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Term Paper Submission

Group 5
[Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document. Amruta Mohite 10020241035 Type the abstract of the document here. The abstract is typically a short summary of the contents of the document.]

By:

Shruti Rai 10020241052

ROB Anu Moudgil [Pick the date]

10020241095

IT Practices in Retail Management


Information Technology is an important business enabler function, which cannot be neglected in any business, in todays world. For retailers, IT transformation is a key factor in achieving high performance. The term paper has been divided into three parts to highlight the importance of:

Prevalent IT Trends and Practices The Use of Wireless Technologies in Retail The Use of Cellphone (Mobile phone) in Modern Retail Todays retailers need to transform their IT capabilities for a number of reasons. These include:
y y

To aggregate and analyze customer data to enhance differentiation. To increase a company's ability to respond to a rapidly changing marketplace through enhanced flexibility and speed. To operate effectively, retailers need to have one system working across stores (sometimes across national borders) to ensure the most effective use of stock and to support optimized business processes. As the hype around technology decreases, retailers are seeing clearly that technology's role is one of an enabler, speeding up of processes and delivering cost savings. The retail industry faces specific IT management challenges that involve:

Transparency and Tracking: Retailers need greater transparency between systems and
better tracking to integrate systems from manufacturer through to consumer to obtain customer and sales information.

Customer Data: Information overload is a challenge for retailers because they need to collect
and sift through data to convert it into useful information in a customer-centric industry.

Global Data Synchronization: Enabled by radio frequency identification/electronic


product coding, the entire supply chain is becoming more intelligent. This creates what Accenture calls Silent Commerce. Benefits for retailers include enabling the use of real-time data to monitor inventory levels. Radio frequency identification tagging also positions the company to better safeguard its shipments by enabling the tracking of products from manufacturer through the supply chain.

Yet another study has predicted that India is on the cusp of a retail revolution. Global management consultancy firm McKinsey's report on the retail sector says that the country's overall retail sector will become a $450 billion industry by 2015. This would place it among the top 10 retail markets in the world. It also says that organized retail will create 1.6 million jobs in the next five years. This transformation will take place from a very low base. At present, organized retail accounts for only 5 per cent of India's annual retail business with an estimated 12 million mom-and-pop stores garnering the bulk of retail trade. By 2015, organized retail is expected to have a share of 14-18 per cent of business. According to the McKinsey study, there are several things going for the retail revolution, including a huge growth in the number of people with disposable income The growth of big retail stores is a welcome trend. Besides the potential to generate significant employment, there are other benefits that could accrue from organized retail; 1) Standardized goods and cheaper prices for consumers. 2) Better prices for farmers. There are studies that show that agricultural producers are getting a better deal since big retailers directly do business with them, eliminating the middlemen who cut into the farmers' profits. However, it won't be smooth going for big retailers. Small traders, who form a crucial support base for political parties in urban pockets, have been resisting big retail stores. Reliance has shut down its fruits and vegetables outlets in Uttar Pradesh and Orissa because of protests. Other companies are rethinking their plans to expand. High rentals, too, are a problem. At the same time, companies like the Future Group have been expanding rapidly with its Big Bazaar stores set to cross 100. In West Bengal, where there has been conflict over big retail, the way has been cleared for German wholesale major Metro Cash & Carry to begin operations. So it's a mixed picture at best. A study by ICRIER, a think tank, says that though mom-and-pop stores are hit by direct competition from organized retail, less than half the stores that shut down shutters do so due to competition from big retail. Significantly, the McKinsey report says that 64 per cent of buyers don't mind paying more for convenience. Some small stores are also teaming up to buy goods jointly so as to cut purchasing costs. There is a message here: innovation and not violent protests can help mom-and-pop stores survive.

