt. Timpa­ nogos ( 1 2,008 ft.).

Logan: Site of Utah State Univ. Lo­ cated on edge of historic and fertile Cache Va lley. Logan Ca nyon leads northeast to Bear Lake.

17

Utah State Univ. Lo­ cated on edge of historic and fertile Cache Va lley. Logan Ca

ALBER TA

Calgary: Zoological and natural his· tory park has models of dinosaurs. Site of fish hatchery, bird sanctuary, packing plants and flour mills. Gate· way to Ba nff and Jasper Nat. Pks.

Lethbridge: Sugar beet refineries, vegetable ca nning and freezing plants. Visit large earth-filled dam on St. Mary's Ri ver and Waterton-Giacier In· ternational Peace Park.

B R I TISH

COLU MBIA

Revelstoke: First settled as a railroad

center, now has farming, l u mber and

mining as chief industries. Mt. Revel·

stoke Nat. Park headq uarters are here. Located at j u nction of Col umbia and lllecillewaet rivers.

Nelson: On west branch of Kootenay Lake; has complete tourist facilities. Nearby a re gh ost tQwns, old settle· ments and picnicking and sports areas.

Kimberley: Site of the famous Sullivan Mine, the world's largest prod ucer of lead, zinc and silver. Tours.

Trail: In a narrow valley on the banks of the Columbia River. Public park, beaches, and outdoor theater. Tour the .fa mous Comi nco smelter (prod uc· ing si lver, lead and zi nc) and its chemi· cal fertilizer plant.

Spires of the Mormon Te mple are a landmark in Salt lake C i ty

Union Pacific Railroad

its chemi· cal fertilizer plant. Spires of the Mormon Te mple are a landmark in Salt
A family camps at 1 2,000 ft. Bob and Ira Spring near Continental Divide in

A family camps at 1 2,000 ft.

Bob and Ira Spring

near Continental Divide in Colorado

TOURING THE ROCKIES is more fun if you do some ad· vance planni ng. Send for road maps, guide books and travel folders. Major oil companies offer free tour aid. Remember this is mountainous cou ntry-try to keep each day' s travel well un der 300 miles. Make rese rva f ions for

hotels and resorts. Arrive early to get ca mpsites duri ng the busy summer season. Start your day early and stop early. This gives you more time for side tri ps, recreation, fish­ i ng or loca l sightseei ng. Best time for travel in the Rockies is late J u ne to early Septe mber. H i gher elevati ons may be snowboun d i nto

sta rti ng. Traffic, ca m psite costs,

entrance a nd admi ssion fees. Check in advance. Use your

ca r's ash tray a nd a litter bag. Keep

cam psites clean. Try

one of ttie following suggested to u rs or plan your own afte r checking the last section of this book (pp. 1 1 6- 1 56).

early July. ga me and

of this book (pp. 1 1 6- 1 56). early July. ga me and Check ti

Check ti res and brakes before conservation laws vary, as do

-� - � - ·

Chttkcurrent hlchw�ymaps fOr new Interstate •nd Defense Hllhw�ys

TWO TOURS th rough the Rockies, each plan ned for one week, will give you a cha nce to see the northern or southern Roc kies-or both. Both trips sta rt from Yel low· sto ne Pa rk but you can pick them up at any pl ace en route. The fi rst tou r, to the north, cove rs 1 ,700 miles in a wee k, but try to add a few extra days at Yel l owstone at the

beginning ' or the end, as your schedule

20

permits

1st day: From Gardiner via U.S. 89 and 10 to Th ree Forks, then north on Route 287 to Helena (capital and museums) to spend the night.

2nd day: Conti nue north on Route 287 to Brown ing; then circle south and west on U .S. 2 to West Glacier.

3rd day: Drive back east through Glacier N.P. to St. Ma ry; swing north on U.S. 89 and Canada 2 to Calgary, or use Routes 6 and 3 from Babb to visit Waterton Park en route.

4th day: Move from the plains

See Lake Lou ise and head west via lA or lB to Route 95. Ta ke the 1 60-mile trip

back i nto the mountains via Route 1 to Ba nff.

north to the Col u mbia Ice Field if you have an extra day. Spend the night at Radium Hot Springs on Rout� 95.

5th day: Head south on Route 95 to Cra n brook; then on 93 and cross the border. On to White Fish or Kalispell for the night.

6th day: Continue on 93 to Missoula and then on U.S. 10 to Anaconda. Visit the copper smelters.

7th day: Return on U . S. lOS and 10 to Bozeman and south on U.S. 191 to West Yel lowstone. Here the park and road system connects to Gardiner and to roads east and south.

South tri p is a bit shorter but has a greater east-west swing. Denver can be visited or by- passed depend i ng on your feeling about big cities. The museums and parks are excellent.

1st day: From Yellowstone N.P. take U.S. 89 through Grand Teton N.P.; then via Montpelier and Logan Canyon to Ogden, Utah.

2nd day: Drive south through Salt Lake City on U.S. 91. Ta ke cutoff to Tim pano·

gos Cave N.

3rd day: Conti nue east on U.S. 40, visiti ng Di nosa ur N.M. Stay on 40, turning short of Granby onto U .S. 34 and Grand Lake.

4th day: Start early through Rocky Mountain N.P. over Tra il R idge Road to Estes Park. Ta ke Routes 66 and 7 to Boulder (U. of Colo.); toll turnpike to Den­ ver (capital, parks and museums) or take 1 1 9 as a cutoff. Push west on U .S. 6 to Dowds and south on U.S. 24 to Leadvi lle.

Mon. Conti nue on to H e ber, and swing east on U.S. 40 to Ve rna l.

nue on to H e ber, and swing east on U.S. 40 to Ve rna l.

5th day: Continue south and east on U.S. 24 via Buena Vi sta and Flori ssant to Colorado Springs. A side road takes you up Pi kes Peak. See the Garden of the Gods and Air Force Academy, then on to Denver via the freeway.

6th day: Via U.S. 87 or 287 to Fort Collin s, then on U.S. 287 to Lara mie and Rawlins.

7th day: Continue on U.S. 287 to Lander, then turn east and north via 789 and ' 20 to Cody and on to east entrance of Yel lowstone Nat. Park.

CALENDAR

OF

EVENTS

(Verify locally and check tor specific dates)

January

Nat. Western Livestock Show, Horse Show and Rodeo, Denver.

April

May

Red Rock Park, Denver-and elsewhere-Easte r Sunday sun rise ser-

vices in natural amphitheaters.

