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There are two operations are defined: addition and multiplication by scalars.

Let u and v are objects in V,

• The sum of u and v is u + v

• The scalar multiple of u by k is in V

Axioms

1. If u and v are objects in V, then u + v is in V

2. u + v = v + u

3. u + (v + w) = (u + v) + w

4. There is an object 0 in V called zero vector for V such that 0 + u = u + 0 = u for all u in V

5. For each u in V, there is –u in V, called negative u such that u + (-u) = (-u) + u = 0

6. If k is scalar and u is any object in V, then ku is in V

7. k(u + v) = ku + kv

8. (k + l)u = ku + lu

9. k(lu) = (kl)u

10. 1u = u

If all the axioms above are satisfied by all u, v and w in V and all scalars k and l, then we call V a

vector space and we call the objects in V are vectors.

Vector spaces in which the scalars are complex numbers are called complex vector spaces

Vector spaces in which the scalars must be real are called real vectors spaces

1. The set V = Rn with standard operation of addition and scalar multiplication defined before is a

vector space.

2. Rn → R1 : are the real numbers; Rn → R2 : are vectors in plane; Rn → R3 : the vectors in 3-space

Subspace.

Definition. A subset W of a vector space V is called a subspace of V if W is itself a vector space under

the addition and scalar multiplication defined on V.

vector space V, we need only verify axioms 1, 4, 5, 6.

Theorem.

If W is a set of one or more vectors from a vector space V, then W is a subspace of V if and only if the

following conditions hold.

a. If u and v are vectors in V, then u + v is in W

b. If k is any scalar and u is any vector in W, then ku is in W.

A set of one or more vectors from a vector space V is said to be closed under addition if: u and v are

vectors in W, then u + v is in W is satisfied, and closed under scalar multiplication: if k is any scalar

and u is any vector in W, then ku is in W is satisfied.

In other word: W is subspace of V if and only if W is closed under addition and scalar

multiplication.

Examples

Solution spaces of Homogeneous System.

X that satisfies that equation is called solution vectors.

The solution vectors of a homogeneous linear system form a vector space, and is called solution space

Theorem.

If Ax = 0 is a homogeneous linear system of m equation in n unknowns, then the set of solution vectors

is a subspace of Rn.

Proof. Let W be the set of solution vectors. There is at least one vector in W, namely 0. If x and x’ are

solution vectors and k is any scalar, then

Ax = 0 and Ax’ = 0

A(x + x’) = Ax + Ax’ = 0 + 0 = 0

A(kx) = kAx = k0 = 0

Example.

Definition. A vector w is called a linear combination of vectors v1, v2,…..vn if it can be expressed in

the form: w = k1v1 + k2v2…….+ krvr, where k1,k2,…kr are scalars.

If r = 1, then the equation becomes w = k1v1, that is w is a linear combination of a single vector v1 if it

is scalar multiple of v1.

Theorem.

If v1, v2 and v3 are vectors in a vector space V, then

a. The set W of all linear combination of v1, v2 … vr is subspace of V.

b. W is the smallest subspace of V that contains v1, v2 ….vr must contain W

Proof.

There is at least one vector in W, that is 0 since 0 = ov1 + 0v2 …..+0vr

If u and v are any vectors in W, then

u = c1v1 + c2v2…….+crvr

v = k1v1 + k2v2 ……+ krvr

ku = kc1v1 + kc2v2 ….+kcrvr

Definition.

If S = (v1,v2….vr) is a set of vectors in a vector space V, then the subspace of W of V consisting linear

combination of vectors in S is called the space-spanned by v1, v2…..vr and the vectors v1, v2…vr is

called span W. We write: W = span(S) or W = span(v1, v2….vr)

Example.

Theorem.

If S = {v1, v2…..vr) and S’ = {w1, w2, ….wk} are two sets of vectors in a vector space V, then

Span{v1, v2…vr} = Span{w1, w2…..wk}, if and only if each vector in S is a linear combination of

those in S’ and each vector in S’ is a linear combination of those in S.

Example

• In R2 or R3, a set of two vectors is linearly independent if and only if the vectors do not lie on

the same line when they placed with their initial point at the origin.

• In R3, a set of three vectors is linearly independent if and only if the vectors do not lie in same

plane when their initial points at the origin.

If f1 = f1(x), f2 = f2(x)……fn = fn(x) are (n-1) times differentiable functions in the interval (-∞,∞)

then the determinant of f1, f2….fn, is called the Wronskian of f1, f2….fn.

f’(x) f’2(x)……………….f’n(x)

.

W(x) = . Is called the Wronskian of f1, f2…fn

.

f1(n-1) (x)………….…… f1(n-1) (x)

If the function f1, f2, ….fn have (n-1) derivatives on the interval (-∞,∞) and if the Wronskian of these

function is not identically zero on (-∞,∞) then these functions form a linearly independent set of

vectors in C(n-1) (-∞,∞)

Examples

Definition. If V is any vector space and S = {v1, v2,….vn} is a set of vectors in V, then S is called a

basis of V if the following hold.

(1) S is linearly independent

(2) S spans V

If S = {v1, v2,…vn} is a basis for a vector space V, then every vector v in V can be expressed in the

form V = c1v1 + c2v2 +….cnvn in exactly one way.

Proof.

If S = {v1, v2, …vn} is a basis of a vector space V, and v = c1v1 + c2v2 + …. c nvn, is the expression for

a vector v in terms of the basis S, then the scalars c, c2, …cn are called the coordinates of v relative to

the basis S.

The vector (c1, c2….cn) in Rn constructed from these coordinate is called the coordinate vector of v

relative to S, denoted by : (v)S = (c1, c2 ….cn)

Examples.

Definition. A non zero vector space V is called finite-dimensional if it contains a finite set of vectors

{v1, v2, ….vn} that form a basis . If no such set exists, V is called infinite-dimensional. We shall

regard the zero vector space to be finite-dimensional.

Theorem. Let V be a finite-dimensional vector space and {v1, v2, … vn} any basis.

(a) If a set has more than n vectors, then it is linearly dependent.

(b) If a set has fewer than n vectors, then it does not span V

Theorem. All bases for a finite-dimensional vector space have the same number of vectors. It implies

that all basi for Rn has n vectors, every basis for R3 has 3 vectors….etc.

Definition. The dimension of a finite-dimensional vector space V, denoted by dim(V), is defined to be

the number of vectors in a basis for V. So the zero vector space has zero-dimension.

Dim(Rn) = n

Dim(Pn) = n + 1

Dim(Mmn) = mn

The steps summarize:

Given a set of vectors S = {v1, v2, v3….vn} in Rn

(a) Find the vectors that form a basis for span(S)

(b) Express these vectors of S that are not the basis as linear combination of the basis vectors.

Step1. Form the matrix A having v1, v2….vn as its column vectors.

Let w1, w2,….wn be its column vectors of R

Step3. Identify the column that contains the leading 1’s in R, these vectors are the basis vector for

span(S)

Step4. Express the vectors of R does not contain leading 1’s as linear combination of the basis.

Theorem. If A any matrix, then the row space and column space of A have the same dimension

Definition. The common dimension of the row space of a matrix A is called the rank of A or rank(A),

the dimension of the nullspace of A is called the nullity of A or nullity(A)

Proof. Rank(A) = dim (row space of A) = dim (column space of AT) = rank(AT)

(a) rank(A) = the number of leading variables in the solution of Ax = 0

(b) nullity (A) = the number of parameters in the general solution of Ax=0

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