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# REAL VECTOR SPACES

## Let V be an arbitrary non empty set of objects.

There are two operations are defined: addition and multiplication by scalars.

Let u and v are objects in V,
• The sum of u and v is u + v
• The scalar multiple of u by k is in V

Axioms
1. If u and v are objects in V, then u + v is in V
2. u + v = v + u
3. u + (v + w) = (u + v) + w
4. There is an object 0 in V called zero vector for V such that 0 + u = u + 0 = u for all u in V
5. For each u in V, there is –u in V, called negative u such that u + (-u) = (-u) + u = 0
6. If k is scalar and u is any object in V, then ku is in V
7. k(u + v) = ku + kv
8. (k + l)u = ku + lu
9. k(lu) = (kl)u
10. 1u = u

If all the axioms above are satisfied by all u, v and w in V and all scalars k and l, then we call V a
vector space and we call the objects in V are vectors.

Vector spaces in which the scalars are complex numbers are called complex vector spaces
Vector spaces in which the scalars must be real are called real vectors spaces

## Examples of vector spaces.

1. The set V = Rn with standard operation of addition and scalar multiplication defined before is a
vector space.
2. Rn → R1 : are the real numbers; Rn → R2 : are vectors in plane; Rn → R3 : the vectors in 3-space

Subspace.

Definition. A subset W of a vector space V is called a subspace of V if W is itself a vector space under
the addition and scalar multiplication defined on V.

## Axioms 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, and 10 is inherited by W from V, thus to show that a set W is a subspace of a

vector space V, we need only verify axioms 1, 4, 5, 6.

Theorem.

If W is a set of one or more vectors from a vector space V, then W is a subspace of V if and only if the
following conditions hold.
a. If u and v are vectors in V, then u + v is in W
b. If k is any scalar and u is any vector in W, then ku is in W.

A set of one or more vectors from a vector space V is said to be closed under addition if: u and v are
vectors in W, then u + v is in W is satisfied, and closed under scalar multiplication: if k is any scalar
and u is any vector in W, then ku is in W is satisfied.

In other word: W is subspace of V if and only if W is closed under addition and scalar
multiplication.

Examples
Solution spaces of Homogeneous System.

## .Let Ax = b is a system of linear equations

X that satisfies that equation is called solution vectors.
The solution vectors of a homogeneous linear system form a vector space, and is called solution space

Theorem.
If Ax = 0 is a homogeneous linear system of m equation in n unknowns, then the set of solution vectors
is a subspace of Rn.

Proof. Let W be the set of solution vectors. There is at least one vector in W, namely 0. If x and x’ are
solution vectors and k is any scalar, then
Ax = 0 and Ax’ = 0
A(x + x’) = Ax + Ax’ = 0 + 0 = 0
A(kx) = kAx = k0 = 0

## So x + x’ and kx are solution vectors, so W is subspace of Rn.

Example.

Definition. A vector w is called a linear combination of vectors v1, v2,…..vn if it can be expressed in
the form: w = k1v1 + k2v2…….+ krvr, where k1,k2,…kr are scalars.
If r = 1, then the equation becomes w = k1v1, that is w is a linear combination of a single vector v1 if it
is scalar multiple of v1.

Theorem.
If v1, v2 and v3 are vectors in a vector space V, then
a. The set W of all linear combination of v1, v2 … vr is subspace of V.
b. W is the smallest subspace of V that contains v1, v2 ….vr must contain W

Proof.
There is at least one vector in W, that is 0 since 0 = ov1 + 0v2 …..+0vr
If u and v are any vectors in W, then
u = c1v1 + c2v2…….+crvr
v = k1v1 + k2v2 ……+ krvr
ku = kc1v1 + kc2v2 ….+kcrvr

## therefore W is closed under addition and scalar multiplication.

Definition.

If S = (v1,v2….vr) is a set of vectors in a vector space V, then the subspace of W of V consisting linear
combination of vectors in S is called the space-spanned by v1, v2…..vr and the vectors v1, v2…vr is
called span W. We write: W = span(S) or W = span(v1, v2….vr)

Example.

Theorem.