Cherry Blossom Festival, Canon City, Colo.; Sports Car Races, Memorial

Day, La Junta, Colo.; Vigilante Parade and Mont. Institute of Arts Festival,

Festiva l,

Fayette, Idaho (first week); Fishing Derby (May-Nov.), Sandpoint, Idaho; Log Drive Festival, Priest River, Idaho.

Rodeos, Billings and Miles City, Montana; I ndian Sun Dances at Man·

lana reservations: State Mi neral and Gem Show, Rock Sp rings, Wyo.; Pack Burro Race across Mosquito Pass, Leadville, Colo.; Central City Festival, Cen· tral City, Colo. (through Aug.); Horse Show and Rodeo, continues fi rst week of July, Greeley, Colo.

Helena,

Mont. ;

Gold Sp i ke

Festival,

Ogden,

Ut ah; Apple

Blossom

June

July Sum mer season of cultural events a nd entertain m ent at

Aspen, Cen­

tral City, Denver, etc. Make local inqui ry. Widespread July

4th rodeos,

celebrations, festivities and speeches. Sum mer Chautauqua, Boulder,

Colo. (through Aug.); Pow Wow Days, Rodeo (last week), Boulder; Rodeo and Pioneer cele bration (2nd week), Canon City, Colo .; Cattlemen's Days

Rodeo (3 rd week), Gu n n ison,

Colo.;

Pioneer Day Rodeo

(l ate

July), Idaho

Falls; Snake River Sta mpede, Na mpa, Ida .; Frontier Days

celebration,

Cheye nne, Wyo.; Calga ry Exhibition and Sta mpede (week followi ng July 4);

U. of

of '47 celebrations, Salt LaKe

City; I ndia n sun da nces and ceremonies, B rowning and Fort Belk nap,

Monta na; Rodeos, Livingston, Red Lodge, Mont.; Wolf Point Stampede (mid-July), Wolf Point, Mont.

August Ya cht Cl ub Regatta , Grand Lake, Colo.; Kids' Rodeo, La Junta , Colo .; State Fair a nd Rodeo (late Aug. or early Sept.), Pueblo, Colo.; Pi kes Peak or Bust Rodeo, Colo. Springs; All American I ndian Days celebration (1st week), Sheridan, Wyo.; Gift of the Waters I ndian Pageant (Hot Spri ngs State Park),

and Night Rodeo (mid ·Aug), Ca sper,

Wyo .: M idla nd Empire Fair and Rodeo (mid·Aug.), Billings, Mont.; Northern Mont. State Fa ir and Rodeo (1st week), Great Falls, Mont. ; Nat. Fresh Water Trout Derby, Festival of Nations, Livi ngston, Mont.; War Bonnet Rou ndup

Pioneer Days,

rodeos, pa rades, pageants (late July), Ogden,

Utah;

Utah Music Festival (ea rly July) a nd Days

Ther mopolis, Wyo.; Central Wyo. Fa ir

(mid·Aug.), Idaho Falls, Ida.

September Aspencade (gui ded tour of the high country-m id·Sept.), Stea m· boat Springs, Colo.; Utah State Fair, Salt Lake City, Utah; Peach Day (rodeo, wrestli ng, boxing), Brigha m, Utah; N. W. Monta na Fa ir and Rodeo, Kali spell, Mont.; State Fa ir and Rodeo, Do uglas, Wyo.; Rodeo (Labor Day weekend), Thermopolis, Wyo .; Nati onal Steer Roping Finals, Lara mie, Wyo.; Rodeo and Roundup (Labor Day weekend), Lewiston, Idaho.

November

mie, Wyo.; Rodeo and Roundup (Labor Day weekend), Lewiston, Idaho. November Li vestock Show (mid·Nov.), Ogden,

Li vestock Show (mid·Nov.), Ogden, Utah.

The Rockies were the homelands of nu merous nomadic tri bes, mainly h u nters

The Rockies were the homelands of nu merous nomadic

tri bes, mainly h u nters of buffa lo, deer and elk. They in·

el uded the Shoshon i, Ute and Pi ute, who also gathered ed ible roots and seeds. From a bout 1600 eastern tri bes, pushed out of thei r lands by other I n dians and, later,

by wh ite settlers, trekked to the High Plains and Rockies seeking new homes. Those who came prospered , for after

1700 most of the I ndians acq uired horses and bega n to

enjoy a more abundant life. They could move faster, hunt·

ing buffalo, and covered longer di sta nces when trading

with neighboring tribes. Thei r basket-like shelters gave

way to skin covered tipis which could be

down.and moved . Tribes warred over hunting grounds and raided each other's camps for sheer glory and reckless adventure. Early contacts with Europeans were beneficial to the tribes, giving them trade goods and other new materi als. This soon gave way to bl oody conflicts and wars.

There are no written records of the original lands and

q uickly taken

This soon gave way to bl oody conflicts and wars. There are no written records of

Bands of hunters remained within their tribal boundaries, except dur­ ing raids and warfare. Bands that were isolated from the rest of the tribe might eventually use only their band name. This has led to confu­ sion about tribal names and tribal boundaries.

o

Old forts

0

Early settlements

Miles

Monuments and battlefields

Missions

Indian reservations

Trails

Original triberlands

\

\

J

-

\

�l���-

11

�� ,/ ;'/
��
,/
;'/

/

/

/ /)

·

o v
o
v

- HISTO R ICAL

MAP

OF TH E

\

\

,

,

ROCK I ES

early migrati ons of th ese people before the coming of Europea ns. By studyi ng tri bal kinsh ip, rel i gions, ian· guages, myths and legends, anthropologists have pieced a good pa rt of the story together. We thus know that the Crow, Blackfoot, Shoshoni, Ute and Piute occupied their lands for a m uch longer time than the rel ative new-

\ comers, the Cheyenne, Arapaho, Sioux

\ a nd Assiniboin. The Kutenai , newcomers also, were originally buffalo h unters who were pushed northwa rd .

