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Test 5 (head and neck anatomy)

1. The internal carotid artery: a. lies in the floor of the middle ear b. lies medial to the abducent nerve c. enters the skull and divides into the anterior and middle cerebral arteries d. is separated from the external carotid artery by the styloglossus e. grooves the greater wing of the sphenoid bone

2. The internal jugular vein: a. is separated from the sympathetic chain by the prevertebral fascia b. lies anteromedial to the sympathetic chain. c. is a continuation of the sigmoid sinus d. receives the anterior jugular vein e. is separated from the inferior petrosal sinus by the 9th, 10th and 11th cranial nerves

3. The following are true about the trigeminal nerve: a. it supplies the muscle of mastication b. its ganglion lies on the apex of the petrous bone c. emerges from the brain stem between the pons and the medulla d. emerges from the brain stem as separate sensory and motor roots e. innervates all the teeth of the upper jaw

4. The following nerves are transmitted through the temporal bone: a. vagus nerve

b. facial nerve c. vestibulocohclear nerve d. mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve e. olfactory nerve

5. The following are true about the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): a. is produced by the modified ependymal cells of the choroid plexus b. is absorbed mainly through the arachnoid granulations in the superior sagittal sinus c. the ventricular system communicates with the subarachnoid space through the roof of the third ventricle d. the arachnoid granulation is in contact with the endothelium of the venous sinuses e. blockage of the arachnoid granulation causes communicating hydrocephalus

6. True statements about the medulla include: a. contains the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve which extends throughout the length of the medulla b. the vagus nerve emerge between the medulla and the inferior cerebellar peduncle c. contains gracile nucleus which lies medial to the cuneate nucleus d. the vagal nucleus lies medial to the hypoglossal nucleus e. the pyramids decussate in the lower part of the medulla

7. The pterygopalatine ganglion: a. supplies parasympathetic fibres to the lacrimal gland b. sympathetic nerves from the superior cervical ganglion passes through it c. is suspended from the maxillary nerve

d. supplies the iris e. supplies secretomotor fibres to the glands of the nose

8. The parathyroid glands: a. are found on the anterior surface of the thyroid glands b. develops from the 3rd and 4th pharyngeal pouch endoderm c. may be confused with fat globules d. receives blood supply from the middle thyroid arteries e. contain chief cells which have dark staining nuclei

9. True statements about the boundary of the nasal cavity include: a. cribriform plate forms part of the roof b. maxilla forms the floor of the cavity c. vomer forms the lateral wall of the cavity d. palatine forms part of the roof e. the vertical plate of the ethmoid bone forms the medial wall

10. The following are true about the relations of the cavernous sinus: a. it lies on the body of the sphenoid bone b. it is situated above the pituitary gland c. it is posterior to the superior orbital fissure d. the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve passes through it e. the trochlear nerve passes through it

Test 6 (anatomy of head and neck)


1. The following are true about the parasympathetic fibres: a. they originate from Edinger-Westphal nuclei in the midbrain b. follow the inferior division of oculomotor after the later bifurcate in the cavernous sinus c. in the orbit, are found in the branch that supply the inferior oblique muscle d. they synapse in the ciliary ganglion e. they are transmitted via the short ciliary nerve to the iris sphincter

2. Structures derived from the second pharyngeal arch include: a. the incus b. maxillary artery c. stylohyoid ligament d. stylohyoid muscle e. posterior third of the tongue

3. The sphenoid bone transmits the following structures: a. middle meningeal artery b. mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve c. optic nerve d. internal carotid artery e. nasociliary artery

4. The embryonic origin of the following are true: a. lacrimal gland from the surface ectoderm

b. lens from the mesoderm c. nonpigmented ciliary epithelium from neuroectoderm d. the anterior pituitary gland from the ectoderm e. the posterior pituitary gland from the mesoderm

5. The following are true: a. foramen ovale transmits the mandibular nerve b. pterygotympanic fissure transmits the chorda tympani c. foramen spinosum transmits the middle meningeal artery. d. jugular foramen transmit the vagus nerve e. stylomastoid foramen transmit the facial nerve

6. The basilar artery: a. enters the cranium through the foramen magnum b. is formed by the union of two vertebral artery c. supplies the lateral and third ventricles d. supplies the vermis through its superior cerebellar branch e. supplies the motor cortex

7. The following are true about the pituitary gland: a. the posterior lobe receives efferent fibres from the supra-opticohypophyseal tract. b. it is situated below the optic chiasma c. a portal system exists between the posterior pituitary gland and the hypothalamus d. the posterior lobe secretion affects thyroid hormone secretion e. it is drained by the cavernous sinus

