Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 12

Notes: Chapter 15.

1 Absolutism
Absolute Monarchy/ Absolutism Sovereign power or ultimate authority in the state rested in the hands of a king who claimed to rule by divine right. Jean Bodin Sovereign power consisted of the authority to make laws, tax, administer justice, control the states administrative system, and determine foreign policy. These powers made a ruler soverign. Jacques Bossuet Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Holy Scripture Government allows humans to live in an organized society. Kings authority is absolute, but limited by law of God. Arbitrary Monarchy Contradicted rule of law and the sanctity of property, lawless tyranny.

Notes: Chapter 15. 2 - Absolutism in Western Europe


By the end of 17th century, French played dominant role in European affairs. Cardinal Richelieu - Chief Minister to King Louis XIII from 1624- 1642. Eliminated political and military rights of Huguenots while keeping religious ones. Hired spies to uncover conspiracies by nobles, eliminating threats to royal authority. Intendants were law officials who collected taxes and administered justice, and were cause of much discontent, "government agents"; took power from nobles and consolidated power of the King. Corrupt finances, raised the taille, cost of war, upward spiral of debt. Successful foreign policy, opposition from Spain. Cardinal Mazarin Greatly disliked by French population. Nobles resented centralized administrative power at expense of nobility. First Fronde, revolt where, nobles allied with Parliament of Paris, opposed additional taxes. Ended with compromise. Second Fronde, led by nobles of the sword, crushed when nobles began fighting with each other. Parliament of Paris was the main court of law in France, which competed with members of the court for influence over the king. Members were known as "nobility of the robe," while the hereditary, military-oriented courtiers were "nobility of the sword". French concluded that best hope for stability lay in the crown.

Louis XIV King of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles. Restructured central policy-making machinery of government Relied on nobles who came from aristocratic families. Francois Michel Le Tellier (Secretary of War), Hugues de Lionne (Foreign Affaris), and Nicholas Fouquet (Finances). Jean Baptiste Colbert Replaced Fouquet. Mercantilism, stressed government regulation of economic activities to benefit the state. Decreased imports, expanded exports by improving quantity and quality of French manufactured goods. Built roads and canals, raised tariffs on foreign goods. Burden of taxes fell upon peasants.

Dominion of minsters and secretaries gave power to foreign policy, making of war and peace, assertion of secular power of crown against religious authority, and ability to levy taxes to fill these functions. Traditional groups and institutions too powerful for king. 3 Ways of Ruling Provinces: Worked through hereditary officeholders Intendants as direct royal agents Royal patronage, aids of nobles and churchman by granting them offices and pensions. Bribed important people to ensure policies executed. Did not want to allow Protestants to practice faith. Believed existence of minority undermined own political authority. Offered rewards, leading to forced conversions. Edict of Fontainebleau Revoked Edict of Nantes, destruction of Huguenot churches, and closing of schools. 200,000 left for shelter in England, United Provinces, and German states. Court of Versailles residence of king, reception hall for state affairs, office building for members of government, and home of thousands of royal officials and aristocratic courtiers. Symbol of French absolutist state, superiority and wealth, overawed subjects, impressed foreign powers. Home to highest nobility, excluded from real power but allowed to share as companion of king. Little privacy, daily ceremonies. Involvement in activities a prerequisite for obtaining offices, titles, and pensions. Equality, allowing Louis to control and prevent them from interfering in real lines of power. Court etiquette became a complex matter. Louis hunted once a week, members of royal family nearly every day, walks through gardens, boating trips, and performances of tragedies, comedies, ballets, and concerts. Appartement - Characterized by formal informality. Place and situation of relaxed rules of etiquette. Concert, followed by billiards or cards and ended with a buffet. Gambling became an obsession.