THE SHOSHONI, UTE, PI UTE AND BA NNOCK lived in ad­

joining territories and spoke Uta-Aztecan languages that

had a common . origi n. The total po pu lation of th ese tri bes

was esti mated at 1 5,000, but the I ndians lived in bands of a few families each. These bands wandered over the bar­

a chief who

was an a ble hunter or an older man. While the men looked for ga me, the women and ch ildren gathered berries, nuts,

and seeds, which they ground into meal. This was cooked

in the ha ndsome watertight baskets the women skillfully

wove.

it. These tri bes l ived in wickiups- homes built of poles and reeds, like huge woven baskets. For warmth they plastered the wicki u ps with mud mixed with grass. The women tanned deer and antelope skins for clothes and

wove plant fi bers to make ski rts . They also wove stri ps of rabbit fur i nto warm robes and blankets. This simple, isolated life changed after 1 700. The Sho­

shoni were a mong the

their sheltered valleys. They traded horses to the eager Plains hunters for buffalo robes, tipi covers, and tanned buckski ns. Shoshoni traders l i ngered on the Plains to hunt

a nd bega n

Sioux over buffalo territory. In 1 805, a Shoshoni woman, Sacajawea , and her h us­ band gui ded the Lewis and Clark Expedition across the Rockies, and introd uced the explorers to her people. Thus peaceful relations with the whites began. After 1869, the

to feud with the Blackfoot, the Cheyen ne and

fi rst to learn to breed horses in

A stew was boi led by d ropping heated stones i nto

ren lands of the basi ns a nd platea us, led by

Shoshoni and Ban nock entered reservations at Ft. Hall, Lemhi and Wind Ri ver. Their chief, Wa shakie, said at the

time that he was yielding to the "superior tools and terri­

ble wea pons of the whites ."

Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology Early photograph of Shoshone camp in that of Chief

Smithsonian Institution,

Bureau of American Ethnology

Early photograph of Shoshone camp in that of Chief Wa shakie

Wy oming; the tent

in

the foreground is

The Ute ra ided Spanish and Pueblo Ind ian settlements

to the

to the Colorado Plains to hunt buffa lo. After they got

However,

they later retired peacefully to reservations. A "war" fla red up in 1879 beca use the Ute, already living on short government rations, were forced i nto fa rming-an occu· pation they considered unworthy of h u nters and warri ors. The uprising was q uickly su ppressed . I ronically, recent

horses, the warl i ke Ute i ncreased their ra ids.

south and occasionally crossed the mou ntains

d i scove ry of oil and u ranium on their reservations has put the modern Ute among the wealthi est Ind ians. The Pi ute, which may mean "true Ute," lived mainly as plant and seed gatherers, while the Bannock-a detached

branch of

the Northern Piute-beca me buffa lo h u nters. In

1860 the Pi ute clashed with gold pros pecto rs. Later they

were pl aced on reservations.

27

me buffa lo h u nters. In 1860 the Pi ute clashed with gold pros pecto

THE B LACKFOOT, one of the l a rgest (estimated popula­

tion 10,000) and most aggressive grou ps of northern buf­

falo h u nters, roa med over a vast territory in Monta na and

woodlands, the Black­

foot were so na med beca use of thei r moccasins,

by grass fires sta rted to sta m pede the buffa lo herds. The Blackfoot were allies of the Blood I ndians, Piega ns, Atsina and Sarsi . Together they fought the Cree, Assi ni­ boi n, Shoshoni, Crow and Sioux. By 1 750 the Blackfoot

had horses; by 1 770, guns. Then they and thei r allies rai ded south for more horses and, i nto the Rockies, for caches of furs, stored by the French a nd I ndian trappers.

rel igious ceremon ies

hon oring the Great Manitou and Sun Dances to assu re good b uffa lo hunting. They traded sacred bu nd les and songs with thei r all ies to acquire greater hunti ng powers.

They fea sted and gam bled and, at ca m pfi res, told ta les of personal bravery and stories from thei r rich past.

epidemics of 1836, 1 845, and 1 857 to the Blac kfoot. Thei r pop ulation was

red uced by two thirds. Epi demics hit the neigh boring tribes and decimated them too. Soon after, the buffalo began to disappea r and by 1 880, these frightened , de­ moralized people faced starvati on. Both the U n ited States and Ca nadian governments provided rations and cl othi ng, and placed the Blackfoot on three small reservations in

the United States and two in Alberta , Ca nada.

The smallpox brought d i saster

Rich and powerful, the Blackfoot held

blackened

Ca nada. Origina lly from the ea stern

THE FLAT HEAD, numberi ng a bout 3 , 000, were rel ated to the I n dians of the Northwest Coast, although the Bitter­ root Va l ley of Montana wa s thei r origi nal home . They never practiced fl atten ing of i nfants' heads, but were so na med in error by the French. The Flathead fought the

louis Frohman-The New York Public library A summer camp of the Blackfoot g athered far

louis Frohman-The New York Public library

A summer camp of the Blackfoot g athered far buffalo hunting

Blackfoot for buffa lo lands, but lost, and in the end were pressed northwa rd . In 1 855 they were placed on reserves

Montana, and in the Bitte rroot Va lley.

Many had already been converted to Catholicism by Father de S met. In 1 872 part of the Bitterroot Val ley Re­ serve was pu rcha sed from the Flathead and opened to white settlers.

nea r Fl athead La ke,

THE KUTENAI, numbering only 1 , 000, were b uffa lo hu nt­ ers in the early days. They were pu shed northward from

by the Si ksi ka and Cree, who were allies of the

Blackfoot. The hu nting Kuten ai contin ued to live in tipis. Those who beca me fi shermen a long Idaho and Ca nadian l a kes built lodges of rushes and poles. They s pea red and trapped fish from bark canoes, made in an a ncient style. The Kutenai worshi ped the sun and bel ieved thei r dead went there to live. Otherwise, thei r bel iefs were like those of the Plains I ndian h u nters. In 1855 and 1 867, the

Kuten ai were put on reservations in Mo nta na and Idaho.

the Plains

PLAINS INDIAN TRIBES, who lived along the east front of the Rockies, h u nted in the mountain va lleys. They were mainly buffa lo hu nters, though some of them fa rmed .

from the rich prai ries were push ed i nto the

High Plains, each spread over a territory wh ich they later

clai med and defended as their

newcomers to the Rockies, the buffa lo beca me the main­ stay of l ife, su pplying food , clothi ng, and shelter. The horse made hunting and moving easier, and for over a centu ry the Plains tri bes prospered. In the 1 870's and 1 880's as the buffa lo d i sappeared, the tri bes were defeated and forced to reservations. The Plains tri bes living closest to the Rockies were:

homela nd. For all these

As tri bes

THE CROW, who call themselves Ab·

sa rake (meaning Sparrowhawk. Crow

or Bird People). were d i vided into western or Mountain Crow and east· er.n or River Crow. Their tota l popula·

lion was about 4,000. Crow men were excepti onal horsemen and skilled craftsmen.