8. The oculomotor nerve: a. divides into the superior and inferior division near the superior orbital fissure b. before entering the orbit, lies above and then medial to the trochlear nerve within the cavernous sinus c. lies between the posterior cerebral artery and the superior cerebellar artery in the the posterior fossa d. has its nucleus in the pons e. causes Adie's pupil if the parasympathetic pathway is damage

9. The maxillary artery: a. terminates in the pterygopalatine fossa b. supplies the lateral wall of the nose c. gives off meningeal arteries d. supplies the muscle of mastication e. lies between the sphenomandibular ligament and the mandible

10. The thyroid gland: a. develops from the second and third pharyngeal arches b. contains cells derived from the fourth pharyngeal pouches c. is supplied mainly by the middle thyroid artery d. is covered by the pretracheal fascia e. has the recurrent laryngeal nerve ascending anteriorly

Autonomic Nervous System and Vision: 1. The somatic nervous system a. is part of the sympathetic nervous system b. is part of the parasympathetic nervous system c. is part of the autonomic nervous system d. none of the above 2. Effector organs of the autonomic nervous system includes all of the following EXCEPT: a. medulla oblongata b. heart c. smooth muscles d. glands 3. Some of the nerves that innervate lymph nodes have been discovered to be adrenergic (can release norepinephrine). This would suggest that: a. the parasympathetic nervous system may influence lymph node activity b. the sympathetic nervous system must act to enhance lymph node activity c. the parasympathetic nervous system has no effect on lymph node activity d. the sympathetic nervous system may influence lymph node activity 4. The effector pathway of the autonomic nervous system generally contains: a. one neuron b. two neurons c. three neurons d. five neurons 5. All preganglionic autonomic neurons secrete: a. epinephrine b. acetylcholine c. nicotine d. dopamine 6. All postganglionic neurons bear these receptors: a. alpha adrenergic b. beta adrenergic c. nicotinic d. muscarinic 7. The parasympathetic nervous system affects all of these organs EXCEPT: a. heart b. pupillary smooth muscles c. salivary glands d. adrenal glands

8. The sclera and cornea constitute this layer of the eye: a. retinal tunic b. vascular tunic c. fibrous tunic d. nervous tunic 9. "Night blindness" is an early sign of: a. cataracts b. glaucoma c. vitamin A deficiency d. myopia 10. Sympathetic stimulation of the iris causes: a. astigmatism b. pupillary constriction c. pupillary dilation d. glaucoma 11. Cone cells are photoreceptors that: a. respond to low light levels b. respond to colored light c. are found in the optic disc d. are found in the vascular tunic 12. The region where the lens focuses the image onto the retina is the: a. optic nerve b. fovea c. pupil d. blind spot 13. The fluid that fills the posterior chamber of the eye is the: a. lacrimal fluid b. vitreous humor c. aqueous humor d. jocular humor 14. The major light absorbing pigment in retinal photoreceptors is: a. rhodopsin b. melanin c. glutamate d. chlorophyll 15. Photoreceptors release more neurotransmitters: a. in brighter light b. in darkness c. only when stimulated by bipolar cells d. none of the above

Answers: 1. The somatic nervous system a. is part of the sympathetic nervous system b. is part of the parasympathetic nervous system c. is part of the autonomic nervous system d. none of the above 2. Effector organs of the autonomic nervous system includes all of the following EXCEPT: a. medulla oblongata b. heart c. smooth muscles d. glands 3. Some of the nerves that innervate lymph nodes have been discovered to be adrenergic (can release norepinephrine). This would suggest that: a. the parasympathetic nervous system may influence lymph node activity b. the sympathetic nervous system must act to enhance lymph node activity c. the parasympathetic nervous system has no effect on lymph node activity d. the sympathetic nervous system may influence lymph node activity 4. The effector pathway of the autonomic nervous system generally contains: a. one neuron b. two neurons c. three neurons d. five neurons 5. All preganglionic autonomic neurons secrete: a. epinephrine b. acetylcholine c. nicotine d. dopamine 6. All postganglionic neurons bear these receptors: a. alpha adrenergic b. beta adrenergic c. nicotinic d. muscarinic 7. The parasympathetic nervous system affects all of these organs EXCEPT: a. heart b. pupillary smooth muscles

c. salivary glands d. adrenal glands 8. The sclera and cornea constitute this layer of the eye: a. retinal tunic b. vascular tunic c. fibrous tunic d. nervous tunic 9. "Night blindness" is an early sign of: a. cataracts b. glaucoma c. vitamin A deficiency d. myopia 10. Sympathetic stimulation of the iris causes: a. astigmatism b. pupillary constriction c. pupillary dilation d. glaucoma 11. Cone cells are photoreceptors that: a. respond to low light levels b. respond to colored light c. are found in the optic disc d. are found in the vascular tunic 12. The region where the lens focuses the image onto the retina is the: a. optic nerve b. fovea c. pupil d. blind spot 13. The fluid that fills the posterior chamber of the eye is the: a. lacrimal fluid b. vitreous humor c. aqueous humor d. jocular humor 14. The major light absorbing pigment in retinal photoreceptors is: a. rhodopsin b. melanin c. glutamate d. chlorophyll 15. Photoreceptors release more neurotransmitters: a. in brighter light b. in darkness

