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Data Encryption Standard

DES (Data Encryption Standard) ,


IBM 1977
(FIPS 46-3). DES 64 16 ,
56 .
(S-) ( E, IP, IP-1) . DES
:

* (ECB Electronic Code Book) ,


* ( Cipher Block Chaining),
* (CFB Cipher Feed Back),
* (OFB Output Feed Back).

1972 ,
, ( )
( )
.
15 1973 , ( ),
, ,
. 27
1974. , Lucifer, IBM
19731974 ,
.

17 1975 DES .
2 ,
, :
S- ( ),
.
, .
,
, 1978, ,
DES IBM,
, DES, S, , DES , ,
.
, .

S- 1990,
(Eli Biham)

(Adi Shamir)
. S- DES
, , .
, 70- XX .

DES . , DES,
, .

.1

n k- .
, , n-
,
.
.
:

,
.
, , ,
.
,
.

.2

()
. DES
(. .1)
(. .2).
DES

.3 DES
DES .3
64 .
, 16
.

T ( 64 ) c IP
1:

1. IP

3 IP(T) IP
58, 50, 42 , 3 23, 15,
7 .

64- IP(T) 16-
.
16 :
IP(T) L0,R0, L0,R0 32 32
T0 IP(T)= L0R0
Ti 1 = Li 1Ri 1 (i-1) , i- Ti = LiRi
:
Li = Ri 1
Li Li 1Ri 1.
Ri Li 1 f(Ri 1,ki) 2.
16- f .
f.
( )
f 32- Ri 1 48- ki,
56- k.
f , S,
8 S-

, P.

32- Ri 1 48- E(Ri 1)


Ri 1; E(Ri 1)
2.
2. E

E(Ri 1) 32, 1, 2 Ri 1. 2 ,
1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 12, 13, 16, 17, 20, 21, 24, 25, 28, 29, 32 . 3
E(Ri 1) 31, 32, 1 Ri 1. E(Ri
1) 2 ki
B1,B2,...B8.
E(Ri 1) = B1B2...B8
Bj 6- . Bj 4 B'j Sj. Sj 3.
3. Si, i=116

, B3 = 101111, B'3. B3
, 0<=a<=3, 4 b,
0<=b<=15. S3 0 3, S3 0
15. (, b) , b.
B'3 . a = 112 = 3, b = 01112 = 7,
, (3,7), 7. B'3=0111.
f(Ri 1,ki) (32) , 32-
B'1B'2...B'8. 4.

.4 DES.4
DES.
4. P

f(Ri 1,ki) = P(B'1B'2...B'8)


4,
f 16, 7, 20, 21 B'1B'2...B'8
ki
ki k (64 = 8 8 ASCII)
. , 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56, 64
k .
.
( 8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 48, 56,
64). 5.
5.

C0 D0 28 . 3 C0
57, 49, 41 . D0 63, 55, 47
. Ci,Di i=1,2,3 Ci 1,Di 1
6.
6.

ki, i=1,16 48 , CiDi (56 )


7. ki 14, 17 CiDi
7.


IP 1 T16 .
IP. 8.
8. IP 1


. 16
, c
, .
Ri 1 = Li

.6.
ki, i=1,,16, f, IP IP 1 .
DES
DES .
1. (ECB Electronic Code Book):

DES . ,
, ,
(. .7).

.7 ECB
( Cipher Block Chaining) (. .8).
Ci i>=1, 2
Mi + 1. C0 ,
.

.8

1. (CFB Cipher Feed Back) (. .9).

CFB Z0,Z1,...Zi = DESk(Ci 1)


C0 .

.9 CFB
2. (OFB Output Feed Back) (. .10).

OFB Z0,Z1,...
i>=1

.10 OFB
:

ECB , .

ECB OFB 64-


Ci
Mi ,
.

CBC CFB
Mi,Mi +
[
1 . Mi Mi + 1,Mi + 2
.
DES

DES S-, ,
, . S-
:

{0,1,2,,15}

S- .

S-
.

S- S(x)
.

- ( 256),
. 1998
The Electronic Foundation DES-Cracker,
DES 3 .
DES - .
k DESk(DESk(x)) = x, x 64 . -
(k1,k2) DESk1(DESk2(x)) = x
4 , 9.
232 , 64- , DESk(x) =
x

[0]28 , 28 .
6 - , 10. 12
- 232 - , ,


, ,
255 .

DES Biham
Shamir. 247 ,
247 . ,
-
. Biham
Shamir , DES .

Matsui.
DES 243 , 243
. DES,
Matsui, 50
12 HP 9735.


() .
DES
DES : double DES
(2DES), triple DES (3DES), DESX, G-DES. 2DES 3DES DES,
(2DES 112 , 3DES 168 )
.

3DES DES(k3,DES(k2,DES(k1,M))), k1,k2,k3


DES. DES
. 3 3DES:

DES-EEE3: 3 .

DES-EDE3: 3DES -- 3
.

DES-EEE2 DES-EDE2: , ,
.

3DES DES-EDE3,
:
:

:
3DES :

k1,k2,k3 .

k1,k2 , k1 = k3

k1 = k2 = k3.

DESX Killian
Rogaway. DES,

RSA Security. DESX DES ,


DESX 2 64
, DES.
2 64 .
DESX
DES .

G-DES Schaumuller-Bichl DES


. , G-DES
DES. , Biham Shamir , G-DES

,
DES.

DES -.
DES, 56- DES
48- - 16
, 768- ( 16 48 ) 16 48- ,
DES. ,
- ,

DES. Biham DES
261 ,
260 .

DES 19771980 .,
DES ( 56 ) ,
(3DES, 2DES). 3DES
DES, .
DES Triple DES AES (Advanced
Encryption Standard ). DES
: , THALES (Racal) HSM
RG7000 TripleDES
VISA, EuroPay . THALES (Racal)
DataDryptor 2000 TripleDES
. DES
THALES-eSECURITY.