Notes: Chapter 15. 2 (Cont.) - Wars of Louis


Increase in royal power and desire for military glory led king to develop largest standing army in Europe. Francois Michel Le Tellier Secretary of War, marquis of Louvois. Professional army, 100,000 men in peacetime, 400,000 in time of war. Conscription National service, lead to problems as unwilling soldiers were eager to desert. Existed to make war, an almost incessant activity. Louis pursed war to expand his kingdom to its natural frontiers The Alps, Pyrenees, and Rhine River Desire to achieve prestige and military glory. First war (1667-1668) by invading the Spanish Netherlands to north and Franche-Comte to the east. Triple alliance of Dutch, English, and Swedes lead to peace and accepted a few towns in Spanish Netherlands for his efforts. Second war (1672-1678), Invaded United Provinces with initial success, Brandenburg, Spain, and Holy Roman Emperor formed coalition, ended Dutch War with peace at Nimwegen. Received Franche-Comte from Spain. League of Augsburg Spain, Holy Roman Empire, United Provinces, Sweden, and England Third war, War of League of Augsburg (1689-1697), 8 year struggle, brought famine and economic depression to France. Treaty of Ryswick- Ended war, forced Louis to give up most conquests in the empire, allowed to keep Strasbourg and part of Alsace. Fourth War, War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713), over succession of Spanish throne Charles II left will to grandson of Louis XIV, became King Philip V of Spain, suspicion that Spain and France would become united in same dynastic family led to formation of new coalition to prevent a Bourbon hegemony that would lead to destruction of European balance of power. Coalition of England, Holland, Habsburg Austria, and German states opposed France and Spain. War dragged into colonial empires in North America. Defeat of French forces at Blenheim lead by John Churchill. Peace of Utrecht & Peace of Rastatt Confirmed Philip V as Spanish ruler, affirmed thrones of Spain and France separate, Spanish Netherlands, Milan, and Naples given to Austria, Brandenburg-Prussia gained territory, England received Gibraltar, and French possessions in America Newfoundland, Hudsons Bay Territory, and Nova Scotia. England emerged as formidable naval power. Two years after treaty, King Louiss death, left France impoverished and surrounded by enemies.

Decline of Spain
Rich provinces of Netherlands lost, treasury empty, armed forces out-of-date, government inefficient, commercial class weak in midst of suppressed peasantry, luxury-loving class of nobles, and oversupply of priests and monks. Philip III Spanish weaknesses became apparent Allowed Duke of Lerma to run country, accumulated wealth and power for himself.

Filled important offices with relatives, expelled all Moriscos, gap between privilege and underprivileged grew wider, middle class absent. Dominant role of Catholic Church, inquisitorial courts, prospered and attracted more clerics. Castilian Cortes (parliament) informed that Castile possessed 9,000 monasteries.

Philip V hope of revival of Spain, hands on chief minister Gaspar de Guzman Domestic royal decrees to curtail power of church and aristocracy followed by political reform program to centralize government. Little success, 1/5 of population were aristocrats, internal revolts. Involvement in Thirty Years War led to expensive military campaigns that increased economic misery for overtaxed Spanish subjects, failed to produce victory. Increasingly heavy financial exactions to fight wars led by internal revolts in Catalonia, Portugal, and Naples, regained control of all except for Portugal. Defeats in Europe and internal revolts ended illusions about Spains greatness. Dutch independence recognized in Peace of Westphalia and Peace of Pyrenees with France meant surrender of Artois and outlying defenses of the Spanish Netherlands and border regions that went to France.

Notes: Chapter 15. 3 Absolutism in Central, Eastern, and Northern Europe


3 new powers: Prussia, Austria, and Russia

The German States


Split into 300 Germanies Rise of Brandenburg- Prussia Hohenzollern dynasty Received Prussia as 3 disconnected masses in western, central, and eastern Germany. Each had own privileges, customs, and loyalties. Hohenzollern ruler connected them, an artificial creation, highly vulnerable and dependent upon its ruling dynasty to create a state where none existed. Frederick William the Great Elector - Laid foundation for Prussia, Mercantilism policies Built a standing army, 40,000 men, absorbed 50% of states revenues. Established General War Commissariat, levy taxes for army and oversee its growth and training. Evolved into agency for civil government to collect new tax in towns and overseeing foundation of new industrial and commercial enterprises. Junkers New bureaucratic machine, chief instrument of governing state, members of the Prussian land aristocracy who served as officials in the army. Deprived nobles of power, but gave them unlimited power over peasants, were exempt from taxes, and awarded highest ranks in army and Commissariat with understanding that they would not challenge political control. Allowed to appropriate land and bind serfs. Invited people to Prussia, edict encouraging Huguenots to return. Favored interests of nobles at the expense of the middle classes. Frederick III- Less rigid and militaristic than father. Spent treasury building palaces, universities, and imitating splendors of the court of Louis XIV In return for aiding Holy Roman Emperor in War of Spanish Succession, given official title of king in Prussia. Brandenburg- Prussia became simply Prussia. The Emergence of Austria, Austrian Habsburgs, in eastern and southern Europe. Possessions included: Lower and Upper Austria, Carinthia, Carniola, Styria, and Tyrol Kingdom of Bohemia added during Thirty Years War Habsburg ruler also king of Hungary, exercised little power. Leopold I- encouraged eastern movement of Austrian Empire. Challenged by revival of Turkish power. Treaty of Karlowitz- Austria took control of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia. Gained Spanish Netherlands at end of the War of the Spanish Succession, and recognition of occupation in Italy (Milan, Mantua, Sardinia, and Naples). Never became centralized, absolutist state, included so many different national groups, remained collection of territories held together by personal union. Each area had own laws, Estates- General, and political life. Aristocrats had common bond of service to the house of Habsburg. Allowed to impose serfdom