Mobilizing Retail:
Pervasive wireless infrastructure and the proliferation of smart mobile devices are enabling real-time access to e-commerce, payments, and communications and information services across devices and application platforms like never before. Spurred by workforce virtualization, early adopters are significantly boosting operational efficiency and enhancing

collaboration across silos and with customers and business partners. Enterprises that seize the opportunity will further differentiate themselves from the pack; those that hesitate may find themselves losing out to more proactive and aggressive rivals. The consumerization of business technology reveals an incredible role reversal. Historically, businesses were first movers in adopting new technologies. With mobility, however, individuals are leading the charge, and organizations are lagging adopters. Navigating this chasm presents enterprises of all shapes and sizes with major challenges, as well as tremendous opportunities. On the opportunity side of the equation, smart devices come with powerful features that redefine real-time business activity. They offer a potent source of operational agility and ever increasing business value. On the customer front, organizations can use mobility to offer new communication channels and innovative services and products, strengthen their competitive might, and develop new revenue streams. On the operations front, mobility can be deployed to unlock productivity and reduce the cost of operations, while engendering a more collaborative and efficient work environment to satisfy a workforce that increasingly craves instant access to information and services similar to those they consume in their personal lives. However, the road to enterprise mobility is paved with myriad challenges and risks. These include: 1) Integrating devices with enterprise information systems. 2) Overcoming daunting change management challenges, especially in preparing the IT department for disruptive change. 3) Inherent technological volatility in the still maturing mobility space. 4) Striking the right balance by which employees can use their own devices for work while retaining access control and preserving privacy and security.

Mobile Maturity Assessment:


A key starting point, either for retailers with an offering in place or in the planning stages, is to assess the maturity of their mobile offering (current and future) and identify opportunities that make the most business sense. The biggest hurdle, considering the vast ocean of opportunities available and the buzz around mobile, is an objective, holistic and systematic way to perform such an assessment. A framework to objectively assess the maturity of a mobile offering, called mVal (for mobile evaluator),can be used to benchmark a retailers mobile offering against competitive offerings within the retail industry or other customer-centric industries, leading to an understanding of the contextually relevant opportunities and best practices available.

M-Commerce Assessment Methodology

Measure Assess current capability Activities

Match channel Compare with benchmarks y

Mobilize industry Identify opportunities to enhance y Identify opportunities For improvement. Prioritize opportunities based on value and cost. Develop a roadmap to achieve desired state Maturity profiler Health scorecard Comparison matrix

Assess current state of mobile offerings on the following dimensions: y Strategy y Organizational effectiveness y Functionality y User experience y Technology

Assess mobile implementation of competitors. Collect mobile best practices from other relevant industries. Perform gap analysis

Tools y y Maturity assessment questionnaires Exhaustive list of mobile retail feature y Comprehensive assessment questionnaires Industry best practices report y y y

Results y y Retailers mobile health scorecard Mobile maturity profiles of competition Detailed feature comparison matrix Industry best practices Recommendations Roadmap

y y y y

Armed with a powerful weapon the smartphone the consumer is truly the king. And like a king, the consumer is demanding, hard to please, has a fleeting attention span and can be punishing. This is why retailers need to not only provide consumers with a mobile offering but do so with proper due diligence. It is equally important to continuously scan the marketplace and make sure (relative to rivals) that the mobile offering remains fresh and engaging.

Bar code scanning, the first major evolution in retail technology brings a new level of
automation to the front end register process. Customer enjoys faster service. Cashiers are more productive. There are fewer errors at the register, helping protect profitability. Inventory and buying trends are more visible and more accurate with less effort and expense. The next retail technology evolution arrived with the invention of the mobile computer. Information is no longer tethered to a desktop application now workers in the front and back rooms can hold all the tools needed to streamline day-to-day tasks right in the palm of their hands. At the press of a button, a store associate can look up pricing and check stock in the backroom and at other store locations. Advanced data capture including the ability to scan a bar code or magnetic stripe on a credit or other ID card enables associates to quickly perform a stock take, ring up sales and more. Integrated voice and data devices with push-to-talk functionality allow associates to quickly reach out for assistance or answers to questions without ever leaving the customers side. And RFID makes real-time inventory visibility a reality, delivering a number of strategic advantages for retailers from better purchasing decisions and a reduction in stocking inventory requirements to the ability to instantly locate any item in the store even if it has been misplaced. The result? y y y A new level of efficiency the automation afforded through mobile computing enables workers to complete more tasks in a shorter period of time. A new level of customer service workers have the information in hand to enable fast response times to customer requests, and the time to deliver more personalized attention. A new level of business information mobile technology makes the daily inventory take a reality, providing real-time visibility into inventory and buying trends to support better and more timely purchasing decisions.

