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Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) For using RF Furnace, for Casting Molten Metals.

#1 General Process Description Depending upon the metal being cast temperatures can range from 600C to 1600C. The piece of equipment can interfere with pace makers, so any person with a pace maker is not allowed to use it. All work described in this SOP will be conducted in JHE 244. You MUST have WHMIS training prior to working in the lab; the equipment MUST be used with at least two people present, and both people properly trained on this piece of equipment. Contact Person is Ed McCaffery Laboratory Manager (Room JHE 248 ext 24985). This SOP is from 09/26/2007. #2 Hazards of Furnace/ Class of Hazard In order to melt metal temperatures greater than 600C is usually required. Temperatures at this level will cause severe tissue damage. Extreme care must be taken when casting the molten metal. No metal which is deemed toxic is allowed to be melted in this furnace. Ensure that your metals will not oxidize before they melt. Ensure that the material of the crucible will not react with the molten metal (i.e. graphite crucible plus molten iron are incompatible). There is a shock hazard if person comes in contact with copper coil. #3 Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Before using the RF Furnace, ensure that you will at least meet the following protective requirements: 1. Safety Glasses 2. Thermal gloves 3. Aluminized Heat Resistant Jacket 4. Closed-toe shoes with socks 5. Long pants (no shorts!) 6. Lab coat 7. Face shield

SOP RF Furnace. Before proceeding you must have read and are familiar with the safe operations of the RF Furnace. Depending on the metals being melted you need to read the MSDS for each of the hazardous materials you are using. All Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) are located in room JHE 248 top shelf East Wall. #4 Engineering / Ventilation Controls All work with this piece of equipment is used under the ventilation hood. Make sure the ventilation hood is functioning properly. Ensure that the coil is well insulated from the crucible, and the table is grounded. #5 Special Handling Procedures and Storage Requirements Before the metal is molten users must wear all necessary protective equipment. Please review the last page for emergency contact and notifications. #6 Accident Procedures If you spill the molten metal and the spill is an immediate threat to your health, call 88. Remain nearby. In the event of a fire, follow McMaster University Fire Instructions. If you accidentally spill/ splash molten metal on your self Dont panic have the second person shut off the Furnace! Remain calm. Immediately go to the sink and rinse with cold water to try and reduce the burn. Immediately seek medical attention. If a fire occurs because of the molten metal, shut off the furnace, leave the room and call 88, then engage the fire alarm for the building; and contact EOHSS at 24352 immediately, but stay nearby to provide information to responders. DO NOT TRY to extinguish the fire because of serious health hazard. Contact Emergency Response (88), then and Lisa Morine Ext 23314 and Ed McCaffery Ext 24895. #7 Waste Disposal Not Applicable #8 Training requirements Prior to entering and working in the laboratory, you must have completed the EOHSS WHMIS training. You will have to retain training documentation for at least one year. Any person conducting work in JHE 240 using this SOP must receive training on the contents of this SOP.

SOP - RF Furnace #9 Approval Required All research staff must be trained prior to starting work with the RF Furnace. Under no circumstances it is allowed to work with the RF Furnace, while being alone in the laboratory. You MUST have a second person to be in the lab with you, and they must also have been trained by one of the Technical Staff form the MSE department. #10 Decontamination Only when the area is cooled; then thoroughly clean any graphite which might have flaked off from the crucible with broom and dust pan. #11 Designated Area Working with the RF Furnace is only allowed under the ventilation hood. Upon leaving a designated work area, remove any personal protective equipment worn and wash hands. After each use (or day), wipe down the immediate work area and equipment to prevent accumulation of chemical residue. At the end of each project, thoroughly decontaminate the designated area before resuming normal laboratory work in the area. #12 Precise Process Description 1. Verify that emergency eyewash/shower in room JHE 240 is accessible and tested within last month. 2. Verify that fume hoods are currently certified. 3. It is essential that you wear all of your PPE (Personal Protective Equipment) a face shield over your safety glasses, thermal resistant gloves, and the aluminized heat retardant jacket to ensure proper protection from radiant heat and molten metal splash. You must wear closed toe shoes and long pants. 4. Make sure the sample is DRY free of oil or water. 5. Make sure that the table is grounded to prevent shocks. 6. Refer to (RF Induction Operation) for start up and shut down of the furnace at the end of the SOP. 7. Slowly increase the power making sure that the needle of the Grid Control does not go into the Red. 8. Once the metal is melted use a ceramic or graphite rod (make sure the graphite wont react with the melt) stir the metal to ensure that it is homogenous. 9. When casting make sure the mold being poured into is secure and on a table which is not flammable, make sure that there is signage stating that the mold is hot. 10. Wait until the mold is cool enough before handling.