Italy: From Spanish to Austrian Rule


Charles V gave duchy of Milan to son, Philip II, transferred all imperial rights over Italy to Spanish monarchy. Oppressive papacy: Inquisition, Index, and Jesuits used to stifle resistance to Catholic orthodoxy created by Council of Trent. Artistic and intellectual activity oppressed, Galilei Galileo & Giordano Bruno imprisoned/ executed by Inquisition. Austria removed Spain as dominant power in Italy.

From Moscovy to Russia


Ivan IV the Terrible- First ruler to take title of tsar Expanded territories eastward, crushed power of nobility (boyars) Ended in Times of Troubles, resurgence of aristocratic power in a period of anarchy. Did not end until Zemsky Sobor (national assembly) Michael Ramanov chosen as the new tsar. Duma council of boyars facilitated programs. Society dominated by upper class aristocrats, bound peasants to land, shortage of peasants made serfdom desirable for to landowners. Law of 1625, penalty for killing anothers serf was to provide a replacement. Western ideas penetrated Russian circles. The Reign of Peter the Great (1689-1725)- Unusual character, pushed Russia westward, raised status as great power. After trip to west, firm determination to westernize/Europeanize Russia. Admired technology and gadgets to give his army and navy needed. Only consistent purpose was to win military victories. Reorganized central government, consultant bodies disappeared. Created Senate to supervise administrative machinery while away on military campaigns. Became a ruling council, borrowed Western institution of boards of administrators entrusted with functions. Divided Russia into 8 provinces, later in 1719, into 50 provinces. Wanted administrators to be slaves and free men at the same time, impossible. Demanded all landholding classes serve in military or civil offices, formed Table of Rankscreated opportunities for nonnobles to serve state and join ranks of nobility. 14 levels, every official began at level 1 and worked way up ranks. 8th rank marks nobility. Nobility based on merit, not carried on by successors. Army and navy absorbed 4/5 of state revenue. Adopted mercantilism policies, increased exports, developed new industries while exploiting domestic resources. Endless military needs, relied on raising taxes, additional burdens on peasants. Sought to gain control of Russian Orthodox church, created Holy Synod, a body to make decisions for the church, headed by procurator, a layman who represented interests of the tsar and assured Peter of effective domination of the Church. Western etiquette, Russian beards shaved, coats shortened, some believed shaving bear was defacement of the image of God.

Women benefited greatly, able to mix freely with men, removal of veil from upper-class womens faces, social gatherings 3 times a week in large houses of St. Petersburg with men and women conversations, and women could marry of own free will. Primary military/ foreign goal was to open a window to the west, an ice-free port easily accessible to Europe on the Baltic Sea controlled by Sweden. Support of Poland and Denmark, attacked Sweden believing young Charles XII could easily be defeated, but Charles was a brilliant general. Only 8,000 men, defeated Russian army of 40,000 at Battle of Narva. Great Northern War (1701-1721) 1702- Overran Swedish Baltic provinces while Charles was preoccupied. 1708- Charles decided to invade Russia and capture Moscow, but weather and scorched-earth tactics devastated his army. 1709- Battle of Poltava, Peters forces defeated Charles 1721- Peace of Nystadt gave formal recognitions of acquisition of Estonia, Livonia, and Karelia. Swedan became second rate power while Russia was a great European state. 1703- New city, St. Petersburg, symbol of west, cost thousands of lives of peasants, Russian capital until 1917.

The Growth of Monarchy in Scandinavia


Denmarks and Swedens territorial ambitions in northern Europe kept them in rather constant rivalry in the 17th century. Charles XI built Swedish monarchy along lines of absolute monarchy. Weak economy, monarchy locked in conflict with nobility, short-lived first-class northern power.