THE ASSI NI BOIN, who once numbered some 10,000, separated from their relatives, the Sioux, and later fought with them. In Ch ippewa la nguage, As­ siniboin means "one who cooks with stones. " The Assi niboin are now at Ft. Belknap and Ft. Peck Res. in Montana.

niboin are now at Ft. Belknap and Ft. Peck Res. in Montana. THE ATSI NA, who

THE ATSI NA, who numbered about

SI OUX is a contraction of Nadoues­

3, 000, a re now at Ft. Belknap Res. in Montana. They are also called Gras

sioux. It means " enemies" in Chip· pewa , who fought the Sioux when they

Ve nires (big bel l i es), although no

lived

farther

east.

The Sioux,

some

st outer than their neigh bors. Their

25,000

strong,

invaded

and

spread

name in Indian sign la nguage was

west to

the

Rockies.

They

became

shown by circling the hands in front of the stomach, sign ifying "big bel ly."

known as Dakota, Na kata and La kota , meaning "allies."

THE ARAPAHO also numbered about 3,000. They had been corn-growers in Min nesota before coming to the H igh Plains. Although the Arapaho al· ways fought the Shoshoni, they now live on the same reservation at Wind River, Wyomi ng.

THE CHEYEN NE were originally Minne­ sota farmers, but qu ickly adopted the ways of the Plains Indians. Number­ ing some 3,000, they seem to have covered more territory while hunting, warring and raiding than much larger tribes.

THE SUN DANCE was an ancient Plains ceremony to honor the buffalo and to insure

THE SUN DANCE was an ancient Plains ceremony to honor the buffalo and to insure good health and good hunting. The ceremony lasted for eight days. Most was taken. up in secret rites, in fasting, prayers and other

The MorgreHa S.

Dietrick Collection

prepa rations. On the last day the pub­

lic was invited to watch the partici­

pants pierce pain to prove

their cou rage and enlist

end ure

their flesh

and

the pity of the l ife-giving sun, the god of "good medicine. "

CLOTHING, ORNAMENTS AND DECORATIONS blossomed

out when trade goods, such as knives, cloth, beads, and guns, became available in the 1860's to the 1880's. Robes, parfleches, moccasins arid buckskin shirts were decorated with dyed porcupine quills and glass beads. Men painted designs on tipis and shields. They carved beautiful pipe bowls of red catlinite and made long pipe stems of ash. Each tribe developed typical designs, and individual craftsmen became famous. See examples on pp. 32-33 and in local museums (pp. 148-150).

The fi rst white men

to see the southern Rockies were Francisco Coronado and

his men, who in 1 540 ma rched north from Mexico in

sea rch of gol d. None of these Spa niards entered the region covered by this book except for two pa rties that came i nto southern and western Colorado and into Utah in 1775-6 and these sca rcely entered the Roc kies.

17th centu ry a flourishing fur trade had

developed throu gho ut ea stern No rth America to meet the

E u ropean market for beaver, marten, muskrat, bea r and

buffa lo. Beaver was in

hats, and the su pply of these animals was ra pidly ex· ha usted . By the ea rly 1700's tra ppers and traders, known

as

along the rivers and throu gh' the G reat La kes. These French, Engl ish and Scotch adventu rers traveled si ngly or in small parties . They lived with the Ind ians and some ma rried Ind ian women . The knives and beads, guns and traps they brought were traded for furs, and Indians were

westward

special demand for men 's high felt

EARLY EXPLORERS AND TRADERS

During the

voyageurs

a n d

coureurs

de

bois,

pu shed

encou raged to trap and hunt.

This

1 728 map makes the first mention o f t h e Rockies (far left)

Public Archives of Canada-from

Trappers and Mountain Men.

American

Heritage Junior Library.

o f t h e Rockies (far left) Public Archives of Canada-from Trappers and Mountain Men.
C. W. Jefferys-Coll. Paul J. W. Glasgow, courtesy Imperial Oil, ltd.-from Trappers and Mountain Men.

C. W. Jefferys-Coll. Paul J. W. Glasgow, courtesy Imperial Oil, ltd.-from Trappers and Mountain Men. American Heritage Junior library

verendrye's

two

sons

traveling

westward

towards

the

Rockies

One such voyageur from Q uebec was Pierre Ve rend rye

who, with his four sons, had a trad i ng post north of Lake Superior. Here as he traded , Verend rye picked up stories of westwa rd-flowing rivers and of " mou ntains that shi ne

made a crude cha rt of the

night and day. " Later an I ndian

route to the west and put the Rocky Mou ntains on a map

for the fi rst tim e.

Ve re nd rye push ed westwa rd , buildin g a

series of trading posts. He moved on to the M a ndan in 1 738 and prob ably got as far west as the Black Hills

in 1742-43 . Du ring the next 50 yea rs it is estim ated that

some 5,000 voyageurs worked west of the

In 1763 a French trader, Pierre Laclede, and his 1 4-year­

old stepson wor ked their way up the Mississippi to below the mouth of the Missou ri. Here Lac lede picked the site for

a trad ing post, which he na med St. Lou is.

Mississi ppi .

Trappers and Mountain Men. American Heritage Junior library from Travels in the Interior of North

Trappers and Mountain Men. American Heritage Junior library from Travels in the Interior of North America. Maximilian, Prinz zu Wied-Neuwid Yale University library

A conte mporary artist pictures a

mouth of Montana' s Bighorn

Gros Ventre Indian attack on a keelboat at the

1 8 33

River in

THE U NITED STATES took over most of the

pa rt of the vast 8 27, 000 sq uare miles acq uired as the Lou isiana Purch ase from France in 1 803 . With $2, 500 voted by Congress, and with President Jefferson's bless­ ing, Meriwether Lewis and Wi lliam Clark sta rted to explore the 15 million dollar purchase. They wi ntered in Mandan I ndian villages in North Da kota and, with the help of a Shoshoni woman (p. 26), crossed the Rockies in 1805, re­ turning the next yea r. About the sa me ti me, Zeb u l on Pi ke headed west to d i scover the mountain that bea rs his name.

Roc kies as

The opti mistic reports of Lewis and Clark sped Ameri­ can trappers on thei r trail. With in a year they were work­ ing the u pper Missouri and Platte rivers. One, John Colter,

d i scovered the Ye llo wstone geyse rs. Soon compet ing com­

pan ies we re pushing thei r way i nto the Rockies. St. Lou is

became the capital of the American fur trade by 1820. From here keel boats we nt up the Missouri and its branches ca rrying trade goods and bri nging back furs. Mea nwhile, in Canada the Hudson's Bay Company merged with the North West Company in 1 821 and com­

.36

bi ned their resou rces to push their fur trade i nto the Roc kies where Flathead and Kutenai suppl ied the pelts. A merican compan ies were havi ng thei r trou bles with the Blackfoot and the Ari kara. They hi red agents, a mong

others Mike Fink, Jeded iah Sm ith and J im Bridger, who re­ cruited trappers an<;! worked with them through the moun­

ta ins from Montana

moun­

tain men met nea r the G ree n River in southe rn Wyoming

and to make merry. The

last

to replen i sh sup pl ies, to tra de

to Co lorado. Each year these

great ren dezvo us wa s held in 1 837. Changing styles

and overtra pping had brought the fur trade to a halt.