c. only when stimulated by bipolar cells d. none of the above

Nervous Tissue - Fill in the blanks: The brain and spinal cord comprise the _____ nervous system. All nerves of the body residing outside of the brain and spinal cord comprise the _____ nervous system. Sensory neurons are also referred to as _____ neurons while _____ neurons carry motor impulses. The most common type of neuron is the _____ which communicates from one neuron to another. The branch of the autonomic nervous system that induces the "flight or fight" response is the_____. The cells that support, nourish and protect neurons are the _____. The cell body of a neuron is the _____. Long extensions off neuronal cell bodies that conduct impulses away from the cell are _____. The dark granular substance inside neuronal cell bodies are called _____. It is composed of dense collections of _____ where _____ occurs. _____ are cells that electrically insulate neuronal axons in the central nervous system. This electrical insulation is referred to as _____. _____ is a CNS disease where the _____ of motor neurons is degenerating or being destroyed, which interferes with neuronal impulses. This is a progressive disease that causes widespread motor deficits. _____ are specialized epithelial cells in the CNS that produce _____. In general, positively charged ions are termed _____. On the inner cell membrane surface of a resting neuron, there is an accumulation of _____ charge. In electrical terms, "potential" is synonymous with "_____". An "excitable" cell is one that can quickly and dramatically change its resting membrane potential. Two types of examples of excitable cells include _____ and _____ cells.

The typical neuronal resting membrane potential measures approximately _____. A neuronal impulse is also referred to as an _____, which indicates that it is a "moving" region of "voltage change" that migrates along the neuronal cell membrane. There is a greater concentration of _____ions accumulating on the outer surface of resting neuronal membranes than on the inner surface. The two ways ions may pass across a membrane involve using _____ channels and _____ channels. The Na/K pump operates by transporting three _____ ions out of the cell while transporting two _____ ions into the cell. _____-gated ion channels open or close only in response to a change in the nearby membrane potential. Neurotransmitters bind to specific _____ on the neuronal cell surface. This binding triggers the opening of ion channels that temporarily change the nearby membrane potential. These small, variable, transient changes in membrane potential are referred to as _____ potentials. When _____ charged ions flow into a neuron, the resting membrane potential becomes less negative. Voltage-gated _____ channels are triggered to open when the resting membrane potential reaches about _____which is referred to as the _____ potential. When enough excitatory stimuli act on a neuronal cell, _____-gated Na+ channels on the axon _____ (or "trigger zone") open. Opening of these channels results in the movement of Na+ _____ the cell which causes the inside charge to become more _____. _____ of Na+ causes _____ of the membrane, which is the first phase of the action potential. _____ is an example of a drug that block the opening of Na+ channels, thus blocking the initiation of neuronal action potentials. After the first phase of the action potential, the _____ channels becomes inactivated while the _____ channels begin to open. This occurs when the membrane potential reaches approximately _____. The opening of these channels results in the _____ movement of _____. This second phase of the action potential is the _____ phase. The second phase of the action potential ends when the membrane potential reaches about _____ which triggers the inactivation of the _____ channels. The _____ period of an action potential causes that region of membrane be

temporarily unresponsive to another stimulus. This ensures that action potentials migrate in one direction, namely, away from the _____. Overall, two important factors drive the movement of Na+ and K+ across the membranes. These are the _____ gradient and the _____ gradient. For any given neuron, all action potentials are of the same intensity. This is referred to as the "_____" principle. In order to alter the intensity of a given neuronal stimulus, the _____ of firing of action potentials is increased. Action potentials travel fastest in axons that are _____ and _____. The fastest neuronal axon fibers are A-type fibers. These carry _____ and _____ motor signals. The slowest fibers are the C-type fibers. These fibers are _____ and _____ so they transmit action potentials much slower than A-type fibers. At the axon terminals, voltage-gated _____ channels open in response to the arriving action potential. This triggers _____ vesicles to release _____ into the _____. Most neurons in the CNS communicate with _____ to _____ other neurons. The small extensions off of the neuronal cell bodies that receive stimuli are _____. Small, variable intensity, transient changes in membrane potential that moves the potential closer to threshold are referred to as _____ post-synaptic potentials or "____". Small variable intensity, transient changes in membrane potential that moves the potential further away from threshold are referred to as _____ post-synaptic potentials or "____". _____ is a common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Movement of Cl- into a neuronal cell would make a neuron _____ likely to fire an action potential.

