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Introduction to Computer & Programming

Computer Evolution: A computer is a programmable machine that is scheme to automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations. The specific structure of processes can be change freely, allowing the computer to solve more than one kind of problem. An important class of computer operations on some computing platforms is the accepting of input from human operators and the output of results formatted for human consumption. The first electronic digital computers were developed in the mid-20th century. They were the size of a large room as well as consuming as much power as several hundred modern personal computers. Modern computers based on combined circuits are millions to billions of times more accomplished than the early machines as well as occupy a fraction of the space. Simple computer are small sufficient to fit into mobile device as well as mobile computers can be powered by small batteries. The first use of the word computer was verified in 1613, referring to a person who carried out calculations. From the end of the 19th century the word originated to take on its more familiar implication, a machine that carries out computations. In 1837, Charles Babbage was the first to conceptualize as well as design a fully programmable mechanical computer that is analytical engine. His son, Henry Babbage, completed a simplified version of the analytical engines computing unit the mill in 1888. He gave a successful demo of its use in computing tables in 1906. During the first half of the 20th century, many scientific computing needs were saw by progressively sophisticated analog computers. Analog computers are used to a direct mechanical or electrical model of the problem as a source for computation. However, these were not programmable as well as generally required the flexibility as well as accuracy of modern digital computers. Alan Turing: Alan Turing is usually regarded as the faster of modern computer science. In 1936, Turing provided a significant validation of the concept of the algorithm and computation. Turing Machine is providing a blueprint for the electronic digital computer. The fact remains that

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Introduction to Computer & Programming


everyone who tapes at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word processing program is working on a materialization of a Turing machine. EDSAC: EDSAC was one of the first computers to implement the stored program architecture. Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor in its packaging. The computer performed its first calculation on May, 06-1949 and was the computer than entered the first graphical computer game. Atanasoff Berry computer (ABC): The Atanasoff Berry computer (ABC) was the worlds first electronic digital computer, although not programmable. Atanasoff is measured to be one of the fathers of the computer. Considered in 1937 by lowa state college physics professor John Atanasoff and built with the assistance of graduate student Clifford berry, the machine was not programmable being considered only to solve systems of linear equations. The computer did occupation similar computations. Z1: The Z1 originally created by Germanys Kourad Zuse is measured to be the first electro mechanical binary programmable computer as well as actually the first useful computer. Colossus: The Colossus was the first electric programmable computer developed by Tommy Fowers as well as first established in December 1943. ENIAC: The ENIAC was developed by J.Presper Eckert and John Mauchly in 1943 to 1946. It occupied about 1800 square feet and used about 18000 vacuum tubes, weighting almost 50 tons. Although the justice ruled that the ABC computer was the first digital computer, many still deliberate the ENIAC to be the first digital computer because it was fully functional. On April 7, 1953 IBM widely familiarized the 701. Its first electric computer and first mass produced computer. Later IBM presented its first personal computer are called IBM PC in 1981. The IBM 5100 is the first portable computer, which was unconfined on September 1975. The computer weighed 55 pounds and had a five inch CRT display, and tape drive, 1.9 MHz PALM processor and 64 KB of RAM.

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Introduction to Computer & Programming


Computer Memory: Just like humans, computer relies a lot on memory. They need to process as well as store data objective like we do. However, computer store data in digital format which means the information can always be called up accurately the way it was stored. Also, unlike our memory, the computers memory does not get worse over time. Although memory can discuss to any medium of data storage, it frequently refers to RAM or Random Access Memory. When your computer boots up, it load the operating system into its memory or RAM. This allow your computer to access system functions, such as handling mouse clicks and keystrokes, since the event handlers are all loaded into RAM. Whenever you open a program, the interface and utilities used by that program are also loaded into RAM. RAM is a very high speed type of memory which makes is ideal for storing active programs and system processes. It is different than hard disk space in that RAM is made up of physical memory chips, while hard disks are magnetic disks that revolution inside a hard disk. Accessing RAM is much faster than accessing the hard disk because RAM access is based on electric charges, while the hard drive needs to seek to the correct part of the disk before accessing data. However, all the information stored in RAM is erased when the computers power is turned off. The hard disk on the other hand, store data magnetically without requiring any electrical power. Another common type of memory is flash memory, which is typically used for small devices such as digital cameras, USB keychain drives as well as portable music players like the iPod nano. The term memory identifies data storage that comes in the form of chips as well as the word storage is used for memory that exists on tapes o disks. Moreover, the term memory is usually used as shorthand for physical memory which refers to the actual ships capable of holding data. Some computer also uses virtual memory which expands physical memory onto a hard disk. Every computer comes with a definite amount of physical memory, usually referred to as main memory or RAM (Random Access Memory). You can think of main memory as an array of boxes, each of which can hold about one million bytes or characters of information. There are several different types of memory.
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Introduction to Computer & Programming


RAM (Random Access Memory): This is the same as main memory. When used by itself, the term RAM refers to read and write memory. That is you can both write data into RAM and read data from RAM. This is in contrast to ROM (Read Only Memory), which authorizations you only to read data. Most RAM is volatile, which means that it requires a stable flow of electricity to maintain its contents. As soon as the power is turned off, whatever data was in RAM is lost. ROM (Read Only Memory): Computers almost always contain a small amount of read only memory that holds instructions for starting up the computer. Unlike RAM, ROM cannot be written to. PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory): A PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory) is a memory chip on which you can store a program. But once the prom has been used, you cannot distribute it clean as well as use it to store something else. Like ROMs, PROM, are non-volatile. EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read only Memory): An EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read only Memory)is a special type of PROM that can be erased by exposing it to ultraviolet light. EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read only Memory): An EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory) is a special type of PROM that can be erased by uncovering it to electrical charge. EEPROM is convenient for portable devices, since it stores information smooth when its power source is turned off but is smaller as well as tougher than a hard drive.

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