Another A merican, John Fremont, was a su rveyor on a

1 8 38-41. He was joi ned by

Kit Carson in exploring the Rockies. They moved west, and after a period in Cal ifornia, Fremont returned to su rvey

Mis souri River exped ition in

Roc ky Mountain passes for a tra nsconti nenta l ra ilroad .

I nformation from thi s su rvey prepa red the way for the

c ross-cou ntry rail link completed some ten yea rs later.

last great

Mountains in

trade

1 8 37

rendezvous

along the

Green

River

in

Wyomin g's

Wind

River

Collection Everett D. Graff-from Trappers

and Mountain Men. American Heritage Junior library

in Wyomin g's Wind River Collection Everett D. Graff-from Trappers and Mountain Men. American Heritage Junior
I. N. Phelps Stokes Collection, Prints Division, New York Public Library Salt lake City as

I. N. Phelps Stokes Collection, Prints Division, New York Public Library

Salt

lake City as it appeared

in

1 8 67

as the

Rock ies were opened up by traders and settlers. At the ti me of the Lou i siana Pu rcha se, the territory the U . S. acq uired had an estim ated po pul ation of 50, 000 to 80,000, mainly French. It also i ncl uded a few descend· ants of the Spanish settlers who had co me in 1763. Early settlements were trading centers, such as New Orleans and St. Louis. Gold lured Ameri cans westwa rd in 1849. By 1880 over 200,000 had c rossed the Mississippi River. Of these, 1 00, 000 entered Colorado in the 1 859 gold rush. Settle· ments rose with each new mining field, but many became ghost towns as the ore gave out. M i ning in the Rockies was not as easy as it wa s in Cal ifornia. Not u ntil 1890, when G uggenheim instal led heavy machi nery, did large·scale operations begi n. Soon Colorado became the leader in the prod uction of gold a nd silver (Cripple Creek) and also pro· duced copper, lead and zinc, ti n, molybden um and ura· nium. Colorado has already prod u ced a tota l of over six billion dol lars in metals and other minerals. Utah wa s settled in 1 847 by Mormons fleei ng from per· secution. Miners, headed for the Cal iforn ia g o ld fields,

MINING

AND

SETTLEM ENT

went ha nd

in hand

trekked thro u gh Salt La ke Ci ty. Many stayed on to farm and ra ise catt le. Some also found gold in Utah; later, cop·

coal were d i scovered . U tah's

uranium deposits represent 35% of the

In Montana, gol d was fo und in the ea rly 1 860' s in the

Miso

a n d in Last Cha nce Gulch. Helena beca me the capital. Today Monta na sti ll mines copper, silver, lead, zinc, alu·

minum, tu ngsten, u rani um, pet role um

River, in Alder Gulch , Vi rginia City, around Bannock,

per, silver, petroleum

and

nation 's tota l.

and coal.

Idaho gold wa s found nea r Orofine in 1 860; silver, in the Coeur d ' Alene a rea in 1 884. The gol d rush bro ught set· tiers. Idaho beca me a te rritory in 1 863 and a state in 1 890. Idaho sti ll mines copper, antimony, magnetite, zi nc a nd phos phates. Wyomi ng, too, ha s great m i nera l reso u rces -coal, petrole um, bentonite, i ron, copper, u ranium, and phos· phate. The fi rst two a re sti ll of i m porta nce. But the fi rst settlers in Wyo min g came from farmlands and they turned

mainly to ra ising sheep and cattle and to dairying.

Helena, in the newly organized Montana Territory, from an

dairying. Helena, in the newly organized Montana Territory, from an 1 865 print Prints Divfsion, New

1 865 print

Prints Divfsion, New York Public library

dairying. Helena, in the newly organized Montana Territory, from an 1 865 print Prints Divfsion, New
Southern Pacific Railroad-from Railroads in the Days of Steam. American Heritage Jun ior library The

Southern Pacific Railroad-from Railroads in the Days of Steam. American Heritage Jun ior library

The

continental railroad

joining

of the rails

in

1 8 69 at Promontory,

Utah,

completed

the

first trans­

A networ.k of ra i l roads

to u nite the conti nent and encou rage western settlement wa s proposed to Congress before the Civil Wa r by Asa Whitney, a New Yo rk mercha nt. However, the costs were high and problems unprecedented , In 1 864, the No rth­ ern Pacific Company was authorized by Congress to con­

by a

no rthern ro ute. The Union

Pacific Railroad Co m pa ny was

RAILROADS AN D S ETT L EM ENT

struct a rai lway from Lake Superior to Puget Sound,

authorized to build a railroad from Omaha , Nebraska,

through Wyomi ng, Utah and Nevada to Cal ifornia, joi ning

the Centra l Pacific

Congress donated to each project a 400-foot right-of­

way, all the

stone, timber and ea rth needed , plus land

grants of 1 2 , 800 acres for every mile of track constructed.

heading east from Sa n Fra ncisco.

In add ition the companies were given a 30-year loan , based on esti m ated costs per mile. Chi nese and I rish l a borers were i m po rted . Ma- chi nery was brought a round Cape Horn and overland. Bridges were built and tun­ nels bored . Herds of buffalo were slaughtered to feed the

work crews .

In triumph over great hard­ shi ps, the U n ion Pacific met the Central Pacific in 1869,

53 mi les out of Ogden , Utah.

By this ti me, the Chicago and No rthwestern had reached

0 m aha a n d the Ka n sa s Pa-

cific had penetrated as fa

r

west as Denver, to join the

U n ion Pacific at Cheyenne at

a later da te . Now western fa rmers , cattlemen and min­

ers had o utlets for their prod ucts - both eastwa rd and westwa rd .

The ra ilroads, struck by the 1 873 depression , sent

agents to the Ea st and to Eu rope to attract settlers and to

settlers chea p

sell their huge land hol d i ngs . They offered

tra nsportat ion and financial hel p. They succeeded in get­ ting many people to buy land. The regi on 's population grew f rom u nder 200, 000 in 1 870 to almost a million and a half in 1 8 90. This, and the fencing of the open range, settled the We st.