The Internet represents the third major technological development in retail. The advent of the
Internet allows retailers to enjoy new sales opportunities outside the four walls through the creation of an online store a virtual extension of the storefront where customers can shop 24 hours a day. Anyone, anywhere in the world can set up an around-the-clock worldwide storefront from traditional brick-and-mortar stores to small boutiques and individual craftsmen. As a result, retail customers can now literally search the world for any item with just a handful of keystrokes, right from the comfort of their own homes, whenever it is convenient. The global marketplace is born, and the Internet becomes the proverbial double-edge sword, expanding sales opportunities while driving competition to new heights. As the Internet becomes a significant new retail channel, competition is no longer limited to stores in your own geographic back yard competition now extends around the globe. And in addition, customer demands and expectations rise significantly, since in just minutes on the Internet, consumers can have it all the quality product they want at the lowest price possible, delivered right to their front door.

The advent of the Internet creates new pricing pressures. As Internet-savvy consumers search the web in minutes to locate the product they want at the lowest available price, manufacturers turn to offshore manufacturing to better compete through reduced costs a trend that further complicates the industry environment. The next revolution in retailing doesnt require the birth of new technology but the application of todays technology in new ways. Todays consumers are always-on and connected to the world around them. Cell phones provide a wireless voice and data connection to friends, family and co-workers, as well as email and the Internet and this always-on connection provides a virtual explosion of new ways to touch your customer. In addition, the television has also become more centric in many households, keeping people connected to the news and to their favorite forms of home entertainment from educational, reality, game, talk and news shows to the latest movies. Retailers can leverage these connections with todays technologies to create an unprecedented real-time connection to customers a connection that allows you to leverage the many new available customer touch points. y The pervasive use of cell phones provides retailers with many new possible customer touch points. For example, a local coffee shop can enable customers to place orders on a web site via cell phones, while a department store might leverage cell phone text messaging capabilities to notify customers when a special order has been received, or provide frequent buyers with advance notification of an upcoming sale. An integrated voice and data computer allows store associates to perform whatever tasks are needed without ever leaving the customers side. If a customer wants to see an item in a different size or color, associates can easily check inventory and find the exact location of the item all in real-time. Personal shopping systems allow grocers to enable customers to scan and bag purchases as they shop, enabling instant checkout. In addition, the same device can be utilized for 1to-1 marketing to customers. Grocers can present coupons, frequent shopper discounts and recipes based on items scanned, providing value for customers and store alike customers enjoy savings and convenience, while the store enjoys increased basket size. Retailers can leverage the set-top to create point-of-purchase opportunities within television programming. For example, a bookstore can enable viewers watching an interview of an author promoting a new book on a talk show to purchase the book with the press of a button on the remote control.

Wireless Technologies in Retail


The use of Wireless Networks to improve margins of a retail store is lucrative proposition, for long term. The retail industry is one that lives and dies on margins, with managers on a never-ending quest to increase revenue and decrease costs. Technology has been an area of intense focus in retail industries as a way to accomplish both these goals. Wireless technology, permitting communication between people and devices anywhere and without cables, has enabled the dramatic transformation of business processes in the past, and continues to do so. However, wireless deployments in the past have been limited by security requirements, the cost of deployment, inadequate management solutions, lack of standards, and availability of innovative solutions. Rapid advances in wireless local area network (WLAN) technology in recent years along with widespread adoption of the technology in the consumer and enterprise space have eliminated many of these roadblocks. Today, a new wave of opportunity exists for retail industries to improve margins through the use of wireless technology. In the retail industry, wireless LANs are deployed with a focus on improving existing processes as well as adding new ones.

Mobile Point of Sale (POS): Point-of-Sale (POS) is the physical location where goods are
sold to customers. Traditionally, this was a counter where a cash register was located. The problems with the traditional POS are: Customers would line up in front of the counter and wait for their turn. Sales counters are a fixed size, however, and can support a fixed number of people. Increasing the size of the sales counter is not possible, so customers are forced to endure long lines during congested periods such as holidays. Studies show that as many as one in ten customers will abandon the line while waiting, leaving the store without making a purchase. Long lines also engender ill will from customers, making them less likely to return to a store in the future. Wireless LAN technology can be implemented to prevent the above situation: y Fully mobile point-of-sale stations can be set up using handheld computers, scanners, and printers with integrated credit card readers. During high-volume sales periods, salespeople outfitted with these mobile POS terminals can be positioned throughout a store at small tables. For customers paying by credit card, the full transaction can be completed and a store receipt printed where it is convenient for the customer.