The Ottoman Empire


Sultan Suleiman I the Magnificent (1520-1566)- Brought Turks back to Europes attention. Seized Belgrade in 1521 and Hungary by 1526, attempts to conquer Vienna in 1529 repulsed. Extended power into western Mediterranean until Turkish fleet destroyed by Spanish at Lepanto in 1571. Continued to control southern shores of Mediterranean. Highly effective government system, Constantinople (capital) highest population, periodic factions fought each other for influence and the throne, well trained bureaucracy of civil servants. Janissaries Composed of Christian boys taken from their parents, converted to Muslim, military discipline to form elite core of 8,000 troops personally loyal to sultan. Siege to Vienna, pushed out by European coalition.

The Limits of Absolutism


Control of administrative machinery does not enable rulers to dominate lives of subjects. Most successful monarchs reconstructed central policy-making machinery to give them control over traditional areas of monarchial power: foreign policy, war/peace, church, and taxation. Intervened in economic affairs to strengthen war-making capacities. Local institutions and population limited what monarchs could achieve. Landed aristocracy played important role in European monarchial system. Military officers, judges, officeholders, landowners remained with immense power. Strength put limits on how effectively monarchs could rule.

Notes: Chapter 15. 4 Limited Monarchy and Republics


Polish aristocracy controlled a powerless king, Dutch Republic and England resisted power of hereditary monarchs.

The Weakness of the Polish Monarchy


Poland had rule over Lithuania and Ukraine. Sigismund III weakened and decentralized the state. Sejm/ Polish Diet 2 chamber assembly in which landowners completely dominated the few townspeople and lawyers who were also members. Kings had to share power with Sejm in matters of taxation, foreign and military policy, and the appointment of state officials and judges. Disastrous results for central authority, most members ensured that authority would not affect their local interests. Liberum veto - Meetings of Sejm could be stopped by a single dissenting member, reduced government to virtual chaos. Poland became a confederation of semi-independent estates of landed nobles. Became battleground for foreign powers, easy to invade but difficult to rule, eventually Prussia, Austria, and Russia dismembered it.

The Golden Age of the Dutch Republic


Atlantic power, 7 northern provinces became the United Provinces of Netherlands, recognized by the Peace of Westphalia. Internal dissention, 2 chief holders of political power, each province had a stadholder responsible for leading the army and maintaining order. William of Orange House of Orange occupied stadholderate in most of the 7 provinces and favored development of a centralized government with themselves as heredity monarchs. The States General Assembly of representatives from every province opposed Orangist ambitions, advocated decentralized/republican form of government. Religious divison within Calvinist church. Tolerated other religious groups if they worshipped in private. William III House of Orange, suceeded to throne of England, death without direct hairs enabled republican forces to gain control once more. Wars with France and England put heavy burdens on Dutch finances and man power. English shipping challenged Dutch commercial supremacy, Dutch economic decline by 1715. Life in 17th Century Amsterdam Intellectuals and Jews drawn by cities reputation for toleration, merchants and workers attracted by citys prosperity. Urban expansion plan construction of 3 large canals, 500 acres to 1800. Merchants possessed vast fleets of ships, many used for North Sea herring catch. Invention of fluyt, a shallow-draft ship of large capacity, transport cereals, timber and iron. Large ships for ocean voyage. Dam Square Place where Amsterdam merchants unloaded cargoes, weighed all goods over 50 pounds and tested for quality.

Chief port of Dutch West and East Indian trading companies, producer of goods, war profits from military goods. Exchange Bank of Amsterdam Greatest public bank in north Europe. Amsterdam Stock Exchange. Social ladder included beggers , unskilled day laborers, poor immigrants at bottom. Recruited as sailors. Above this included artisans and manual laborers belonging to guilds. Widows allowed to take husbands place = High number of businesswoman. Above this included professional class, lawyers, teachers, bureaucrats, and wealthier guild members. Above them were landed nobles. At the very top was prosperous manufacturers, shipyard owners, and merchants, wealth enabled them to control city government.