,
,

The Kansas State Historical Society, Topeka- rrom Roi/,oods in the Days of Steam. Amedcon Heritage Junior library

By

the

1 870 's

railroads

were

adver-

tising

for both settlers and visitors

Steam. Amedcon Heritage Junior library By the 1 870 's railroads were adver- tising for both

HIS TORICAL

T I M E TABLE

1 Coronado explores the southern Rockies in New Mexico

1 The Ve rend ryes visit the Wyo ming Rockies

1 Escalante penetrates north of Utah Rockies

1 Alexa nder Mac Kenzie winters in the Ca nadian Rockies

540- 1

743

776

793

803

1 Lou i siana Purchase includes eastern slope of Rockies

805-06

1 Lewis and Clark cross and recross northern Rockies

806-07

1 Pike explores the southern Colorado Rockies

1 John Colter discovers the Ye llowstone basin American and Missouri fur companies established Astoria-Hunt Expedition crosses central Rockies

181 1

1808-09

807

820

1 Long Exped ition to Colorado; fi rst ascent of Pikes Peak

1 Great Salt Lake discovered by Jim Bridger and Peter Ogden

1 First annual fur rendezvous, on Wyoming's Green River

1 Rocky Mountain Fur Company organized

1 Fort Hall becomes first major U.S. fort in Idaho Rockies

1 Ca lifornia Trail

1 Fremont's first exped ition. Establishment of Oregon Trail

1 Northwestern Rockies acquired from Great Britain by U.S.

824 .

825

830

834

841

acquired from Great Britain by U.S. 824 . 825 830 834 841 842 846 through South

842

846

through South Pass opened

1 Mormon settlers reach Great Salt Lake; establish State of Deseret

1 Southwestern Rockies acquired from Mexico

1 Gold rush to Colorado Rockies begins

847

848

858

1 Pony Express inaugu rated across Rockies to San Francisco

1861 Gold di scovered in Idaho's Snake River Va lley. Indian wars commence in Colorado

1 Montana gold rush

860

863

Cheyen ne-Ara paho

867

1 Salt Lake Mormon Tabernacle completed . Western Sioux Wa r

1 U . S.

867-69

Geological Surveys in West commence

1869

First transcontinental rail links meet at Promontory, Utah

1871

Province of British Col umbia enters Confederation

1 Ye ll owstone created as fi rst national park

1 Black Hills gold rush starts

1 Battle of the Little Big Horn (Custer's Last Stand) Colorado admitted to the Union as 38th state

1 Northern Idaho's gold rush starts

1887 End of the open cattle range

872

874

876

883

889

1 Montana becomes the 41st state

1 Idaho (43rd state) and Wyom ing (44th state) admitted to Union

1891 Cripple Creek, Colorado, gold rush starts

1 896

1910 Casper, Wyo., oil boom, leading later to Teapot Dome sca ndal

890

Utah becomes 45th state in Union

1 Big Thompson project, diverting water to Eastern Slope, begins

1 U.S. Air Force Academy opens on Colorado foothills

1959 Ye llowstone earthquake

938

958

The State of Colorado Front Range includes upraised and tilted sediments Evidences of normal geologic

The

State of Colorado

Front Range includes upraised and tilted sediments

Colorado Front Range includes upraised and tilted sediments Evidences of normal geologic cycles go back over

Evidences of normal geologic cycles go back over a bill ion

yea rs. Seas invaded the land; layers of sed iments formed ;

vo lcanoes eru pted .

And with slow i nsistence sun, wi nd, rain, rivers, and ice

60

million years ago a great series of sha rp upl ifts folded, sq ueezed and elevated the roc ks to form the Rockies and

the Andes. Later there was

a nd deep movements of molten rock brought vei ns of rich

ores . Glaciers have cut val leys, sharpened peaks, and c reated magn ificent scenery.

For more about the rocks of the Rockies, read:

regional upl ift. Vo lcanic acti on

leve led the land again. Life slowly developed . Some

the land rose, forming mo u ntains;

Dyson, J. l., GEOLOG IC STORY OF GLACIER NAT. PARK, Glacier Nat. Hist.

Assn., Bull.

#3. 1 949

FenQeman, N. M., PHYSIOGRAPHY OF WESTERN U.S., McGraw-Hill, N.Y. , 1931 Ross and Reza k, ROCKS AND FOSSILS OF GLACIER NAT. PAR K, Geo. Sur. Prof . Paper # 294- K , Govt. Printing Ofc., Wa sh ., D.C., 1959

Wegemann, C. H., A GUIDE TO THE GEOLOGY OF ROCKY MT. NAT. PAR K, Govt. Printing Ofc., Wa s h., D.C., 1 944

THE HISTORY

OF

THE

EARTH

Geological

Time

Divisions

Cenozoic Era

Beginning of I nterval

(million years)

Major Events of This Time

Climate cold. Mountain and continental glaciation. later, slacial lakes In mountain bases. Scattered volcanic action In Yellow· stone and other areas.

Quaternary Period

Recent

Pleistocene

.015

1

Tertiery Ptriocl

PliOCene

MI-.

Olleoc­

Eoeene

Paleocene

13

25

36

58

63

Uplift of Rocky Mts. In

crustal

disturbances

and

volcenlc

lnland

eruption.

Mlny

kes, awa� and

flood

rnentery deposits. Climate mild.

sedl·

pl llln s.

Local

Mesozoic Era

Cretaceous

Jurassic

Triassic

135

181

230

Widespread deserts give

way to lowla nds which are

invaded by the sea. Fluctu·

ating sea coasts with swamps and small basins. Rich sedi mentary deposits .

Paleozoic Era

Permian

Pennsylvanian

Mississippian

Devonian

Silurian

Ordovician

Cambrian

280

310

345

405

425

500

600

Continual marine i nvasion

and deposition of sedi·

ments with periods of

emergence. Abundant ma·

rine life. Swamps and coal

formation. Era ends in

subsidence,

sharp

uplift,

erosion,

and

m uch aridity.

·

Characteristic Life of Period

Men

Asia via Alaska and the

cold.

With retreat of ice, rem· nants of a rctic l ife remain

isolated on mou ntain tops.

entered the a rea from

Nort hwest. Climate

Mamtnels � daml-

rlant

.,

widelY- Graue$tmd

fl� jileots d-'op.

oth«

., widelY- Graue$ tmd fl� jileots d-'op. oth« faW1118 � o1 ca mera. horses, ll ftd

faW1118 �

o1

ca mera. horses, ll ftd other

lflllna a nill'lll a.

Di nosa urs and other rep·

tiles dominate. Birds de·

velop and mammals ap­

pear. Cycads, tree ferns. conifers abound. Ammo­ nites (p. 59) reach climax.