Mobile line busting personnel can move through checkout lines with handheld computers to accelerate the checkout process. For credit card customers with a small amount of merchandise, the entire transaction may be completed while the customer is still in line. For other customers, merchandise can be scanned with a barcode scanner and a ticket printed with prices and a master barcode on it. While waiting in line, the customer has the chance to review prices printed on the ticket. Upon reaching the checkout counter, the ticket is scanned, the total amount is recalled from a backend system, and the transaction is completed without the checkout clerk needing to process each item individually.

Wireless Technologies in Inventory Management: It can be used to setup system through which store associates using wireless handheld computers and in-store wireless kiosks were continuously connected to a regional inventory database. If a customer found an item out of stock in the store, the associate could immediately place an order to have the item dropshipped directly to the customers home. After implementing this system, a clothing retailer realized a 3% increase in store revenue paying for the new system in only four months. Wireless Technologies to enhance Customer Service: Technology is a relatively
inexpensive way to improve customer service. According to a research, the two major problems that customers face are: y y pricing problems lack of available store associates to help locate merchandise or answer questions

Wireless technology can help on both fronts, without requiring a retailer to hire additional staff By the use of price verification kiosks, customers can take the merchandise, scan the barcode tag, and quickly determine the actual price. If a printer is attached to the kiosk, customers can print their own advisory price tags as well. They can be helpful in resolving pricing disputes because the customer can verify that the cash register records the same price the customer expected to be charged. Self-help kiosks can be easily placed around a store giving customers touch-screen access to store directories, inventory information for all nearby stores in a chain, current sales, and product information. Self-help kiosks can also be augmented with a get help button. When pressed, the system alerts nearby store associates carrying Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs).

Wireless Voice Communication: Two types of systems are in common use one uses
licensed radio frequencies, the other uses unlicensed spectrum, for voice communication between store associates.

Wireless Videos: An emerging application in retail is the use of wireless LANs to connect
LCD (liquid crystal display) television monitors to a central server for in-store video programming. y y A small Windows PC and hard drive can be embed in the monitor, and programming content is streamed to the PC and stored on the hard drive for local playback. The video display can be directly connected to a central server where all content is controlled. The use of wireless LAN technology allows these screens to be placed anywhere it is convenient and will be seen by store patrons.

Security Requirements in Retail: Todays wireless networks can be more secure than
their wired counterparts, if adequate security measures are taken. Wireless LAN equipment is easily available and inexpensive, and retailers everywhere are concerned about leaking of credit card information. The driving force behind credit card security is the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) which applies to all merchants and service providers that store, process, or transmit credit card data. All wireless LANs inside a retail environment are subject to PCI DSS requirements. Complying with PCI DSS and CISP that contains more details on exactly how wireless LANs should be configured for compliance. Today, many retailers are still operating older wireless LANs that are difficult to bring up to modern security standards. For example, many older networks support only static WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) encryption, and have systems in place to periodically rotate WEP encryption keys. Unfortunately, WEP can be broken in less than three minutes using modern attack techniques, making such networks vulnerable to intrusion with relatively little effort. While these older systems may still be suitable for inventory management applications, retailers using these systems are prevented from adding new applications such as mobile POS. A bare minimum security standard that must be supported today is dynamic WEP with 802.1x authentication and rapid key rotation.

Architectures for Wireless Connectivity


The evaluation of a wireless LAN for retail use, can be done based on the following:

The Mobile Edge: Mobile Edge of the network is a network edge where the user is assumed to be mobile on both wired and wireless connections throughout an extended enterprise network.
A retail company is made up of people, and those people move around. Work locations may be localized, such as moving between the warehouse and the retail floor in a single building, or extended, such as moving between different retail stores or between a headquarters location and regional distribution centers. Further, some employees travel to visit partners, suppliers, and customers or to attend retail conferences. These employees still need access to their enterprise network, even while in hotel rooms or in their own homes. The mobile edge is a networking concept that assumes this type of mobility and architects the network for it appropriately. The edge of the network follows

employees wherever they need to work, and identity-based security policies ensure that employees have the correct level of privilege based on their role in the organization.