If S = {v1, v2…..vr) and S’ = {w1, w2, ….wk} are two sets of vectors in a vector space V, then
Span{v1, v2…vr} = Span{w1, w2…..wk}, if and only if each vector in S is a linear combination of
those in S’ and each vector in S’ is a linear combination of those in S.

Example

## Geometric interpretation of Linear Independence.

• In R2 or R3, a set of two vectors is linearly independent if and only if the vectors do not lie on
the same line when they placed with their initial point at the origin.
• In R3, a set of three vectors is linearly independent if and only if the vectors do not lie in same
plane when their initial points at the origin.

## Linear independence of functions

If f1 = f1(x), f2 = f2(x)……fn = fn(x) are (n-1) times differentiable functions in the interval (-∞,∞)
then the determinant of f1, f2….fn, is called the Wronskian of f1, f2….fn.

## f1(x) f2(x) ………………..fn(x)

f’(x) f’2(x)……………….f’n(x)
.
W(x) = . Is called the Wronskian of f1, f2…fn
.
f1(n-1) (x)………….…… f1(n-1) (x)

If the function f1, f2, ….fn have (n-1) derivatives on the interval (-∞,∞) and if the Wronskian of these
function is not identically zero on (-∞,∞) then these functions form a linearly independent set of
vectors in C(n-1) (-∞,∞)

Examples

## Basis and dimension

Definition. If V is any vector space and S = {v1, v2,….vn} is a set of vectors in V, then S is called a
basis of V if the following hold.
(1) S is linearly independent
(2) S spans V

## Uniqueness of Basis Representation.

If S = {v1, v2,…vn} is a basis for a vector space V, then every vector v in V can be expressed in the
form V = c1v1 + c2v2 +….cnvn in exactly one way.

Proof.

## Coordinate relative to a basis.

If S = {v1, v2, …vn} is a basis of a vector space V, and v = c1v1 + c2v2 + …. c nvn, is the expression for
a vector v in terms of the basis S, then the scalars c, c2, …cn are called the coordinates of v relative to
the basis S.

The vector (c1, c2….cn) in Rn constructed from these coordinate is called the coordinate vector of v
relative to S, denoted by : (v)S = (c1, c2 ….cn)

Examples.

Definition. A non zero vector space V is called finite-dimensional if it contains a finite set of vectors
{v1, v2, ….vn} that form a basis . If no such set exists, V is called infinite-dimensional. We shall
regard the zero vector space to be finite-dimensional.

Theorem. Let V be a finite-dimensional vector space and {v1, v2, … vn} any basis.
(a) If a set has more than n vectors, then it is linearly dependent.
(b) If a set has fewer than n vectors, then it does not span V

Theorem. All bases for a finite-dimensional vector space have the same number of vectors. It implies
that all basi for Rn has n vectors, every basis for R3 has 3 vectors….etc.
Definition. The dimension of a finite-dimensional vector space V, denoted by dim(V), is defined to be
the number of vectors in a basis for V. So the zero vector space has zero-dimension.
Dim(Rn) = n
Dim(Pn) = n + 1
Dim(Mmn) = mn

## (Notes: we will see in the following examples.)

The steps summarize:
Given a set of vectors S = {v1, v2, v3….vn} in Rn
(a) Find the vectors that form a basis for span(S)
(b) Express these vectors of S that are not the basis as linear combination of the basis vectors.

Step1. Form the matrix A having v1, v2….vn as its column vectors.

## Step2. Reduce An to its reduced row echelon form R

Let w1, w2,….wn be its column vectors of R

Step3. Identify the column that contains the leading 1’s in R, these vectors are the basis vector for
span(S)

Step4. Express the vectors of R does not contain leading 1’s as linear combination of the basis.

## Rank and Nullity.

Theorem. If A any matrix, then the row space and column space of A have the same dimension

Definition. The common dimension of the row space of a matrix A is called the rank of A or rank(A),
the dimension of the nullspace of A is called the nullity of A or nullity(A)

## Theorem. If A is any matrix, then rank(A)=rank(AT)

Proof. Rank(A) = dim (row space of A) = dim (column space of AT) = rank(AT)

## Theorem. If A is an m x n matrix, then

(a) rank(A) = the number of leading variables in the solution of Ax = 0
(b) nullity (A) = the number of parameters in the general solution of Ax=0