Marine i nvertebrates and

plants are common. First

marine vertebrates de­

velop. M osses and ferns

appear; also giant a mphib­

ians and first reptiles.

IN

THE

ROCKY

MOUNTAINS

Where Seen in Rocky Mountains

Craters

Glacier N ational Park, Tetons, Rocky

Mt.

River

Mountains.

Yellowstone,

of the

N ational

Moon,

Park,

Wind

Green River and Uinta Basins. Absa· roka Mountains, Devil's Tower, Mid· die Park, Florissant, Cripple Creek, Rocky Mt. National Park, and Black Canyon of the Gunnison

Black Canyon of the Gunn ison, Colo· rado N ational Mon., Dinosa ur Nat. Mon., Wyoming Ra nge.

Tetons, Gros Ventre Mt., Little Rocky Mts., Little Belt Mts., Garden of the Gods, Big Horn Mts., Banff, Lake Louise, Wind River Mts .• Laramie Range, Aspen, Dinosaur Nat. Mon., Wyoming Range, Wasatch Range.

Black Canyon of the Gunnison, Colo­ rado Nat. Mon., U inta Mts., G lacier Park, Tetons, Rocky Mt. Nat. Park, Pikes Peak, Royal Gorge.

'

.

. .
.
.
MOUNTAIN BUILDING in the Rockies is a tremendous, complex process differi ng from place to
MOUNTAIN BUILDING in the Rockies is a tremendous, complex process differi ng from place to

MOUNTAIN BUILDING in the Rockies is a tremendous, complex process differi ng from place to place. N owhere is it as simple as the pictu res show. When the ol dest rocks were formed , a bout 2 billion yea rs ago, the a rea had

p roba bly already gone through cycles of mo u ntain build·

p roba bly already gone through cycles of mo u ntain build· i ng the loca

i ng

the loca l sea s. Later molten granite fl owed i nto these sed i·

were

a ltered as a range of ancient mountains formed ( 1 ). These

were slowly worn down unti l the land was again nea rly flat (2). Seas encroached and new sed iments were depos·

me nts and the region wa s upl ifted . The sed iments

and destruction. Thick layers of sed iments formed in

1 Ancient mountains of granite and altered sedi ments formed more than 600 million years ago.

Mountains worn flat; seas encroach;

more sedi ments a re deposited. About 350- 550 million years ago.

2

s a g o . Mountains worn flat; seas encroach; more sedi ments a re deposited.

The Tetons are a classic example of mountain building in the Rockies

ited in the sha l low basins. Then fol l owed a long period of . fluctuation. Often the land was submerged and marine sed i ments we re depos ited . Someti mes it was elevated to form loca l mountains (3) whi ch were again worn down by rain and running water. During the Age of Repti les ( Mesozoic Era) extensive sha l l ow seas covered western North Ameri ca . Where land was upl ifted it was low and swa m py. Coa l formed , and d i nosa urs wa llowed in swa mps (4) . Later the cli mate cha nged and beca me d rier. Di nosa u rs beca me exti nct. A pe riod of mou ntain building began all thro u gh the West.

pe riod of mou ntain building began all thro u gh the West. 3 Uplift creates

3 Uplift creates local mountain ranges

which are soon worn down. About 320 million years ago.

4 Seas cover wide area; local uplift with swa mps, coal and lowland sedi, ments. 1 00-200 million years ago.

g o . 4 Seas cover wide area; local uplift with swa mps, coal and lowland
5 Great uplift, folding and faulting begi nning of present Rockies. mark About 60 million

5 Great uplift, folding and faulting

begi nning of present Rockies.

mark

About 60 million years ago.

6 Erosion, further uplift, and many

of

volca noes

Rockies. 20-50 million years ago.

mark

further

growth

The modern Rockies sta rted with upl ifts squeezi ng and

fold ing the rocks (5). Folds overtu rned and split; cracks or

of

yea rs. E rosi on cut away the mounta i ns. Later the re was

regional upl ift with widespread volca nic action (6). Erosion continued; rivers cut deeper gorges. Then, as the cli mate

cha nged , gla ciers gouged the mountains No rth A merica was covered with i ce. As it

i n land lakes formed

of glaciers are seen in the Rockies (8) but ea rthq ua kes, as

in

is not yet at

us that mountain building

and eventually drained . On ly remna nts

fau lts pe rmitted fu rther movements . Th is took mill ions

(7) . Much of melted , great

Ye l l owstone in 1 9 59, rem ind

an end .

7 More erosion; glaciation on moun· tains and northern plains. Several ice advances, 20-50,000 years ago.

8 Ice melts; glaciers retreat until only remnants and debris remain. Climate warming to present day.

years ago. 8 Ice melts; glaciers retreat until only remnants and debris remain. Climate w a
A to ngue of the Bob and Ire S_pring Columbia l cefield, MI. Athabaska, Jasper

A to ngue of the

Bob and Ire S_pring

Columbia l cefield, MI. Athabaska, Jasper National Park, Al berta

GLAC I ERS form when summers a re not wa rm enough to melt the wi nter's accumu lation of snow. The last great

period of glaciation began about a mill ion yea rs ago. Snow

pi led up and

more thick it

south over eastern and central North America, N. Eu rope and Asi a. In the high Rockies, smal ler va l ley glaciers

carving

a nd deepening val leys on the way. The ice picked up rock debris which it d ropped to form morai nes. Three major adva nces and retreats of the ice sheets have been detected

in the Rockies. About 20,000 yea rs ago slightly higher

formed on mountain slopes a n d moved downhi ll,

cha nged to i ce, and as ice became a mile or bega n to "flow." Continenta l glaciers moved

te m peratu res sta rted the last retreat. As ice melted , gla­ cial lakes were formed . Deep U-sha ped va l leys were

exposed , as were morai nes and that mark the origi n of glaciers. a re sti ll seen , and evidence of

where. About a dozen promi nent gl aciers can be seen in

the Rockies.

the cup-sha ped ci rq ues Today small va l ley glaciers ea rl ier glaci ation is every­

VALLEY G LACI ERS are rivers of ice, moving only a few feet a year.

VALLEY G LACI ERS are rivers of ice, moving only a few feet a year. When ice piles up faster than it melts, it flows slowly downhill carryi ng rock debris with it. When ice melts fa ster than it accumulates, the glacier retreats. A typical valley glacier is shown on p. 49.

CIRQUES mark the heads of glaciers. Here snow collects and changes to ice. Freezing and thawing break up the rock walls, enlarging the cirque. When glaciers melt the cirque remains, often enclosing a tiny lake of icy-blue water. I ceberg Lake fills a cirque (below) in Glacier N. P.