England and the Emergence of Constitutional Monarchy


James I King James VI of Scotland, Son of Mary, Queen of Scots, inaugurated to English throne. Understood little about laws institutions and customs of English. Divine right of king, received power from God, alienated Parliament. Puritans wanted to eliminate episocal system of church organization used in Church of England (Wanted ministers & elders as administrators instead of bishops). Charles I Son of James Petition of Right King was supposed to accept before being granted taxes, prohibited taxes without Parliaments consent, arbitrary imprisonment, quartering of soldiers in private houses, and declaration of martial law in peacetime. Charles initially agreed, reneged because he could not work with Parliament, did not call them to meet. Ship Money levy on seacoast towns to pay for coastal defense, collected annually by kings officials, used to finance other operations, opposition from middle-class merchants and landed gentry, taxed without Parliaments consent. Long Parliament 1640-1660, placed severe limitations upon royal authority, abolition of arbitrary courts, taxes collected without consent. Triennial Act Parliament must meet at least once every 3 years, with or without kings consent. Radicals pushed for more change, eliminating bishops in Anglican churches. Arrested, led to civil war (1642) led by John Pym. Oliver Cromwell New Model Army Composed of extreme Puritans known as the Independents believed they were doing battle for Lord. Well disciplined and trained, captured King Charles I in 1646. Split in Parliament, restore Charles I with Presbyterian church, negotiated with king. Charles took advantage and sought help from Scots. Enraged, Cromwell engaged in second civil war (1648) ended in victory and capture of king. Rump Parliament- Presbyterian members removed, 53 members of House of Commons tried and condemned king of treason, beheaded. England declared republic/Commonwealth. Levellers- Advocated for freedom of speech, religious tolerance, and democratic republic. Difficult to work with Rump Parliament, dispersed by force. Instrument of Government First and last written constitution, power vested in Lord Protector and legislative power in Parliament. Failed to work.

Levied 10% land tax on former royalists to meet cost of military government, used force to maintain rule of Independents, used more arbitrary policies than Charles I. Charles II Returned to England after 11 years of exile. Restoration of monarchy and House of Lords, Parliament kept much power won, necessity to consent for taxation, arbitrary courts abolished. Declaration of Indulgence Suspended laws Parliament passed against Catholics and Puritans. Parliament would have none of it. Test Act Only Anglicans could hold military and civil offices Exclusion Bill Attempted to pass, barring James from throne as a professed Catholic. Whigs Wanted to exclude James and establish a Protestant king with toleration of Dissenters. Tories- Supported the king because they did not believe Parliament should tamper with the lawful succession to throne. Dismissed Parliament in 1681, relying on French subsidies to rule alone. James II Catholic interests, Declaration of Indulgence suspended all laws barring Catholics and Dissenters from office. Parliament did not rebel, he was an old man with Protestant daughters, but in 1688, second wife bore a son, also a Catholic. William and Mary invaded England, James fled to France. No bloodshed -> Glorious Revolution Revolution Settlement confirmed William and Mary as monarchs. Bill of Rights Affirmed Parliaments right to make laws and levy taxes and made it impossible for kings to oppose or do without Parliament, standing armies could be raised only with consent of Parliament. Free election of Parliament, citizens rights to petition to sovereign, keep arms, jury trials, and not subject to excessive bails. Toleration Act Puritan Dissenters right of free public worship, Catholics still excluded.

Responses to Revolution
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) Leviathan states claim to absolute authority over its subjects. Humans guided not by reason and moral ideals but by animalistic instincts and ruthless struggle for selfpreservation. To save commonwealth, placed collective power into hands of sovereign authority who possessed unlimited power. Subjects may not rebel, if they do, they must be suppressed. John Locke (1632-1704) Two Treatises of Government Humans lived in state of equality and freedom rather than state of war. Government that protects rights, people would act reasonably. If government broke agreements, people have the right to form a new government.

Notes: Chapter 15. 5 Economic Trends: Mercantilism and European Colonies in the Seventeenth Century
Trade, industry, and agriculture all felt the pinch of depression leading to scarce food, uncertain employment, and high rates of taxation. Climate played a factor in economic reversal, worsening weather patterns, little ice age, crop failures. Population expected to double every 25 years, in reality population declined or increased intermittently as result of factors. Infant mortality rate high, 30% in first year of life, 50% before age 10. Epidemics and famines, last great epidemic of bubonic plague, killed 130,000 people in Naples, 20% of London/ England population. Mercantilism- Role of the state, state intervention in economy desirable for sake of national good. Belief that the total volume of trade was unchangeable. One nation could expand its trade and prosperity only at the expense of others, economic activity was war carried on by peaceful means. Bullion- Gold and silver, prosperity of nation depends on this. Balance of trade- Goods exported greater value than those imported, influx of gold and silver payments to increase quantity of bullion. Governments should stimulate and protect export industries and trade by granting monopolies, encouraging investment in new industries, importing foreign artisans, and improving transportation system. High tariffs on foreign goods, kept from competing with domestic industries. Colonies valuable as source of raw materials and market for finished goods.