Centralized v/s Distributed: In the past, all wireless LANs were distributed rather than
centralized. Wireless LANs were built from individual FAT access points that contained all the intelligence and configuration needed to run the wireless network. Operating a single FAT access point was not a challenge, but the challenge grew exponentially with each additional access point that was installed. The scalability challenges in security and operations for these large networks led vendors to create a centralized approach to wireless LANs. In the centralized approach, access points are thin and are responsible only for radio transmission and some limited data processing. The majority of wireless operations, including security, configuration, management, and traffic processing are handled by a central wireless LAN controller. Controllers can be responsible for as few as two access points, or as many as several hundred. By centralizing all configuration and management, additional access points can be added to the network without increasing demands on administrators. Centralization of wireless LAN control and management is the key requirement to a scalable deployment.

Standard versus Proprietary: Technology typically evolves down a path where early
adopters deploy proprietary, closed systems in order to get basic or advanced functionality. Over time as the technology is adopted by more and more users, basic features become standardized and interoperable between different vendors. Finally, as the technology matures, even advanced features become standardized. Today, standardization of wireless LAN technology has proceeded to an advanced state in some areas, with other areas still under active development: Where in the past users were forced to purchase client adapters and access points from the same vendor, today multiple client types can be mixed with access points from different vendors without concern for interoperability problems. Standards exist for quality of service, powersave, rate adaptation, and roaming. The use of proprietary radio standards, shim software extensions, and special driver modes has been made obsolete by standardization work done in the IEEE and by the Wi-Fi Alliance. The CAPWAP (Control and Provisioning of Wireless Access Points) group is working with several proposed standards to merge the best parts of each into a single unified protocol, and this work is expected to last through 2006. Once a CAPWAP protocol is finalized and adopted, it will be possible to mix thin access points and centralized controllers from multiple vendors. Controller function is not standardized, and is unlikely to be in the near future. Basic wireless functions such as authentication and encryption are normally supported equally across all controllers, but controllers from different vendors offer unique advanced features such as multi SSID support, integrated firewalls, remote access capabilities, automatic RF management, and redundancy. It is in the area of controller functionality that users should spend the most time when evaluating wireless LAN equipment for purchase.

Enabling Rapid Moves, Adds, and Changes: Retailers are often faced with needing to
quickly add new stores, reconfigure existing stores, or move store locations. The ready availability of broadband Internet connections has drastically simplified the process of obtaining network connectivity. Many enterprises now routinely connect remote offices, branch offices, and retail outlets with broadband DSL or cable modem Internet connections, and then attach

VPN (Virtual Private Network) hardware to the connection to establish secure links to a central or regional corporate location. The use of VPN technology allows the corporate network to appear in any location where a link to the Internet is available, and moves and changes can be made automatically without a need for reconfiguration

Local Site Backup: Most retailers are highly centralized when it comes to IT resources. A
local server usually exists in each store for local accounting and POS data, but this server ultimately pulls all data from a central location. It is extremely important, however, that an individual store be able to operate autonomously sometimes for a period of several days when a link to the central site is not available.

Network and Device Management: A typical retail store has a variety of computing
devices like barcode scanners, laptop computers, PDAs, and voice handsets. Because there are typically no local IT resources, configuration and repair of these devices must be automatic and simple. The wireless LAN deployed at a retail site should support a management system for both the network itself as well as the devices attached to that network. There is no magic technology that by itself can boost margins, fix operating problems, and guarantee customer loyalty. Only people can do these things, along with a well-executed operational plan but technology can help. Successful companies today must build technology into their businesses. Wireless technology has a number of innovative uses in retail, that can improve operational processes, improve the customer buying experience, give better visibility for management into store operations, and ultimately improve the bottom line.