Bob and Ira Spring

fills a cirque (below) in Glacier N. P. Bob and Ira Spring National Film Board, Canada

National Film Board, Canada

MORAINES are glacial trash piles of rock, sand and gravel (glacial till) dumped along the sides, bottom and end of a glacier as it melts. A retreat­ ing glacier may leave a series of ter­ minal moraines which occasionally hold small la kes. Above is a moraine in the Col u mbia lcefield, Jasper N.P.

by glaciers

contrast with V-shaped valleys of swift rivers. Valley walls may s how glacial po lishing and grooving, eviden ce of glacial erosion. Glacial valleys, bur­ dened with till, may contain small

streams. This glacial valley runs east from Grinnell G lacier in Glacier N.P.

U·SHAPED

V ALLEYS

cut

Bob and Ira Spring

streams. This glacial valley runs east from Grinnell G lacier in Glacier N.P. U·SHAPED V ALLEYS
Hot springs with National Park sulfur depos its (left) Fran Hall-National Audubon Society and Castle

Hot springs with National Park

sulfur depos its (left)

Hot springs with National Park sulfur depos its (left) Fran Hall-National Audubon Society and Castle Geyser

Fran Hall-National Audubon Society

and

Castle

Geyser (righ t),

in

Ye ll owstone

VOLCANIC ACTION in the Rockies has gone on for 50 mil­ l i on years. Old volcanoes, l ava flows and mountains of igneous rocks (P- 52) a re direct evidence. Seconda ry effects a re seen as ra in water works down to depths where the

to the su rface s pri ngs, mud

volcanoes and· geyse rs. All these can be seen in Ye llow­

rocks a re sti ll heated . Th is water may ret u r n through stea m vents or fuma roles , in hot

stone National Park. Hot spri ngs occur widely from Colo­ rado north i nto the Canad ian Rockies.

C liff Geyser along the banks of I ron C reek, a tributary of the Firehole River

Bob and Ira Spring

the Canad ian Rockies. C liff Geyser along the banks of I ron C reek, a
IGNEO US ROC KS form far be· low the s u rfa ce (i ntrusive),
IGNEO US ROC KS form far be· low the s u rfa ce (i ntrusive),

IGNEO US ROC KS form far be·

low the s u rfa ce (i ntrusive), or on the surface (extrusive). I n· trus ive roc ks cool slowly; their

mi nera ls develop as crystals.

crysta ls

of q uartz, feldspar and mica or

a n other dark mineral. Pegma·

tite is a coa rse granite. Gabbro

Granite is interlocking

is

i ntrusive rock rich in dark

mi

nerals. Most extrusive rocks

a re vo lca nic. Basalt, a dark

l

a va ,

may be den se

or full of

gas bu bbles (scoria).

Obsidian

or volca nic glass is lava which

has cooled ra p i d ly. Some lavas

a re ri che r in q u a rtz and feld· spa r. Rhyolite is chem ically like

gra n ite. Pumice is a l ight,

frothy

rhyolite. I gneous rocks

grade

nto one an other so recogn ition may be d ifficu lt.

i

is a l ight, frothy rhyolite. I gneous rocks grade nto one an other so recogn

SEDIMENTARY ROCKS form from

fragments of older rock worn down by water, wind or ice, or by chemical acti on. These, the most com mon rocks in the Rockies, form in l ayers-the yo unger ones

a bove the older. Conglomerate is

pebbles or la rger fragments ce­

together; Breccia is a

conglomerate of angu lar frag­ ments. Sanc?stone is a rock of sand grains cemented by sil ica, lime or i ron oxi de. A rkose, a sand­ stone with grains of feldspar, typi­

me nted

cal of rapid erosion, is common in the Rockies. Mudstone a nd shale

a re ha rdened muds and clays.

Shale splits i nto thin layers. Lime­

stone comes from shel ls or coral,

or is chemically deposited in the sea . Gypsum is deposited as land­

l ocked seas eva porate slowly.

or is chemically deposited in the sea . Gypsum is deposited as land­ l ocked seas

conglomerate

or is chemically deposited in the sea . Gypsum is deposited as land­ l ocked seas

are roc ks of a ny kind which have

bee n altered in a major way by heat, pressure, or chemi­

cal action. Such alteration may ta ke

tain building. The process may be simple, as when sand­ stones a re compressed and ha rdened i nto quartzite, or when l i mestones become marble. Both of these rocks occur in the Rockies. Sha les a nd mudstones become slate, and, if the process conti n ues, phyllite forms with fine s pecks of mica. Fu rther metamorphi sm p rod u ces schist, in which the mica is much more promi nent. Someti mes meta morphism so a lters roc k that the origi nal material can not be recognized . Gneiss is a coa rse-textu red , pa rtly recrysta llized roc k of va rious origi ns. H ighly metamor­ phosed rocks may be similar to granite.

M ETAMORPHIC ROCKS

place duri ng moun­

w h ite marble

A
A

/' ;

-

;�

\

\. Phosphate

BERT A

")

Coal

iz n Garnet

f s b

----- ·--- 1� ---

Coal

Zn I

""o s ft l\

Zn

Oil

'

WY'IMII\JI

PfJPb A g Coal 1•

Coal

Oil

Flouri te

.

COLORADO !

2

"Au

�OCKY MOUNTAI N MINERAL NO ORE DEPOSITS

Sb

Antimony

Cu

Copper

Au

Gold

Fe

I ron

Pb

lead

Mn

Manganese

Hg

Mercury

Mo

Molybdenum

Ag

Silver

Ta

Tantalum

Ti

Titanium

w

Tungsten

u

Uranium

Zn

Zinc

\

---r.----- -

I

i

!

!

I

j_

/ A g !Quartz Oil ! G ypsum A g 'Pb -\A.r 1 I IZn
/
A g
!Quartz
Oil
!
G ypsum
A g
'Pb
-\A.r
1
I
IZn
Coal
) Zn
Cu
Garnet
'l
llf\.I
A
c;
�\r.eOoC'
,
Beryl
""
Quartz
Coal
J
,
�""'
t.
Amethyst
J
')
'
)
·,cu
ha s �"a\e
Ac
Cu"\.P
i,Hr s �. Hg
r
·
- - - ----- �1-1
,
Coaf
z
"f
I
•-
o
W
n

I

T a

Pb

; Garnet

•'"

U

Oil

! Au

I

i.E'��edony

J Fe

·y.;,--

tu

Pb

I

r

J

Salt

Zn

s �ii1

i Chalcedony

Jade

Co l

o

Amethyst

Fe

I

_l

l

G1 lso