Overseas Trade and Colonies Development of colonies and trading posts in Americas and East, Europeans entered age of
international commerce in the 17th century. Local, regional, and intra-European trade still dominated scene. Transoceanic trade rewarding, value of goods consumed largely by wealthy, beginning to make way into artisans and merchants. Pepper and spices from Indies, West Indian and Brazilian sugar, Asian coffee and tea readily available to European customers. First coffee and tea houses in London in 1650s, spread rapidly to other parts of Europe. Overseas trade still carried by Spanish and Portuguese in 1600, war and steady pressure from Dutch and English eroded Portuguese trade in West and East but continued to profit in Brazil. Spanish commercial power declined; drop in output of silver mines and poverty of Spanish monarchy. Dutch lead carriers within Europe faced severe competition in Asian and American markets. Dutch East India Company formed in 1602 to consolidate gains made the expense of the Portuguese and exploit the riches of the East. Oligarchy that controlled company also dominated Dutch government, joint-stock company had monopoly on all Asian trade and possessed right to make war, sign treaties, establish military and trading bases, and appoint governing officials. Took control of most Portuguese bases in East and opened trade with China and Japan. Dutch West India Company created in 1621, less successful. Aimed against Portuguese and Spanish trade and possessions. Made inroads in Brazil and Caribbean, not enough to compensate for expenditures. Settlements established on North American continent.

Second half of 17th century, competition from French and English, years of warfare led to decline of Dutch commercial empire. Bankrupt, Dutch golden age beginning to tarnish. English founded own East India Company in 1601, created colonial empire in New World along Atlantic seaboard. Failure of Virginia Company made evident that colonizing of American lands did not lead to quiz profits. Desire to practice religion combined with economic interests could lead to successful colonization. Only minor significance to English economy. French commercial companies in East experienced much difficulty. Weakness of commerce dependent on politics rather than economics. Companies set up by Henry IV and Richelieu failed. 1664, Colbert established new East India Company, barely managed to survive. Greater success in North America, Canada made property of crown administered like a French province, French failed to provide adequate men or money, continental wars took precedence over conquest of North American continent.

Notes: Chapter 15.6 The World of Seventeenth- Century Culture


France replaced Italy as cultural leader of Europe, rejected Baroque style. French Classicism Classical values of High Renaissance, emphasis on clarity, simplicity, balance, and harmony. Reflected French society shift from chaos to order. Continued Baroque conception of grandeur in portrayal of nobles subjects. Nicholas Poussin Choice of scenes from classical mythology, orderliness of landscapes, posture of figures copied from sculptures of antiquity, and use of brown tones. Dutch painters interested in realistic portrayal of secular everyday life. Judith Leyster First female member of painting Guild of St. Luke in Haarlem, set up workshop, 3 male pupils. Musicians, women sewing, children playing games, and actors performing. Self-Portrait Also capable of introspection. Rembrandt van Rijn One of greatest Protestant painters of 17th century, reminiscent of Rubens, painted opulent portraits and grandiose scenes in colorful fashion. Prolific and successful, turned away for materialistic success and public approval to follow own artistic path, lost support and died bankrupt. Became more introspective as he aged, refused to follow contemporaries with secular subject matter, religious pictures focused on individuals relationship with God and peoples inward suffering in quiet scenes. French playwrights wrote for an elite audience and were forced to depend upon royal patronage. French Neoclassicism Emphasized clever, polished, and correct over emotional and imaginative. Aristotelian rules of dramatic composition: time, place, and action. Jean-Baptiste Racine- Phedre Best play, plot of Greek tragedy Hippolytus (Euripides). Focused on conflicts such as love and honor or inclination and duty, revealed tragic dimensions of life. Jean-Baptiste Moliere French court, wrote produced and acted series of comedy that satirized the religious and social world. Misanthrope Mocked corruption of court society. Tartuffe Ridiculed religious hypocrisy. Satires got him into trouble, Paris clergy did not find Tartuffe funny and had it banned for 5 years. Protection of Louis XIV saved him from more severe harassment.