The Mobile Revolution


Another revolution in the technology space in retail industry, which is on the verge of breakthrough is the Cellphones (Mobile Technology). Mobile has become an integral part of our daily lives, also the use of this device in the retail industry has grown in the recent years, mobile retailing has emerged as a formidable technology which will empower the retailers as well as the consumers. Earlier the scenario was that it was the consumer who would enter the retailing environment but with the advent of mobile retailing the retailers can enter into the consumers space anywhere and at any point of time, thus as opposed to the brick and mortar format where in the promotional offers could be only communicated to the consumer when he/she was in the vicinity of the store, mobile retailing helps retailers to communicate these offers anywhere and at any point of time to the consumers. Through various research studies various groups have been identified among the consumers. The millennials are consumers between the age of 10-25 years who are very well versed with the advances in technology and do not like it when the retailers try to intrude their private space. The Road Warriors work in a variety of occupations, including sales management, consulting, engineering, and law. They adopt new technologies to gain more control over their fast-paced and often stressful lives, they are quite adept at using mobile commerce devices. However, it is unclear if this segment is interested in using these devices for mobile retailing. The Concerned Parents primarily uses mobile to connect with their children. They use the device to stay in touch and communicate important messages through voice and text and use it extensively while shopping in the environment.These groups use mobile devices for different purposes, Millennials use it for social networking while the Road warriors use it for professional networking thus the retailers should delve deeper into this when they are trying to make a pitch to such audiences. An inhibitor to the use of mobile retailing can be the difference in the type of mobile devices the consumers use, some may and some may not have the technology necessary for mobile retailing. Also trust is a factor which the retailers need to work upon as in the consumers may not be comfortable in retailers intruding their private space thus a relationship of trust should be developed between the service providers, retailer and consumer. Mobile can be used for a variety of purposes by the retailers: y

Mobile emailing and messaging: For consumers that view mobile as a reminder
medium, retailers can text-message reminders to about the current promotions. Once a consumer gets conditioned to such reminders, a retailer can draw the consumer to its

nearby store using a particular ringtone. the customer can directly place an order for item through the mobile device, and the item could be shipped directly to the customer. Mobile advertising: Retailers also use the mobile medium to advertise their image and products. For customers who have opted-in to receive marketing messages, retailers send periodic messages. Mobile couponing: Retailers are increasingly using mobile couponing as a key marketing tactic. Typically, a retailer invites consumers through other media (e.g., instore, print media, outdoor media) to send a text message to the retailer, asking for mobile coupons. The retailer then sends to those who had responded, mobile coupons can be redeemed at the retailers stores at the time of purchase. This couponing tactic is generally effective because consumers self-selecting the offer. Mobile customer service: The mobile is ideal for handling customer service issues. Many retailers offer online order tracking feature, answer customer queries regarding product information, and provide post-purchase service, all through the mobile. Mobile social network management: Retailers create, facilitate, or manage their own social networks with their customers. They use these user networks to listen-in as well as to influence customers. They could use social network theory to target key customers for persuasive communication.

This technology also possess certain threats to the retailers because, it makes a customer more educated and informed, for example a customer may enter a particular store and may find a product about which he/she can garner information from online sources, can compare it with the competitors offering and may end up buying it from the competitors online store to save costs, also the couponing system can be lethal at times because it can be easily copied by ones competitors and also the retailers may have to give such offers on a regular basis, and also charge lower prices in order to retain the customers. A way out may be that the retailer can offer coupons on items which his competitor is not offering on. For retail mobile strategies to be successful, retailers need a sound understanding of their target customers. Some segments of the population adopt mobile marketing offers quickly and develop a sub-culture around the phenomena. Retailers who better understand these segments and their behaviour can be more successful in their mobile marketing strategies than others. To be effective, most mobile advertising should be permission-based. Retailers can use mobile advertising effectively if they get consumers to opt-in, use short text messages, make the messages relevant , and use it primarily as a reminder vehicle. Mobile marketing through product matching is a new application that may potentially lock-in loyal retail customers. Mobile retailing can help the retailers to create a database on consumer buying patterns and will also help them to retain consumers, the retailers also need to be careful about the

privacy issues involved in this retailing format and should also study the consumer behaviour to have insights into their buying patterns. Thus mobile retailing has a great road ahead which is yet to be explored, retailers may also assist consumers to such an extent that, if the consumer has created a shopping list upon him entering the vicinity of the store the device could tell him which items are available in the store ,and upon entering the store a GPS enabled system may help in directing him through the store aisles to the required product. Mobile marketing, which involves two- or multi-way communication and promotion of an offer between a firm and its customers using a mobile medium, device, or technology, is growing in importance in the retailing environment. It has the potential to change the paradigm of retailing from one based on consumers entering the retailing environment to retailers entering the consumers environment through anytime, anywhere mobile devices

Bibliography

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