Answers:

The brain and spinal cord comprise the central nervous system. All nerves of the body residing outside of the brain and spinal cord comprise the peripheral nervous system. Sensory neurons are also referred to as afferent neurons while efferent neurons carry motor impulses. The most common type of neuron is the association (or interneuron) which communicates from one neuron to another. The branch of the autonomic nervous system that induces the "flight or fight"

response is the sympathetic . The cells that support, nourish and protect neurons are the neuroglia . The cell body of a neuron is the soma . Long extensions off neuronal cell bodies that conduct impulses away from the cell are axons . The dark granular substance inside neuronal cell bodies are called Nissl substance . It is composed of dense collections of ribosomes where protein synthesis occurs. Oligodendrocytes are cells that electrically insulate neuronal axons in the central nervous system. This electrical insulation is referred to as myelin . Multiple sclerosis is a CNS disease where the myelin sheath of motor neurons is degenerating or being destroyed, which interferes with neuronal impulses. This is a progressive disease that causes widespread motor deficits. Ependymal cells are specialized epithelial cells in the CNS that produce cerebrospinal fluid . In general, positively charged ions are termed cations . On the inner cell membrane surface of a resting neuron, there is an accumulation of negative (anionic) charge. In electrical terms, "potential" is synonymous with " voltage ". An "excitable" cell is one that can quickly and dramatically change its resting membrane potential. Two types of examples of excitable cells include muscle fibers and neuronal cells. The typical neuronal resting membrane potential measures approximately 70mV . A neuronal impulse is also referred to as an action potential , which indicates that it is a "moving" region of "voltage change" that migrates along the neuronal cell membrane. There is a greater concentration of sodium ions accumulating on the outer surface of resting neuronal membranes than on the inner surface. The two ways ions may pass across a membrane involve using leakage channels and gated channels. The Na/K pump operates by transporting three sodium ions out of the cell while transporting two potassium ions into the cell.

Voltage -gated ion channels open or close only in response to a change in the nearby membrane potential. Neurotransmitters bind to specific receptors on the neuronal cell surface. This binding triggers the opening of ion channels that temporarily change the nearby membrane potential. These small, variable, transient changes in membrane potential are referred to as graded potentials. When positively (cationic) charged ions flow into a neuron, the resting membrane potential becomes less negative. Voltage-gated sodium (Na+) channels are triggered to open when the resting membrane potential reaches about -55mV which is referred to as the threshold potential. When enough excitatory stimuli act on a neuronal cell, voltage -gated Na+ channels on the axon hillock (or "trigger zone") open. Opening of these channels results in the movement of Na+ into the cell which causes the inside charge to become more positive . Influx of Na+ causes depolarization of the membrane, which is the first phase of the action potential. Novocaine is an example of a drug that blocks the opening of Na+ channels, thus blocking the initiation of neuronal action potentials. After the first phase of the action potential, the Na+ channels becomes inactivated while the potassium (K+) channels begin to open. This occurs when the membrane potential reaches approximately +30mV . The opening of these channels results in the outward movement of K+ . This second phase of the action potential is the repolarization phase. The second phase of the action potential ends when the membrane potential reaches about -50mV which triggers the inactivation of the K+ channels. The refractory period of an action potential causes that region of membrane be temporarily unresponsive to another stimulus. This ensures that action potentials migrate in one direction, namely, away from the soma . Overall, two important factors drive the movement of Na+ and K+ across the membranes. These are the electrochemical gradient and the concentration gradient. For any given neuron, all action potentials are of the same intensity. This is referred to as the " all-or-none " principle. In order to alter the intensity of a given neuronal stimulus, the rate of firing of action potentials is increased. Action potentials travel fastest in axons that are large diameter and myelinated . The fastest neuronal axon fibers are A-type fibers. These carry pain and voluntary motor signals. The slowest fibers are the C-type fibers.

These fibers are small diameter and unmyelinated so they transmit action potentials much slower than A-type fibers. At the axon terminals, voltage-gated calcium (Ca+) channels open in response to the arriving action potential. This triggers synaptic vesicles to release neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft . Most neurons in the CNS communicate with 100s to 1000s other neurons. The small extensions off of the neuronal cell bodies that receive stimuli are dendrites . Small, variable intensity, transient changes in membrane potential that moves the potential closer to threshold are referred to as excitatory post-synaptic potentials or " EPSPs ". Small variable intensity, transient changes in membrane potential that moves the potential further away from threshold are referred to as inhibitory postsynaptic potentials or " IPSPs ". GABA is a common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS. Movement of Cl- into a neuronal cell would make a neuron less likely to fire an action potential.