SOP RF Furnace LOCK OUT TAG OUT PROCEDURE For routine maintenance to the RF Furnace MUST be LOCKED OUT AND TAGGED OUT! 1. Turn power switch off to machine. 2. Turn off power to main breaker on wall. 3. Put your own lock into the lock out hole, and place tag with lock. 4. Check the power is now off first by turning on the furnace, then with a volt meter check there is no power at the terminal. 5. Perform maintenance or change coil. 6. Once maintenance is complete remove lock and tag and turn on main breaker. 7. Follow Precise Process Description. Laboratory Spill Response Procedures Health Threatening Situation - In the event of an imminent or actual health-threatening emergency (threatening local or public health, safety, or welfare; or the environment outside the immediate area): 1) CALL 88 FOR THE EMERGENCY RESPONSE REMAIN IN THE AREA TO ADVISE RESPONDERS. 2) ACTIVATE LOCAL ALARM SYSTEMS 3) Once personal safety is established, call EOHSS at Ext 24352 and proceed with local notifications, below. Non-Health Threatening Situation In the event of a minor burn: 1) Notify McMaster Responders: Call 88 (24 hours/day, 7 days/week), then 2) Provide local notifications: Name Phone Number Ed McCaffery Ext 24895 Lisa Morine Ext 23314

Title Lab Manager/ Principal Investigator EOHSS

Local Response Situation In the event of a minor burn: 1) Notify personnel in the area and restrict access. 2) If a fire breaks out and is controllable, make a record in your lab inspection report, or call 88 Emergency Response to record the fire, and notify your supervisor.

SOP RF Furnace

RF Induction Furnace Operation

1 Turn on the city water located on the wall behind the induction furnace. Be sure that the table is secure and will not easily move. Do not touch the table or coil while the experiment is in progress. 2- Check that the following settings are on the Induction Furnace before starting: a) Temperature Control is Off b) Solenoid is Open c) Recirculatory Pump is Off d) Red Power dial is set at Zero 3- Load the crucible in the coil. The crucible should be centered in the coil, and high temperature insulation placed around the crucible so that the crucible and coil do not touch. The crucible should be sitting on fire bricks which can withstand 1500C so not to melt the table. 4- Flip the Main Supply switch UP to ON. 5- Put on All protective safety gear (Face Shield, Safety glasses, Aluminized Heat Resistant Jacket) 6- Turn the Recirculatory Pump switch to On. The Flow Inadequate light should go out. Check for water leaks at the induction coil connections. If no leaks occur proceed. 7- Pull the yellow Filament switch Out. The Oscillator Field gauge should read about 7 volts. 8- Wait for red Reset light to Light UP then push the Reset light.

9- Pull the Red R.F. Power switch. 10- The Grid Control RC dial should be at approximately 92. Watch the Grid Control gauge and sample while very slowly turning the red Power dial up in value. Avoid putting the needle of the Grid Control into the Red. The actual power value will vary based on how large the melt is and how many coils there are. 11- If there is an Emergency remember to shut off the RED RF Power switch before leaving the room if it is safe to do so.

To Cast: 1- Push the red RF Power button Off. 2- With insulated heat resistant gloves (5OOC maximum rating) using metal tongs pick up the crucible and carefully pour molten metal into the copper mold (note: the copper mold should be placed in the sand box in case of a spill). 3- Wait until the melt has solidified and has sufficiently cooled before handling. Shutdown Procedure: 1- Turn the red Powder dial to Zero. 2- Leave the Filament button On and wait 30 minutes for the filament to cool. 3- Push the Filament button Off. 4- Turn the Recirculator Pump Off. 5- Flip the Main Supply switch down to Off. 6- Turn off City water.